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ISBN 5-7281-0343-

.., 2001
)
, 2001

13
19
19
23
28
36
37
38
41
41
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48
51
54

1

I
.

1.

2. :
3.
4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
5.
6.
7.
8.

61
63
65
70
75
76
77
77
79
84
86
88
91
94
101
106


2


1.
2.
3.
4. :
4.1.
4.2.
4.2.1.
4.2.2.
4.2.3.
4.2.4.
4.3
5.
.



1.
\.\.
1.2.
2.
3. , ,
4.
4.1.
4.2.
5.
6.
7. :
8.
9.
10.
11.
.
12. :

IV

1. ?
2. : , , ,

107
107
118
125
129
129
134
134
138
140
142
143
145
150
154
156
156
157
162
168
172
179
179
181
187
190
193
203
206
213
216
220
223
228
229
229
235


3. :
4.
5.
6. :
7.

V

243
247
252
255
266
268

269

1.
269
1.1.
270
. ?
276
1.2.

278
1.3.

279
1.4. - 280
1.5.
282
1.6.
285
2. (PRO)
287
2.1. PRO
288
2.2. PRO

295
2.3. PRO

304
2.4. PRO
305
3. (pro)
307
4. -
310

315
VI

1.
2.
2.1.
2.2.
2.2.1.

2.2.2.
2.2.3. PRO

2.2.4.
pro

317
317
321
321
322
324
325
326

329


2.2.5. PRO

2.2.6.

( vs.
)
2.2.7.

2.3.
2.3.1.

2.3.2.
+ . .
=)
2.3.3. PRO
,
2.3.4.

2.3.5.


2.3.6.
2.4.
2.5.

3.
3.1.
3.2.

4.

331

333
334
336
336
338
339
339
340
341
342
348
349
349
354
357
358

VII

360

1. ?
2.
3.
4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5. , ?
4.6. ?

360
364
367
372
372
373
375
383
384
385


4.7. :
4.8.
4.9.
4.10.
4.10.1. :

4.10.2. :

4.10.3.
5.
5.1.
5.2. :
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
6.

VIII
, ,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
7.1.
7.2. ,


IX

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

389
390
392
396
396
397
401
402
405
406
406
407
408
408
410

411
411
415
417
422
424
426
428
429
431
435

437
441
447
454
458
461
462
462
463
465


2

X
,

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

XI
:

.

1.
1.1. .

1.2.

2.
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.3.1.
2.3.2.
2.3.3. do
2.3.4.
2.3.5.
2.3.6.
2.3.7.
2.3.8.
2.3.9.
2.3.10.
2.3.11.
3.
4.
5.

10

469
470
474
479
483
488
491
501

502
503
505
505
513
518
518
523
527
527
528
528
529
529
529
530
530
530
531
531
531
541
543
552


XII

1.
2. '-
3.
4.
5.
6. -
7.
8.
9.
10.

XIII

1.
2.

3.
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3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
4.
5.
6.


XIV
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1.
2.
3.

554
554
559
574
583
586
590
594
603
604
611
613

614
615
620
626
627
630
635
637
639
640
651
654
663
664
665
672
675
692

XV
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700


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XVI
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701
703
707
711
714
715
717
721

722

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731
736
739
742
745
747

748
751
790
796



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, ] ,
, ,
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(23) .


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(24) . {, ); . {,
).
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(,
). (25) . Dobrze dzisiaj spalam '
(-)'; 6. Dobrze sie dzisiaj spalo '
(. .) ' ( sie,
-, ).
52

(26) . ksiqtk Janek


czytt Z przyjemnosciq ' (. .)
'; . e ksiazke czytato sie Jankowi z przyjemnosciq,
:
' (. .) '.
(25), (256) ,

,
, [Dziwirek 1994: 5762].
,

: ,
: (27) . Szybko wysialam Ewie paczke '()
(. .) ', . * Szybko wyslalo
mi sie Ewie paczke, . ' (. .)
(. .) '; (28) . Janek z trudem wytlumaczyl ten
problem Ewie ' (. .)
(. .)', . * Jankowi z rudem wytlumaczylo sie Ewie
ten problem, . ' (. .)
(. .) ' [Dziwirek 1994: 64]. ,

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-
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( -s)\ '' (. . ),
'' (. . ) '' (. .
); (30)
. . , tbilis-s ' ',
. . .



. , ,
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;
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,
.

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, XI ..

(1857-1913).
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[ 1977 (1916)]
XX .
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.


1970- 1980-
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54

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55

(34) . who he could talk to " ' -


. Who could he talk to? ' ?' (.

).

() (34). is
'' could '',
(33-34) ,
(336346) .

{*Is he is working^),
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56

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59

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61

1.

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63

1.
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XX .
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65

1.

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66

1.

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67

1.


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69

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71

1.


X -> Y, , X Y, ,
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I- .

' restriction value '


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(10) (X -> Y) & (Y -> Z) => 1( -> Z), & -
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73

1.
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).

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74

I. .

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),
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* -> Y <- Z)
) , . .
() (116):
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4.

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) .

.

S , [
1985: 1415], ,

( )

.
S
D
S ( - D).
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D,
,
D. . 8.
75

1.

:

.
.
.. ,
[
1974, Mel'cuk 1988J
;
[Zwicky 1985; Hudson 1987; Corbett et al. (eds.) 1993].
4.1.
,
, . , (12)
, , (
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76

I. .


.
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(12)
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4.2.
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(12'),
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.

. , (13) She has
brown eyes ' ' she '' has
'' :
; eyes ''

has; brown ''
eyes, has
brown ,
.
, .
4.3.
,
.
,
77

1.

.


. , (14) [
] [ ] /[ ] [ ]
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,
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F2, . . ({)
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F2 ): F1[F2[... W2 ...]+
w1, W1 w2.

(14) +
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. , ,
.

f1[ F2[OH ]], ?[ 7\
]] . .
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(15) ,
(16) , /
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I. .

), .

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3 .
, .
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-, ).
( ,
), , [ 2000: 2832; Riemsdijk, van (ed.) 1999]. - (, , )
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: (19) .
, . , . ; (20) .
, . , . ; (1920)
. ,
, ,
, . . (21) a. J'ai commence le premier
chapitre de ce traite ' ', . J'en ai
commence le premier chapitre ' ',
''
chapitre '', je ''
ai. .
, (
, ): (22) We'll consider it '
', (23) Your Daddy's coming ' ' . .

,
.
4.4.
,
.
. . [
- ..] , ,
,
[Bazell 1950: 11]. ,
(24) . , . . ,
, (24) (246), (24);
79

1.

(25) . , . .
, (25) (25), (256), . .
(24) , (25) - .
,
.

N,
, . .
, N.
(
, , , )
() N.

. ,
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).
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, +, .

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) X Y
X.
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: {) ', (29)
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, (31) :
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; (33) : {)
.
80

I. .

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(27, 29, 3133), (28, 30):
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: (34)
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, , () .
(26)
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. III 1.2),
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).
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81

1.

,
:
(37) W1
w2, W1+w2
w2.
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, . is gone ' ').
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; is ' '),
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(
), [ 1968 (1933):
- , , ( )
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) :
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, Preposition Stranding
: ?
. .
(. . , ).

82

I. .

207210]. ,
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;
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[ 1968 (1933): 207].
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(2733)
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1.


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1.
3.
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5. .

4.5.
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: (40) , ,
(41) (42) -.
[Zwicky 1985].

,
(
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).
,

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(40)
, , (41) , . -,

: (40') , , -; , , -; -_
84

I. .

, , -; (41) - ; - ~; - . .
, . -,
:
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1988: 147]),
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(
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. .,

(
,
).
: -
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,
,
, 85

1.

. . . ., (46) ()
; (47) . , (46) . ., (47) . .,
. . ,
,
. . ,

. ,
+
4.

,
[ 1985, Babby 1987,
1988; Corbett 1993, Franks 1994; 1998].
4.6.

,
,
. , ,
:
, ,
. ,

stone wall ' '.
, ,
;

.
,

-'s {stone wall's) ,
. (48) . climbed
the stone wall ' '; . climbed the
wall ' ' . climbed the stone '
'. (486) (48),
( ., , -:
, ?? ; ,
?? ( .. , . .)-

86

I. .

), (48) (48).
, stone , a wall .

:
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5
:
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).

87

1.

* ) , ,
, .
(49) a. J'ai achete beaucoup de livres '
', . J'ai achete des livres ' ', . "'J'ai
achete beaucoup ' ', beaucoup '
' .

, , ,
: ( )

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. ,
(50) . , ,

(. ,
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,

.

5.


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,
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88

I. .

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-,
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.. ( ... verbum finitum,
verbum finitum [ 1958 (1888): 84]).
-
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[1988 (1959): 118121],
6,

.
, '+'
, ,
.
(51)

. , 6 ,

... , , Votre jeune ami connait
jeune cousin ' '...
jeune cousin ' ' ,
votre jeune ami ' '... ,
, ,
[ 1988 (1959):
119]. , , , ,
,
(
), ,
.

89

1.

(52) . , .
. . *
. ,
(51) , .

: (51)
(53) , -- (//*
-) -, .
, ,
, ,
: . (54) I knew that he was (J/*is) your friend '
, '. (54) ' ,
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(54)
, .

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2. , , , , , ~
.

90

I- .

6.

: (
).
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. ,
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. , (56) . - .
, (57) . , . .
,
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(55), (56), (57)
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Z, (586)
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: .
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91

1.

. ( -
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)
, ,
.. [1974: 221-235]:
(59)
. ( ):

92

I. .

. ( -
):
-> ; ->;

. - (
, ):
,

-> ;

- ;

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,
):

- , - .
(4)
:
(60)
.

.-.


. , (62)
, ,
:
,
.
, :

93

1.
5.
,
:
1. .
2. .

7.
,
. 2
. ,

.
.


( 1959;
1966 (1960); Lecerf 1960; 1961;
1962)
.
, , ,

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(
):

.
.

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*

.
.

)
( ):
94

I. .

(65)

.
.

(66)

.
.

(6366)
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.
, , (67),
(676), ,
(67), :
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,

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4 - 4755

95

1.

,
( .
[ 1985: 20]):
(68) .

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,
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: , ,
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,
:
96

I. .

97

1.

,
,
,
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' (Th. Wasow, [Sells 1985])
, . .
,
.
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:

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;
. . A.B. [1985: 23]
.
(1956),
: ...
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98

I. .

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(16)

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6.
,
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7. 4-5
, ,
.


(77), -
(7879), (80):
(77)
. What does -> he need it for ?
' ?'
(78)

99

1.

U
APT

histoire
dont
je connais la fin

APT

', '
,

, , (77) (80). [Huybregts 1976]


, .
,

((81) .
i

... dat Jan de



APT

kinderen

zag

'... , '.

zwemmen

de kinderen '',
(, , )
,
.
-,
.
.
, de kinderen
zien (. . zag) '',
?
, (816),
,
,
:
100

I. .

...dat

.:

Jan

Piet

de

APT

kinderen

zag

hetpen

zwemmen

.. , ',
' '.

(81 )

- :

.dat de leraar Jan Marie de kinderen leerde laten


leren zwemmen
APT APT
- - -

'*.'.. (, )
'.
, ,
(
)

, .

8.



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.
-,
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. .
( -),
: (82)
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; (83) . -; .
101

1.

-; (83) . -; .
-, . ,
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.

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; . , , , /
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. John seems to
like Mary ', ',
John
seems '', like '', .
, .
-,

,
(): ; ,
102

I. .

; , . .



, . (85)
:
(85')

.
. .,
().
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103

1.

- , .
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.
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; . ; .
* .

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,
,
(= ): (89) . [
] ; . [ ].
,
(89) (896),
(
. .). . . (90) old
men and women, '
' ' '.
(91) ,
,
. :
,
,
.
,
, 104

I. .

: . (92) a. Bob and John's claims '


( )';
. Bob's and John's claims '
'; (93) ;
.
.

,
,
. ( ,
. will see '', . va gagner '', . hat
geschrieben ''), ( ,
, - ), ,

{give up '', turn over ''),
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?', )
. .

, ,

. ,

,
, ,
()
: , ! -
().

, , ,
,

(,

).
, .
105

1.


,

.
[ 1985], . 1.
[ 1964] [
1969; 1977]. .. [1962],
.. .. [1971], .. [1976], ..
[1981].

,
. , [1988 (1959)].
Word Grammar P.
[Hudson 1984, 1990]. [Hays 1964;
Kunze 1975; Vater 1975; Heringer 1973, 1993, 1996; Hudson 1993], .
[ 1985] [Kahane (ed.) 2000].
. [l'cu 1988;
Zwicky 1985; Hudson 1987];
[Corbett et al. (ed.) 1993].
(headmarking) (dependent-marking)
[Nichols 1986].

II




, ;
, (. 1).

;
(. 2).
: ,
, (. 3),
, ,
.
,
;
(. 4).
(. 5).


,

.
,
,
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1.
: (==
)
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? ,
,

.
,
( ),
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1.

:
,

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) .
(1)
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: [ ].

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(1),
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108

11.

, ,
,
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], [ [ ]], [ [ [ ]]].
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).
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3. , , ,

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4.


.
2. ( )
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1. .

109

1.
2. - .
3. .
4. .
5. ... 8
(
11.06.1998).
3. ,
:

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. , (),
(), () . .,
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110

11.

). ,
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, phrase '',

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(., , [ 1975 (1954)]).
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, A.M.
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1973; 1979; 1990]; ,

[ 1977] , , ,
[ . 1997].

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111

1.

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); [
], [ ], [
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112

II.

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1.
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4 .
6.
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):

114

II
[ [ ] [ 11 ] ]]].
[ ] [ [ [
]]]]].
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[ [ [ ]]]].

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115

1.

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116


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[ [ [ [ [
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117

1.

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S <, >,
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118

aa II.

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(-), (. phrase marker).
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119

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X; , (12)
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120

II.
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),
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(13)


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(, ,
)
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(14). ,
.
,
(15) :

John
'

remembers
,

what

121

Mary

bought.
'

1.
what,
, , ,
. : ... [ which book] Mary
bought.
(15)

' , ?', .:
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(1415) ,
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122

II.
8. ,
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123

1.

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: II '
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[ 1995: 587].
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124

II

. [ ], . [ 1985:
33]?
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3.
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, 125

1.

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11.

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).
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127

1.

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(28)

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128

II

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4. :
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1.

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.

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, 2. , -
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-s. , (35) This crown is
the king's ' ', . ,
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-
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).
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,
, ,
( . [ 1985])
. .

130

II

-, ,
. .
of. (36) a. This crown is [ the [c king] of England]'s
. .
,
. *This crown is [ the [ king]'s of
England]. ,
[ king],
. , , ,
:
(37) *This crown is [ very handsome]'s . '
' [Radford 1988: 65]. ,

.

. ,
,

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^) [Higginbotham 1985].
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1 ; . * [ , ] ; . *, , . , , ,

[Postal 1969; Lakoff, Ross 1972; Sproat 1988J3.
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.

131

1.

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, .

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1. 3000 .
2. , (.. ).


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.

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.
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132

II
. . ,

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, , .[ 1985].

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,

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(bj+b2+ ... +bn).
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.

-
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, .

(), . [ 1985; 1988; 1989].

,
(

),
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):
133

1.

(44) [ ][ '
?]; (45) [ ', ]?
, [ ', ] ( [ 1988:
25, 27]).
, . '
, ' ' (
. [ 1976]), [ [
[ ]]], . [ 1996].
4.2.

. -
. ,

,

. ,
, , ,

, .
4.2.1.
,

.
. :
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( .
IX). : (46) -_
; (47) ?',
(48) .
, . .
,
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: (49) . 134

II.

. , . .
.
, . .

. : (50)
? ; (51) ?
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, ,
.
: (52) ; (53)
. ; (54) .
: (55)
; (56) . ; (57)
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: (58)
; (59) . ; (60)
.
: (61)
; (62)
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.
: (64)
, ; (65) - .
; (66) .

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,

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135

1.

-,
( )
.
,
, . .,
, .
, ,
- ,
: (72) * ; (73) *
. . (71-73)
, [
], .


. ,
, ,
.
-
, ,

.
, . , , (74),
(75), (76) (77) :
(74)
[ Down the hill], John ran, as fast as he could '
, () ';
(75)
[ Your elder sister], / can't stand
';
(76)
[ Very shortly], he's going to be leaving for Paris '
';

(77)
[ Give in to blackmail], I never will '
'.
(77) ,
will . ,
(can, may, must .) (will, have )
, .
(78) a. John will finish the assignment '

136

II.
, finish the assignment
will (786),
so (78)
(78): . John promised that he will finish the assignment, and [finish the
assignment] he will (... *and will finish the assignment he) '
, '; . John will [finish the
assignment], and so will Mary (...* and so Mary) ' ,
'; . Paul won [finish the assignment], but John will finish the assign
went {...*but John will finish the assignment) ' ,
' ( - ,
) [Radford 1988: 101].
, , ,
. ,
[ finish the assignment], *[ will finish the assignment].

( )
(79) .
explained [all the terrible problems that he had encountered] to her,
6. He explained to her [all the terrible problems that he had encoun
tered] ' ,
'. ,
, : (80) Where are you going to? To the
cinema (The cinema) ' ?' ' '. ,
to '',
.
,
(81)
, , ,
(81), , ,
, . (75) (81) a. *Your elder, I can't
stand sister, 6. * Your, I can't stand elder sister, . * Sister, I can 4
stand your elder.


. ...:

,
,
...
: '
, ' ' , -

137

1.
'?
, ?

4.2.2.

