Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 136

________________________________________________________________

6

14 2007

- 2007

1
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.. , ..
. , , , ,
.

:
.. .


63 14 2006.

, 2007
2
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.5
..5
.10
.11
18
19
....... 21
22
23
.. 23
25
25
.. 33
.. 33
.. 35
.. 36
.. 37
38
.. 39
5. .40
. 40
.................................................................................. 40
................................................................................................ 41
. . 42
42
............................................................................................................. 42
...................................................................................................... 43
. 44
...................................................................................................... 45
................................................................................................................ 45
...................................................................................................... 47
. 47
..... 47
.. 48
............................................................................................ 49
............................................ 49
...................................................................................................... 51
. 51
................................................................................51

3
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

......................................................................................................57
57
..64
.................................................................................65
..................................................................................................... 67
................................................................................... 67
......................................................................................................70
6. .71
..71
71
.71
...72
78
.....78
.. 81
.82
85
86
90
90
..90
...92
. 100
101
..108

..109
..112
..113
..117
...117
117
.120
..123
...124
..132

4
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

4.

,
.

= f(x)

( ):
y
f ( x x ) f ( x )
= lim
x 0 x
x 0
x

y = lim

,
f'(x0) ( ) , =f(x) x0,
k = f'(x0) (. 4.1).

. , s't. , , t0 u=u(t).
,
, , ,
.
.
.
.

5
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. 4.1.

.
f(x) ,
. , , -
( - 1)- . :f(x) - ( ), f'"(x) ( ).

(fw(x)).
( )
,
:

:
:
( f ( x) + g ( x) + ... + h( x)) = f ( x) + g ( x) + ... + h ( x)
-
(k * f ( x )) = k * f ( x )

6
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

- .

( f ( x ) * g ( x )) = f ( x) * g ( x) + F ( x) * g ( x)

(, ):

u ( x)
u ( x ) * v ( x) u ( x) * v ( x)
=

v 2 ( x)
v( x)

:
( f ( g ( x))) = f ( g ( x)) * g ( x)
. ,
.
.

, , . ., .
.
, :
y 0

1
( y 1 + y 1 )
2x

(4.1.)

y 1 , y0 y1 , , x .
(4.1) :
x 2
=
y ( )
6

x1 < < x1

( ) .

:
y k

1
( 2 y k 2 y k 1 + y k +1 + 2 y k + 2 )
10 x
7

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
. , , :

1
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
1,6
1,7
1,8
1,9
2,0
2,1
2,2
2,3

2,693147
2,941937
3,188457
3,432909
3,675469
3,916291
4,155511
4,393252
4,629619
4,864711
5,098612
5331402
5,563151
5,793922

x1 = 2.
. = 2. :
1. Excel 1:
1,9-2,1:

2. 4 (4.1):
=( - 1)/0,2. Enter
= 2 (2,33455).
,
2 1 .
3

. = sinx
[0; 6,2] x = 0,2.
.
8
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
1. , ,
. 1 .
2 0 ( ). A3 : 0,2.
4: (
2: ,
6,2). .
2. (
). 1 2. , 2. :
(fx).
- 1 2
. . SIN.
. SIN.
,
, (). 2.
. 2 0. 2 :. 2,
:.
.
3. . 1 . (4.1): =(4 - 2)/(2*0,2). (
) 4:32 ( 2 , 1 34).
.
4. . .
9
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

, .
1: ( ). :
.
X: 2:. ,
X : , . . ,
. 4.2.

. 4.2.

, . 4.2 , .
.
1. :
100
d (p ) =
p +1


p [1 ; 3] p = 0,1 .
p = 2?
2. k
:
k = 3 - 42 + 9.

[1; 5] x = 0,2. x
[1,2; 4,8] x = 0,2.
10
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


[, b] =f(x),
[,b]

a = x0 < x1 < x2 < ...< xn = b :


[xi 1 , xi ]
i , xi = xi xi1 i = 1 , 2, . . ., .
:
n

f ( )x
i =1

(4.2)

=f(x)
[a, b] . [, b] x0 , x1 ,..., xn , 1 , 2 ,..., N
xi = xi xi1 , i 1,2,..., n . max xi ; [xi1 , xi ] , i=1,2,n.
= f(x) [, b] max xi
, , x1 , x2 ,... 1 , 2 ,... .

f ( x ) dx
a

f(x) [, b],
:

f ( x)dx =

lim

max x1 0

f ( )x
i =1

(4.3)

, b , f(x)
,
f(x)dx , b

f ( x)dx - f(x) [, b].


a

11
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
=f(x) [, b],
b

< b, f(x)dx S
a

=f(x) [, b] (. 4.3). ,
(4.2) S i
xi f(x,) ( 1 , 2 ,...) i =
1, 2, ..., (. 4.3). (4.2)
S = S1 + S2 + ...+ Sn ,
[xi 1 , xi ] , .
max xi S = S .

. 4.3. ,

, ,
()
(f(t)):
T

u = f (t )dt
0

-:

12
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

f ( x)dx = F (b) F (a)

(4.4)

F(a) F(b) f(x) b. f(x) X F(x),


F'(x) = f(x).
(4.4)
,
.

,
.

.

. f(x) (. 4.3.):
- :
b

i =1

f ( x)dx f ( x )x
i

(4.5)

- :
b
n 1
f ( x0 ) + f ( x n )
f
(
x
)
dx

(
f
(
x
)
+
)x

i
a
(4.6)
2
i 1
.
(4.5) ,
[, b]

x =

ba
n

[xi 1 , xi ] f(x) , . :

13
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

f ( x)dx S

+ S 2 + ... + S n

S1 , S 2 ,..., S n . S i x f ( xi ) , i = 1, 2, ..., (. 4.3). (4.5).


, .

