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. ..

:
01.02.05 ,



..

2007

1.

16


1.1.

16

1.2.

17

1.2.1.

18

1.2.2.

19

1.3

22

1.3.1.

22

1.3.2.

25

1.4

30

2.

33

2.1.

33

2.1.1.

33

2.1.2.

39


2.1.3.

41

2.2.

43

2.2.1.

43

2.2.2.

43

2.3.

44

2.4.

48

2.4.1.

48

2.4.2.

49

2.5.

52
2

3.

53

3.1.

53

3.1.1.

53

3.1.2. -

55

3.1.3.

57

3.2.

3.3.

70

74

3.3.1.

74

3.3.2.

76

3.4.

78

3.5.

82

3.5.1. -

82

3.5.2. -

84

3.6. 85
3.7. ,

88

3.7.1.

92

3.7.2.

93

3.8.

99
3

4.

101

4.1.

101

4.1.1.

102

4.1.2.

105

4.1.3.

107

4.1.4.

108

4.2.

109

4.3. ,
( )

110

4.3.1.

110

4.3.2.

112

4.3.3.

113

4.3.4.

121

4.4. 124

4.4.1.

124

4.4.2.

126

4.4.3. , 135

4.5.

140

141

143

160

163

167

170




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3.5

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3.7
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3.8 .

13

4
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. 4.1.1
. 4.1.2
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4.1.4
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4.2 .
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4.3.3
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4.3.4
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23

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2.


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33

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34

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35


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mi

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m =1,M ,

(6)

j=1

1 ( y k yl )n xk + (x k x l )n yk
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2 ( y k y l ) 2 + ( x k x l ) 2

36

l=i, j,

1, l m
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37

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i =1

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i =1

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+

y j ),(x k x j )}

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{(y

y j ),(x k x j )}

1 k k 1
+
+

{ n yk ,n xk } ,
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lk , k- .

dxj
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= uj,

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(9)

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(10)

t .


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38

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k =1

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(12)

k =1

lk , k-
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t

tt

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t t t
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t i=1

t .
39

(13)


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k- t,
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42

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1,20
0,76
1,69
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Cya

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1,67
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45

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[133];

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46

4 -
(=135)

5 -
4 (=135)

47



- , -
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).

2.4.

2.4.1.
,
6.
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I+ i I+ .
(26) m .

48

2.4.2.

:

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(15).

, . 7.
, 2 7, 8, 9,
t=34.90659.


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0
10
20
30
40
50
60

Cx
2.73
2.52
2.34
2.39
2.19
1.93
1.25

49


Cy
0.14
0.30
0.57
0.82
0.55
0.78
-0.04

Y
2

3
1

6
4

; ;
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6 -
.

50

Cxa, Cya

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-10

10

20

30

Cxa,

40

50

60

70

Cya

7 -
.

8 - 0
(t=34.9).

9 - 60
(t=34.9).
51

2.5.
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1)
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52

3.

3.1.
3.1.1.

-,

*
*
*
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1 *
+ (u )u = * p* + ** u ,
*
t

(18)

u = 0,

(19)

: u - , t*
, * - , p* , * - , - *

, * - .
(1)
*
1
= / , Cp = * * 2 , =
=
,
Re u * b
u / 2
*

p* p*

(18), (19)

53

(20)

u
1
+ (u )u = Cp + u ,
t
2

(21)

u = 0.

(22)


u u

u = u + u ,

(23)

u = ( e z ) ,

(24)

- , ez - z.
, -,
(21)

+ (u ) = ,
t

(25)

- ,
= z.

v u

.
x y

(26)

54

(22)
u .

3.1.2. -
[72]

(25) [113].
, -
- -
- .
-

[57, 113].
(25)
,

=
t

(27)


d
=
+ (u ) = 0 .
dt t

(28)

55

[2],

.

.

.
[115]
[120]

:
(s,n)
1 (s)
=
,
n n =0
t

(29)

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. [114,
141]

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- i = i / li .

, [13, 116]
/

i = u i s = u si i /(2li ) ,

(30)

i , u i -
,
(8).

56


[114, 141]

(s, n) =

n 2
(s)
exp
.
4

t
t

(31)

( )

[141]
=

(32)

(24)
-
[108, 124]

u (x) =

1 ()e z (x )
dd ,
2
(x ) 2

(33)

= {, } - - ,
.
3.1.3.
,

,

57

i, j =

xi + h / 2

y j +h / 2

xi h / 2

y j h / 2

(x, y)dxdy .

(34)



:
1) .
2) .
3) .
4) .
5) , .
)

: ,
.

(3)-(4), . 1.6 .
.

(2)

.


.

58

(27)

[92]
ur r
r r
ur r
(x, t + t) = G(| x y |, t, t + t)(y, t)dA ,

(35)

A , dA = dx dy ,
G -
r r
r r
exp [ | x y |2 (4 t)
G(| x y |, t, t + t) =
4 t

[5,

],

48]

(36)

.
- [35, 72] (35)

p (t + t) = p (t) +

q M p

( (t)G
q

*
pq

(x)G *pq (y) p (t)G *qp (x)G *qp (y) ) ,

(37)

z p h / 2 z q
1 z p + h / 2 zq
G (z) = erf
erf
.
2
4 t
4

*
pq

zp xp yp p- , erf(x)
( ) [14, 55]

59

(38)

2
e rf(x) =
exp( y 2 )dy .

(39)

(39) (37)
Mp p [141],
.
( 10) (2nd+1)h, nd
.
(38)
nd .
)
B ( 11)
D
.
, W.