.
, (
) .
, , :
(82)
,
.
,
( . IV ,

),
, . (83) . [
,] . [
,] ; (84) .
[ ]; .
.
(82) , ,
(85) . [
]; . [
].
, (85)
, (856) .
(82)
, . ,

: , (sen
tence adverbials), certainly '',
, (verb phrase adver
bials), completely ''.
, ,
,
, ,
,
,
: (86) a. Certainly Peter [ has finished his
work] ', ', . *Completely.
138

II

peter [ has finished his work] '


'. (866)
.
(87) . [
naturally] '
, '
help] naturally, entirely] '
. ??
, , '. Entirely '',
" , ,
naturally '
',

( . [Radford 1988: 7374]):
(87') ...[--- [--- entirety,\YY naturally]^
(87') *...[--- [--- naturally, entirely]'}]'.

(88) . gargon mangeait une pizza lentement hier ' ' . ??
gargon mangeait une pizza hier lentement '
' , ,
hier '' ,
lentement '' [Jones
1996:7].
II-1 ( .. ). ,
,
:
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. ,
.
7. , .
8. , , .
9. ,
.
, . ,
,
.

139

1.

4.2.3.


(. Pied Piping)
,
X,
Y, X:
[Y ... X ...],
, . ,
, ,
X,
,
Y.
Pied Piping 1960-
.
.. [Ross 1967 (1986)].
,
. , ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
.


.

, (
),
, . (89) . ', . ,
, . ^, .
,
, , : (90)
, [ ] , : (91) , [
] .

: (92)
, [ ] .

, .
, (92) ,
140

11.

,
0: (93) , [ [ ] ]
0 .
:
(94) . ? , []
.
(94)
XIX .

,
(946), ,
(94):
. , [
] .
. , [ [
]] .

.
,
: (95) . []
, . [] , .
[ ]', (96) [
], / [ ] (, ,
). , , ,
,
: (97) [ [ ]], ,
. " [ [ ]]. ,
, ,
:
(98) . [ [ ]]', .

[ [ ]].

, , ,
.

1. -: *-, *-, *- . .?
:
, .
2. -
: * ; ?? ; ??
; * . . [

141

1.

4.2.4.

-

, . ,
3 .:
(99) [ ,

]?
, .
, ( )
. ,
3 . (99) -:
(99') * [ ,
]?
, ( ) ;
.
, ,
:
(100) - [ ]?
, .

: (101) [
] , ;
: (102) , [
], , , ; (103)
, [ ].
? (. , ).
:
, , ,
, : (104) John might [ go
home], and so might Bill ' ,
'; (105) John might [ resign his post], as might
Bill ' ,
'.

; ,
, ,
[
142

II

2000]: (106) \ ], -
; (107) [, ,
, ],
(, ).
4.3.
,
. 3: (
)

, ?

, ,
(,
, , )
( . .).
-, ,

,
. ,
,
, ,
, ', .
. .
-,
, ,
: (108) . . ; .
: .
* . .
-,

, , .
, (
, )
, . (99').
, ,
, ,
()
( ), , 143

1.

. , ,
-
. (
)
, - .


;

[ 1981: 496].
9. ,
. ,
,
:
1. (
.. ).
2. . .
(, ).
3. -, .
- !
: -,
-.
( , ) , ! (. , )
10.
, , , : ,
?; , ; ,
/ , (,
).
:
1)
, ,
;
2) ,
, ;
3) ,
;
4) , .

144

II.

5.


.
,

,
. ,

,
. ,
<=> .. ( . XVI)
. [Hudson 1984; 1990]

; ,

. ,
. .

. ,

,

.

, , . .
(

. : [ 1985: 3536]).


. , . .

, .

(), . ,

.

- . ,
145

1.

,
,
, . .
. ,
,
, . ,


, ,
.

( )
, . ,

,
. ,
, ,
,
, ,

, :
(109) .

146

II

(109) (1096)
, : (109)
,

, .

, (
), (1096).
(109) (1096) :
(109)
(1076),


, (109), 4.

, . .
.

(109) (1096) .
(1096)
, (109) ,
, ,

. (109)
,
,
.

,
,
( ) .
, ,
,
( . [ 1977, . IV]).


. 4

, , ,
, ,
.

147

1.

,
.
,

,
. ,


( ),

.
, ,
,
.
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.) , ,
, . . .

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. , () [ , /
, / , /
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,
(') [ ],
.
.
,
. ,
, () ('),
(),
().
,
,

, . . ,
, .

,
, .

, , ,
148

, ,
, .
,

, . (Ill) a. studies physics in Cambridge '
', . *studies in Cambridge physics.
, ()
, (); ,
,
, . . - (- V(erb)',
V-bar): [ [ studies physics] in Cambridge].
,
student '': (112) a. student of
physics in Cambridge '- ',
. ^student in Cambridge of physics,
,
: [ [. student of physics] in Cambridge].

: (113) .
', . * ; (114) . - , *- . ,
, ,
': [ [. [ ]]]; [ [> [ ]]]. ,
,
, ,
(', , ' . .)
. , ,
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,
:
(115)


(115),
.
149

1.
:
, ,
. , ,
. , -
,
[Hudson 1984]. ,
, .. ..
[1976],
.. [1985; 1997].
..
- , .
, ,
,
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. ,
,

,
(, ,
, ).

, ,
. ,
(116) . '
, (-)'; . ',
' :

11
.

6)


(1166)
[ 1985: 118].
. . 19601970-
.. [19646; 1968; 1973; (.) 1970]

, "

150

II
.
,

, .
, , ,

... . /
[:
, ] -
[ : ,
] [ 2000: xxiii].
[ (.) 1980] ..

, ,
, , (,
-).
,
, : ,
, , . . [
(.) 1970: 629].
(117) ; ;
(118) ;
; (119) ;
; (120)
.
. . (121)
; ; (122)
; ; (123) ;
?; . .: (124) ; ; . .:
(125) ; (126) ;
. .: (127) ; (128) ; .
: [ ,] {,] \ ] /
(, ).
. , : . ,
( ) ,
(129)
"' ; (130)
; ; (131) ; ; (132) -

151

1.
; . . ..
:
,
, - [ . 1997: 78].
..
, ,
, ,

()
[ (.) 1980: 14], , ,
( ) ,
, .
, - ;
.
, , ,
,
.
, ,

( . IX) [ . 1997: 80].
,
, , ,
(125; 127
128) , , . .
(123), VI,
.

.
-
, ,
, , , ,
, . [Hudson 1984, 1990] ..
, , . .
.
: w
,
D, D
, w
D. ,

, ;
,
- .
...

152

II
()
,
... ,
,
- -
[ 1974: 214-215].
, ,
. ,
() ,
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(.) 1989: 539-543].
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153

1.
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. . [1968 [1933]]
, ,
;
[Wells 1947]. 3. [Harris 1946]
.
. [Chomsky 1975 [1955]]
. ,
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, . . [Jackendoff 1972: 47-107].

154

11.


. [Radford 1988],
.
[Brown, Miller 1991]
Burton-Roberts 1986].
.
[Shopen (ed.) 1985].

II




, ;
, (. 1).

;
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1.

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108

11.

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109

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(
11.06.1998).
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110

11.

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114

II
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aa II.

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120

II.
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John
'

remembers
,

what

121

Mary

bought.
'

1.
what,
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bought.
(15)

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122

II.
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124

II

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1.

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127

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128

II

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1.

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the king's ' ', . ,
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130

II

-, ,
. .
of. (36) a. This crown is [ the [c king] of England]'s
. .
,
. *This crown is [ the [ king]'s of
England]. ,
[ king],
. , , ,
:
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' [Radford 1988: 65]. ,

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[Postal 1969; Lakoff, Ross 1972; Sproat 1988J3.
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131

1.

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132

II
. . ,

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(), . [ 1985; 1988; 1989].

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):
133

1.

(44) [ ][ '
?]; (45) [ ', ]?
, [ ', ] ( [ 1988:
25, 27]).
, . '
, ' ' (
. [ 1976]), [ [
[ ]]], . [ 1996].
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. -
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4.2.1.
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IX). : (46) -_
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: (49) . 134

II.

. , . .
.
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: (52) ; (53)
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135

1.

-,
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], .


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, . , , (74),
(75), (76) (77) :
(74)
[ Down the hill], John ran, as fast as he could '
, () ';
(75)
[ Your elder sister], / can't stand
';
(76)
[ Very shortly], he's going to be leaving for Paris '
';

(77)
[ Give in to blackmail], I never will '
'.
(77) ,
will . ,
(can, may, must .) (will, have )
, .
(78) a. John will finish the assignment '

136

II.
, finish the assignment
will (786),
so (78)
(78): . John promised that he will finish the assignment, and [finish the
assignment] he will (... *and will finish the assignment he) '
, '; . John will [finish the
assignment], and so will Mary (...* and so Mary) ' ,
'; . Paul won [finish the assignment], but John will finish the assign
went {...*but John will finish the assignment) ' ,
' ( - ,
) [Radford 1988: 101].
, , ,
. ,
[ finish the assignment], *[ will finish the assignment].

( )
(79) .
explained [all the terrible problems that he had encountered] to her,
6. He explained to her [all the terrible problems that he had encoun
tered] ' ,
'. ,
, : (80) Where are you going to? To the
cinema (The cinema) ' ?' ' '. ,
to '',
.
,
(81)
, , ,
(81), , ,
, . (75) (81) a. *Your elder, I can't
stand sister, 6. * Your, I can't stand elder sister, . * Sister, I can 4
stand your elder.


. ...:

,
,
...
: '
, ' ' , -

137

1.
'?
, ?

4.2.2.

.
, (
) .
, , :
(82)
,
.
,
( . IV ,

),
, . (83) . [
,] . [
,] ; (84) .
[ ]; .
.
(82) , ,
(85) . [
]; . [
].
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, (856) .
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, . ,

: , (sen
tence adverbials), certainly '',
, (verb phrase adver
bials), completely ''.
, ,
,
, ,
,
,
: (86) a. Certainly Peter [ has finished his
work] ', ', . *Completely.
138

II

peter [ has finished his work] '


'. (866)
.
(87) . [
naturally] '
, '
help] naturally, entirely] '
. ??
, , '. Entirely '',
" , ,
naturally '
',

( . [Radford 1988: 7374]):
(87') ...[--- [--- entirety,\YY naturally]^
(87') *...[--- [--- naturally, entirely]'}]'.

(88) . gargon mangeait une pizza lentement hier ' ' . ??
gargon mangeait une pizza hier lentement '
' , ,
hier '' ,
lentement '' [Jones
1996:7].
II-1 ( .. ). ,
,
:
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. ,
.
7. , .
8. , , .
9. ,
.
, . ,
,
.

139

1.

4.2.3.


(. Pied Piping)
,
X,
Y, X:
[Y ... X ...],
, . ,
, ,
X,
,
Y.
Pied Piping 1960-
.
.. [Ross 1967 (1986)].
,
. , ,
, ,
.
,
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.


.

, (
),
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,
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] .

: (92)
, [ ] .

, .
, (92) ,
140

11.

,
0: (93) , [ [ ] ]
0 .
:
(94) . ? , []
.
(94)
XIX .

,
(946), ,
(94):
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] .
. , [ [
]] .

.
,
: (95) . []
, . [] , .
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). , , ,
,
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:
(98) . [ [ ]]', .

[ [ ]].

, , ,
.

1. -: *-, *-, *- . .?
:
, .
2. -
: * ; ?? ; ??
; * . . [

141

1.

4.2.4.

-

, . ,
3 .:
(99) [ ,

]?
, .
, ( )
. ,
3 . (99) -:
(99') * [ ,
]?
, ( ) ;
.
, ,
:
(100) - [ ]?
, .

: (101) [
] , ;
: (102) , [
], , , ; (103)
, [ ].
? (. , ).
:
, , ,
, : (104) John might [ go
home], and so might Bill ' ,
'; (105) John might [ resign his post], as might
Bill ' ,
'.

; ,
, ,
[
142

II

2000]: (106) \ ], -
; (107) [, ,
, ],
(, ).
4.3.
,
. 3: (
)

, ?

, ,
(,
, , )
( . .).
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,
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. .
-,
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: (108) . . ; .
: .
* . .
-,

, , .
, (
, )
, . (99').
, ,
, ,
()
( ), , 143

1.

. , ,
-
. (
)
, - .


;

[ 1981: 496].
9. ,
. ,
,
:
1. (
.. ).
2. . .
(, ).
3. -, .
- !
: -,
-.
( , ) , ! (. , )
10.
, , , : ,
?; , ; ,
/ , (,
).
:
1)
, ,
;
2) ,
, ;
3) ,
;
4) , .

144

II.

5.


.
,

,
. ,

,
. ,
<=> .. ( . XVI)
. [Hudson 1984; 1990]

; ,

. ,
. .

. ,

,

.

, , . .
(

. : [ 1985: 3536]).


. , . .

, .

(), . ,

.

- . ,
145

1.

,
,
, . .
. ,
,
, . ,


, ,
.

( )
, . ,

,
. ,
, ,
,
, ,

, :
(109) .

146

II

(109) (1096)
, : (109)
,

, .

, (
), (1096).
(109) (1096) :
(109)
(1076),


, (109), 4.

, . .
.

(109) (1096) .
(1096)
, (109) ,
, ,

. (109)
,
,
.

,
,
( ) .
, ,
,
( . [ 1977, . IV]).


. 4

, , ,
, ,
.

147

1.

,
.
,

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(),
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,

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, , ,
148

, ,
, .
,

, . (Ill) a. studies physics in Cambridge '
', . *studies in Cambridge physics.
, ()
, (); ,
,
, . . - (- V(erb)',
V-bar): [ [ studies physics] in Cambridge].
,
student '': (112) a. student of
physics in Cambridge '- ',
. ^student in Cambridge of physics,
,
: [ [. student of physics] in Cambridge].

: (113) .
', . * ; (114) . - , *- . ,
, ,
': [ [. [ ]]]; [ [> [ ]]]. ,
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(115)


(115),
.
149

1.
:
, ,
. , ,
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,
[Hudson 1984]. ,
, .. ..
[1976],
.. [1985; 1997].
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, ).

, ,
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(116) . '
, (-)'; . ',
' :

11
.

6)


(1166)
[ 1985: 118].
. . 19601970-
.. [19646; 1968; 1973; (.) 1970]

, "

150

II
.
,

, .
, , ,

... . /
[:
, ] -
[ : ,
] [ 2000: xxiii].
[ (.) 1980] ..

, ,
, , (,
-).
,
, : ,
, , . . [
(.) 1970: 629].
(117) ; ;
(118) ;
; (119) ;
; (120)
.
. . (121)
; ; (122)
; ; (123) ;
?; . .: (124) ; ; . .:
(125) ; (126) ;
. .: (127) ; (128) ; .
: [ ,] {,] \ ] /
(, ).
. , : . ,
( ) ,
(129)
"' ; (130)
; ; (131) ; ; (132) -

151

1.
; . . ..
:
,
, - [ . 1997: 78].
..
, ,
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()
[ (.) 1980: 14], , ,
( ) ,
, .
, - ;
.
, , ,
,
.
, ,

( . IX) [ . 1997: 80].
,
, , ,
(125; 127
128) , , . .
(123), VI,
.

.
-
, ,
, , , ,
, . [Hudson 1984, 1990] ..
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.
: w
,
D, D
, w
D. ,

, ;
,
- .
...

152

II
()
,
... ,
,
- -
[ 1974: 214-215].
, ,
. ,
() ,
. ,
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- .
.. [1977] .. ,
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[ 1985: 119].
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), ,
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; 3)
; 4) ,
, ;
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: , ; 6)
, , [ ] [
], , .. ,
; 7) , , , [ ,
]; 8) [
(.) 1989: 539-543].
..
, -

153

1.
.
(!) : 1) ; 2) 3) ; 4) 5)
, , 25
( 15
, ), -
.

,
,
,

,
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,
.
.


[ 1977, 1985]. ..
,

, ;
[ 1969]. ..

,
.

.. [1977] . [1978 (1972)].

.. .. [1969].
.. [1964]; [ 1985], . [ 1968].


. . [1968 [1933]]
, ,
;
[Wells 1947]. 3. [Harris 1946]
.
. [Chomsky 1975 [1955]]
. ,
, ,
, . . [Jackendoff 1972: 47-107].

154

11.


. [Radford 1988],
.
[Brown, Miller 1991]
Burton-Roberts 1986].
.
[Shopen (ed.) 1985].

III


-
.
,
. . 1
, ,
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,
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.

1.

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. 156

III

.
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.

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157

1.


( ),
,
X, Y, Z...
, (1) , (2) (3)
(1-3') [ 1974: 108;
. 2000: 365]:
() X Y-a = 'X Y
, Y -,
- Y- ';
(2') X Z-y Y-a = 'X Z-a, a Y Z,
X ,
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X ( ) Y ( ); X (/ )
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) X ( ) Y ( );
X (
), Y ( ), Z ( ) W (,
. . ).
, ,
158

III.


[ 1996: 23].

.
; : (4) X
Z Y-y W= 'X, Z, (. .
) Y-a Z; X Y-a W ( ,
, )'.
(4) -.
- , (Y
), . Y,
: 'X Z' 'X W.
Z , 'X Y-a W.
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.

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6-4755

159

1.

... ,
, :
.
,
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: - ,
,
[ 1974: 120]. .
,
[ 1974: 134].

,
L , L ,
L.
(14)
(1"-4"):

, ,
, X, Y, Z, ,
, , (2").
160

III.


. ,
X 1,
(, ),
Y Z: X , Y Z.

:

, ,

X (
X Y-y P

X ,
,

: ( - ), (-
); (, ), (()
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), ( , Q),
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) .

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161

1.

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I 4.4,
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L
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L.
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162

III.

(7)

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163

1.


,
. [1974: 134-140] .. [1974:
133 156], .

.
X ( ), Y ( )
Z ( ): X YZ-y.
,
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.
, X
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. .

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(9) X Y-a Z; X , R
X
. .

Y
+ . .

Z
1) + . .
2) + .

(10) - Y-a,
X
. .

Y
+ . .