(4.6). ,
, [i-1, xi] y=f(x) ,
. , Si,-
f(xi) f(xi-1) x,
i= 1, 2, ..., n. :

Si =

f ( x i 1 ) + f ( x i )
x
2

, (4.6).
( )
(S(n)):
b

f ( x)dx S (n)
a

(b a ) 3

M2
12n 2

2 f"(x) -f(x) [, ].

.

14
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
3

2
x
dx

x =

0,1. ,

:
3

x3
0 x dx = 3
2

3
0

=90 =9

1.

f(x) Excel [0; 3] = 0,1.
1. ( >
).
2. ( f (x) ).
, f(x). 1 ,
1 . 2 (0). A3
(0,1). , 2:, (
A32,
= 3).
3. .
2 . 2
=2 2 ( ).
Enter. 2 0. 2.
2:32.
.
4.
.
=0,1 *, (
15
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

(fx)). - 1 2 . . .
.
:32 (. 4.4).

. 4.4.

. 33 (9,455).

(9), ,

0,455.
2.
, ,
f (x)
Excel [0; 3]
x =0,1. 1-3 . , 4:
34
. 34
= 0,1*((2 + 32)/2 +,
(
(fx)). 1 2 .
16
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
. .
:31.
. 34
(9,005).

(9), ,
0,005.
3,1

Sinxdx

x =

0,1.

Sinxdx

= 2.)

.
f(x)
Excel xI[0;3,1] x = 0,1.
1. ( >
).
2. ( f(x)).
, f(x). 1 ,
1 . 2 (0). A3
(0,1). , 2:, (
, =
3,1).
3. .
2 ( ). 2.
, 2.
: (fx). - 1 2
17
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. . SIN. .
SIN. ,
,
().
2. .
2 0.
2.
:.
. 4. 34 .
34 = 0,1*((2 + )/2 +,
(
(fx)).
- 1 2
. . . . :32. . 34 (1,997). (2),
, = 0,003.
.
1.
:
2

1)

xdx x =0.1
0

1.5

dx
2) x
1

x =0.1

2. , 4 ,
f(x) = (1 + t)e 3t , t = 0,2.

18
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
. .


u 1 , , . . ., n ,
. , ,
. ,
, ,
.
, , . .
1 , 2, ..., n U, ,
U .

U = lim n u n
.

, , . > , , < .
n(u + u )
un = u1 + (n 1) a Sn = 1 n
(4.7)
2
Sn .
, q,
() . q > 1,
, \q\ < 1, .
19
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

u1 (q n 1)
un = u1q
Sn = q 1
(4.8)
Sn .
MS Excel
(4.7) (4.8), ,
. ,
. :
1. .
2.
(
).
3. > > .
4.
(.
4.5).
n 1

. 4.5.

. 10 u1 = 3 = 2.
.
1. . 1 3. 2
5 (3 + 2). 1:2
10 .
20
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

2. . . . 1:10. Enter.
3. 11 10 120.
. 11 u1 = 4 q = 3.
.
1. 1 4.
2. 1:11.
3. > > .

. 4.6. ,

4. , , , 3 (. 4.5).
.
5. , (. 4.6).
.
1.
u1 = 4 = 3, 17.
2. 10
1 =3 q = 4.
3.
1 = 2 q - 2,5, 500.

21
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


u1 ,2, ..., n ,..., :

u1 + u2 + Kun + K = un
n =1

u1, u2 ,K, un , ... , n


n- .
, n
=f(n) ( = 1, 2, ...), f(n) .
Sn n-
.
,
, :

lim n S n = S
S .
, .
. . MS Excel .
,
,
.
. 12 :
1 1
1
1+ + +K+ +K
2 3
n
.
1. 1 , 1
.
2. 2:13 12 :
2 1, A3

22
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

2, 2:
2:13 .
3. 2 : =1/2
( ). Enter.
4. ( ) 2 :13.
5. . , 14,
(2:13). Enter.
6. 14 12 3,103211.
.
1. 7 :
1
1
1
+
+K+
+K
1* 2 2 * 3
n(n + 1)

2. 10 :
10
n +1

n =1

n3



. ,
:
f1 ( x ) + f 2 ( x ) + K + f n ( x ) + K =

fn ( x)

n =1

.
:

c 0 + c1 x + c 2 x 2 + K + c n x n + K
0 , c1 ,..., cn .
MS Excel , ( , -), -

23
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

, , .
,
0
,

u0 + u0 x + u0 (1 + x) x + K+ u0 (1 + x)n1 x + K= u0 (1 + x)n

(4.9)

Excel
(; _; ; ; ). ,
; _
, u0 (
-), .
(4.9).
Sn , u0 . u0 ,
Sn .
,
(4.9), Excel , ,
.
. 12 000 . 8% .
11 .
.
1. 1.
2.
. , .
.

24
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

3. . 0,08, _ 11, - - 12 000


(. 4.7). .

. 4.7.

4. 1 11 - 27 575,67.

1. 2000 .
6% .
7 .
2. 3 ,
15% 5000 .

.
f(x) T
(4.10):
Sn (x) =

a0
+ a1Cosx + a2Cos2x + K+ anCosnx + b1Sinx + b2 Sin2x + K+ bnSinnx
2

(4.10)

T
(4.10) f(x)
:
=

25
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

= [ f ( x ) S n ( x )] dx
2

a b (k = , 1, 2,...)
:
T

2
ak = f ( x)Cosixdx
T0
T

2
bk = f ( x ) Sinixdx
T0
f (x)
.
, Sn ()
S(x),
f (x) .
f (x) f (x) f(x),
f ( x 0) + f ( x + 0)
2

f (x) , .
:

, ,
,
f(x) ;

f (x) f(x + 0)
f(x - 0)
f (x) (4.10) 0 x l , .

26
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

2
l

MS Excel :
f(x) 0 x l
(4.10), ak bk
(k = 0,1,2,...) (4.10) f(x).
(). ,
.
:
1. f(x) .
, ,
x, N
2
4096 (N 4096).
2. > .
3. :
, ;
,
,
. ,
;

(. 4.8). ,

27
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. 4.8.

.