(31).
n h hs
s. ( 12)
(31) (34)
nj + h /2
n j h / 2
(si ,n j ) = (si )h s e rf
e rf
.

t
4

(40)

60

i, j = (x k , yl )(x i x k )(y j yl ) ,

(41)

(xk,yl)

(xk,yl), i,j , (i, j)


.
, ,
,

[56].
,
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B-
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1 z* , 0 z* 1
1 (z) =
,
*
0,
z
>
1

(42)

z* = |z|/h.



.
,
(42), , ,
.

61

,
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)

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(24),

u i, j =

1
( i, j+1 + i+1, j+1 i, j i+1, j ) ,
2h

v i, j =

1
( i+1, j + i+1, j+1 i, j i, j+1 ) .
2h

(43)

( 13),
,
.

(32) ().
, [100, 112],

- (33). (32)
IMSL
Fortran.
[112] [100].

62

(2n d +1)h

10 - (nd = 2).

D , W , B
11 - .

12 - .

63

.

.
,
[100].

i (x, i ) =

i
ln x i .
2

(44)

x -
() i, -
i . (44)

[112].
i- 0 .
x , i,

( 14).


(44),
O( 2 x 2 ) ,

i (x, i )

i
ln
2

x 2 + y2

1 xi x + yi y
+
1! x 2 + y 2

2
2

1 xi + yi
2
2
2
2
2
+ 2

x
+
2

x
y
+

y
(
)
, (45)
xi
xi yi
yi
2! x + y 2 ( x 2 + y 2 )2

64

xi = xi x0 , yi = yi y0 , x = x x0 , y = y y0 .

O( 3 x 3 ) . (45),
. [57, 112,
141], .
.
k,
(32),

k (x, 0k )
+

1
G k ln
2

x 2k + y 2k

1 A xk x k + A yk y k
+
2
2
1!
x
+
y
k
k

1 Bxk + B yk
2
Bxk x k2 + 2Bxyk x k y k + B yk y k2 ,

2
2
2
2 2
2! x k + y k ( x k + y k )

x k = x x 0k ,

yk = y y0k ,

G k = i ,
i

A xk = i xi ,
i

(46)

A yk = i yi ,
i

Bxk = i 2xi , Bxyk = i xi yi , Byk = i 2yi .


i


(32) .

, [57],
. IMSL
Fortran.

:
-
- ( );

65

-

(41) (32).

u , u .


( )

(9)

(10).

(41)

( 15, 16).

.
, .

4
[123]
5 *2 3 *3

1
z + z ,

0 z* 1
2
2

3M4 ' (z) = (1 z* )(2 z* ) 2 / 2, 1 < z* 2 .

0,
z* > 2

(47)


. (41),
- (47), ,
(42),
( 15). , (47)
.

66

i, j+1

i+1, j+1

i, j
i, j

i+1, j

13 - .

x-0

x-0

i -0

14 -
.

67

u i, j t

B
A

i, j

( ), 4.
15 -
.

16 -
.

68

) ,
, ,
.

, .

(21)

, .
us = 0 , (21)

1 Cp
2u
= 2s ,
2 s
n

(48)

n .
un(s) = 0
un
= 0,
s

(49)

us
.
n

(50)

(50) (48),
:

ds .

n
s0
s

Cp (s) = 1 2

(51)

69

s0 - . ,
= 1
(29)

, :
t

Cp (s) = 1

2
ds .

t
s0

(52)

Cx
Cy (12).

3.2.


Re = 9500.
,
[57], [114].
D .
(41) M4 (47),

nd = 4.

17 - 19 3.
3 1 ( )
[57] 1440 x 864
0.01. 160
. 2.5D x 1.5D. 350 000
[114] .
, h ( )
.
70

[108] Re = 10 4 Cx = 1.13
(Lagrangian vortex blob method),
(core spreading
method) .

n = 100

(lk = 0.031)

(growing

element),

,
Cx 9500 10 4 .
[138]

t = 5.0
Cx = 0.8. [85]
(Cx = 0.87),
.
3
h = 0.0039 .
, h = 0.0039 h = 0.0017 (..
) .
72 (lk = 0.044) 160 (lk = 0.020)
.
3 - Cx, Cy
Re=9500 t = 6.0
h
lk
0.0039
0.044
0.0039
0.020
0.0017
0.044
0.0017
0.020
0.0017
0.020
[29]
[145]

Cx
1.25
1.25
1.65
1.66
1.5*
1.5**
1.2
1.1-1.2

* - [57], ** - [114]
71

Cy
0.27
0.27
-0.46
-0.65
0.0
0.0

t = 1.0

t = 2.5

t = 6.0

17 - ,
Re = 9500, c 1024 512 (h = 0.0039), n = 72 (lk = 0.044).

72

Cx, Cy
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
0

6
t

- Cx,

- Cy

18 - ,
Re = 9500, 4D x 2D, c 1024 512 (h = 0.0039), n = 160 (lk = 0.020).

Cx, Cy
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
0

6
t

- Cx,

- Cy

19 - ,
Re = 9500, 2.5D x 1.5D, c 1440 864 (h = 0.0017), n = 160 (lk = 0.020).

73


, ,
.

3.3.

t h

. ,
, ,
.

.
3.3.1.
q- p
- (-)

p(q) (t + t) = q (t)
Ap

exp [ rq2 (4 t)
4 t

] dA ,

(53)

rq =| x x q | , x q - q, Ap q,
x - - .

[21] t < h2/.