164

+ .

III.


.
, ,
,
,
X
-.

. ,
, (11) . ; . ;
. [ 1998: 87],
, , (12)
\\ [ 1974: 137].
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, ,
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. VIII).
1.
:

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). , ,
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: ,
165

1.

,
; , ,
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: L
L2
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Li - L2. ,
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L, L,
L.

:
(13)

()

Y-y

(14) ,
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)
,
,
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,
( ,
, ...),
166

III.


.
-
. ,
[ 1974: 134]
: * , *
, * .

:
' (, D)
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\ , D
.
.

- ,
,
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,
; .

. ?? [
1996: 2829]. (16) ,
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(16) .
: ' , !' ',
!'. (17)
(. ,
)
,
(' , ').


:
(18) .. ( : '
');
. . Tout qui brille n 'est tas or 'He
, ', . , ,
;
. . /don't often see him ' '.
167

1.


,
,
'' (18), '' (18) [
1996: 35].
,
.
,
(), . ,
, (dummy)- it
there , , es
. It is raining, . pleut,
. Es regnet ' ' (19) . There is some paper
in the box ' '.
. rain ' ( )', ''
,
, (19)
, there.

2.
,
:
(20) 1881 .
(21) - .
(22) .
(23) , .
(24) .
(25)
.
(26) - .
, ,
.

, ,
(20 26)
,
, , , , , .
, - - (20);
168

III.

.
(21).
- (22).
, , , . .,
(23), ,
(24).
, , student
{student of physics '-').
,
(25).
, ,
, (26) .
, -
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,
(27) , ,
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, (27).
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, . . ,
.

: ,

, .
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,
.

. . [Panevova 1974-1975; 1994].
,
: X
. , .

169

1.
(29)

.
: ?
: # .
:
, X , , . .
. ,
# ().
:
(30) : . : 1} : #
.
(31) : . : ? :
.
(32) : . : ? : .
, (31-32), (30)
, (29), .
X
,
, , ,
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[ 1978: 62].
. :
(33) . : . : ? : # ;
. : . : ? : . *
(34) . : . .: ? : # ;
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(346) ,
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(,
).
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, , (30) .
2:

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, -

170

III
, , . ,
_ 1- ,
(: . : ! . # ; : .
: 7. : # ..).

, ,
. ,
,
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[ 1998: 168]. ,
(' X')
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, . .), ""
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,
[ 1998: 135136].

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-, .
, , , (26)
,
(2425) ,
.

? ,
,
.
(
), -
, ().. ,
( , ,
) [ 2000: xix].

171

1.

-.
, ,
,
:
(35)


,
. , . .
,
, . 4.

3. , ,



. ,
.
,
.
, ,

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-> ;
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; (38)
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.

. ,
, . (39) . came in ' '
. * in; . . .
(396) : (40) opened
172

Hi.

the door and


came in ' '.
,
,
.
,
,
. L
X , ,
L, X
. L,
- L, .

:
(41)
;
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;
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.
(41) ,
,
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, ,
(44),
.
(43), (43) ,
(44).
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, ,
X L
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(? ) , (42) , :
(42') - ! {) ; (43)
: (43') , *{) .
(41)
(41") John caught cold and (*John) got sick,
(42-43): (42") What happened to John? - He got sick; (43") I heard about
John that he got sick.

( ) :
(4") vano gacivda da avad gaxda ' (,
)'; (42'") vanos ra mouvidal (is) avad gaxda '-
? () '; (43'") vanos sesaxeb gavige, rom (is) avad gaxda '
(. -), () '.


( 173

1.

),
(= ),
.
:
.
.
, ,


: (45) .
. . ,
. (,
, );
, V . 3, (45)
-, -,
, (
). ,
(466) (46),
: (46) a. John sent the letter ' ',
. *Sent the letter, . *John sent.
2.
:

,

,
,
.

[ 1974: 149]. ,
174

III.

, . .
(47)
. ; . ; . ; . * .

(47) (47)
[ ].

,
, , ( ). ,
' ,
' :
, ( , , ), ( ,
) (, , ...).
, :
, , *
, * [ 1974: 150].
, ,
, , . .
. . (* ), . . , ,
(* , *
, * ) . .
, , ?

[ 1974: 151].

,
, . . ,
, ,
,
, . (
; );
( );
, . . ' ' , , '
',
; . , . . ',
', . .
(48) - ', -, X
' (49) ', '
[ 1998: 167, 173].

, ,
,
. (X
175

1.

Y-a Z-) , Z
,
Y-y X .
, , Y-y,
, . {X
Y-a)
, Y-a (*
).

,
,
; ,

.
.
3. ,
:


, . ,

(' X'),
(* 138- , .: 138- ).
( , ,
).
(* '
', . (50) ; * 176

III.

|| ...) (# ,
, ). ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
.
[
1998: 169].
,
,
,
: , *
; , * ;
,
? |( * ; ,
* ( .. ),
, ,
(48) [, 1998: ,
114115; 1998: 174176].
,
.: , ? ;
, ?
; , ? ; ^
,
(* ) [ 1974: 147; 1998: 92].

[ 1984;
1987; Jackendoff 19906], [ 1990:
100-101], . ,
,
. .. ,
, , . .
...
, , ,
, , ,

, ,
. ., , ,
, . ., ,
, ,
. . ... 177

1.


,
.
. .
, ,

. ' ',
' ', '
' . . [ 1987:
2425]. ,
, ,
[ 1998: 90].
:

6 (, )
[ ].
,
,
.
,
,

: !',
* ? [, 1998: 115].
,
, . ,
,
: ? (

), ''

. *
,
,
[ ].

178

III.

4.
4.1.

.
,
,
;
.

.
([
] [ ]), ,
,
([ ] ),
([ ], ; , [ ]),
([ ]
, [ ]).

,
: ; ,
.

,
(= ; . IV).
.
,

: , .
, ,

, ,
(, ,
.) [ 1979: 87];
,
:
, (II* ),
, (//*
).
: ^, , *,
.
179

1
1.

( ),
,
.
. ,
-, (, ,
, ), (
, , , ),
(, , ),
(, , ), (
, , ), (,
, , ),
(, , ),
(, , , )
.

(51) , [ ];
(52) [ ],
(53) [ ] ,
( . ). ,
(51),

.
,
. , (523),
,
.

, ( [ ]
[ ]),
([] [] ,
[ ], [] .
,
[ 1988 (1959): 138].

(
) (
).
, ,
. . (
, ).

( ) 180

III.

() { ),
, {
, , )*.
4.2.
,
,
, ,
.
-, ,
(54) , ,
;
.
X
Y , Y
, , X.
, , X
Y, .
-
, , ,
.
, , ,
. (54) :
,
: *{) ; *{
) ; . [ 1998].
-, ,

.
,
,
(55)
.
, , .

.
, . .
(epithetes)
[ 1988 (1959): 157-170].

181

1.

,
:
(56) . .
. .
. * .
. .
(57) . .
. * .
. * .
. .
(58) . .
. ?? .
. .
. * .
,
(56), (57) (58),
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,
(576-586);
, ,
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(57);
(58), . '
: (58) .
(55) ,
. ,

: (59)
|| || || *
* || * || ||
|| * || * || *
|| * . . [, 1998: 118].

(. .
),
(55) . , -
( + )
( )
; -
,
.
182

III.

, ,
,
, . .

, .
{ )
{ ).
( ,
) ,
[ 1974: 125]:
, , ;
, .

. . ,
, ( ): ,
, .

: , .
:
, , .
,
,
:
{ )
(? , ? , ? ),
() ;
() ;
, (', ') . .
,
, . . (dativus ethicus):
,
\
*.; . . Du ziehst mir nicht das Griine an\ '
!', . !;
!, . he renard sort du puits, laisse son compagnon /Et vous luifait
un beau sermon (La Fontaine) ' ,
(.) ...'. . .
,
, [ 1988 (1959): 157].

: Aqui me tienes toda confusa .
= ' ' [
1969: 43].

183

1.

,
,
. ,

(? );
,
( ) (
), (*
). ,
.
, (= )
,
( ! !),
(?? !),
,
: ;
[ 1998: 147].
, ,
,
-. ,
(55) :

.
, '
( )
.
,
(60) (61):
(60) X
( -
);
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X, .
,
, , ,
. . (60) ,
,
. , (62)
. [ , ]; . ... [
]; . ;
.... [ 1998: 7677]
(62) (62) 184

III.

(62),
. ., (62)
. ,
, .
(61) , ,


. . 9.
(60) X
,
, ;
(60).
(61),

, , {
, , ,
), , . . {
, , ),
{
|| , ,
) . . [ 1974: 125 .].
^
, (60) (61),
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,
(63)

.
,

[, 1996].
, ' '
' ',
:
, \\ - \\
|| \\ , \\
II - , . .

: X Y

X ( . .) Y ( . .),

.
185

1.


: ||
', || ;
|| ', || || ',
- || || ;
|| ; ||
|| [ (.) 1980: 51, 7071],

.

.
, , ,
, 6 , ,
.?

, (61)? -, :
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) , . .
,

, ,
. , (64)
, :
(64)








, , ,
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, ). , ,
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.

, . ,

,
: ,
186

III.

, (*
)', -,
(*- ). :
(65)
,

, .
,
, /
, . (59).
, ,
, .
, ,
,
VII.
, , ,

-. ,
,
: , .
, .
? , ^
; * ,
. ( ,
) [, 1998:
117]. GO
.
:
, ,
- (.
), , ,
, (65).
, (60), (61), (63) (65)
,
.

5.
(66) .
10 .
,
187

1.

,
. -,
,
;

.
(66) , 10
(666)
!

. ,
()
, .
, , ,
: (67) . !
. ?;
(68) ?
:
(69) *
? , -
.

.. [1974: 8487], ,
(66) [. .
. .],
, .. [ .
1997: 19].
. [Lazard 1994;
1998]. (
, ) (regis)
(requis), ,
(, , ...)

(. .
,
). , (
, ),
. , ,
rencontrer ''
: rencontrer un ami
' ', , ,
manger ', '. ,
188

III

, ,
.

,
,
. ,
,

. , habiter ', ' ,
,
, ,
: il habite en ville chez ses parents '
'.
. [Feuillet 1980: 26] (adjets),
. (70).
, ,
,

, , .

, ( ,
) (= ) .
, ,
, ,
:
, , ,
, (,
).
(
) , ,
(
; ).
(70) () . :

()

()

: ( )

189

1.

6.


,
1930- :
, , , ... , ,
, !
- , . ,
.


:
, ,
, . .
, -,
,
.


(, );
.
(. . )
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] (); [ ,
]).
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.
,
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.
,
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:
(71)
' '

190

III.
,

[ 1993: 3637].
,
.
: ,
.
.
, '
Q', , a Q
: , .

. ,
' ',
,
- .
, X Y-a, ) X Y-a,
) X - Y-a.
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, -. ,
'
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,
.


, (), . .
.
.,
: [ , ];
[ , /
] (); [ , _ ], /
().
,

. ,
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,
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(
), [
(.) 1980: 607]: ,
.
7 4755

191

1.

: ,
(), ()
: , .

(72),
(73):
(72) . , [
].
. , [ ]?
(73) . , [
].
. * , [
]?
(726736)
.
(726)
, (726) .
, ( !)
,
,
(736).
:
(74) a. Mary said [that Bill saw John]
,
' , ';
6. Who did Mary say [that Bill saw]?
'() , () ?';
(75) a. Mary left [after Bill saw John]
' , ';
. *Who did Mary leave [after Bill saw]?
. , ()
?
who ''
(746),
(756).

,
(7475) .
, . [Chomsky 1986a]:
, ( )
, . . , .

192

III.

7. :

,
. ()
, () :
(i) . (//* ); .
( ); . - (- );
(ii) . (? ); . ( ); .
( );
() . (?? ); . (
); . ( );
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().
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() ()?

,
/.

:
1) . .
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[ ]; [
]; [ ];
[ ]; [ ];
[ ]; [ ] . .;
4)
( [ ]), ,
. 3), ( [ ])
(
[ 1982: 26]),
. . ( [ ]);
193

1.

5) . . (.
. 10), . . ,
( [ ] ; [ ]
).

: ;
; ; -
.
,
.

,
.
, [ (.)
1980: 455], ,
. ,
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: (76)

( 3 ., , ,
, ), (77) .
,
.
(76) : (//?? ;
* ; * -; * ?;
:
?); (//? ; * ?; *
); (//? ; ? ?) (//*
; * ?); (//? ; * ; *
?; ?); (//*
; * ?; ()
?); (//* ; * -; *
); (//* ; /
,
);
(//* ; * ; * ?; *
; * );
(//* ; * ; * );
(//* ; * -);
(//* ; * ?) ); (//*
).
194

(77) :
( ; ?; -; ;
); ( ;
?); - (- ; - ; ?); (); (
; ?); (
?); (; ?);
(); ();
().
4.
- :






I







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* ; * ?; * ; * ?),
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; ?; , ?).
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; * ?; * ;
; ; ? ?; -; 195

1.

, , :
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5. , , ,

(
).
:
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.




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196

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197

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198

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', . *Who do you listen to CDs at?
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', . Who did I walk with? ' ?';


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?'; (95) . * what did you meet? . ?; . What
day did you meet on? ' ?' [Quirk et al. 1985: 822].

201

1.

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XII . 8 [Perlmutter 1971; Chomsky 1981; Huang 1982].


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202

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III


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207

1.

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skick,
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[Carlson 1998: 35; 1984].

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208

III

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209

1.
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210

III.

(X Y); (X Y), X Y-OM


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128]): ?? ; *
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211

1.

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212

III.

10.
,
. [Gruber 1965], .. [1968;
1974], . [ 1981 (1968); Fillmore 1969],
.. [1969], . [Jackendoff 1972],
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Y-a , -, Y-a, .
[ 1972: 87, 89].

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213

1.

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(pivot), , . . ,
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8

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214

III.

, - .
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), .
. (108-116)

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. . [1982] .. [2000/135]).
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.-. [Greimas 1966]
.. .

215

1.

11.

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216

III

( . II 4.1):
(119)
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217

1.
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[ 1998: 86].

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tionally '', willingly '' .: (123) John was willingly sent to
friends for the summer by his mother '
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1985: 576] (123) .

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,
218

III.

... ,
, sell ''.

, spend ''.
,
, pay ''.
,
cost '' . . ... ,
- , ...
, ("")
,

[ 1981 (1977): 518-519].

. hit '
, ' :
,
(124) a. Ihit the stick against the fence '
', . . /
hit the fence with a stick ' ', .
.
.
, ,
(125) a. I hit Harry with the stick ' '
, . / hit the stick against Harry '
'.
, , (126) . /
loaded the truck with hay ' ' . /
loaded hay onto the truck ' ';
(127) a. I smeared the wall with mud ' '
. / smeared mud on the wall ' '.
,
, put '' cover '': (128) a. I covered
the table with a quilt ' ', . *J cov
ered a quilt over the table, . ;
(129) a. I put a quilt on the table ' ',
. */ put the table with a quilt, .
.
,

- . , :
, , ,
, , 219

1.

, -
. , ,
, ,
(. . ' '), (. ^
). .
,
:
,
( . 7.12.1983).


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. [ 1998]).
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220

III.
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, , . . -
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1973]). ,

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.. (1864-1934),
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1950 .
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.. , .. , .. , .. , .. . ,
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,

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( ) , ,
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,
, . [ 1986].
1950 .
,
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XX .
, 10.

.. ,
. [ 1991].

221

1.
,
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19701980- .
-
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,
[1936; 1963; 1967; 1975; 1978 (1945); 1982 (1949); 1984]

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,

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[ 1958 (1924): 57-58].

222

aea .
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[ 1985: 6].
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1950 ., , 19501960- . -,
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, [ 1968: 71].

12. :
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-, - 8 4755

223

1.

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, (
.. [2000: 373]):
-, -, -,
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[ 1974, . 5]: - -,
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.
,
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-); ( -,
-, -, -).

, . . ,
(
- -, - Y, - Y-y),
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, : , ,
(X Y-y), , .
,
, ; 224

III.


(. .
).
(, , ,
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225

1.


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(Continuous):
(130) a. The storm was frightening us ' '
. *We were fearing the storm ' '.

. ,
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(131)
- -

-
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226

1.
(132) (133)
- . ., - - . .:

( , ) - . . (134),
- (135);
. .:

(, , ,
, ) (
)
(
).
( ; . I enter the room '
').

,
.
-
(136) . ; .
() .
,
: (136) The book
is on the table (1366) There is a book on the table. (136)
'':
(137)

(1366)
'':
(138)

[ 1978: 105].

227

1.

()
, -,
, -,
( ),
-
, :
( )
;
.


,

.. [1974] .. [1974].
. .. [1985; 1996].
,
, [ 1998],
.. , .. , ..
E.B. , .. , B.C. .. .
:
[ 1969; 1973; 1984; 1987; Busse
1974; Helbig (Hrsg.) 1971; Helbig, Schenkel 1975; Stepanowa, Helbig 1978;
Helbig 1982; Welke 1988; Goldberg 1995]. ,
[Abraham
(ed.) 1978]. ,
, [ 1985].
. [Jacobs 1994]
, .
.
[1988 (1959)].
[Guimier 1993], - [Lazard 1994];
- [Feuillet (ed.) 1998].
. [Grimshaw 1990; Hale, Keyser 1993; Alsina 1996]
[Butt, Geuder (eds.) 1998].

.
[1981 (1968); 19816 (1977); 1983 (1977)], 9 . ,
[1975 (1971)], 14 15 [
1992],
[ 1967], [Croft 1990; DeLancey 1984; Dowty 1989;
1991], 21- Syntax and Semantics [Wilkins (ed.) 1988]
[Jackendoff 1990]. , ,
[Panevova 1974-1975; 1977; 1994]. ,

. [1978].