N
a0;
2
N
( a 1 + b 1 i );
2
N
( a 2 + b 2 i );
2
.......... .......... ...
N
( a N / 2 + 1 + b N / 2 + 1i );
2
N
aN /2;
2
N
( a N / 2 1 + b N / 2 1i );
2
.......... .......... ...
N
( a 2 + b 2 i );
2
N
( a 1 + b1i ).
2

28
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

ak bk (k = 0, 1, 2, ...) 2

=
f(x) (4.10),
N
. ak bk (k = , 1,2,...) = sinjx, j = , 1,2, ..., 31,
x = 0,4.
.
1. .
1 , 1 .
2 0, A3 0,4. 2:.

12,4. ,
2 (32 = 25).
2 ( ). , SIN. .
SIN
2 . .
2 :.
2. > .
3.
:

2:. .
,

2 (. 4.8).
.
4. 2: ak bk (. 4.9), N 2 -

29
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

(4.11)

2
2
2
2 2
,2
,3
,K,2
,
Nx
Nx
Nx
Nx Nx

( - 0,49, -0,98, -1,47, ..., 0,98, 0,49).

. 4.9.

. ,
.4.9, ak bk ,
(4.10)
.
1. ak
bk. 36 D36 k , b k .
2. 37 ,
, .
30
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

,
.. .
_c .
2
2. . 37
38:68 ak.
3. D37 . 2
.. 037:068 bk.
4. .
. 68
k 1, 67 2.
68:67 k
68:54. 68
=(2*())/(32*0,4)*68. Enter. 67:54.
5. ak bk
. . ,
, ( , ).
( )
B54:D68. : .
1,
ak. 2 , , bk. , X : X(N/2) .
. . 4.10.

31
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. 4.10. ak bk

, . 4.10,
,
ak bk 0,98. , :

y 1.67 /( N / 2)Cos 0.98 jx + 15.72 /( N / 2) Sin 0.98 jx ,


y 0 . 11 Cos 0 . 98 j x + 0 . 98 Sin 0 . 98 j x ,
= sinj x.
, , .
. 4.9
= sinj x
.
1. >

.
2. :
ak bk, 4.9 2:.
.
,
2.
.
32
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

3. 2:
2:.
.
1. ak bk (k = 0,1,2,...)
= sinj x, j = 0, 1, 2,..., 31,
x : = 0,2.
2. = sinj x


.

.

:
z = x+iy,
(4.12)
, i .
z Re(z), z
Im(z), = Re(z), = Im(z).
(4.12) . .

:

z = r ( Cos + iSin ) ,

z = re i

,
r z:

r = z = x2 + y 2 ,

z:
33

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

= Argz = arctgy / x .
z = x + iy z = x iy .
z1 = x1 + iy, z2 = 2 + iy2 , .
MS Excel x+yi. , ,
1, , , '-3
+ 1i.
: ,
.S,
.,
.,
., ..

.(_)

.(_) , , _,

+ yi;

.S(_)

.(_) , ,
, + yi;

.(_)
, +yi;

(_;
_; _)
x + yi.
_ .
_ ' .
_
. _ ,
, i.
. z = 2 + i .

34
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
1. z 1 2 + i.
2. . 2
. , .ABS.
. _
M.ABS 1
(. 4.11). . 2 3,605551.

. 4.11. .S

3. . A3 . , ..
. _ . 1 . .
A3 0,982794.
4. , :
z = 3,60555 l(Cos0,982794 + iSin0,982794).

1. 2 - i5.
35
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

2. 6, -2. .
3.
-3 + i8.
4. z = -5 + i4 .


.
1. () :
z1 z2 = x1 x2 + i ( y1 y2 ) ,
2. :

z1 z2 = ( x1 x2 y1 y2 ) + i ( x1 y2 + x2 y1 ) ,
3. :
z1 ( x1 x2 + y1 y2 ) + i( x2 y1 x1 y2 )
=
( z2 0) .
z2
x22 + y22
4. :
z n = r n Cosn + ir n Sinn .
5. :
n

x =

r Cos

+ 2r
+ 2k
+ i n r Sin
,
n
n

k = 0, 1,2, ..., n - 1.
MS Excel
.,
., ., ., .
..

._1;_2;...)
.(-_1;_2;...) -

, , 29
(_1;_2;...), ;

.(_1;_2)
.(_1;_2) , ,

36
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

(_1;_2), ;

.(_1; )
.(_)
() (_)
(_),
.
. ( 4 + i 6) 3 .
.
1. z 1 4 + 6i.
2. . 2
. , .. . _
. 1
.
--3 (. 4.12).
. 2
--2,617E-0035,121E-004i - 0,0026170,0005121i.

. 4.12.

.
.
1. 2 i -2 - i.
2. 3 + i4, 5 - i2 -6 + i.
3. 4 + i5.
4.

( 2 + i 4 )( 3 i 2 )
(1 i 2 )( 2 + i 4 )

37
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


=f(z), z = x + iy = u + iv, ,
:
= (, ), v = v(x, )
Excel , . :
1.

e z = e xeiy = e x (Cosy + iSiny) ,


Excel ..
2.

y
,
x
MHHM.LN.
3.
ln z = ln x 2 + y 2 + iarctg

lg z = lg e ln z

.LOG10.
4. 2
log 2 z = log 2 e ln z
MHHM.LOG2.
5.
sin z = sin x chy + i cos x shy,
.SIN.
6.
cos z = cos x chy - i sin x shy,
.COS. shy chy :
e y e y
shy =
2
y
e + e y
chy =
2

38
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

Excel,
: ., MHHM.LN,
. LOG10, MHM.LOG2, MHM.SIN .COS _. _
,
z .
.
3 i 2

. e
.
.
1. z 1 3 - 2i.
2. .
2 . , .. . _
. 1
, (. 4.13). . 2 - -8,35853265093537-18,2637270406668i

. 4.13.