74

t = kd h 2 / ,

(54)

kd , (54) (53),

p(q) (t + t) = q (t)

A
p

exp [ rq2 (4 k d )
4 k d

] dA ,

(55)

rq = rq / h , dA = dA / h 2 A p = A p / h 2 = 1 . (55),
kd rq
. h, t
.
kd
(55)

h,

t,

, .
kd ,
.
.

= ( - a)/ a

(56)

. a .

75

3.3.2.


(54) (27),
[64].

exp [ r 2 (4)
(x, t) = 0
4

],

(57)

2
=t+
,
4

(58)

0 - () , -
t = 0, r = x x 0 , x 0 - -
.

(57)-(58) t = 0:
exp [ r 2 2
(x,0) = 0
2

].

(59)

20
t = 3.75.
, [57], ,
(.. kd).

76

[57]: L = 2.0,
= 10-3,
200 200 (h = 0.01), nd = 4, 0 = 3.0, = 0.1.
[57] t = 0.025, t = 0.11.
20 , - (37)-(38)

( kd).
( 21) ,
t, kd
.

(56) 21.
h = 0.02 h = 0.01.
( 21, 22),
nd
kd, h .
, nd kd
nd = 4
1.1 kd 1.2.
kd, 4,
0 0.02.
kd
, nd = 1 kd = 0.21,
,
.

,
.

77

4 - -

t,

nd

kd

1
2
3
4

0.20 0.21
0.4 0.5
0.7 0.8
1.1 1.2

h = 0.01, =1.0 -3
0.020 0.021
0.04 0.05
0.07 0.08
0.11 0.12

3.4.


(59) .

.
t = 2.0
u = 1.0 u t = 2.0 ( 23).

, , .


r

1 p (x p , t) a (x p , t)
=
,

m p
a (x p , t)

(60)

m - , .
, 26,
.
:
(9)
(41).
78


40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-0.5

-0.25

0.25

0.5

x
- , + - - [57],
- - (54)
20 - .

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2
0

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

:
:

- nd = 1,

1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8


- nd = 2,

- h = 0.02 (100x100 ),

- nd = 3,

kd

- nd = 4;

h = 0.01 (200x200 )

21 -
kd, = 1.0 -3.

79


0.15
0.125
0.1
0.075
0.05
0.025
0
-0.025
-0.05
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

kd
22 -
kd, = 1.0 -4, h = 0.01 (200x200 ),
:

- nd = 1,

80

- nd = 2,

- nd = 3,

- nd = 4.

23 - 0 = 1.0, = 0.1,
u = {1, 0} , 400200, LxH = 42,
t = 10 4: - t = 0, - t = 2.0.

0.25
0.23
0.20
0.18
0.15
0.13
0.10
0.08
0.05
0.03
0.00
1.00E-06

1.00E-05

1.00E-04

1.00E-03

1.00E-02

1.00E-01

- 400200 0 = 3.0, = 0.2;


- - - 400200 - - - 800400 0 = 1.0, = 0.1;
- - - 400200 - - - 800400 0 = 1.0, = 0.2
24 - ,
LxH = 42, t = 2.0, u = 1.0, M4.

81

( )
(0 = 1,0, = 0,1) t = 2,0 .
= M 4' = 4.6 10 6 ( 400200)
( 200100).

M 4' = 9.1107

.

, .
,
-
( 2, 3 ).
24 , ,
t
c ,
.


( 24). 0 = 1,0, = 0,2 t
104 ,
c
0 = 1,0, = 0,1 -

5 105 . 0 = 1,0, = 0,2

t = 10 -3 t = 10 -5 ( 24),
100 .

3.5.
3.5.1. -
[46, 61] (27),
,
82

( ).
[153, 155]

=0 + 1 + O( 2 ) ,

(61)

0 [46].
( 2) . 1 , -
.
= / 2 ,

(62)

(61) (27) , [153, 155]


0
1
=0,
= 2 0 ,
t
t

(63)

2 .
0
(63), ,
.

(63). (61)
, - .
(63) (54)

t = k d h 2 / 2 .

(64)

t , , , 2
(64) (62). ,

83

.
0,1.
- (62) - (64)
[155]:
qMp

(i)
p (t + t) = p (t) + q (t)G
pq
q

( j) (t)G (i)G
( j) ,
G
pq
p
qp
qp

(65)

i p 0.5 i q
1 i p + 0.5 i q

.
G pq (i) = erf
erf

2 k
2 2 k
d
d

(66)

3.5.2. -


(57).
5 25-26.
, -,
(56).
, 25 - 26 5,
, - (65)-(66)
t.
- ( 20)
t (54), [154].

84

5 - -

10 3
10 3
10 3
10 3
10 4
10 4
10 4
10 4
10 5
10 5
10 5
10 5

h
0,01
0,01
0,005
0,005
0,01
0,01
0,005
0,005
0,01
0,01
0,005
0,005

t
10 3
10 4
510 4
10 4
10 3
10 4
10 3
10 4
10 3
10 4
10 3
10 4

4,7610 2
4,7610 3
9,5210 2
1,9010 2
4,7610 3
4,7610 4
1,9010 2
1,9010 3
4,7610 4
4,7610 5
1,9010 3
1,9010 4

0,0089
0,0087
0,0080
0,0084
0,0013
0,0013
0,0012
0,0011
0,00014
0,00054
0,00011
0,00068

3.6.
(57), (58).
(60), -
t = 0.
( 27-30 6),
- -
, ,
.


, .

.

85


20

15

10

5
-0.14

-0.07

- t = 10 -3

0.07

- t = 10 -4 200200 ;

- t = 510 -4

- t = 10 -4 400400 ;

- t = 0,
- t = 2,0
25 -
-, 0 = 1,0, = 0,1, = 10 -3, t = 2,0, LxH=2x2.