- ,
(. 1). , ,
, ,
, , , (. 2). (. 3). . 4
, . 5 -
. ()
,
(. 6). . 7
.


.
, , (
., , [
1966: 8-17; 1976, . 2]).
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L
L,
.

1. ?

.. (18781933)
... :
, , , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
,
-
[ 1948; 1952], .
,
(, ) ,
.
, , . [Gindin 1981;
1972].

229

1.

, , , , , ,
, , , , <...>.
,
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[ 1956 (1928): 165-166].
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; (, );
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:
= . .
, ,
.
230

, ,
-
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!), (, ...
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(? !
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[ : 172].
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231

1.

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, [ : 179180],

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;
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. -

232

IV.

. , ,
- ;
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(
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.

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,
, [ 1986: 51-52].
,
,
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, . . , .
, (3), - (4)

(5)
: (3) It is getting dark; (4)
, They say that he has left; (5) He
is asleep.
,
,

, . . ,
, , , ,
, .
233

1.

,

- [
(.) 1980: 84].

. , B.A. ,

,
! ,
.
[ 1976: 176].
.. ,
- ,
, [ : 186].

,
;
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234

IV.

, .. ,
, [1976: 193].
,

.

2. : ,
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;
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,

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:
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(6) (66): (6) a. der klein-e Junge
(..) (-.) '; . tin
klein-er Junge '(..) (-.235

1.

) '.
, (
) -.


. ,
-
-i,
- -s (7); () -,
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(7) a. student-i
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236

IV-

,


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(mokvd-es ' (-.)!'; gadyegrjel-os
' --(-.) ()!').
...,
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(*) ... [, 1986: 226 .;
1990: 84; 1990: 98]. H.B. [2001: 228-240]
,
.
: -
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), (,
),
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237

1.

,
(minda, r mokvd-es ',
() (-.)'; gtxovt gaacer-ot mankana '-
(-.2) ').
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:

[ 1969: 39].

..
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238

IV.

: || ||
, ( \\
) .

?

, . .
. ,


, , ,
: ,
,
[ 2000: 114]; . [ 1978 (1972): 327 .]. ,

(): , , ; ()
( )
( . [ 1990: 2224]). , ,
, . .
,
, ,
.
,
/ (, will, shall,
would, can, could, may, must .).
.. ,
/ ;
-
. . .
,
"
",
:
()
...
, (
),
:
, ,
[ (.) 1980: 86].
239

1.


(
),
, ,
.

,
, .

- ,
.

(
- -).

tensed (
).
,
.

,
. ,
,
: l-es mesure-s qu 'on
a pris-e-s '(APT-MH) (-) () (--)'. , ,
-, , . .,
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) . , ,
,
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,
, , /
, (,
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), / , . .
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[ 1972]; (),
( , . . IX),
,
[ 1986: 59]. , ,
240

IV.

,

.



,
[ (.) 1980: 86].
,
.

, . .
, ()
().
:
(8)
. .

. .

. .

(. .)
(. .)
!
/
(, .) !
(9)
. .
. .
. .





!

!
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(10)
. .
. .
. .





!
!
!

241

1.

( ): , ...,
, ... ; , ...; , ....
, ....
,
,
, ,
.
. [ 1955 (1950)];
,
,
.
1.
. ,
, (810), , .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.


-
,
. , -,
-, -, -
1 .. , . . 1- ,
. ., ,
, --, -, --
, . . ,
, -- ,
[ 1977].
.


: ,

, .
242

IV.

. , ,
; ; ;
( ) ". .
",

( )
".
; ; ;
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3 . . .,

". ; ;
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, [ (. 1980: 85].

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, 3 ,

, ,
. ,
(11)
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(11) : (11) .
Metropolitan, ;
. Metropolitan,
?; . Metropolitan,
, ,
.

243

1.

?; .
Metropolitan, ?; .
, ?; . ?
Metropolitan?; . ?
, Metropolitan?; . ?
,
?; . ? Metropolitan ,
?; . ? ,
?... . .

, ,
.

- .


: ()
(); - yes/no questions
/ .

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.
(12),
,
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' ?. ' ?. '
? ( ' ,
); (13) . ? .
? . ?

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?).

,
, ,
: ?
?

, .
244

IV.

em ;
,
: .

,
(
).
,
-
. ,
?
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.
.

: (? ?),
(? ?), (? ?). ,
(, ),
II 4.2.4
, , . .
, ,
, ,
. .
( ) ,
. (14) . ;
. ? . *
?; (15) . ? . *
? (14)
(146),
; (15)

(14), .
.
, - (
, . . -
-
),
,
- . ,
, , ? ?; 245

1.

?;
?; ? [ 1955 (1950): 47-48].
,
,
?
: (16) ,
.
, ,
,
.

: || || ||
, ; || || ,
.
,
,
, . , ( ,
) ,
, ( ).

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{ , , ), {
, , ),
, , . .
,

, , (16),
,
.

.

{, ),

, , 4.
,
, , (,
, ): , (*)
; , ,
().

246

IV.

,
, ,
, , . . ,
. ., . (17) . , ;
. , ; . ,
.
,

. ,

:

: (18) . is coming ', . Is he coming? '
?'; (19) a. You can see John ' ';
. Whom can you see? ' ?', . . *Whom
you can see?
: (20) . / wonder whether he is coming ' ,
'; . */ wonder whether is he coming; (21) a. / wonder whom
you can see ' , '; . *I wonder
whom can you see.

,
, , IX . 1.

:
,
(, , ,
. .),
, -
. , ,
[ 1979: 29].

4.
I . 5,
(
) -. ,
(, ,
. has written '' . .),
. , 247

1.

, ()
, . . ,
, .

, . . ,
, .
-,
: ;
. ,
,
(22)
(23) ,
: (22)
; ; (
, ); (23) =
); 5(=);
(=); .

,
(
. V).
, , ( ), ( ),
( ), (
),
( ; ).
.. [ 1992; Apresjan 1992]
,

- ( ), ( )
( ).
,
,
, ,
, ,
, . (i) (, ) ; () * (//*,
) ; () (//*, ) ; (iv)
(//*, ) ; (v) * {//, *) . .
(i-v) (ii) ,

{) {);
, (iv) ,
, . .

248

IV.

[Junghanns 1997];
( )
, . (24) . ,
() ,
. * .
-
, ,
.
.
, ,


,
, . .
: (25) ,
, ,
[, 1983: 8].
.

( ...) (
...), ,
{ ...;
...).
:
(26) ; .

, ( )
,
( ) .
,
, ,
:
(27) ; ;
.
(. .
) .
: (28) ;
, ,
,
, ).
,
249

1.

()
, (29) - ;
( ), ,
, , -
: (30) ;

, .
( )
.
,
, ,
, , , , ,
, ,
, ,
( ) [
, 1983: 10].

,
:
, [ ].

, : .

- ... ,
[ ].
( )
,
: ; - .
:
II; .
: ; .

,
, , . .
, ,
. ,
. .
: (31) . ; .
; . * , . (32) . ;
. ; . * ,

- : (33)
. () ; . () . 250

IV.


, : (31) ?,
(33') . ?; . * ?, .
(31") ? ( : '
?') [Chvany 1975]. ,
-
( )


(? ),
:
; : ... ,
,
, (,
...).
. [ 1966: 107].
.. ,
, -,
,
:
[Apresjan 1992: 369]. ,
,
,
. , , .
,
( , .. ), :
( ),
( ), .
[ 1989].
: ..
, :
?? ; .:
[ ] -
( ', '; , ) * - , .
( )
: ??
, . .
,
( ),
( ),
,
. ,

251

1.
', , ':
: [Apresjan 1992: 368]



-
.
. [,
1983: 36-41];
: , . - '
, ',
- (
, ), .:
- .
:
() , .
.

5.


.
,
. , ,
{; ; ,
); ( ) . .
,
. [ 1988
(1959): 192], : .
. . (); . . .
. (); . . .
. (); . / .
. / . . . / . ().
-,

: () ,
[, 1983: 49"
51]. ,
: (34) . ; . ;
. ; . /; . 252

IV.

. ; . () ? . * ? . .

(. ? ),
,
[, 1983:
86]: (*) ; (*) ;
(*) ; (*) ;
() .

,
.
, ,
(34),
. , , ,
, ,
, .
,
.
,
:
, (34) (346)
. , ..
, ,
, . ,
, ,
, *
, 6,
(34) , ,

, . .
[1984: 50].

: (35) . ; .
, . !; . ? !
(35) , ,
- . ,
, . ,
, ,
: , ; ,
(, ).

253

1.

,

- (35),
(35).

, (35),
.
- ,
.
,
, 7 , -
(= ) :
,

: ( ) ;
(); (); ()
( ) !; (
) ,
(.. , ); . A d'autres! '
!' ( ; . '!') . .
,
: .
,
.
,
,
. , , ,
, (!;
!; !; !; !;
!; !; !; !; ), ( ;
)
; ; ! . .


, ,
(!), - { -
).
. :
.

254

6. :
,
. [1995: 100; . 1998:
217-221]:
(36) (, ).
(37) , /
, / /
(, ).
.. ,

.
, ,
: ( ),
( ) (
). (37) .. 6
,
,
[ : 101]: (38) . ; .
( ); . ;
. ; . ( );
. .
(37), ,
: . ; . ; .
, . , .
. .
, ,
' ', ' ' . .
, (37),
,
(. . ),

, , (36).
, ,
, (38) - , (38) - ,
, (38)
. , ,
. , ,
, (38),
, (38).
,
, 9

-4755

255

1.

. ,
,
,
, .
. clause;

.
(. sentence) .
- , ,
, ,
.
,
,
, ,

.
,
, ,
. ..
: ,
,
, ,
(37),
,
, , (-> '
', ' ')
(-> ' ') (37)
[ 1986: 54].
, , , ,
, . .
. ,
,
, .
. X Y

Z,
X Y , a Z
. X, Y Z - , Z
.
, ,
(39) [ ,] / , [ , 256

IV.

/ , /
] () - .
, , (39)
(40) [ , / [

I ]]
. (40) (41) [
, / ],
(41)
(40), . [ [ ]].
X ,
Y. X
, a Y , (
(40) - , (41) ). X
Y - , X
.
,
( )
,
.

.

,
.

:
.

.

- (
, , ,
),
( ,
, ,
).

.

, ,
- .

257

1.


A.M. .
,
... ,
. ...
(
), : , = , ;
, (. . ) = ,
.

() ,
. ...
(. .
)
.
, . ,
= , [ 1959
(1926): 140-141].

, , ,
: (42) . . .
, , , ,
(42)
[ 1956 (1928): 466], ,
(
), , .
:
, ,
[ (.) 1980: 462].
weil denn ' '
: (43) a. Ich sagte es nicht, weil du zu erregt war; 6. Ich
sagte es nicht, denn du war zu erregt ' ,
'; . *Du zu erregt war, weil ich sagte es nicht; r. Du war
zu erregt, denn ich sagte es nicht ' ,
'. : ,
denn , , weil,
,
, . (43)
,.*Ich sagte es nicht, weil du war zu erregt; e. *.. denn du zu erregt war.
CO.
: ...
- ,
[2000 (1961): 7172].
: . -
, - :

258

IV.
? .
,
,
.
.. , ,
,
:
,
;
,
[ 1967: 101]. ,

: , /
(, ); , , . [ 1990].
.. [1986: 18-21]
: ,
, ,
, [
1967:58-59], , [ ] [
].
, * , [ - ] [
], : , [
], [ - ].
, .


.
.
8 , . . ,
, -
.
.

,
.
,
, ,
- (
). . ,
... 8

,
, (,
).

259

1.
, ( ,
, ) [ 1956 (1928): 464].

,
, . (44) . , ; . , ,
; . * , ,
; (45) . ,
, . *# , ,
; . * , ,
.
, :
; , , .

.

,
,
(
, i), . (46) . ,
, i
; . i ,
, ; .
, , , ; . *{
, ,
^ . : (47) . ,
, i ; .
eei, , , ;
. , , i
; . , ,
, .
. [Langacker 1969].
:
,
: )
,
, . . , )
,
. (46)
, (46)
.

260

IV.

_____

, (466)
), (46) - ), (46)
) ), .
precede-and-command, . .
,

. . [Reinhart 1983]
,
,
(. XII . 7).
,
:
(47) , . (48) . ,
, , ;
. ?? 0ni ,
, i .
, . (486) . *,
, , ,
^ . , precede-and-command

, .: (49) . , ,
, -, (, ). ,
(496), (49)
: . ? ,
, ,; . *,
,.

.
,
, ,

(, ,
).

(,
),
,
. ,

( . [, 1975: 58]).
,
, , , 261


, . (50) . , ; . , , (/^
); . * , , .

,
: (51) . ,
; . , (//*),
(//*).
.

, , ,
,
. ,

(. gapping)
,
: (52) , (//?? )
, . : (53) John played
piano, and (//* whenever) Max sax [Van Oirsouw 1987].
,
,
: . . (54) a. John lived in London and
studied medicine '

', . John lived in London when he studied medicine '
, () ' . ?John lived in
London when
studied medicine.
.
10;

: (55) .
, (, ) ,
: . * (, ) ,
; .: (56) . (,
...) ,
. ,
,
,
(. , . 8 .).

,
.

262

aeaJV.

(, ...) - [Van Oirsou


,
,
( ,

). , ,
, ,
, ,

.

,
. ,
, , - ,
.
(, ),

, . (57) . , ,
. ? , , ;
(58) . , , ; . *...
( ); (59) .
, ; . ?
, ( ).

:
(606),
(60) : (60) . , , ,
; . *, , ,
; . *, , ,
.
,
- , A.M. ,
, , ,
( ,
?$] ,
),
( , ;
, ) [ 1956 (1928):
467]. : (61) , , (*) 263

1.

, : (62) , *() .
,
,
, , :
[ ] [ ]; [ :]
[ ]; [ ,] [ ] (
). , [ 1950],
,
,
;
/ [
1967: 101], . [ 1973; (.) 1980;
1986: 108].
,
,
A.M. [1956 (1928):
48-50],
,
[
1969].

, ,
(),
(),
.
, -,
,
:
(63) . [ [ ] [
]; . [ [ ,]
]; . *[ , [ ,]
]; . [ , [ ,]
]. ,
(63) (63) -
, () .
(
..
[1986: 57]) - : (64) ,
, ;
, ,
( A.M. , .
264

IV.

[ (.) 1980: 637], .


: ? , , . precede-and-command
: (65) .
i , , ; . *i, , ,
.

:
, - , ;
, , ? ();
, , .
,
,
: (66) . ,
; . ^, ,
( ); . ,
, ;
. * , ,
( ).
2. ,
, ,
, :
, .
.


,
.
(. . ,
),
(. .
).
.

,
, , .

265

1.

7.

,
. ,
. ,
,
, . (67)
. [ ]
. , [
]. (67)
, (676)

.
in order, pour, . ,
, ,
,
(, , ).
,
, :
, [ ]; [ ,]
.
, , , ,
, ,
, , ,
(. .
, , , . .).
,
( ),
: [ , / ]
().

, ,
, ,
.

, ,

, , ;
.
,
-ing :
266

IV.

(68) / like {making people happy] '


'; tired [of rowing] '
' : [seeing her]
', ', , ' '.
(68)
(her crying bitterly ' ', , '
'), ; ,
, ,
. write
'': having written (. .) - being written (.) having been written (, .) . . ,

, ()
.
, ,
(69) taqarrara [ta'gil-u ziyarat-i lwazir-i]
' ', , '-
(-) (-) (-)'. - ta'gil-u ', '
"aggala ''
(69) taqarrara
' , '.

: [
] (, ).

, - , .
,
,
,
().


, :
- /, - /, - /.
,
,
.
, -ing

1 : The girl started [smok-ing a ciga267

1.

rette] ' ', :


[Smok-ing a cigarette], the girl entered the room ' ,
', : [smok-ing] girl
entered the room ' ',
: [The girl's smoking] irritates me '
' [ 1990: 41-42].

. [
1975 (1955); 1962; 1976 (2001); 1981].

. [ 1954] (

), [- 1956; 1969; 1972; 1976;
1980; ]
[, (.) 1954; (.)
1970 (.) 1980].
.. [1986; 2000].

[ 1972]; . [ 1967].
. [ 1955 (1950)],
. [ 1986, 2000, 1968, 1970, 1971, , 1981, , 1983, 1982, 1990,
2000] [Hiz (ed.) 1978; Kiefer (ed.) 1983; Chisholm (ed.)
1984]. .
[ (.) 1980], .. .
. [
1956 (1928), 1974 (1950); Chvany 1975; 1976, 1988
(. 3); Babby 1980; , 1983; 1993; ,
1979];
[Akmajian, Steele, Wasow 1979, Bowers 1993];
. [Hengeveld 1992].
. [Van Oirsouw 1975;
Haspelmath 1995; 1997].
. [ 1979; Haiman, Thompson (eds.) 1988; , 1987; 1993],
. [ 1967; , (.) 2000],
[ 1986].
.
[ 1956 (1928), 1975; .. 1977,
1980]. ( ) .
[ 1974 (1957-1958); Peranteau et al. (eds.) 1972; ,
1975; Lehmann 1984; Keenan 19856], - [
1990; Haspelmath, Konig 1995]; - [KoptjevskajaTamm 1993], . [ 1980; (.) 1985;
Wurmbrand 2001].
268


,
,
(. 1)-
(PRO; . 2) (pro; . 3)
-
(. 4).

1.


, ,
.
, (
).
( ) (),
.


(. .
) ,
. , .
. . ., - -/-,
, . -, -, -.
,
. . . .,
: , ,
( ),
.
. . . . . (-,
3 . . . (-,
-), . . . .
(-), . . . .
(-, -).
. . (house-
'),
, ,
, 3 .;

269

1.