.EXP

1. 4- i.
2. ln(2 - i2)/sin(3 + i2).
3. sin(l + i2)cos(2 i3).

39
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

5.
.
.
.
- , ,
( ). . ,
, (
) .
. :
.
, , ,
.
= + = .
, , ,
4 ,
, , 3
6 , + , , 1, 2 ,3 6 .
.
, ,
.
= =
, , ,
3 .
, ,
( = 0), .
40
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. ,
, .
, , ( ) ,
4, 5 6 .
. ,
, ( = - ).

, , 1
2 .
.


.
( ) =

m
, ;
n

n ;
m ;
() .
, , . (i)= 1/k, k
.
.
, 30 , 365 ?
. 30.
n = 365.
m = 11.
1
: =11/365. Enter. ,
:
( ) =

m
11
=
= 0 , 030137
n
365

: , 30 , () = 0,03
41
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
(
,
, , ), .
(/) ,
, :
(/) = () / ()
.
, , .

.

, , .
.
n , .
:
n , n .
:
n = n * n-1
(1.1)
(1.1) ,
.
Excel
.
. ?

42
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
1. ,
1. .
2. : (f).
3.
1 2 . . . .
4. .
(
6). .
5. 1
720. 6 = 6! = 1 * 2 * 3 * 4 * 5 * 6 = 720
.
1. 7
?
2. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8?
3.
""?
4.
:
) ;
) ( , "" ).
5. :
12!+131
)
11
9 ! 7 !
)
8!
15 !+ 17 !
)
16 !

43
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, . n, m, n m:
, n m.
:

m
n

n!
m !*( n m )!

Excel . (; _) : n; _
m.
. 3 5
, ?
.
1. , 1. .
2. : :
(f).
3. 1 2
. . . .
4. .
n ( 5.
, , m ( - 3). .
6. 1 53 = 10 . , 3 5 .

44
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
1. 5
25 ?
2. 9
15 ?
.
.
, : n : n m (n m),
?
.
:
m

nm = C nm * m ! =

n!
n!
* m!=
m !*( n m )!
( n m )!


nm = C nm * m !
. (; _) :
n; _
m.
nm =

n!
,n m
( n m )!

.
.
3 5 , ?
1.
1. ,
1.
2. . (f). 1 2
. . 45
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
. n ( - 5).

, , m ( - 3). . 1
= 10.
3. = (5;3) - *.
4. m!
:
(f).
5.
1 2 .
.
. .
6. .
m (
- 3). .
7. 1
53 = 60

2.
1. ,
2.
2. (f).
3.
1 2 . . . .
4. .
n ( 5).
, , m ( - 3). .
46
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

5.

3
5

= 60

, 3 5
.
.
1. 7, 9, 6, 5,
4? : , ? ?
2. , 0, ?
.
m ,
n ,
m+n. .
m ,
n ,
m * n . .

.
,

?
:
1. ?
, .
2. ?
, , .
.

( ).
:

47
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

+ 1

k
n

* a

n k

* b

:
( + b ) n =

n
C nk * a n k * b k

k = 0

.
1. 9 5 ?
2. ""? (
).
3. 20 10 . ,
4 2 ?
4.
"5 36"?
5. 11 8 .
9 , ,
5 4 ?
6. ,
, 60
5 ?
7. , ,
, , , , ""? , , , , ""?
8. , , . ?
9. - , , .
, , . -
?
10. 3 ,
10 ?
11. 2 , 25?
48
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

12.
, , , , ?
13. ,
?
14. ,
?
15. ,
, ?
16. 9
. 3.
?
.
, ,
. , .
.
.
, ,
, .
, ,
,
. , , ,
.

. , ,
,
, , .
,
-
(, ).
49
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

MS EXCEL
, , , .
q

.
, 1: 7 10, 14, 5, 6, 10, 12
13, , (1:7) 10;
q

. , (10, 14, 5, 6, 10, 12, 13) 10;
q
. ,
(10, 14, 5, 6, 10, 12, 13) 3,162278;
q
. (; ). , ,
, ,
(0- , 1- , 2- , 3- , 4-
). , (10, 14, 5, 6,
10, 12, 13; 3) 12,5. , 12,5.
q
- . , 1:7
10, 14, 5, 6, 10, 12 13, 0,1 (1:7; 0,1), 5,6.
.
1, 2, 3, 4, 10,
2, 3, 1, 3, 3, 5. 90%- -.

50
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
- . . 1:11 .
(12).
(f).

, .
1-2 ( ).
(1:11). k 0,9. .
12 90% 5. , 90%
5.
.
1.
0,2; 0,5; 2; 3; 5,1; 8; 2; 3.
2. 25%- 1.
3. 1.
.
, ,
, : , - F . .
.

,
. , ,
(),
51
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
( )

.
MS EXCEL
.
,

, , .
(_; _; _;
); :
q
_ ;
q
_ .
_ _
;
q
_
;
q
, .
(1),
, , _;
(0),
,
, _.
:
P(k ) =

m =0

(m ) =

n!

m!( n m )! p

qnm

m=0


, 52
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

().
, .
: (_; _; ). :
q
_ ;
q
_ ;
q
,
.
.
,
?
.
1. ,
1. .
2.

: (f).
3.
1 2 .
. . .
.

_s
m ( - 3). n ( 53
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

- 4). _s p 9 0,50.

( - 0). . 1
= 0,25.
, 3 4 = 0,25.

, 3 ,
.4 1 (
)
= 0,9375.
.
( = m) n = 10 = 0,2.
.
1. 1 m, 1 .
2. 2:12
: 0, 1, 2, ,10.
3. 2


(f).
4.
1 2 .
.
. .
5. .
_s m ( 2 ).
n ( - 10). _s
( 54
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

0,2).
( - 0). .
2 = 0,107374

( )
2 12
3:12.
.
.
, . 2:12 ( ). : .
:
2:12. , X Y: m
, . .