30
25
20
15
10
-0.1

-0.05

0.05

- t = 10 -3

- t = 10 -4 200200 ;

- t = 10 -3

- t = 10 -4 400400 ;

- t = 0,
- t = 2,0
26 -
-, 0 = 1,0, = 0,1, = 10 -4, t = 2,0, LxH=2x2.

86

6 -
-

10
10 2
10 2
10 3
10 4
10 4
10 4
10 4
10 5

h
0.04
0.02
0.01

-
t
3

3.3610
8.4010 3
2.1010 3
2.1010 2
0.01
10 4
0.01
10 4
0.005
10 4
0.005 5.0010 5
0.0025
10 4
0.005
10 4

0.0062
0.036
0.0044
0.56
0.53
0.035
0.034
0.045
0.032
0.020

t
4
0.0079
3.3610
4
0.015
8.0010
4
0.017
2.1010
4
0.024
5.0010
10 4
0.0077
10 5
0.014
4
10
0.024
10 4
0.019
5
0.0097
5.0010
4
10
0.019
10 4
0.023

6 ,
0 = 1,0, = 0,1 = 10 -3
400200 t = 10 -4, = 10 -4
800400

= 510 -5.

, 8 .

- (59),
-
( 27 - 28).
- (54),
.

10 -3

- .
-
= 10 -5 800400 t = 10 -4
( 6). -
, (38) .

87

,
( 6) - - = 10 -5.
0,02
( 24).
10 -5
(16 ).

.

- .

3.7. ,

,
,
.

.
[64, 126].


u
u
2u
u
+v
= 2
x
y
y

(67)

(22).
. (22) (67)

88


30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-0.25 -0.2 -0.15 -0.1 -0.05

- - t = 5,010 -4,

0.05

0.1

- - t = 10 -4,

- - t = 10 -4,

0.15

0.2

- - t = 10 -5,

- - t = 2,110 -2,

- t = 0,
- t = 2,0
27 - -
, 0 = 1,0, = 0,1, = 10 -3, t = 2,0, LxH=4x2, 400200 .

30
25
20
15
10
-0.1

-0.05

- - t = 10 -4,
- - t = 10 -4,

0.05

- - t = 5,010 -5,
- - t = 5,010 -5,

- t = 0,
- t = 2,0
28 - -
, 0 = 1,0, = 0,1, = 10 -4, t = 2,0, LxH=4x2, 800400 .

89

29 -
t = 2.1,
0 = 1.0, = 0.1, = 10 -3, t = 10 -4, LxH=4x2, 400200 :
- -, - -.

30 -
t = 2.1,
0 = 1.0, = 0.1, = 10 -4, t = 10 -4, LxH=4x2, 400200 :
- -, - -.

90

2f '''+ f ''f = 0

(68)

= y

u
x

(69)

= x u f () .

(70)

u=

= u f '() ,
y

v=

(71)

1 u
=
(f ' f ) .
x 2 x

(72)

(68) [77]. f,
f , f , , ,
, [64].
(72)

vf =

v
u

ux

(73)

91

vf x = const .

3.7.1.

:
1)
2)
3)

4) .
LxH
(. 31), b = 1.0.
4- ,

x 0.25, x 0.5, x 0.75 x 0.9.



x = const

u (x) = max

u(x, ) u a (x, )
,
u a (x, )

v (x) = max

v(x, ) v a (x, )
.
v a (x, )

0 6

06

(74)


(74)
, [64].

92


: - (37), - (65)
().
- (37) td, (54),
tc , t
-.

3.7.2.
( 31)

L = 4,

H = 2,

xa = -1.0,

ya = 1.0.

100 ,
= = 0.5 lk, lk - , .
( 32),
Re = 10 3 ( = 10 -3), ,

.

(u > 1.0). , [143].
, [129],
,
.
( 33)
,
x 0.25.
, . ,

[129,

143]

93

xa

xb

yb

u
H

X
ya
L

31 -
.

94

1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

- [64],
:

- Wu [143] (x = 0.5),

- x = 0.25,

- x = 0.5,

- Ota [129] (x = 0.9),

- x = 0.75,

- x = 0.9.

32 -
, = 10 -3, tc = td = 0.021, t = 16.8, h = 0.01, LxH = 4x2, -.

vf

0.9
0.7
0.5
0.3
0.1

-0.1
0

- [64],
:

- x = 0.25,

- x = 0.5,

- x = 0.75,

- x = 0.9.

33 -
, = 10 -3, tc = td = 0.021, t = 16.8, h = 0.01, LxH = 4x2, -.

95


7.
34
: - (-),
- - -
(). , -
, -
.
7 -
t = 16.8, Re = 10 3, h = 0.01

0.245
0.495
0.745
0.895

0.02
0.04
0.07
0.10

0.11
0.18
0.40
1.14

Re = 100 ( = 10 -2)
( 35-36).
. Re = 10 4 ( = 10 -4)

. [129, 143]
Re = 10 2 Re = 10 4
.
:
-

[124,

129,

143],


u Re = 10 3 ;

96

u
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

- [64],
: - - (tc = td = 0.021),

- Wu [143] (x = 0.5),
- - (t = 0.0021, = 0.1),

- (tc = 0.001, td = 0.021)


34 - ,
, = 10 -3, x = 0.5, t = 16.8, h = 0.01, LxH = 4x2.

97

u
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

- [64],
:

- x = 0.25,

- x = 0.5,

- x = 0.75,

- x = 0.9.