: / demand
that John leave- ' , '.
., , [
2000: 84-86].
.
, . .
:

[ 2000: 22]. , ,
, ,
().
,
,
,
.
-
, . ,
,
(. II . 3).

,
. ,
.
(, , . .),

,
,
. , ,
, ,
.
1.1.

.

, )
. . (1)
; (2)
! (. ()
) ) 270

V.

(2) ,
; (3)
... (
.. , , 18.08.2001). ,
(13) . ., .
VI 2.4.

,
, (4) [
]', [].

, ,
.

,
. ,
,
,
,
, .

( ),
- ;
. VI 2.5.
1.

. () {) , ()
(
)
(=) , , .
(5) . {) || .
, {) *{i/j || ij/} .
,
,
. i j , (5)
( i),
(56) ( j), (*i).

, ,
(
):
271

1.

, ] () *i/i \\ */

(
, . VI 2.2.2)
, : (6) . j
i/* ; . j

*j

. (6)
, , . . (6)
, .
(66) ,
.
. (7) . i

j [ , ]; . i 7
[ } ] (8) i }

,/j
(7)
(8).
: -,
, ()
, -,
.
(,
(8), i , . .: '
'), (* [
]). , ,
( i ),
(* i ).
, ,
,
,
,
. 0:
272

V.

(11), (
), ('
')
:
, ( ):

()

, [0j ].

2.

. ,

,
() : (12) \\
; (13) . \\ ; . \\
.
,
,
, , (14) . ,
, . *, ... VII
,
, . . () ,
, ()
(
).

: (15) I [ ].
,
,
273

1.

: 1)
() 2)
(
, ).

I [0 ].

3.

. .,
()
, , (16)
; (17) ; (18)
. .
(1618)
, ,
, .
.
(predicate nominate) . [Nichols
1981; 1985].

, . (19) . ,
; . , ,
; . * , . (19)
, (196)
-
; (19), , ,
, .

,
(16, 18), ,
, , .
.
: (20) .
[0
. [0
] ; (21) [0 (//*
) ]; (22)
274

V.

[0 (//*)] . .
,
:
(20')

4.
,
(
,
,
). ,

,
(, ), 1.
(23) , ,
. ,
, ,
-
,


2:

, j , <...> j
[j j (// j) , [j i (//*i) ]] (,
1


, , ,
: [ , [ ]]; . *
, !; [ , [
]]!
: , [
,] ; , ... . . [
1982: 139-141]. , ,
(, ) ( ,
), , , (
, ), , , , ,
.
2
(23),
, , , .

275

1.

).
. . , .
. H

, .
,
, -
(''),
,
" "
[ 1983: 38].

,

, : (24)
I [0 , [0 ]]; I
[0 , [0 ]] (,
). (24)
, -
.
. ?
,
( )
. , , ,

(25) >
, : (26)
> . (25)
(26) : (25)
, (26) - .
,
.. .. :
,
...
.
. , ...
, ,
(
; .
)... ? , , - -
,
() () [, 1990: ]. ..
: , '',

276

5.

.
: ' ' - L, , . L, '', tertium non datur [
1995: 211].
,
.. [ : 192],
, . ,
- , ,
v ( ?.,
? ?., ?..)
(-?., , (25)?..) ,
.
1970-
,
, .
,
-
(
.. [1983; 1985]).
(
=>
), 1960- [Rosenbaum
1967], (Equi-NP deletion).
[Postal 1970]
: (27) '
, ', (28) ? '
?'; (29) .
. , . (296)
, -, , : ', ,
, '. (29)
. ,
.
, , (27-29),
,
. ,
,
.
, -, , . [Adamec 1995],

: 1)
> , () (); 2) , ,
,

277

1.
~ - ; 3)
,
, , ( .
).

1.2.

,

: (30)
, [0 ]; (31)
, [0 ] ( 1); (32)
, [ ]; (33)
, [0 ||
] ( 2); (34) ,
[0 ] ( 3).

( 4) : (35) .
, , ;
. ? , ,
; (36) . , , ,
; . ? , ,
, ; (37) . ,
, , ; . ? ,
, , .
. . (3537)
,
(356-376), . [ (.) 1980: 183; 1982:146-147];
..
[1863: 332]. , , .
. .: , / , [
, [ / ]] (, ).
.

,
. 1.1.,
?

278

5.

1.3.


,
(. . - ,
). ,

.
, ,
,
,
.
,

.
(3839),
(4041) (4243):
(38) [ ] ; (39)
[ ] ; (40) . ,
[ ]] . , [
]', (41) . , [
]; . , [ ]; (42) .
, [ ], ; .
, [ ]; (43) . , [
,] ; .
, [ ,] .

, .. , , .
(44, 45) (44, 456): (44) . , [
], ; . ? [ ]
; . , [ ];
. * [ ]; (45) . ? , [ , ;
. *[ ] .

(=) ,
: (46)
[ ]; (47)
[ ].
: (48)
; .

279

1.

(38-39, 406-436, 44, 46)


, ,
, . , -
,
(* , ,
),

.
,

](* , , .
, [
(.) 1980: 183]).

,
{,
... = , '). ..

: (49)
, , .
... ,
... [
1956 (1928): 468]. , ,
,
: [ <' '' ]. (49)
, . (50) ... , , .

1.4. -

,
, ,
,
.
,
,
,
. """
- (51) 280

(52) [
, 1983: 27]:
(51)
(52)
.
;
. ;
. ; . ;
. ;
. ;
. , . .
(51-52) , ,
, ,

() :
..'
, .

A.M. . ,
,
.
, ,
. . . .
, [ 1956
(1928): 258].


,
(53),
(53): (53) . ; . * (
', ...'); .
; . *
( ',
...')3.
, , ,
,
. , , , (54)

,
(,
); (55) ,
; (56)
- , ! . .

, , ( ).
, ,
: , , /
( ; .. ).

281

1.
. , (56), -, (56')
() , ! (54), ,
(54') ,
, , (55') ,
,
(55). , ,
.
! {?
?., ?..), .. ,
, [ 1958 (1924): 356-357; Weiss 1995: 206 1995: 211; 2000: 44].

1.5.

,
, (57)
John ate pasta, and Joan
pizza ' ,
', (
,
)
.
: (58) . * saw John, or she; . saw John, or she did
, ()'. (58)
- ;
,
do (586). ,

,
.

, : (59) .
could have seen us, or she could (have)
, '; . * could have seen us, or she.
(59)
,

( '', must ''...)
(will, have, is...)
, do (586).
,

,
282

5.

,
[Radford 19976: 88-93].
, (60)
could have seen her, or she have seen him ,
- '. ,
, (59), could
, .
, have
, 've,
,
: I have left '
' - I've left have
(60) : (60') * could have seen her or she'ye_ seen
him,
( she ''
).
have (60)?
,
,
have she ,
, ,
. - .
have, ,
-
, ,
- :
(60) could have seen her, or she 0 have seen him.

,
, . ,
have. (61) She has gone
to Paris '
( ), (62) The doctor had an
eye~specialist examine the patient '
' ,
(63) I've never had anyone send me flowers
_ '
,
. . ,
have Has
she gone to Paris? 'eh ?',
- : *Had the doctor an eye-spe283

1.

cialist examine the patient? '


?'.
have
, (64) They've seen a ghost '
', (65) (66) : (65) a. They have their car serviced
regularly '
', . * They've their car serviced regularly; (66) a. She had
them often send her flowers '
', . * She'd them often send her flowers.
(656-666) ,
(60). (65-66), (64), have -
, . ,
(
)
, , 've "d
(6566)
, -

():
(65') They 0 have their car serviced regularly.

(tag questions),
,
, ,
(. . , )
do: (67) She has gone to Paris, hasn 't (//*doesn't) she? ' , ?'; (68) She has her hair
styled by Vidal Sassoon, doesn't (//*hasn't) she? '
, ?'
do
(68)
, have , (68)
.
, ,
,
,
, ,
: 0 has his car serviced '
', * have... .

284

V.

1 6.

, -
( )
,
,

.
, ,
to
.
,
. . : (69) a. You
are going to leave ', . You may leave
', . *You may to leave.
to
, .
(70) It's vital that John should show an interest ',
', . It's vital for John to show an interest
( ). , to , ,
,
, , . (71) a. I don't really want
to go to the dentist's, but I know I should
'
, , ' . /
know I should go to the dentist's, but I just don't want to '
, ,
( )', . . *I know I should go to the dentist's, but
I just don't want. ,

.
to
[Radford 19976: 9495].
, , see '', hear '',
let '', watch '', , ,
, expect '', judge '', report '',
consider '', want '': (72) A reporter saw the senator
leave the hotel ' ,
'; (73) I heard a voice cry ' ,
; (74) You mustn 't let him go ' '
. . (75) / expected him to win ' ,
'; (76) I judged him to be lying ' , ';
285

1.

(77) They reported him to be missing ' ,


'.
,
to (75-77),
- . .,
,
.
VI 3.2.

(7274),
to,
(small clauses). ,
? -,
,
.
-,
,
to. ,

. -
,
(78) . / wouldn let you have done it '
', have . *I wouldn't let you've done it
. ,
,
have,
,
:
(78) / wouldn let you 0 have done it.
,
,
.

.

286

2
(PRO)

,
, ,

( . . :
?; ).
, ,

, PRO.
,
pronoun ,
.
,
.
, , PRO , ,
, . , -
. () (),
(, )

, .

[
, 1990], ,
4 , , -
. , ,
,

- .
(
, . expletive, dummy)
, , . , do
: John [yp ate some ice-cream], and Bill
Ivp did] too ' , '. it
there
, , , PRO, ,
.
10 4755

287

1.
: (79) It rains ' ', There are boys in the room
' '. . //
. es , (79) (. Il pleut, . Es regnet
' ', . IL crayon, . Es gibt einen Bleistift '
'), -
(on) (man): . on dit, . man sagt ''.

2.1. PRO
, ,
PRO,
, , PRO,
.
PRO
,
([ [PROj ]
^),
PRO - ([PRO;
], i ).
PRO ,

.
PRO , , (80)
[PRO ] , (81) [PRO
] , (82) [PRO ,
]. PRO
.
PRO
, , [PRO
] ,
: [PRO ] (
-
).
PRO. , ,
. PRO
, ,
.
PRO : .
{ , [PRO
], [PROi ] (. ,
); [ PROi ] {
288

-, , [ ,
], { (,
).

PRO
, : (83)
[PRO - || - \\ -\\
,
[PRO - ] (. ,
). .
PRO
3 . (84) - 2 . (85): (84)
It is not always easy [PRO to control oneself {/ himself) in public]
' '; (85) It
is not always easy [PRO to control yourself in public] '
'.
PRO . . . :
(86)
>

difficile parlare di se stess-i (//*se stess-o, *se stess-a).


-.. (-., -.)
(, )'
,
(87)

hello
essere amat-i
(//*amat-a)
da
te.
-. (-.)
' (, , *)
' [Haegeman 1994: 266-267]
(86) (87)
,
PRO.
PRO
( . ). PRO
,
, .
PRO
.
,
. . . . ( ?; * -?;
-?) . . . . ( ?; * (-)?; * -?),

, . , , ... ; , - ...; ,

289

1.
- , ...; , -; , -.
. ., . , /
! ( -).

, PRO,
, , (88) [PRO ]; (89)
[PRO , (90) . //
est douloureux de [PRO punir les enfants] '() '. PRO
(88),
(89) douloureux (90). PRO

.
, (83),
.

,
,
PRO ,
: (91) [PROi ], (92) , [PRO;
], (93) , [PROj
].
,
, ,
PRO ,
: (94) { [PROj ];
(95) { [PROi
] : (96) , [PROj
]; (97) , [PROj ].

, ,
,
- PRO: (98)
i [PROi ]; (99)
, [PROi ];
(100) i [PROj
].
, (91100)
PRO
:
(101) > >
.
290

(101) , PRO
( ),
- ,
(
).
, ,
- ,
.
(101)
-
(Minimal Distance Principle) . [Rosenbaum 1967; 1970],
,
,
,
.
,
,
, ,
(2), (1026),
(1
(102).

(102) .

PRO

PRO


, ,
,
.

(94-100)
, , (101) : (96')
[PROi
]; (98') , [PROi
]; (99') ? , [PRO*
291

1.

]; (100')
[PROj ].
(98'100')
, , (101),
PRO - ,
(94-100).
,
PRO
,
,

. (101) , ,
- ,

.

[Jackendoff 1972: 43:
() > > .
() ,
,
PRO ,
, ,
. ,
. .
, ;
,
, PRO,
.
,
PRO: (,
. .) .
. .
,
, ,
:
:
.

:
.


.. [19856: 113], .
.

292

5 .

.
.

.

!

.

.

.

.

.


.

.

,
PRO.
,
.


(, , .),
PRO : (103)
[PRA
], (104) [PROj
, ]. ,
,
[PRO ],
[PRO ];
. vorschlagen '' [Grewendorf 1991:
162-163].

. ,
,
,
, ,
[Jackendoff 1972: 212].
, Joe got to Philadelphia ' ' Frank got Joe to Philadelphia ' '; Joe kept
near his mother ' ' Mother kept Joe near her '
', ,
...
[ : 215].
(Goal) -

293

1.
(complement subject).
promise '' - -
(Source), . Mary gave Alex a promise to go '
', Mary received from Alex a promise to go '
' [ : 218].
. :
(, )
, {
, ), , .
: 1)
*John was promised to leave ' ' . '
', - ,
, ,
, 2) John was promised to be
allowed to leave ' ', . '
',
[Ruzicka 1983].
PRO . [Bresnan 1982; Manzini 1983; Nishigauchi 1984];
.
[Ladusaw, Dowry 1988].


,
, PRO
[ 19856]: (105) i
, [ PROt ]', .
i , { PROj
], . * , [
]', . *
[ ]. (105)
() ,
- . .
: (105') .
, [PROi (//* ) ]; .
, [PROj
(II* ) ], PRO

.
,
: (106)
, ; (107)
,
.
294

V.



PRO.
2.2. PRO

. .
PRO ,
, - ,
. ., ,
.
[ (.)
1980: 148]: , , .
,

. ,
(floating quantifiers), . (108)
. [ All the boys] left ' '; . [ The boys] all
left ' ' (109) a. Pierre a
mange [ beaucoup de pommes] ' ';
. Pierre a beaucoup mange [ de pommes] '
'; () . [ Tous les enfants] ont vu film '
'; . [ Les enfants] ont tous vu film '
'. ,
, ,
.

,
,
, , .
,

(). . . ,
. . -
(111113) (114-115) ,
,
,
(116) (117) e ( ), 295

1.

(118): (111)
, [
] (, ); (112) [
,]
; (113) [ 11 ,]
; (114) [ \\ \\ ]:
(115) , [ ];
(116) , [ ,]
; (117) , || \\
-, ; (118)
, [
] (, ).
,
. . .
. .,
: ;
, . ,
. . . .,

, : ,
+ . . ()
: .
, . .
: , [ ]; [
); , [
]; , [
,] ; , [
], .
(
, ): [
,] ; [ ,]
; , [
] (, ); , , /
[ ,] / , /
(. ).

,
,
, . (11 ) ^
, [ ]; (112') *[-.
] ...; (115') *
, [ ] . .
,
, :
296

5.

*[ ,} ...; * {
].
,
, . .
: || ||
|| (//* ||* || * \\ *);
() (//*) ;
(//*)
( . , . .);
, ,
(//*) ! ( ,
), . .
. [Comrie 1974],
. [Neidle 1988], . , . , .
[Greenberg 1983; Franks, Greenberg 1988; Franks
1990; 1995; Greenberg, Franks 1991; Franks, Hornstein 1992]
. [Babby 1998],
,

PRO. , , -,
,
, .
, : (119)
\\ ; (120) (
, (120) - )
, : (121)
; (122) .
,
: (123) ()
; (124) () ; (125)
% . ,
. .,
: (126)
; (127) .
,
. .,
. .: (128)
(//*); (129)
II (//* \\ *).

, (
. 297

1.

[Comrie 1974])6: (130) . ; . ... ; (131) .


; . ... ? :
(132) .
; . ...? ; (133)
(? ) ;
(, ). .
,
. .
[Babby 1998]. ,
-
(132), -, ,
(130131). ,
, , , ,
- , , . .
, .
, , , ,
, (
) - ,
,
.

, PRO
(119-120) (128-133), ,
, , ,
. . ,
, PRO
: (130)
[PROflaT ].
, (PRO)
, ,
, ,
. , ,
, . . ;
, , ,
, , ,
. PRO ,
, .
, . .
- :
, -; - .

298



.
1) -
-,
R.

(128') [R .

2) -
PRO . ., . .
,
. . .
PROHOM :

(128") [PROHOM ].
3) PRO -
PRO ; (
!)

: (128"')
.
. [Babby 1998].
,
, ,
IV .6.
(. XII) , ,
( - ),
, -
. . ,
() (),
.
,
, ,
. . ,
PRO. ,

, . VII, .

, , a PRO. PRO

299

1.
,
; , PRO
. .
,
: (1306)
[PROflaT ].

- ,
PRO 2: (1306')
[PROaKK ].

,
: (134) .
[ [ (//*)]]
. [ [
(//*)]]; . [ [
(//*)]]; . [ [
[ (/)]]].

:
(134)./ [ [ ]].
. [ [ ].
. * [ [ ]].
. * [ [ [ ]]]

,
, (1346) ,
,
(135) [ [ [
[ ]].

(1346, 135), ,

(134)?

300

V.

,

. , ,
, ,
,
,
.
-
PRO
.

(134), :
(136) .
PRO - X
PRO- Y X
Y.
(137) .
PRO . .
.
(136137) ,
. .
, PRO
. , PRO . .
, :


, [Franks
1995- 2361-

PRO
(134) -
PRO,
, .
PRO (134, 138)
: , 301

1.

. . . .;
,
, (138)
, PRO,
.