55
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.
.
( (= m) n = 10 = 0,2)
m, 0,3.
.
1. ,
1.
m.
2.
: (f).
3.
1 3 . . . .
4. .
n
( - 10). _s (
0,2).
(
0,3). .

56
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

5. 1 m = 1.
, 0,3, (m 0,3) . , (1; 10; 0,2; 1) 0,37581, (0; 10; 0,2; 1) 0,107374.
.
1. .
, ,
0,5. , 6
10.
2. (=m) n = 10 =0,5.
3.
( m) n = 10 =0,2.
4. :
100 20
. 10 .
, ?
5. ,
0,75, 6,
0,5.
.
,
, .
, .
Excel : , ,
, .

57
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
, .
(; ;
_; ). :
q
, ;
q
;
q
_ ;
q
,
. ,
; , .
= 0 _ = 1,
,
.

.
. .
(z) , z , .

( F() = ).
(;
; _). :
q
, ;
q
;
q
_ .

, = 0 _ = 1.
58
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. :
, .
(; ; _).
.
f() = 24,3 =1,5.
.
1. 1 ,
1 f().
2. 3 - 19,8 28,8.
2:21 19,8 28,8 0,5. 2 (19,8),
,
0,5, 28,8.
3. 2


(f).
1
2 .
.
. .
.
, ( 2 ).

( 24,3). _
( 1,5).

( - 0). .

59
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

2 =0,002955.
( ) 2
21 3:21.

.
. , .
1:21 ( ). : . : 2:21.
, Y: x f(x), . .
:

60
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
.
.
1. 1 ,
1 ().
2. 2:14 3 3 0,5. 2 3.
0,5 3
.
3. 2


f().
4.
1 2 . .
. .
5. . z ( 2 ).
.

61
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

2 = 0,00135.
( )
2 14
3:14.
.
.
, . 1:14 ( ).
: .
:
2:14. , X Y:
(), . .

.

62
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
f() = 24,3 = 1,5.
.
1. 1
:
f().
2.
1 2 .
.
. .
3. .
0,75 ( ). ( 24,3).
_
( 1,5). .
4. 1
25,31174.

63
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

2 1-4. , .3
0,25.
2
23,28826.
,
f() = 24,3 = 1,5 25,31174 23,28826.
.
1. , 42
= 40 - 1,5.
2.
f() = 10 = 2.
3. f() = 30 = 3.
4. = 0,908789 = 40 = 1,5.
5. , = 21, =
20, =1,5.

64
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
.
,
- ( , , ..).
Excel (; ; ). .
.
() . , " ".
, ,
.
Excel (; ; ).
.
.
, .
Excel -
2 (; _)
2 (; _), ( n , 2

) n ( ), .
.
, .
Excel (; ; ) (; _), 2

65
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

( , ) t
( ), .
F- ().
Ecxel F F F (; _1; _2),
m n (
Fm, n,
) Fm, n ( ), .
Excel.
Excel . ( ), ( ), - ( ), ( ),
( )
( ).
.

11,98
4.
.
1. 1 : (f).
2. 1
2 .
.
. .
3. .
11,98 ( ).
.
66
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

( 0,25). ( - 1). .

4. 1
0,949963.
, ,
4 ,
11,98 0,95.
.
1. - - 14
=0,95; 0,975; 0,99.
2.
: =0,2 = 0,1.
3. F6.4 F , = 0,01.
4. t =
1,96, 60
.
.
, .
, , .
67
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, . , .
: () ( , 0
1) () (
, ).

.
, . ,
.

, .

. ,
.
, .
:
q
. . 0 1;
q

. 0 1;
q

( ) . ,

68
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

,
;
q
- .
: , , , , . 1;
q
, .

.
, .
.
,
.

.
.
7
(, , , , , ). , .
.
1. : 1 ; 2
; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 7 .
1-7 1:7 .
2.

. (=1/7).
1/7 1:7. 1 =1/7
2:7 ().
3.
. 1, 30 ( ).
() ,
1:7.
69
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.

, , 1. .
, : 3, 1, 5,
7, 7, 7, 1, 3, .
, , ..
.

10 , , , 5 10 .
.
1. . 1, 10 ( ). ( , ).
( ) 5, 10. . .
, , 1. .
2. 10 , : 7,759331; 6,807917; 9,960326; 6,042055; 9,380474; 7,511521;
7,486496; 5,538499; 6,706595; 6,963561.
,
.
.
1. , 10 , 3 7.
2. 10
2, 3, 4, 5, .
3.
.
1 2 , .
70
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

6.
,
, .

, ,

, .

.
.


, .
,
.
: .
, ,
. .
,
, ,
.

,
, .
.
71
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

, . , , . ,
, .

.


F(x)..
,
. ,
,
. .
(m), ,
().
.


, (). .
() , x1 , x 2 ,..., x n Fn (),
x i x , i = 1,..., n .

xi ,

, Fn () xi <
x1,x2, ..., xn

72
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


( ) , : Fn () > F(x) n > .

X . 5 15.
X, .
, X
. . ,
. , ,
, , .
:
,
.
Excel
.
--
. (_;_). :
- _
, .
- _ -
, __.
, _. -

73
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

, , .
--
. .
.

. 6.1.


. 6.1:

;
- ( )
, (). . MS Excel .
.
, ,
,
;

.
;
74
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

-
;
- ,
.
.
: 64,57,63,62,58,61,63, 60,
60, 61,65, 62, 62, 60,64, 61, 59, 59, 63, 61, 62, 58,58, 63,61, 59,
62,60, 60, 58, 61, 60, 63, 63, 58,60, 59, 60, 59,61, 62, 62, 63, 57, 61,
58, 60, 64, 60, 59, 61, 64, 62, 59, 65.
.
1. 1 ,
2:12 .
2. 1 . 57 65 9 . G1
G2 , . G4:G12 (57,58,59,
60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65).
3. : 1:2
, I1:I2
, J1:J2 .
4. . 4:12 (
). ( fx).
,
. 1-2 (
). _ (2:12).
(G4:G12).
Ctrl+Shift+ Enter. 4:12
.
75
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

5. 13 .
13. . ,
(4:12),
Enter. 13 55.
6. . I4
:
=4/$13. Enter. (
) 15:112. .
7. . J4 I4 (0,036364).
J5 : =J4 + J5. Enter.
(
) J6:J12,
.
8. ,
. 6.2.