35 -
, = 10 -2, tc = td = 0.0021, t = 16.8, h = 0.01, LxH = 4x2, -;

vf 1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
0

- [64],
:

- x = 0.25,

- x = 0.5,

- x = 0.75,

- x = 0.9.

36 -
, = 10 -2, tc = td = 0.0021, t = 16.8, h = 0.01, LxH = 4x2, -.

98

- v
,
.

3.8.
:
1) Re = 9500
,

.
,
, .
2)

,
. ,
, -
.
3) -

.

()
- .
4)

-
. ,

99


Re = 10 3.
, .

100

4.

4.1.


,
().

,
(26).

(34) (26). ,

(x i , y j ) = vx (x i , y j ) uy (x i , y j )

(75)

uy (x i , y j ) =

vx (x i , y j ) =

xi + h / 2

yj +h / 2

x i h / 2

u(x, y)
y dx dy ,
y j h / 2

xi + h / 2

yj +h / 2

x i h / 2

v(x, y)
dx dy ,
x
y j h / 2

(76)

(26) (27), (28) ,



:
-

101

u
u
= ,
t y
y
v
v
= ;
t x
x

(77)


u
d u u
= + (u ) = 0 ,
dt y t y
y
v
d v v
= + (u ) = 0 .
dt x t x
x

(78)

u
v

y
x

, (26).
,
.

4.1.1.

,
.
,
,
.
,
( 37). (76)
102

u ( N ) = u(S) + uy (P) / h x ,
v(E) = v(W) + vx (P) / h y ,

(79)

OX OY.
(79)
.
,
, (79)

u(P) = u(S) + 0.5 uy (P) / h x ,


v(P) = v(W) + 0.5 vx (P) / h y ,

(80)

OX OY.
,
u e ,
(79)

(80).

103

N
W

P (i,j)

37 - , .

104

4.1.2.
a)

- (37)-(38).
(77), (1)uy (1)vx
(1) uy (t + t, x p , y p ) = (1) uy (t, x p , y p ) +
Mp

+ ( (1) uy (t, x q , y q )G *pq (x)G *pq (y) (1) uy (t, x p , y p )G *qp (x)G *qp (y) ) ,
q

(1) vx (t + t, x p , y p ) = (1) vx (t, x p , y p ) +


Mp

+ ( (1) vx (t, x q , y q )G *pq (x)G *pq (y) (1) vx (t, x p , y p )G *qp (x)G *qp (y) ) ,

(81)

G*jq (38).

)

uy vx. un vs
, ,
.
(40)

105

n + h/2
n h / 2
(2) un (si ,n j ) = u(si , +0)h s erf j
erf j

t
4



(2) vs (si ,n j ) = 0 ,

(82)


u(si , +0) = lim u(si ,n) ,

(83)

n +0

hs s.
, (82) u(si,+0)
(83)
.
, , ,
.

()


(2) uy (x i , y j ) = (2) un (si ,n j ) y n ,
(2) vx (x i , y j ) = (2) un (si ,n j ) x n ,

(84)

n = {x n , yn } - ,
, , (si, nj) (xi, yj)
.
(xi, yj) (84)
,
uy vx (41),
.

106

uy (t, x p , y p ) = (1) uy (t, x p , y p ) + (2) uy (x p , y p )


(85)
vx (t, x p , y p ) = (1) vx (t, x p , y p ) + (2) vx (x p , y p ) = (1) vx (t, x p , y p )

4.1.3.


vx uy. .
(80)
u = u ( vx = uy = 0).

( )

(9)

(10).


, (41)
vx uy:

uy (x i , y j ) = uy (x k , yl )(x i x k )(y j yl ) ,
vx (x i , y j ) = vx (x k , yl )(x i x k )(y j yl ) .

B- (42) (47).

107

(86)

(86)

4.1.4.

. ,
(24)
.

(
) [64],
.
,
, , ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
.
(24)

v
u
=
.
y
x

(87)

, v = 0 ( ),
,
,

108

v i, j1 = 0.5h y

u
x

(88)

i, j1

j1 , .
- ,
(88)
u
x

u i+1, j1 u i1, j1
2h x

i, j1

(89)


u
v i, j = vi, j1 0.5h y
x

+
i, j

u
x

i, j1

(90)

, ,
(88), (90) OX.

4.2.
1) uy vx, ,
.
2) .
3)
(79).
4) (81).
5) (82).
109

6) uy vx (85).
7) (80).
8) (88), (90)
.
9)

()

(10)

(86).
10) .1.

td tc.
td tc () 4 - 6
,
t = td + td, td .
7 - 9 ,
t = t + t, t
.
.

4.3. ,
( )
4.3.1.

u0


[64] .
-,
[64]

110

u
2u
= 2 ,
t
y

(91)

u OX, ,
- . v
OY .

s =

y
, u = u 0f (s ) ,
4t

(92)

f(s) , (91)

f ''+ 2s f ' = 0 ,

(93)

: s = 0, f = 1 s = +, f = 0
[64]
u = u 0 (1 erf (s )) ,

(94)

erf() , (39).
, ,
u , (94)

u = u erf (s ) .

(95)

111

(26)
(95)
, ,
y + hy / 2
y j h y / 2
(t, x i , y j ) = uy (t, x i , y j ) = u h x erf j

erf

4t
4 t

(96)

(95) (96)
.

4.3.2.

,
. 4.2.
x = const ( ) 8 9
,
(),
.

, ( 8 9),
.
:
1) (24),
(32) (44);
2) (33),
(2).

= 0.5h.
112

, .
- 2 N
, N = Nx Ny, Nx, Ny
. ,
(32) ,
(46) N log 2 (N) + 2 N.