, PRO . .,
. ., . (139) .
[PRO (//*)] .
[ [ PRO ()]].
(136137) ,
, PRO,
, . ., (
, ,
(139') ):
(139')
[ [ PRO aaT (1)]].
i

, (140)
[ [ PROflaT ]]
' ( - ) '.
(136137)
' .
(140143),
(14061436): (140) .
(//*'); 6.
; (141) . (*) ;
6. ? ? );
(142) . (//* );
. ; (143) .
(//") ;
. ( )
. ?
, (!40-143), (1406-J436),
, ,
]
( , , .,
[ 1974: 78-94]): = , =
, = . . . .
, (140143)
, , (1406-1436) -

302

-
[Franks, Hornstein 1992:11; Franks 1995:
248]; , , ,
.

PRO (139),
,
.
(137) , . . PRO
. -
, PRO
. . . .
( (115)
): (144) ,
(//*) ; (145)
, (//*)
[Comrie 1974].
PRO :
(.44)

. ,
(), PRO, (
) . .: (146) .
; . , [ PROaaT
] ([Babby 1998]).

. .:
, , (
, ) [ 1960: 216].

303

1.

,
. . .
. .
( .. , .
3.11.2000): (148) . [ ]],
. * ; (149) .
; . *!
; (150=115) . ,
; . * ,
. (14861506) ,
. . . . .
(148-150) .

, PRO
. .,
, PRO
(
) .
2.3. PRO


.

(151), PRO
[Babby 1998]
(1516): (151) . , [PROHOM
]; . , .
304

aea .


(151),
(151) ,
(151),
. .
PRO . . [Babby 1998]: .
[ [R , [R
(//*) ]]]; .
[ , [PROflaT
(//*) ]]; . [PROflaT Pome
, [PROflaT (//*) ]].
(140143)
1 . (=) ,
, . . (148-150): .
, , . .
, (//*) .

,
PRO . .
, ,

.
2.4. PRO

,
.
:
i)
. .: (152) . , [ ()
], ; .
, [ () ,] ...; .
, [ () ], ... ;
ii) ( )
. ., (153) . ?
, [ () ,]
() ; . ? ,
() , ...; . ? , () , ... ;
iii)

. ., (154) . [ () 305

I
1.

]; . ... [ ()
]; . ... [ ()
];
iv)
, (155) [ ,
[ () ...]], . .
, , ),
. .
PRO, ,
PRO
, a PRO, ,
,
(iii)
(iiiiv).
. ., ,
(153), . ,
, : (156) . *
[ , [ ()
]]; . ... *[ ()
]; . ... * [ ()
]. , .
(157) , [ ]; .
* , [ ]; (158)
, [ , ];
* , [ ,
]; (159) . , [ ]; . *
, [ ]; (160) .
, [ ]; . * , [
].
:
(161)
, ,
(PRO) . .
( . .)
.
,
(35-37).
, (161) ,
;
, .
, ,
, , . .
(=) , -

306

V.
(. . , x). . . : -,
-, -, - , *-,
*-..., *-, *-..., *-,... (.
-, , , *(-, -)).
, , , . .
( ),
,
.

,
PROHOM>
PRO (137). PRO . .
,
,
.

3. (pro)
,
, .
, PRO,
, (
) , .
, : (162) (163)
. (162) ,
, (163) -
. , ,
, (162)
, (163). (163) -
- , (
),
. (162), ,
()
; , (164)
! ,
(164), (162) .
,
?
, , ,

(163) : 307

1
1.

- 1 . . .,
.
,
(162) .
, (163) , (162) , ,
.
, , , -
, ,
(162) (163) .

, , .

( )
(163) (162)?
.
.
, ,
(163) (162)
,
.
: (163)
,
-
-; - (163).
(162) ( , ),
, (163) .
( )
,
[Jelinek 1984, Baker 1996],
.

, (163)
, 1 . . .
(
), -
.
, (163) ,
(162) ,
, .

308

V.

.

, , PRO,
pro,
(big PRO)
(small pro).
pro (
).
, -,
.
, ,
pro , ,
. -
(164) a. Lei parla italiano -',
. Parla italiano ' -', -
: (165) a. She speaks Italian
-', . *Speaks Italian.
. -
, ,

' ( )'; ,
: .
(166) a. Piove ' '; . *Cid piove, . ' ';
. . 7/ is raining] . *Is raining ' '.
-, ,

,
,

: (167) a. [Che Luisa partira] chiaro '
~ '; . (*Cio) chiaro [che Luisa
partira] . '(*) , '; . .
. [ That Louisa will not leave] is clear ' -
'; . It is clear [that Louisa will not leave]; . *Is clear [that
Louisa will not leave].
pro, ,


, ,
pro, , ,
pro , ^ .
309

1.

(1646) (166) (165) (166)


, :
(1646)
(165a)

pro parla Italiano (166a) pro piove


she speaks Italian (166B) it is raining

4. -

-

,
[ 1966; 19746].
(168) .
. .
. (168)
- - : ,
. (1686)
, , .
,
,
. (168)
'' ()
. . . . (. .
, ,
, . .). (1686)
'' () (
),
. . (. . , , ,
. .).

, ,
.

3 . . . 3 . . . (
,
),
. , .. ,
,
' ', , 310

V.
,

[
19746: 351].

. ,
0 0,

,
- 2 . . .
: , ()
: ' ' [
1995: 187].
0
-.
, (0
; 0 ; 0 ); ,
( 0 ; 0 ;
0 ( ,
); , 0 , ,
(, ));
( 0 ; 0
); ( 0 ;
, / ;
, / 0 ();
0 ).
0
, [
2000: 282], ( ,
): (
, ); ,
0 ?... , ... 0
, (,
); ,
, , 0 [. . ]
, , ( ,
). 0 .
1, 1985; 1990; 1991; 1997, 1991].
0
( ): 0 ;
0
; 0 ; 0
; 0 (); ,

311

1.

0 , , 0 (
, ).


: 0 ,
[PRO ]; [PRO ,] 0
; (0 , [PRO
]; 0 , [PRO
] [ 1983: 39; 1992: 180];
, [PRO
] (). ,
,
'', [
1995: 185].
:
|| .

, PRO : PRO ;
0 PRO . ,
, , , ,
. ., -
_

(PRO) .
P R O , 0
.

,
,
, (
, , -
, ).
-
, (169) . 0
-, . *

.
:
;
[, 1990: 112; 1985:
289]. , . on, . man, .
it there

, . (170) . 0 (, ,
, !); . 0 (,

312

V. '

); . . (179)
(170), (1706),
. ..
. .,
; . .
[ 1995: 184].
.. ,
: ,
(171) . 0 . , (172)
. 0 . , (173) .
. .

[ 19746]
, ,
' () '
: (174)
/ (175)
(176) ; (177)
; (. ., . .): (178)
, , . .; (. ., . .): (179)
, , ; (180) ;
. .
, , ,
(178) ,
. .
. ,
>
>
(
'', , ) ,
, ,
there . , there
. there, 0
(
, ), , there,
, .
(
).
. . .



.

,

313

1.

: , [
1979: 115].
,
(
), ;
, , :

? (, );
; ; ;

: , ../,
: ,
[ . .],
,
[ ] (, ) . .
,
:
, ,
.
, , :
,
(, ).
,
:
, (
, ).
,
3 . . . .
,
. . (
, )
: [] [] ;
[] [] ; : []
; : [ ]
; [
(. , ); :
[ ] .
, ,
, -,
. ..
(. . ) , -

314

V.
: [];
- . ., .
: ,
(, ).
: '
', ' ' [,
1971, 1985], , . ,

[Timberlake 1976].


:
3 . .
,
()

- 3 . . . .
.
,
,
, (178).

, ,
,
. ,
(,
)
. ,

.
,

,
.
( ), , -
, .

(empty categories)
:
. [Roberts 1997, . 2], .
* [Freidin 1992, . 5 6], . [Radford 1997; 1988, . 6]

315

1.
. [Haegeman 1994, . 5].
. [
1983]. - .
[ 1956 (1928); 1980; , 1983;
1984]. . [Rosenbaurn
1967, 1970; Jackendoff 1972; Bresnan 1982; Ruzicka 1982, 1983, 1999; 1986; Manzini 1983; Nishigauchi 1984; Comrie 1984; 19856;
Panevova 1986; Wyngaerd 1994; Lasnik, Saito 1999].
http://www.uio.no /
~janengh / kontroll / kontrollref.html.

. [Comrie 1974; Franks, Hornstein
1992; Franks 1995; Babby 1998]. . [ 19746, 1995; ,
1985, 1990, 1997]; . [ 1963;
1971; 1976; 1977; Guiraud-Weber 1984; 1994].
268

VI


(. 1).
. : 1)
( . ., -
), 2) () , 3)
4) (. 2).

,
,
(. 3). ,
- (. 4).

1.
I II ,
(
)
.

,
. ,
.


.

(, , . .;
, . .).

, (
-)
-
, .

- . ,
, , ,
.

, 317

1.

.
, - .
- ,
, , ,
, ,
, , . .

,
, . ,
- -
- ,
, , ,
, . .
.. [ (.) 1980: 13],
,
,
,
, ,
,
. , ,
S, .
, ,
S;
S.
, ( ,
)
,
: (1) [ ] ,
(2) [ ] ,
(3) [ ] ,
(4) [ ,]
; [ ,]
. .
: (5) [ ]', [
]', [ ]', , [ ].

, ( )
,
.
318

6.

,
.

, ,
,
- , , , (2
4). ,
, , ?


:
1)
( ) ;
2)
, .

,
.
,
:
F ,
(
);
F f1
f2;

F
f1;
F f2

- (
).
F,
,
, . fx
F ,
f2 .
, 1)
,

,
. .;
4755
^

319

1.

1) :
f1 ' . .' f2 '
. .';


. .;
, (
)
. .

,
. f1 - '
' ,
, f2 '
9 -
(
).
, ,
,
.
,
, . . .
: . .
, , ,
.
' ',
, , .

1)-2)
. (
) - (
)
, -.

: ,

.
,

.
,
, . . '
320

VI.

( )
.
,


. ,
,
.

,
- , ,
- .
,

, , ,
.
,
,
.
,
,

.

2.
2.1.
. .
.

. : , . .,
, .
. . ,
. .
, , :
(!), ,
, ;

\\ ; ,

(,
*

321

1.

), : (//* ),
, , ,
(? ), . [ 1988: 2226].


?
( )
( ; )
, (
[ ])
([ ,] ).

: / (,
...) [ . 1998: 140141]; (*) ,
. ,
,
, .
2.2.

. . ? ,
,
, , (
-) . ,
, ,
. (,
) , , ?
, , ,
,
.
,
,
,
.
. .,
.

322

VI.
( V ,

).



?
:
1) (;
; )',
23) (),
(-) ;
(-) ;
]
4) (= )
(; ;
)
,
:
5) - . . (;
; );
6) . ., V
(;
; );
7) (; ;
);
8) . .
(-; ;
).
.
,

.

. ,
, ,
.


- ,
,
,
,

323

1.
; , ,
,
,
, . -
. [1979].

2.2.1.




.
, ,
,
:
(6)
(

). (6) '
, () ' (6)

, . ^
,

' , ;'.
, , ,
,
. :
(7) , (,
). ,
,
, . (8)
*(); (9) , * () ;
(10) , *() .

(. VII 5.3),
, , : (11) ,

(11)
, .
,

. .

324

6.

. ,

,
. (12),
. . (13): (12) ?
; (13) ,
*() ; *
.
2.2.2.


, .
,

( ) ,
(14) '
' (15) ; '
' (16) . ., .
[ 1983: 47]. -
, (14-16).


: (17)
;
.
: (18) (,
); .

,
(, , , ): (19)
; ;
, (
, ), . [
1983: 910]. : (20)
;
,
,
-: (21) (//*)

; ,
. 325

1.

. [Ruzicka 1973; Timberlake 1979


1996; 1982 (1980); 1983: 14-16; 1983; Rappaport 1986; Schwartz 1986, 1988].
1.
,
( -
,
):
1. . .
, ;
2. . . (-)
..., ...,
...;
3. . . ,
,
, ;
4. . .
, ;
5. 0 -
0 ; 0 , . V . 4;
6. PRO ,
[PRO ], . V . 2;
7. PRO [PRO ,] , .
V;
8. PRO , [PRO
], . V 1.2.

2.2.3. PRO

PRO
: (22)
. ,
. *... ; .
, ; . ??...
[ 19856: 115]; (23)
,
-"
. , ,
, . -
,
: (24) , 326

VI

; , (
. [Panevova 1994: 227]).
-,
(22; 23), ,

: , ,
, , ... . ., ,
.
: * ,
.
,

, : (25) i
[], [ PRO i+j ) (,
); i j, [ PRO i+j
!] (, ).
-,
, (26) i j [PRO i+j
].
,
: (27) i } j+j .

-, : (28)
, ;
,
(,
).
, ,

PRO: (29)
, [
]; (30) , [
]; (31) ,
[ ]; (32)
,
[ ].
+

()
, (,
) PRO: (33)

, ; (34)
( ), ; (35)
327

1.

, [ 1983: 19; 19856:


116]. ,
: (36) [:]
. [:] , ?
(, ).

: (37) , ; ,
; (
, infinitival relatives) ,
: (38) the money to pay the rent with ' ,
'.

: (39)
, ,
, , ? [
1983: 42], , ,
: (40) * ,
.
,
(3336): (41) *() ,
[ 1983: 46]. -
, : (42) . {, PROj
, . i
PROj .
, : (43)
, .
,
(30).
,
:
(44) , [ PROj ], i
; i , [ PROi
]?; i ,
[ PROi ].

,
.
: (45) [ PROi , ,
,] / {
(. ).
328

VI.
2. PRO
,
(
, ):
1. . .
, ;
2. . .
..., ...,
... ;
3. . . ,
,
, ;
4. . .
, ;
5. . . ,
;
6.

-
; ;
7. PRO [PRO ,] ;
8. PRO , [PRO
].

2.2.4. pro


,
,
,
[Avrutin, Babyonyshev 1997]1: (46)
, vs. ,
.
, ,
(pro)
,
, .
: (47) *{ ,
proi || ; * , pri ||
,
.
{ , )
, : +
[Brecht 1977].

329

1.

; i , *proi| ?
. -:
(48) * i ||
.
: (49)
i
. : (50) * , i , prot ? , ,
.
,


.
, -
. ,

/

(
., , [ 2000: 106-113].)
VI-1 ( .. ).
( , ):
1. ,
.
2 , .
3. ,
.
4. ,
.
5. ,
.

.

-.
.
.

-.

:
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
, , (switch reference, .: '
'), ,

330

VI..
. ,
( , )

-shpa, - -pti [Cole 1983:
3; . .. 1988: 289-290]:
(51) .
chakra-chaw urya-shpa,
pallamu-rqu-u
wayta-kuna-ta
-
- --1 --
' , '.
.
chakra-chaw urya-pti-i,
Maria pallamu-rqu-u wayta-kuna-ta
-
--1 --3 --
' , '.

. [Haiman, Munro (eds.) 1983; . . 1988; Stirling
1993; 1998: 302-307].
, ,
-
. .,
- , ,
( .: [,
1988; 1985]): (52) }
? (, ); (53) i j /
, , - ().

2.2.5. PRO


(54) *
, (
, ), PRO :

PRO
. (55) , , / , , (,
), "" ''


[ 1983: 16].
,
331

1.

- PRO ~
,
: (56) ,

[ 1982: 135136]; , /
(, );
, ,
(, ); ,

(, ).
: (57) ? ,
,
: , ,
[ 1982: 137]; ,
, I /
(, );
/ : / ,
, (, );
,
(. , ).
[ 1983: 45],

: (58) , ;
? , ; ?
, ; ?
, , [] 1 [ 1982: 130-141].
: (59) ,
? : (60) *
,,PROi .

3. PRO
,
( ,
):
I. . .
, ;
2. . . (-)
..., ...,
... ;
3. . . ,
,
, ;

332

a VI.

2.2.6.

( vs. )
V 1.1
(. [Nichols 1981; 1985; Pesetsky 1982]).

: (61) , ,
, .
: (62) , , (
..) (//*).
(, ,
, ) (, ,
, ) :
(63) \\ ;(64)
|| . .

: \\ [ 1983: 11-12]. , :

, , -
. . .. ,
- : (65)
\\ ,
(//*) [ : 12],
: (66)
|| .
(67), (68)
: (67) *

333

1.

; (68) ;
[ 1983: 41, 45].

, . (69) , *
. , . . ,
. .:
.
4.
,
( ,
):
1. . .
, ;
2. . . (-)
..., ...,
... ;
3. . . ,
,
, .
4. . . ,
;
5. 0 -
0 ; 0 ;
6. PRO [PRO ,] .

2.2.1.

,
, -, -, -
-, . .
[ 1983; 1995]:
, , (), (): (70)
(//*); (71) -_
(//* ); (72) (//*);
(73) (//*) . .

, (70-73), - : (74)
. ; . (//*)
; (75) . ; .
; . * ; (76) . ; . * . 334

VI.

: (77) . ;
. * ; (78) .
() ; . *()
; (79) . , (.
); . ?? .
(80), - (806) : (80) .
; . *
.

-: , ,
., (826836),
(8283): (82) . ; 6.
; (83) .
; 6. [
1983: 12-14].
, ,
. .
, (84) ;
; ;
; , , (85) *
; * ; *
; * .
, -
, - - .
-,
: --, --, --.
,
,
[ 1995]. , ,
,
,
[ 1983: 42], . (86) (//*)
, (87) * (88) * .
5.
,
( ,
):
1. . . (-)
..., ...,
... ;

335

1.
2. . . ,
,
, ;
3. PRO ,
[PRO ];
4. PRO [PRO ,] .

2.3.
, ,
(
) .