. 6.2.

9. . .
/2. I1:J12 ( ).
: . 76
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

X
X: G4:G12. ,
X : X () ; Y () .; Y () .. .

, . 6.3.

. 6.3.

. , .
.
1. 1 ,
2:12 .
2.

.
3.
(. . 6.1):
- (2:12);
- (F1).
;
.]
(. 6.4).
77
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. 6.4.

, . 6.4.
. 6.3. , . . ,
, 6.1
(57,58,59,..., 65),
.
.
1. ( ) ( ) 20
: 181,169,178, 178,171,179, 172, 181, 179, 168, 174, 167,
169, 171, 179, 181, 181, 183, 172, 176.
2.
: 79, 85, 78, 85, 83,
81, 95, 88 97 ( 70, 79, 89).
3. ( ) 20
: 4, 4, 5, 3, 4, 5,4, 5, 3, 5, 3, 3, 5,4, 5,4,3,5,3,5.

F(x)
Fn () 78
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

, , . . , , .. .
. , :
- ,

;
- ,
, 1;
- , .
,
( ), ( ) . , ,
(, . .), .
, , .
( ).
, ,

1
x =
n

i=1

xi

, , .

. .
, , ,
, , .
.
79
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

, , , ( + 1)/2. ,
/2 /2 + 1 .
, ,
.
(, )
.
.
,
, .
, ,
s

1
(
x
x
)2
=

i
n 1 i =1

, . ,
.
( )

s = s2
,
.
, . , ,

, .

().

m=

s
n

80
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

, ,
, , .

. 95%- , 2 ,
, = 0,95 (
> 30)
MX.

Fn ( x ) = p
,
Fn ( x) = 0,5
, ,
.
, .
,
. -1 1. 0.
, () , , .

,
.
, . . ,
, ( :
, , )
.
.
81
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


Excel , , .
-
() . 1,
2, ... 1 30 ,
. , 1:7 10, 14, 5,
6, 10, 12 13, (A1:A7) 10 (. 6.5.).
- . , .
, (10;14;5;6;10;12;13) 8,317.
- .
. , (10;14;5;6;10;12;13)
9,414.
- . ,
. , (10;14;5;6;10;12;13) 10.

. 6.5.

82
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

- .
, (10;14;5;6;10;12;13) 10.
, , ,
, , .
- . , (10;14;5;6;10;12;13) 11,667.
- . , (10;14;5;6;10;12;13) 3,416.
- . , 1:7
10, 14, 5, 6, 10, 12 13, 0,1
(1:7;0,1), 5,6.

.
- . , ( 10;14;5;6;10;12;13) -1,169.
- . , (10;14;5;6;10;12;13) -0,527.
.
. .

.
83
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
1.
.
. 1 ,
2:8 . 1 ,
2:8 . , .
2.
, .
(9).
(fx).
, .
1-2 ( ).
(2:8). .
9 145,714.
9 .
9. (fx).

, . 1 2 ( ).

(2:8). . 9 125,571.
3. .
. 84
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

().
(fx).

, .
1-2 ( ).

(2:8).
. 12,298. ,
( 145,736,9).
10
.
10.
(fx). ,
. 1-2 ( ). (2:8).
. 10 10,277.
.
1. 100 : 12,8;
13,2; 13,0; 12,9; 13,5; 13,1.
2. , , , 26, 35,
29, 27, 33, 35, 30, 33, 31, 29.
3. (0,75) (0,25)
:
164,160,157,166,162,160,161,159,160, 163, 170, 171.
4. 6.

85
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


Excel
, , .
Excel :
- ;
- .
.
, . Excel . , , .
. :
- ;
- ( ,
Excel );
- ;
- .
.

. , . :
- > ;
-
(. 6.6);

86
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. 6.6.

- , ,
.
, , , ,
,
;
- , , .
( ),

,
;
- ; ;
- .


: , (), , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , .
.
: , . :
87
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
.
1.
, . 1:5, 1:8 . . , . 6.7.

. 6.7.

2. . , , . .

88
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. 6.8.

3. (. 6.8)
1:8. ,
9. .
.
(. 6.9)
.

. 6.9.


, :
89
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
, ()
.
.
1.
(), (
): 1,3, 3, 2,1,1,4,4, 2,4, 1, 3, 2,
4,1,4,4,3,1,2,3,4,1,1,3.
2.
. ( /3): 12, 16, 15, 14,
10, 20, 16, 14, 18, 14, 15, 17, 23, 16. .

,
. .
, , . .


,
.
(), ,
. .
(- 0), , , . 90
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

(1) , , .
,
. ,
, .

,
. , = 0,05. , < 0,05, , , . ,
, , = 0,01
= 0,001.
, 1 - , ( ), ,
, . ,
0,95, 0,99 0,999.

. 6.10. 95%-

, = 1 - , . 95%-, 99%-, 99,9%-


91
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. (. 6.10).
,
,
, , ,
. ,
.

. , , : ? , .
. , 99,7% . ,
, . ,
.
,
.
< 30

M t n. p. s; M + t n. p. s
(6.1)
6.5. (6. 1 )
, s , tn,p.

.
.
, , . .
,
,

92
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

, .
, , , ( ). :

?
, , ,
. ,

. ,
.
, , , 68,3%
= ,
, , . , 0,683,
, . 0,683 , 1
- 0,683 = 0,317 , = 68% .

0,95, ( > 30) 2
(. . 6.8). 0,99, 3.

M t n.p.

s
n

; M + t n. p.