(33),


(2), N 2.
( ) 5-
x = const.
, || < 10-7 |uy| < 10-7

.

4.3.3.

, OX,
(-0.5, 0) (0.5, 0). ( 31)
LxH = 4x2 (a=xb=2.0, ya=yb=1.0)
. .
a) ,
t = td -
t = 0
. -
: (40) (81) 113

. t = 0 , un,
(40) (82) t = td,
( 38 41).
8 td

,
( ) ,
38 - 42. 400 200 (h = 0.01).
td (54),
, uy u

.
. , uy u,
38 42,
[10-8, 0.1].
8 -

( 400200, t = td) , 38 - 42

t d

10-1
10-2
10-3
10-4
10-5
10-6
10-7
10-8

0.00021
0.0021
0.021
0.21
2.1
21.0
210.0
2100.0


0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4

b
(2)
=0.5h
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07

10-5
10-5
10-5
10-5
10-5
10-5
10-5
10-5

1)

().
114


,
.

,
, 39.
bmax > 0.4
.
u(si, +0) (40).
2) (33),
,
(2) = 0.5h.
t = td,

38,

(2),
40.

cmax = 0.1 bmax = 0.07
.
3) .
, ,
41 42.
( 42)
cmax = 0.12 bmax = 10-5
.
, 8,
, , .

115

0
-0.001
-0.002
-0.003
-0.004
-0.005
-0.006
-0.007
-0.008
-0.009
-0.01
0

- (96),
:
- x = 0.095,

- x = 0.245,

- x = 0.495,

- x = 0.745,

- x = 0.895

38 - h = 0.01 (400200),
(40) t = td.

u
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

- (95),
:
- x = 0.095,

- x = 0.245,

- x = 0.495,

- x = 0.745,

- x = 0.895

39 - u - h = 0.01 (400200)
() t = td.

116

u
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

- (95),
:
- x = 0.095,

- x = 0.245,

- x = 0.495,

- x = 0.745,

- x = 0.895

40 u - h = 0.01 (400200)
(2) t = td.

uy

0.01
0.009
0.008
0.007
0.006
0.005
0.004
0.003
0.002
0.001
0
0

- (96),
:
- x = 0.095,

- x = 0.245,

- x = 0.495,

- x = 0.745,

- x = 0.895

41 - uy h = 0.01 (400200),
(81) t = td.

117

u
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

- (95),
:
- x = 0.095,

- x = 0.245,

- x = 0.495,

- x = 0.745,

- x = 0.895

42 - u - h = 0.01 (400200)
, t = td, .

118

) ,
(2)

( > 1 ) t = 400td.
.
, ,
h = 0.01 ( 400 200) t = 400td
43 44.
( 44) cmax = 0.002
bmax = 0.002
( 9).
400 ( 8, 9)

t,

u(si, +0). 1-
.
9 -

( 400200, t = 400td)

t d

bmax

10-1
10-2
10-3
10-4
10-5
10-6
10-7
10-8

0.00021
0.0021
0.021
0.21
2.1
21.0
210.0
2100.0

0.084
0.84
8.4
84.0
840.0
8400.0
84000.0
840000.0

0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002

119

uy

0.001
0.0009
0.0008
0.0007
0.0006
0.0005
0.0004
0.0003
0.0002
0.0001
0
0

- (96),
:
- x = 0.095,

- x = 0.245,

- x = 0.495,

- x = 0.745,

- x = 0.895

43 - uy h = 0.01 (400200),
t = 400td.

u
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

- (95),
:
- x = 0.095,

- x = 0.245,

- x = 0.495,

- x = 0.745,

- x = 0.895

44 - u - h = 0.01 (400200)
, t = 400td, .

120

, ( 42,
44) u u s
, ( 1 - erf(s) 0).
u s
( 1/ 0), (2). ,
t = td (2) ( 40)
s 5 0.018, s 10 0.01. u,
s > 5, < 10-5.
)

(2)
.
.

,
.
,

, (2).

4.3.4.


, , ,
. ,
121

, ,
( 45 ).
(26), (34)
uy (75) , ,
(33) (79). ,
, ( 45 ).
, ,
( 45 ).
, ,
, (26).
,

u
v


y
x

u
,
y

v
x

( 45)

(26).

.

,

.
,

.
,
.

122

u0
u 0 +ui

u0

ui
h

h
u 0 -ui

1u
6 0

1u
3 0

-u i

) ,

1u
3 0

1u
8 0

5u
3 0
8

5u
3 0
8

1u
6 0

1u
8 0

45 - ,
= -u0/h = -u0 h.

123

4.4.
4.4.1.


.
[64]

Re .

h = 0.01 [124, 129, 143]


Re = 10 3. h Re ,

10 Re 10 6 (. 10).
. t , Tm - .

1.5h
,
u

(97)

-- [93, 96]
1.5.
(54).
()
.

[104 - 105]. , 10,
,

. ,
124


. (97) ,
(54),

tc

10 -

Re

0.1
0.05
0.025
0.03125
100
0.015625
0.01
10 3
0.005
0.003125
10 4
0.0015625
0.001
10 5
510-4
3.12510-4
10 6
1.56310-4
10

LxH
4x8
4x8
4x8
4x8
4x4
4x2
4x2
4x1
2x0.5
2x0.5
2x0.1
2x0.1
2x0.1

nx x ny

t d

t c

40x80
0.021
0.105
80x160
0.00525
0.0525
160x320
0.0013125
0.0328125
128x256
0.0205078125
0.0205078125
256x256
0.0051269531
0.0205078125
400x200
0.021
0.021
800x400
0.00525
0.00525
1280x320
0.0205078125
0.0041015625
1280x320 0.005126953125 0.001708984375
2000x500
0.021
0.0015
4000x200
0.00525
7.510-4
6400x320
0.0205078125
4.66086710-4
12800x640 0.005126953125
2.33043310-4

t
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
8.4
8.4
8.4
4.2

Tm,
[::]
00:00:05
00:00:51
00:12:12
00:01:03
00:08:28
00:03:11
00:45:18
01:35:15
04:49:06
02:23:40
10:35:53
36:57:44
134:51:09


(42).
4 (47)
-
.
, ,
(42), .