.
" " ("
") (
), : ) ,
) ,
, ,
. ., )
, . ., ,
. () ,
, , . .
, ,
[ 1983: 20].

2.3.1.


;
. .

, , [ 1988]: (89)
-> , (90)
-> * (). . .
(-,
,
): (91) . ->
, . * () ()
. , - . . 336

VI-

, ,
, , : (92)
, (93) * .

. : [ 1963;
Chvany 1975; 1977; 1978; 1979 (1992); 1973; 1985 (1980); Babby 1980; Pesetsky 1982; 1982:
53-57; 1983: 21; 1985; Corbett 1986; Timberlake 1986;
1992; 1997; 1995; Bailyn 1997; Borschev, Partee 1998; 2001;
, 1998; Brown 1999].

,
,
. . (94) ; ;
; (95) -
- *- ; *
; * ; *
.

. .
. ,
,
, . (96) . *
] . ] (97) . *
] . [
1983: 21]. (94)
(95),
- -,
2.2.7.
( )
,
. [Pesetsky
1982: 45]; , , ..
: (98) . ] .
. (98)
- ' ,
',
swim] (986)
', - float. (986), ,
, ( ,
).
. (99) .

- . (99)
337

1.

, - ' '; (996)


, , (99),
' '.

, . (100) . . * ;
(101) . . *
[ 1983: 42, 45].
6.
. . . . (-) ...,
..., ... ,
.

2.3.2. +
. . (= )

(102) . -> ?
; .
; (103) ->
.
, .
[Crockett 1976a; 1978; Babby 1980; Pesetsky
1982; 1995]. (103) (1026),
.
(102) (.

? () )
(104) * ; *
. .
, -: (105)
[ 1983: 2223].
,
2.2.7 2.3.1, . . - : (106) 1 ; *
; *
; (107)
; .
.. (98): (108)
, {float),
(swim). . 338

VI.

[1982]; .. .. [1949],
.. .
: (109) .
; .
; (110) .
; . , -
, : *
[ 1983: 43, 45].
7.
+ ,
(
, ):
1. . .
, ;
2. . . (-)
..., ...,
...

2.3.3. PRO
,

(111) (112): (111)
( (112) ) -> (i
) PROi ; PROi , (i
); PROj {i; (113)
-> ({ ) PROi
... . . - PRO :
(114)* i PROi ,
' , '.
PRO -
,
: (115) i -> PROj ;
PRO, ; PROi [
2.3.4.


, . . ,
.
339

1.


. .: (116) -> .

, . ., ,

.
, . . ,
,
. .: (117)
_> . ; . :
. .
, -, . [1961], . [Connie 1976a; 1983: 25].
. .:
(118) -> .
,
,

, , - .
2.3.5.


: (119) ->
; - ;
-> . ,
,
, [ 1983:
25].
, : (120) (
.. ), , , .
,


.

340

VI.

2.3.6.
, , ,
( )
.

,
,
, :
(121) -> ; -
. .
-, (121), -
(. *\
*).
, ,
:
', ', ', ';
, , , . . [
1983: 2526]. , ,
:
', ', ',
- '.
,
,
,
...
- , ?... - , -
, , ... - ,
, (, ).

, .
' ( )' -

.


: gift-giving to chil
dren ' ', * child-giving of gifts, ,
; * man-shouting, , . . [Roeper, Siegel 1978; Grimshaw 1990: 1415].
, ,
, . ..

341

1.
- (< ) ('
') [ 1983: 26], ( .. ). ; , ,
,
.

2.4.

,
, ,
.
. 1.

+ ,

; ; +/- ,

; ,
,
.
,
, , - :
343

1.


(122) . .
(123) .
. ,
(122)
(123). , ,
: 14 . .
11 - . .
:


(122),
(122'),
14 , ,
, .
11:
(122")
(122), 11

.
11 .
,
,
,
: 1-4, 5-9, 10-11 12-15.
1215.
, ,

( )
344

ferula VI-

( ).
.
1011
.

,
, , ( . . III . 10).
. - ,
/
[ 1999:
349].
(124):


, , . .
( )
-. ,
, . :

345

1.

(125)
. , ,
: (1-) (2-).
-.
. (), - 1-
- 2- .
-
. , -, -
, , ,
, .
,
, ,
. . ,
, ,
. ,
(126), ,
[ 1999: 348].

(126)

,
, ,
, . (127) .
; . ; (128) *0
; (129)
. (127) ,
(128) -
-, (129)
- .

346

VI.

(14 59)
,
. 14
(. .); , ,
, .
, 59
( ( ) + + ),
, , . ,

5-9, - 1-4,
, , .
59:
(+/)
. ,
, -
. ?
,
. . (
. VIII). 5-9
,
. . , ,
. . , 59
.
,
,
59, . .
, 1015,
, 1-4. ,
,
. , ,
, 59
.
, , ,

-
14.
,
.

347

1.

2.5.


:
. .,
. ,
.. ,
[ . .]
: , ,
,
[1977: 3435]. ..
, -
[
- . .] [ 1982: 103].
. .,

,
- () ,
, ,
(130) ; ; ;
; ;
; . ., . [ 1982:
133; 1979]. , -
(), () , ,
, ( , )
[ 19736: 464]. , ,
,
, .
,
:
, , .
, , ,
,
.
, ,

, ,
,
(
[ 1990: 63])-

348

VI .
.. [1991: 33] ,
, ,
, .
8. ,
, ,
V, ,
:
1. . .
, ;
2. . . (-)
..., ...,
...;
3. . . ,
,
, ;
4. . . ,
;
5. . .
, ;
6. -
; ;
7. 0
, ; .
8. PRO ,
[PRO ]]
9. PRO [PRO ];
10. PRO [PRO ,] ;
11. PRO , [PRO
].

3.
3.1.

.
? ,
,

. . (
)
: (131) (//*him) see-s (//*see) his friends ()
349

1.

(//* ()) (-) (//*(-)) ',



PRO in order to
(132) / invited John in order to solve the problem '
, (//* ,
)'.
, : (133) Johnx told
Billj about himselfi/j ' j || 1/5\

,
.
-,

.
( ,
).

(. . ,

): (134) On Monday John left '
'.
: (135) a. John left
on Monday, : . * Monday left John.
-,
,

(
).

( ).
(
, ).
. ,

: (136) a. John has often given me good advice
6. Often John has given me good advice '
'.
: . (* Often) Has
(*often) John often given me good advice? '
?'.
-,
, 350

VI.

, (137) a. [Into the house] is where


she ran . ' [ , ] ' . Is
[into the house] where she ran? ' ?';
(138) a. [From New York to Boston] is too far for you ' . Is [from
New-York to Boston] too far for you? '
- ?'; (139) Is [get in trouble] what
you really want to do? ' |

-
(tag questions),
(tag), , ,
,
: (140) John's coming, isn't he?
' , ?', (141) can't read, can he? '
, ?'
, ,
: (142) They haven't
left, have they? ' , ?', (143) They left, didn't
th?' , ?'.
: ,
, .
,
: (144) . / said the truth to the man, didn't I? '
, ?', . . */ said the
truth to the man, didn't it?, . */said the truth to the man, didn't
he?; (145) a. Bill should give the candies to Janet, shouldn't he?
' , ?', . . *ill
should give the candies to Janet, shouldn't they (them)?, . *Bill
should give the candies to Janet, shouldn 't she (her) ?
,
, (146) Bill hopes
that Mary will come, doesn't he?/... *won't she? ' ,
, ?',
: (147) I suppose she isn't coming, is she?/ ...
*don't I? ' , , ?', . . ... ? (148) , ,
? ( ? || *
?') (149) , , ?
(' ? ||
?'), . [ 1983: 84-85; 1995: 104].
|

12-4755

351

1.


indeed ' ': (150) Joe said that
the tall guy would show up, and indeed he did '
, ,
'.

, , -,
. there
it ,
- (dummy subjects). There
- (
), (151) a. There will be
peaches for dessert ' ',
. Will there be f peaches for dessert?
: (152) There s a tornado coming, isn't
there? (//* isn't if.) ' , ?' .
indeed: (153) Frank predicted that there would
be a riot and indeed there was (//*it was) ' ,
, , '.

, , there: -
: (154) a. There are two boys in the room
' '; 6. There is a boy in the room '
', . * There is two boys in the room2.

.
, (155) The cat is out of the bag '
', .: ' ' (156) The fur
will fly ' ', .: ' '.
the cat the fur
, ,
,
. , , (157) to
drive the cat out of the bag ' '
' ' (158) to see the flying
fur ', ' ' '.


( . V 2.2):
2

.. ,
there's : There's two boys in the room
There's a boy...

352

VI.

(159) . All the boys left ' '; . The boys all
left ' ';
: (160) a. I saw all the boys '
'; . */ saw the boys all.

himself herself , ,

, ,
, . . ,
( V 2.2):
(161) a. The president himself is coming '
'; . The president is coming himself '
'. (1626) :
(162) a. We put the president himself in our car '
'; . *We put the president in
our car himself He
: (163) a. I looked behind the president himself for guards ' '; . */ looked behind the president for guards himself

alone
'', (164) Father alone can help you '
', (165) "Call Bob alone '
', */ believe that alone ' ', */
talked to Smith alone ' ', */ refuse
to work with her alone ' '.
, (166) put
his faith in God alone ' ',
alone , '': (167)
I spent more on books alone than you spent on books, xeroxing, and journals 'Ha
, ,
' (.. , . .).


not many not much ' , ', (168)
Not_ many people have learned Old Chinese 'He
', (169) "Joe kissed not many
models ' ', (170) "Jane earns
Not much money ' ',
(171) * Sally talked to Bob about not many problems '
', (172) */ bought kanga
roos from not many Australians '
'.
12*

353

1.

3.2.


, accusativus cum infinitivo
(censeo Carthagin-em delendam esse ',
', .: ' (-)
-'), ,
(173) know '', believe ', ', report '
', want '', expect '', consider '', find
'', like '', hate ''
- . .,
, : / expected
him to go ' , '. him
,
, (
).
(173)
,
, , .
, , (174) persuade '', force '
', encourage '', order '', tell '
', convince '', , / persuaded him to go '
'. him ''
''.
(174), ,
, -,
(173) .
. .,
. ,

. ,

: (175) I've
never known the fur to fly so quickly ' ,
', , ' ';
(176) They reported the cat to be out of the bag ' ,
', , ' '.

it there: (177) I believe it to be unlike
ly that he come ', '; (178) I've
never known it to snow in summer ' ,
354

Vl.

'; (179) / believe there to be no alternative '


, '; (180) Jeff wanted there to
be a party ' , '. .
-
: (181) */ ordered it to rain '
'; (182) *Jeff persuaded there to be a party '
, '.


(183), (184): (183) a. Sam wanted the doctor to
examine Mary ' , '; . Sam
wanted Mary to be examined by the doctor ' ,
'; (184) a. Sam persuaded the doc
tor to examine Mary ' ';
. Sam persuaded Mary to be examined by the doctor '
'.
,
(185) a. Jeff wanted all the boys to leave -> 6. Jeff wanted the boys
all to leave ' , ', .
(186) a. Jeff persuaded all the boys to leave '
' -> . *Jeff persuaded the boys all to leave.
,
, : (187) # H considered the rock
to have insulted Mary ' , ', .
(188) considered the rock to be heavier than the
candle ' , , '.
,
, ,
. ,
, . (189) I believe him (//*he) to be hungry ' ,
(//*) '. , ,
,
,
. , ,
-
,
.
1970- . ,
,
, (
!) . ,
(Exceptional Case

355

1.
Marking) , ,
(189).
. , [Baltin 1980] ,
(1906) , (190): (190)
. / told Bill myself to leave the room ' ,
'; . ??I believed Bill myself to be a liar ' ,
'. (1906) myself,
, Bill
, , (1906), (190),
:
(190) ...told Bill myself [n to leave...,
?? (1906) ...believed [n Bill myself to be...
(1906), ,
.
(190) ,
.


,
, , :
1) ,
, : (191) John
believes himself to be experienced ' '.

: (192) *Mary believes John to have
scratched herself ' , '.
: (193) *
believes that John has scratched herself, , ,
, John - ,
.

2) 3- .
,
, . .
: (194) *Johni believes him, to have won the race
'i , i ' (.
(195) *Johni believes him, 'i i).
, (194-195)
,
.
3)
,
: (196) John is believed to be expe
rienced ' '.
356

VI.


: (197) I believe the President inca
pable of deception ' ,
'; (198) / consider John extremely intelligent ' '; (199) Could you let the cat into the
house? ?'.
, ,
,
(200) Why did you let the cat out of the bag? '
?', , ' ',
, (201) / believe it
inevitable that war will break out ' ,
'; I consider it time to leave ' ,
'.
(202) / consider the president entirely responsible himself '
'.
alone
'': (203) I consider John alone responsible for the col
lapse of the team ' ,
'. not many
: (204) /
consider not many people suitable for the post ' ,
'.
, ,
. .

: (205) / consider him intelli
gent ' , '; is considered intelligent '
'; / consider myself intelligent '
'.
,
,
-
.

4.

,
.
, 357

1.

. :

( )
- ,
.
, , ,
(
, ): (206) . it- cej ilXib '(-)
() '; . it ci-ne HXib , .: <Ero(HOM)i
(- '.
-
, [ 1979
(1992); 1999].
, , [Foley 1993].
( , )

,
. ,
:
(207)
guram-d
cwadgolme giw-i
dacwir
i
acad
-
- .

() ( )'.
(207) :

( '), (' '),
( ').

.
[ 1982 (1976;
); 1983; 1979 (1992); (.) 1992 (
.. ); Faarlund 1988; Foley 1993; Kibrik
1997]. ,
,
11- [ (.) 1982];
. [Croft 1991; Bhat 1991].

(Relational Grammar) .

358

VI.
XI. .
[ (.) 1982].

[Perlmutter (ed.) 1983; Perlmutter, Rosen (eds.) 1984; Postal, Joseph
(eds.) 1990]; ,
, [Cole, Sadock (eds.) 1977].
,
,
.
[Harris 1981].
()
[Dziwirek 1994]. - [Bresnan (ed.) 1982];
[Dziwirek et al.
(eds.) 1990; Burgess et al. (eds.) 1995].
[Yaguello (ed.) 1994].

.. ..
[1949]. ,
.. , . [ 1976; 1979; Nichols et al.
1980; Neidle 1988];
. . - [Franks, Greenberg 1988; Kondrashova 1994, Komar
1999; Moore, Perlmutter 2000, Schoorlemmer 1994].
- [Partee 1979; Postal 1974];

[Radford 1988; Napoli 1993].
[Cardinaletti, Guasti (eds.) 1995].

VII




,
(. 1). ,
, () ,
(. 2).
,
. ,
,
(
).
(
), (. 3).

.
, , (. 4).

1.
?
I II

.


. ,

,


1.
(, , , B , ,
, , . .,
, , .

. ,
, -
, , ,
I .

360

VII

. .),
.


(, , ,
. .).
, , ,

, ? ,
.

, . . .
(1) (
): () + + + +
( ): (1")
+ + + + + .

, . .
,

( ,
I II). ,
. . .


- .
, . .
: 1)
-,
(2) +- , 2)
.
,
, ,
,
(, )
, -


[Mel'cuk, Pertsov 1987: 53].
(3) .
, ,
(3')
(3"):
361

1.

(3") [ [- [-]]]
,
?

. ,
, , -
, , . , ,
-. ,
, ,
-.
,
? ,
(,
),
,
,
. ,
. .,
, (
) (
)
, .

, . .
(= ),
.
.
- (3)
. ,
, , ( ).
, ,
, . .
, , (
) ( , , ) .
- -
- ()
() . ,

362

11.


, ,
, ,
. ,
( 3 ) .
(3)
. . . ., ,
,
. (3) ,
, : *-
-, *- - . . ,
, ,
,
(*- -).

. -
,

. , ,
3- .
,
:
(4) ,
- ;
, , ,
:
!

; (
, ).

(4)
,
, , .

, ,
.
.. [1993; 2000: 308-309]
.
, , (3)
, ,

363

1.

, (3).
,

.
, , -
- . .

-
, .

2.
, , (,
,
- . .),
-, ,
(,
)
(,
).
:

,
, ,
, , ,
. .

,
. ,
,

, .
(//* )
(//* ), ,
, , ,
,
, , .

; ,
(. . ),
364

. ,
, - (
), . .
,
,
. ,
,
( ),
-
( ), -
( ), (= )

( ) . .

,

(5) ,
, , , . ., ,

(6) , , , , . .
,
. ,
,
, ,
.
(5) (=
) . ,
,
.
, ,
, treffen
begegnen '', ,
( . .).
. .
, :
[ - -], [ - -], [ -
-] . . ,
. . , ,
, , ,
(,
. .) -.
365

1.



. ,
,
:
- ; -, .
. (

VIII 7.2).
,
- , ,
. ( ), ,

, ,
, , [ 1993: 21].


.
(7) ,
, ,
(8) , , . (7)
, (8)
- .
, .

,
. ,
,
: (9) ; ; ;
. .,
(, . .).
: , ,
, () ,
, . former '' .

, . , (
), (
).
366

VII.

,

.

3.
,

. . 1
, ,
,
, - .
, . . :
(10) [ [ ]]

, ,
, , (10') [ ]
(10).

, a
, (,
, [
]).
- (10)
. . . .,

, . .
. ,
,
,
. ,

,
.
,
Wj w2
, g ,
wr,
f w2. w2
, a w, -
[ 1964; 1993].
367

1.


..., , ,
.

. , g
f : 1)
w2 w 2 \ w2
, f,
( - * , f - );
2) w2' ,
w3, w2
f, w2 w3
( * , f
); 3)
, Wj (; ),
g
( ; ).

, . ,
:
,
* ().
:
"X Y" (,
)
: ,
X, Y [ 1993? 20].
, ,
. , ,
, , . . ,
. . .
,
,
.