, s , tnf
,
.
93
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

MS Excel < 30

.
(;_;)

:
- , . 100*(1 - )% , , , , 0,05, 95%- ;
- _ , ;
- .
. 95%-
, 25
140 ,
2,5 .
.
1. . 1.
2.
(fx).
, .
3. : 0,05',
_ 2,5', 25 (. 6.11). .
1 95%- 0,979981. , 95%- ,

140 + 0,979981 139,02 140,98 .

94
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. 6.11.

. , : 13, 15, 17, 19, 22,25,19.


95%-
.
.
1. 1:7 .
2. .
, , . .
3. : 1:7.
1.
.
: (%) 95. .
4.
0,95 (. 6.12).

. 6.12. (1:7) ()

95
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. , 0,95
18,571 3,77. 18,571
, .
5. n ( 7 , 3,77* 7
= 9,975). Excel . 4;
=; ( ); *;

( fx); ,
; ; = 7 . 4 9,975.
, , 18,571
9,975, 0,95.
= 0,05.
.
, , () - . ,

.

.

, , .

96
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



, .

(. 6.13).

. 6.13.

( > 100) : .
, , -0,2 0,2,
2 4.

. ,
. , , ,
. 2 (-).
() , .
, 50 . ,
97
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

,
.
(, ) , .
-. , 40,
7, 5 ().
, (). -
(
), ( ).
MS Excel -
2. 2 () () .
(0,05), , .
1,
.
: 2 (_;_). :
- _ ,
,
;
- _ ,
() .
. .
(64,57,63,62,58,61,63,60,60,61,65,62,62,60,64,61,59,59,63,61,62,58,5
8,63,61,59,62,60,60,58,61,60,63,63,58,60,59,60,59,61,62,62,63,57,61,
58,60,64,60,59,61,64,62, 59, 65) .
98
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
1. 1-7 .
(. . 6.2).
2. . .
I13
2:12 (60,855). J13
(2,05). 1 2
.
. 4, : G4; $1$13; _ $J$13; 0. 4
0,033. 4
5:12. L1 L2
.
L4 =$13*4.
L4 L5:L12. . 6.14.

. 6.14.

3. 2 . L13.

(fx).
2, 99
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. 2 1-2 .
4:12 L4:L12 (. 6.15). . L13
, 0,9842.

. 6.15. 2

4. = 0,98 , = 0,05, ,
, , . ,
= 0,98 1,
, .
.
1. , 19 95% 2, 3, 5, 7, 4, 9, 6, 4, 9,
10,4, 7, 19.
2. = 0,05
3,4, 4, 2, 5, 3, 4, 3, 5,4,3,5,6.
3.
():
21,21,22,22,22,22,22,22,22,22,22,23,23,23,23,23,23,24,24,24,24,24,
24,24,24,24,24,24,25,25,25,
25,25,25,25,25,25,25,25,25,25,25,25,25,25,26,26,26,26,26,26,26,26,
26,26,26, 26, 26, 26, 27, 27.

100
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



, , . , .

.
.
(125,6) (145,7) ,
, .
?
.

.
. (
).
.
.

. ( ) t (t- ).
(t)
:
.
, .
( < 0,05),

101
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

, .
t- .
, ( t-).
,
, .
,
,
t-.
, . ,
, .
. t- .

, . , (,
) . MS Excel
. , , ,
, , , .
:
(1;2;;-). :
- 1 ;
- 2 ;
- .
2;

102
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

- -. 3 : 1 , 2 , 3 .
. , (. 6.3).
.
1. ( 1 6.3).
2. (All). (fx).
,
.
1-2 ( ).
1 (2:8). 2 (2:8).
2 ( ), 3. . All - 0,006295.
3.
(0,006295) (
= 0,05), . , .
( < 0,05).
, i- .
, ( t-). , . 3.
103
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

, , t--.
, ( 1). ,
.
.
.
( ):


:
- ( 3);
- ,
, ( 1).
. 1:5
. D1:D5 .
1. (6).

(fx). '
,
.
1-2
( ).
1 (1:5). 2
(D1:D5).
2 ( ), 3. . - 0,228053.

(0,228053) (
= 0,05), (104
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

). ,
.
, ( > 0,05).
2. (D6).
(fx).
,
.
1-2 ( ).
1 (1:5). 2 (D1:D5). 2 ( ), 1. .
0,003883.

(0,003883) (
= 0,05), . , . , ( < 0,05),
.


. : ,
, 3; , , (, ),
1.
.

, , . ,
105
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. ,

.

s 12
F = 2
s2

F F

F
.
MS Excel
(1;2) F- .
.
,

. -.
2- , (). , .

. x2 (-). - .
, ,
, . , . . , .
MS Excel -
2. 2 () (-

106
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

) .
(0,05), , () .

:
\21\(_;_). :
- _ ,
,
;
- _ ,
() .
. 90 , 60 ( 100 ).
.
1. , .
2. (
): (60 + 90)/2 = 75, , ,
75 .
3. , ( )
. : 90 1, 60 F1, 75 E2,F2. (). (fx).
2, .
2
1-2 ( ).

(E1:F1).
(E2:F2). -

107
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
0,014306.
4.
(0,0143) ( =
0,05), . ,
. -
, ( < 0,05), , , .
.
1. 100
.
. ,
.

2.
:

?
3. ( ) :

108
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

, ?
4. , {6; 7; 9; 15; 21} (20; 28;
31; 38; 40} ( )?


f-
: t- ; t- t-
. ,
t- , t- t- ,
.
:
- > ;
-
t- ,
;
- 1, , .
, , ,
,
, ;
- 2,
, .
2 ,
109
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

, , , , , ;
- , , .
( ),

,
. ,
;
- .
. : , , , df (
), t-, (<=t) , t , (<= t) , t
.
.
(P(T<=t) ) ( = 0,05), , , .
.
(
).

?
110
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. , , ^- .
1. : 1:8; 1:.
2. Z. , , t-
.

t- .
3. 1. (1), , ,
(8), .
4. 2, 1:6.
5. .
( ),
, ,
(1). .
. 1:13 t- (. 6.16).