125

4.4.2.
AMD Athlon 1.84 GHz, 512 Mb
RAM.
,
, 11. u v

.
11 -
x 0.5
Re

h
0.1
10
0.05
0.025
0.03125
100
0.015625
0.01
10 3
0.005
0.003125
4
10
0.0015625
0.001
10 5
510-4
3.12510-4
6
10
1.56310-4

u
0.04
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.007
0.01
0.006
0.03
0.009
0.05
0.01

t
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
8.4
8.4
8.4
4.2

v
0.14
0.06
0.05
0.11
0.01
0.10
0.02
0.09
0.02
0.13
0.03
0.62
0.04


Re = 10
h = 0.025
46-47. 46
,
. (74)
12.

126

u
1

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

) t = 8.4

) t = 16.8

- x = 0.25,

- [64],

- x = 0.5,

- x = 0.75,

- x = 0.9;

- 1- [64]

46 - u

(Re = 10, h = 0.025).

vf 0.9

vf 0.9

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

) t = 8.4
:

) t = 16.8
- x = 0.25,

- x = 0.5,

- x = 0.75,

- x = 0.9;

- [64]
47 - vf

(Re = 10, h = 0.025).

127

12 -
t = 16.8, Re = 10, h = 0.025

0.2375
0.4875
0.7375
0.8875

0.02
0.01
0.009
0.008

0.07
0.05
0.05
0.06


2 %, 7 %.
,
.
Re = 10 3 h = 0.01,
LxH = 4x2,
400x200 . td = 0.021 (54).
tc 0.015 (97),
tc = 0.021,
td = t.
[129] t = 0.02, .


48-49.
(74) 13.
: [124,
129, 143] ( 50) Ansys 8.0
Star CD ,
. (. 32).
vf (73)
Ansys 8.0, Star CD (
49) (. 33).
[124, 129, 143] .
128

u
1

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0
0

) t = 8.4

) t = 16.8

- x = 0.25,

- x = 0.5,

- [64],

- x = 0.75,

- x = 0.9;

- 1- [64].

48 - u
(Re = 10 3, h = 0.01).

vf 0.9

vf
1

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

) t = 8.4
:

) t = 16.8
- x = 0.25,

- [64],

- x = 0.5,
- Ansys 8.0,

- x = 0.75,

- x = 0.9;

- Star CD.

49 - vf
(Re = 10 3, h = 0.01).

129

u 1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

- [64],
- Ota [129] (x = 0.9),

- Wu [143] (x = 0.5),
- Nakamura [124] (x = 0.5),

: - x = 0.5, - x = 0.9,

- Ansys 8.0,

- Star CD.

50 -
(Re = 10 3, h = 0.01, t = 16.8).

130

( 13),
, .
.

.
13 -
t = 16.8, Re = 10 3, h = 0.01

0.245
0.495
0.745
0.895

0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01

0.14
0.10
0.09
0.07

Re = 10 3
h = 0.005, LxH = 4x2,
800x400 . (54)

td

= 0.00525.

tc

= 0.00525

(97),
tc 0.0075, .


51-52.
(74) 14.
[124,
129, 143] ( 53) ( 32), ,
.
vf (73)
( 52), ( 33).

131

u
1

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0
0

) t = 8.4

) t = 16.8

- x = 0.25,

- [64],

- x = 0.5,

- x = 0.75,

- x = 0.9;

- 1- [64].

51 - u
(Re = 10 3, h = 0.005).

vf

vf

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

) t = 8.4
:

) t = 16.8
- x = 0.25,

- x = 0.5,

- x = 0.75,

- x = 0.9;

- [64].
52 - vf
(Re = 10 3, h = 0.005).

132

u
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

- [64],
- Ota [129] (x = 0.9),

- Wu [143] (x = 0.5),
- Nakamura [124] (x = 0.5),

(h = 0.005): - x = 0.5, - x = 0.9


53 -
Re = 10 3.

133

( 14),
( 1 %) (
6 %) ,
.
14 -
t = 16.8, Re = 10 3, h = 0.005

0.2475
0.4975
0.7475
0.8975

0.01
0.007
0.005
0.005

0.06
0.02
0.02
0.02

Re = 10 6
h = 1.562510-4,
LxH = 2x0.1,
12800x640 = 8 192 000 . (54)

tc

td

= 0.005126953125.

= 2.33043310-4 (97),

,
td

= 22tc.
t = 8.4 4.2 -

.

Re = 10 6. ,
.


54-55.

134

t = 2.1
( 55),
t = 4.2 ( 55).
(74) 15.
( 15),
( 2 %) (
8 %) ,
.
15 -
t = 4.2, Re = 10 6, h = 1.562510-4

0.249921875
0.499921875
0.749921875
0.899921875

0.02
0.01
0.009
0.008

0.08
0.04
0.03
0.04

4.4.3. ,


, ( 10),

.

[98] .

, .