111
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. 6.16. (1:8)
(1:13)

. (1962 . 2400 .
) .
, (
), .
,
( = 0,1389, 0,05, > 0,05) (P(T<=t) ) ( = 0,05). ,
, .
,
,
.
.
1. , .

112
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

2.

.


?

()
, . , . . ,

.
,

.
, , ,
. ,
, . .
, . :
n
m
1
2
s2 =
( x ij M i ) 2

m ( n 1) i =1 j =1
:
1 m
s =
(M i M ) 2

m 1 i =1
2
1

113
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

1 n
M , M i = n xij ,
j =1
, .
MS Excel .
:
- , ,
, () ;
- > ;
-
,
. ;
- ,
, . ,
, , , ,
(. 6.17);
- ;
- , , .
( ),
, .
,
;
- .
114
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. 6.17.

.
: , ,
.
. , -. ,
- < 0,05,
.
, .
. ,
. 3
: 1) 3 , 2) 3 5
3) 5 . .

.
1. Excel
:
, , 3
5 . . ( 1:).
115
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

2. > .
. .
3. 1:6.
1
.
4. .
5. .
( ), ,
8
(. 6.17). .
. ,
. 6.18.

. 6.18.

.

- 0,0002684. --
< 0,05, ,
.

116
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
1. ,
:


, .

.
.
: ,

. , ,
.

.
, ( ) .
, . .

.

117
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

X Y.
.
( xi , y i ) X
Y.
(), .
(R, r) , .
-1 ( ) 1 ( ). 0
. , , , . , , ( ).
.
, .

X
( x M x )( y M y )
r=
(x M x )2 ( y M y )2


X .
1 -1 (. 6.19).
. ()
( ) , 0,95, ,
118
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

( ).
r 0,8 0,95,
. 0,6 < r < 0,8,
. r < 0,4
,
.

. 6.19. (r =0,7,) (r =-0,8,)


- MS Excel .
(1;2), :
1 ;
- 2 .
. .

,
.
. . 119
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. 1 .
2:8 .
1:8 . .
(9).
(fx).
, .
1-2 ( ).
1 (2:8). 2
(2:8). . 9 0,995493. 0,95. , ,
(r = 0,995493).

,
, , .
( ) ,
.
MS Excel . , .
:
- > ;
-
;
- , ,
.
120
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

, , , ,
,
.
;
- ;
- , , .
( ),

,
. ,
(. 6.20).
- .

. 6.20.

.
,
. ,
,
1, .

121
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
.
, .
, , ,
rij = r ji
. .

,
.
. A1:G3 (. 6.21).
.
B1:G3. , . .
4 (. 6.20). .

. 6.21.

. 6.22.
122
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. (. 6.22).
. ,
-0,92,
0,97, r =-0,92.
, : (r =-0,92)
( ) (r = 0,97).
(r = -0,92).
,
,
( ).
.
1. , ( 1000 ) :

2. ,
(%), (%)
(./$), :

123
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



.
.

.

()
(), .
( ), .
, () .
.
X Y. (1, 1), (2, 2),
...,(n,n) () , , . = + b
.
Y0, 0.

. (), ,
, .

1, X2,..., n,
.
= 0 + 11 + 22 +... + n,
124
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

1,2, ..., n
1, 2, ..., n; 0 .
R2 (R-). (R-) , ()
.
F- (). F-
( < 0,05), .
1, a2, 3 ..., n
. , > 0,05, , ,
, ,
MS Excel
16 :
= a0 + a1Xl + 22 + ... + a16X16,
Y ,X1,...,X16 , a0, a1,..., 16 .
. ,

:
- > ;
-
,
. ;
-
Y,
, .

, , ,
,
, ;
125
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

- X, , 16 .
X ,
, ,
,
, , ;
- , , .
( ),
, (. 6.23). ,

;

. 6.23.

- ,
;
- .
126
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
, , , , ,
.
.
:
-- a0;
- XI a1;
- 2 2 . .
-
. , >
0,05, , ,

.
R- ( ) , . R > 0,95, ( ). R- 0,8 0,95, ( ). R < 0,6, , ( , . .).
.
.
, . (
.) (./USD).

127
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

,
.
.
1. :
1:8; 1:8 (, , ,
).
2.
.
3.
(. 6.23)
Y.
(1),
, ,
(8), . ( , , .)
4. X,
1:8. (
, .)
5. .
6. .
( ),
,
,
(1). (. 6.23).

128
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
. (. 6.24).

. 6.24.

.
: , , 0,05 ( ,
F, - 1.58-07 (0,000000158), =
0,000000158 ) R- (
, R- = 0,992). R- > 0,95,
( (. 6.24)).
.
Y- ;
. - 129
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
, > 0,05, .
,

.
: -0,83 + 0,847*(
, ./USD).
(R2 = 99,2%).
, . , 35 ./USD (10); =, D17,
+, D18, *
35. 10 28,8 .
. () (X1)
(2).
29 .

130
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

.
1. 1: Excel.
2.
.
.
3. . Y. (2),
, ,
(), . ( , , ).
4. X,
2:. (
, ).
5. .
6. .
( ),
,
,
(D1). . .
7. (. 6.25).

131
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. 6.25.

.

( , F, 1,4-09 (1,4*10-9), 0,05
) R-
( ,
R- = 0,89). -R- > 0,8,
(

(. 6.25)).
.
Y- a0 = 682;
a1= 91 2 = 275.
-
. ,
< 0,05, .

:
Y = 682+ 91* X1 + 275* X 2
.
1. (.) :

132
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

2.
22 183
, .
3. (. .)
(. .):

133
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

..
-

19.03.07. . 6084 1/16,

1. ... 7,7 75 .
-

_______________________________________________________________
393760, ., . , . , 101,
. +7 (47545) 5-55-12
E-mail: vvdem@mgau.ru

134
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

135
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

136
PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com