135

u
1

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0
0

) t = 2.1

) t = 4.2

- x = 0.25,

- [64],

- x = 0.5,

- x = 0.75,

- x = 0.9;

- 1- [64].

54 - u
(Re = 10 6, h = 1.562510-4).

vf 0.9

vf 0.9

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

) t = 2.1
:

) t = 4.2
- x = 0.25,

- x = 0.5,

- x = 0.75,

- x = 0.9;

- [64].
55 - vf
(Re = 10 6, h = 1.562510-4).

136

[64], ,
, : x1 = 0, 0.0135, 0.108, 0.256
.
,

, .
( 10)
u

56 58.

[64].

1, (69),

1 = y

u
l1

(98)

l1 l1 = 1.0,
b.
56-58 ,
u
0 < 1 < 3 . ,
- -
.
, ,
, ,

.
,


, .
137

u
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
:

- x1 0.0,

- x1 0.0135,

- x1 0.108,

- x1 0.256;

- [64].
56 - u

(Re = 10, h = 0.025).

u
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
:

- x1 0.0,

- x1 0.0135,

- x1 0.108,

- x1 0.256;

- [64].
57 - u

(Re = 10 3, h = 0.005).

138

u
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
:

- x1 0.0,

- x1 0.0135,

- x1 0.108,

- x1 0.256;

- [64].
58 - u

(Re = 10 6, h = 1.56310-4).

139

4.5.
1) ()

( )
10 Re 10 8.
2) -

,
10 Re 10 6.

Re = 10 3. , -
.
3)

.
4) ,
log2(N)/2 , N .

140



:
1) :
- ,

;
-

.
2) :
-
Re = 9500
;
- , ,
(kd = 0.21 nd = 1);
- ,
,
;
- ,
,
;
- -

;
- ,

;
141

( )

103.
3) :
- ;
-
;
- ,
,
0.1 10-8 ( = 1/Re).
,
;
-

;
-


10 Re 10 6 ;
- ,

,


;
-

10 Re 106

.
142

1. , ..
[] / .. ,
.. //
. - .40. - 2000. - 9. - . 1386-1407.
2. , . []:
[. .]. 2 . . 1. / . , . , . ; .
.. . - .: . - 1990. 384 .
3. , . []:
[. .]. 2 . . 2. / . , . , . ; .
.. . - .: . - 1990. 336 .
4. , ..
[] / .. , .. , .. ,
. // .

. 2003. - 590. . 3-8.


5. , ..
[] / .. . .: . - 1984. 384 .
6. , M.A.
[] / M.A. , .. // . - . 64. - 1994. . 179-185.
7. , .. [] / .. ,
.. , .. ; . . . . . 2- . .,
, . ; .: . . - 2002. 630 .
8. , ..
[] / .. , .. . - .: . - 1982. 391 .
9. , ..
[] / .. . - .: . - 1984. 520 .

143

10. , ..
[] / .. ,
.. . - .: - . - 1995. 368 .
11.

..

[] /

.. , .. , .. , .. //
. , . - 1983.- 4. - . 138147.
12.

..

[]

.. , .. , .. , .. . - .: .
- 1988. 232 .
13. , ..
[] / .. , .. . .: - 1978. - 352 .
14. , .. [] /
.. , .. . - .: . - 1983. 414 .
15. ..
.
[] / .. , .. , .. //
., : . 88. 2003. 53 .
16. , . [] [. .] /
. , . , . . - .: . - 1987. 524 .
17. , .. [] / .. ,
.. , .. ; 2- ., . . - : . 1982. 456 .
18. [] / .
. , . , . . - .: . - 1974. 242 .
19. , ..
[] / .. . - .: , . 2000. 248 .
144

20. , ..
[] / .. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. . - .: . - 1976. 400 .
21. , .. [] /
.. . - .: . - 1971. - 416 .
22. , ..
[] / .. , ..
// . 1971. - 6. . 38-47.
23. , .. -- [] /
..

..

. - 2000. 184 .
24. , ..
[] / .. // . .- 1970. - 195.
34 .
25. , ..
[] / .. // . . . . .
1971. - . 11.- 4. . 1056 1063.
26. , .. :
[] / .. . - .: , 1983 320 .
27. , .
[] /
. , . // . - 1987. - 1.- . 5665.
28. , ..

[]

.. // . . . . , .- 1979.
29. , .. [] /
.. // , . 3.- 1985. - 8. . 172-181.

145

30. , .. -

[] / .. // . - 2000. - 1. . 31-41.
31. , .. , ,
[] /
.. // . . 2001. - 2. . 128-138.
32. , ..
- [] / .. // . - . 399. - 2004. 1. - . 42-46.
33. , ..

[]

..

.. // . - 1972. - 2.
34. , ..
[] / .. ,
.. , .. // 12
.- .- 2005.- . 169-172.
35. ..,
[]: . . /
. - -. 1998. - 254 .
36.

..


[] / .. , ..
// . 1985. . 87-92.
37. , ..
[] /
.. , . // . 1980. - 11.
. 3-12.

146

38. , .. []. 2 . . 1. /
.. , .. , .. . - .: .- 1963. - 583 .
39. , ..
.

[]

..

.. // . . , , . . 4. 1995.- 12. - . 209218.


40. , ..
[] / .. ,
.. // - -
. . 2001. . 67-72.
41. , ..
[] /
.. // XI -
. .
2002. . 250-256.
42.

..,

[]

.. .- 5- . - .: . 1978. - 736 .
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147. , ..
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157

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- t = 2,1
2 - -
, 0 = 1,0, = 0,1, = 10 -4, t = 2,1 t = 5.2510 -5, LxH=4x2, 800400
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