- ,

, ,

(11) {//^ ) [ 1993: 21];
, ,
, (11)
.
368

VII.


( )
: ,
, .
:
(
),
. ,
, - -
, . ,
cdi ; con -
( ); - ; qua : (12) a. ba cdi bat ' ', ,
; . con ' '; . 1 ' '; . qua chudi '
',
*ba bat, *ba ... . . [ 2000: 239].

,
Wj w2

. , ,
wt w2
.
(10).
,
, ,
,
.
, ,
, ,

.
,
( -)
, (
)
,
, . . :
- ' ', , -. . [Nichols
1986] :

.

369

1.

,
:
- -
,
:


,

. (13)
- ()
- (),
-- () -- ().
( ,
), , , : , ' '
, , . .:
-- 1 '(--) '.
, (13):
(14)

.
-
. -
' '.
.
-
. -
' '.
.
-
. -
' '.

-
-
-
-
-
-



, .
370

VII.

-
.

, ,
.
,
(),
,
( ,
).
.
,
, . ,


: -, (
. .), , -,
,
(
).
, .

(status absolutus), -
(status constructus): (15) a. kitab-un '(-.; . kitab-u ]r-ragul-i '(-.) (-)
(-)'.
:
, ,
( . .)
, : (16) a. daxal-a t-talib-u '(-...) (-)(-)'; . daxal-at ttalibat-u '(-..) (-)(-)';
. daxal-ta 'anta '(-2..) '.

,
.
.

371

1.

4.
4.1.

:
I. (
-)
: - - - - -
-;
II. :
- -; -; - -;
III.
: - - ;
IV. (
) (
):
- -; - ;
-.

. .

, .


. (), .
-
.
, . I II
, III IV
.
(I III)
(
), (II IV) -
( );
, .
372

VII.

(I III)
, ;
( ), , - ,
.
I IV, ,
:
1)
, ;
2) ,
.
4.2.


,
.
I. ,

- -, :
(, -),
(-, -).

, (17)
,
,
:
1) ,
;
373

1.

2)
,
;
3) -
(
), - , (17),
;

.
, ,
, () , ()
, . ,
,
. ,
,
(= )
(= )
[ 1993: 25; 1998: 351-352].
II -
:
(18) - -. , (17),
,
- . (18)
(17) :
1) ;
2)
, ;
3)

,
.
,

.
, , III IV


,
I II.
,
;
374

11.

,
.
,
,
,
:
(,
), - ( )
- ( ).
:
- , -

,2 -
, ,
-
w1, ,
w2 ,
D!
4.3.
,
.
,
, . .
,
,
, ?

() (),

,
.
,

, 3
, ,
.. :
, ,
[ (.)
1989: 559].

375

1.

: , . . ,
, . . -
, . .
, (. ),
-,

, :
, , ,
,
(
,
). (
) ,
. ,
(
):
(19) . [buyiik ev]-0 ' ', . .; . [biiyiik ev]in ' ', . .; . [biiyiik ev]-e ' '
. .
, , ,
, , ,
, [ , /
] / , / (
, ) (,
) , ,
, - (
?..)
. ,

[Mel'cuk 1986;
1998: 344]. ,
( ),
, ,
.
,
, : (20) [. . [..
] [ ] ] . ,
(20)
.
,
,

.
376

VII.


: - , -
. ,
(
...). (20),
-,
.
,
.
,

: (21) . (21)
,
( . . ),
,
(21) . : (21') [. . [..
] [. . ]] .
,
, .
, II 4.1,
,
- .
,
,
- -,
, .

,
- (,
)
. ,
:

377

1.
. ein
..

schon-es
...
' ' (.)
. das
schon-e
..
...
' ' (.)

Bild

().
Bild

().

,

,
. ,
, ,
() ,
.
.. [1993: 52]
.
: ,
(
- ). , .. ,
,
.
- , , ,

.
,
.
, () ,
,

:
, .


,
( ,
- , ).
,
{Student '', . . "
Student-en ., ., . .),
378

VII

. , ,
( ),
.
:
(23)


(23) (236)
. ,
? ,
, ,
,
, , .

() ,
, () ,
. ,

. -

( ).

:
(24)
.


, ,

[
379

I
1.

1993: 24]. ,
,

, -
.
( ,
)
,
,

( . [ (.)
1999: 608620]). ,
,
. , (25)
(, , . VI 2.4) 2-
( , -), (26)
3- (
, -)\
(25)
. za-k'le-r
sanixa ici
Gajji
-~-.2.
.2. .2.
' '.
. za-k'le
sanixa-r
ici
Gaffi
- -.2.
.2. .2.
' '.
. za-k'le
sanixa
ici-r
Gajji
-
.2. -.2. .2.
' '.
(26)
. za-k'le-b
sanixa
bisj
Gawju
--..
.. ..
' '.
. za-k'le
sanixa-b
bisi
Gaw3u
-
-.. .. ..
' '.
. za-k'le
sanixa bisi-b
Gav3u
-
.. -.. ..
' '.
,
, -

380

VII

,

3. , 2
(25) 3 (26)
. (25-26)

:
, ;
,
- ( , ,
) - ,
.

,
(
, ... . .). ..
, -
,
- [ 1993: 43]. ,
,
,
,
.
tout '' ,
, , : tout
mouille ' ', tout-e - ' ', tou-t
mouille-s ' (. p.)', tout-e mouille-es '
(. .)' [ ]. ,
.. ,
:
, , [ 1996: 27]4.
, ,
3

(25-26) ,
. , , -
,
.
4
, , , , ..
, ... ...
[ : 28]: (27) . '
, ', . '
',
- , (27)
(276) , ,
, . ^ ; * . .

381

1.

: [ . . -] [ . . - -] ,


,
-
,
.
,

, :
(28) -& -; - - -
. . (28) -
,
. ,
, 5.
,

, ,
( .. )
.
VII-1. ( , ) .
:

(28) , ,
,
;
. [ 1990: 44-48].

382

VII.

.
:
.
.
.
.
.
.
. , , - .


( , ): (29) a. d-ez buwa
L ' a n - 2-) '; . w-ez dija L'an '(1-)
'. (29) - -
. ., -
: (29) 2- (
) d-, (296) - 1- (
) w-.

( ,
).
,
;
,
,
, .
4.4.

, . .
.

, :
, .

13-4755
^

383

1.

. ,
-
,
; ,
,
, .
( II),

,
: - (
,
, ).
, II
, ,
(
).
()
.
4.5. , ?

-,
,
.
,
, ,
, .
(
, ,
, ).
. , .
,
,
, . - :

[ - . .].
,
, .
,
[Corbett 1998: 22].

384

VII.

- (15),
, -. (
) ,

; , ,
- , . (30) ''; - pedar
'(-.) '; - man '(-.) '; [ - [ pedar-e
man]] '[ (-.) [ (-.) ]]' [ 2000: 185].



, - ,
.
,
(24).
, , (31)
(
[Barlow, Ferguson 1988: 6]):
(31) a. isa
toy
a
axat

' (a good woman)5


. ha-isa
ha-tova
-
-
' (the good woman)'
4.6. ?
,
,
,
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
(3
, (= ), 13*

385

1.

, ,
.
,
, ,
,
-
,
. ,

(32) [ ]
,
(32).

(33) [ [ [ ]]
[ [ ]]].
(33) -
(34) [ [ ]]
, (35) [ [
]]]. (34) [
]] (33) ,
,
[ [
]].
(34).
(33)
(35) [ ] ; (36)
[ ], (37) [
] (33)
, (3536),
, (37)
. , (3537)
.
,

, .
, (3 , ,
.
,
() ()
() (38),
() :
(38) [[ ] ^]
386

VII

() - ( 2) - { (2),
(y1 y2) :
(39) [1 1 1[ ], 2[
2
- ]} (,
).
-,

. (
, ,
. 3.2.)

, , (3839),
, , , (38-39) - .

(J
; .
()
.
( -
, ) [Troike 1981]:
(40) a. Cin Dios tupo-n
na-kawa
xo

-.1 1.-
' ',
. Dios
tupo-m
xa-kawa xo

-.2
2-
/ (-) '.
. .
.
(
, ).
VII-2.
.
:
1-
2.
3.
4-
5-
6.

387

mijarek'aldi hoj moc'i c'innir.


josk'alliwo mijarLi hilur.
how moc'isuwo c'e bic'unnir.
homoloRisdi josk'a qirahir.
moc'ildi cina'al qurdir.
c'esdi how xorosa wucir.

1.
7.
.
8

mijarek'asujo hoj mijarLi anlir.


9

c'ellijo cina'al c'innir.


10

mijarLildi homoloRi eltar.


11.
wuGwor.
. -
, .

,

,
: (41) . [ My brother] washes
[himself] ' '; . [ My sister] washes
[ herself] ' '; . [ My cat] washes
[ Itself] ' '.

(
).
-

. , (39) [ ] . .
, -
. [
], ,
. . -,

.
,

. , , ,
,
,
. ,
, - (, , ) .
,
, ,
, .
(13), (24) (25-26).
.
, , ,
, :

388

VII.
;
(=
)
.

4.7. :
1974 . . :
,
(argument) , . .
(functions) ,
[ 1974]. (
, , 5.2).
,
, -,
( );
,
.
,
,
: - - .
,
, (42)
(43)
,

: (42) - --
; -- -- ;
- - ; (43) -
- ;
(40).

-
(. IV, (7))
.
, -,

.
:

389

1.

[ 1977: 35]. .. ,
, , [1990: 4849],

: {
)
:
.
4.8.

. 1,

() ,


.
,

.

, ,
(= )
: 1) -, 2) -
3) .
- ,
,
.
:
(44) , j ixi+} .
,

. , -,
-, -, -
. , ,
, he '', she '' it ', ,
(.)' ,
, [ 1993: 50].

,
:


390

VII.

;
.
, ,
.
,

: (45) . (, )
|| . ... -; (46) . - ;
. ...-... (
.. [1993: 36]).

: (47) (//*-) -- (//*)
- (//*-); (48) - -
( [ ]).
(456-466)


(, ,
(456) , (47). (4546)
(, ).
,

. . , ,
, . ,
,

?
.
[Corbett 1983; 1988: 48]:
(49) > >
> .
(49) ,
.
, ,
- , -,
;
.

: (50) . ... ... - (?? -);
. , - (? -
) ... ; .
- II -; . - (//*-) .
391

1.
.
, (49). ,

(49),
?






, , . .
,
.
, ,

: (51) . , - {
) , - () ; .
, - , - ;
(52) . : --

(, ), .
: - -... , .
: - -...; (53)
: --, ; .
: --, . (5153)
,
. .
, . .: (54)
: - , .
4.9.
. ,
,
, ""
. ,
, [Corbett 1999:
211-212].
392

VII
VII-3 ( .. ).
( ) :
.
1. 1
.
2.
3. .
.
4.
.
5. I
.
6. xlyuia
.
7. I I
.
8.
:
.
.
.
.
.

.. [1979; 1997],
( ,
), 1- 2-
, :
(55)

a.

dice

'I

du

riqan-da
(-1).
riqan-de
(-2).

1- 2-
,
:
dice
it
riqan-da
(56)
.

'i

ite

it

du

Hi

(-1).
riqan-de
(-2).
riqan-da

(-1).

riqan-de
(-2).

,
, ;
,
393

1.

: 1- 2- >
1- 2- > .
,
,
. . .

,
.
( ),

. (
.)
(57) - -, X.
, [ - . .]
, ... [Lehmann 1988:
57]. : (58) . - (-); . *- - (-)] . -
- (//*-).

. . . .,
.
, , -
, (58)
.
,

.

,
,
(resolution rules).

. ., . .
, , . (59) . --
(--) ; .
-- (//*--); (60) - (-,
*-) , , ; -
(-, -*) , ,
[ . 1976: 31; Corbett 1988: 24].

,
[Corbett 1988: 26]:
394

VII

(61
lnjig-e
in per-esa
so se
podrazil-e
-. .- -.
' '.

, (62) -
, .
(62)? ,
,
. .
, ,
.
,
. ,
(
),
,
.
.
, ,
, . .
. (
. 4.10).

. .; ,
, ( ;
), (
), (
), ,
(; ,
),
3 . . . . . , . ,
, (
, . .) 3 .
. . . . -, , ,
,
,
. ., : (63)
--
(//*--). -, ,
395

1.

, .
(64) - (//-), (65)
- (//*-), - (65)
,
. ,
3 . . . . .,
,
- (-), -: (66) CIM"I 1 i -,
i - (//*-) ' ,
' [Corbett 1988: 33-34].
4.10.

.

. .
4.10.1. :
.

(= )
- 1) ,
2) . . :
(67) . [ - \\ - \\ - \\ - ||
[ ]]; . [ - || -~\\ -~\\ - ||
- [ ]].

.. [1967: 71-72]
. .. ,
, -,
. . (- , - , -
), , -, (-
).

,
,
. .
. , :
(68) (-) ; - (396

VII.

) (69) (-) ;
'- {-) ; - (-)
; - . .
(68-59) , (49)
. ,
,
, ,
.

, . .
. (70) . -;
. - -; . -
-; . - -.
: . * .

(. III . 7): (71) .
- ; . -
; . - ;
. - , *
- .
, (7071)
, -
(7071). , (70
71) ,
, . ,
, (67)
,
, (7071).
,
,
.
4.10.2. :
.
, ,
. ., .

, . ., . .,
-.
, 397

1.

,
, . ,
, . .
, :
(72)

[ mama-s
-

[ karg-i
[ -

megobr-isa]-s]
-]-

' '


, , . .
, , ( , ):
(73)
[ bagul wangal-gu
. -

[ bangul-djin-gu yarra-ngunjdjin-gu]]
--
--

' '

-
[Lehmann 1988:
55].

, , ( , )
[ 1993: 38-39; 2000: 301].
, - .

.

(
):
(74) . [ Mu-ntu
mu-ndombi]
a-bwidi
I-
I-
I-
' '.
. [ Ki-nkutu -ndombi]
-bwidi
VII-
VII-
-
' ',
.

[ Ki-nkutu ki-ndombi [ ki-mu-ntu Ja-mu-ndombi]] ki-bwidi


VII-
VII- VII-I- VII-I-
VII-

' '.
398

VII.
VII-4.
:
1. mcbierebaj igi mterta mat masenebelta mat qovelta mat didebulta
monastertaj -

2. okroj igi qovelta mat metaurta kalakta mat senisa mis pitiaxsisaj -

3. upalajta mit didebulisa mis spaspetisajta -

4. cruj igi sitguaj berisa mis mterisa cuenta mat kalaktaj -

5. rujta mit cremlta mat enisa mis glaxakisa colisajta -

6. saukunojta mit cqarojta sibrsnisa mis masenebelisajta mis -

:
saukunoj igi ruj
cqaroj igi senta mat cremltaj
sitquaj igi glaxakisa mis metaurisa cuenisa mis monasterisaj
:




. .

: -
, . .,
: (75) sakme- mocikul-isa-n-i '(--) (---).
VI1-5.
( , )
:
1. susu Glajdik hit'ik'nuw .
2. Xutul Ga'aXnuw
.
3.
risi
hit'ik'niCv
.
4. calilc diGunuxa
.
5 baj hit'ik'nucuq
.
6. susu diGunuxux

7. harix Gu3vnuca
.
8. Xutul huCy'unix
.

399

1.
:
Xutul calix diGunuw
Ga'aXnucva
baj hit'ik'nucux
susu Glajdix diGunucvuk
:
.
.
.


,
(= ) .
, , ,
, ( ,
), ( - )
( -, ) [
1993: 54]. -
:
(76) sa-pash-at
--

a_-litiha
1-.

' '.
, ,
, .
, ,
(Possessor Raising),
(. VIII .7). (. .
),
.


,
, : (77)
. [ ]
-; . ... -; . *-6.

: (78) Piec pior jest now-ych '
(.) () - (. )' [Corbett 1988:
28].


(77).

400

VII.

4.10.3.
,
(long-distance agreement), . .
, . ,
, . (79) There seem to be unicorns in the garden
', '. seem '
' unicorns '',
[Barlow,
Ferguson 1988: 9].
( there
),
seem
.


. ,
() kwasas
' '
(80) [tow-mu je-b
a-b-cas]
kwa-b-suqi
[- -1&. -] .-?
', . ,
.

' ' -

.
je-b '' -
-b>-,
. . I II [ 19796: 37].

- [ (.)
19826: 44-65], [Haspelmath 1999a],
[ (.) 1999] [Polinsky, Comrie 1999;
Potsdam, Polinsky 1999; Polinsky, Potsdam 2001],
[Davison 1988].
:
- a-b-cas kwa-b-suqi
, ,
.

401

1.

-if- ''
- .
,
; eni-r ''
. . (. - ).
.
: uz-d magalu
b-dc'-ru-Xi, TV ( r-),
(81),

magalu '', III b- (816) [Polinsky,
Comrie 1999: 116].
,
, -
: (82) .
, ; . , ;
(83) , { ).

.
.


, . : (84)
, ( ). (. .
)
, , :
(85) , .

5.
-
.
402

VII

III,
. ,


- , -
. ,

,
. ,
[ 1973: 32; (.) 1989: 563].
,
, : 1)

. ., (86) - ,
- ; 2) . .
, (87) - -,
y -; 3) ,
.
.. [2000: 306-307]
. : 1)
,
, (. .)
(. .) (. .); (. .)
(. .); (. .) (. .);
(. .); 2) - ,
(. .); (. .); 3) ,
,
( ); 4)
. . . - (. .), (. .);
5)
, (. .),
(. .); 6) -
:
(. .).
, .
- (88) ( + . .);
( + . .) (89) ,
( + ); , (
+
) . ..

403

1.

,
.
,
, ,
(8889).

X,
f w, :
X w;
X w (= w X);
f - w, f - -.
X
: 1)
2) - (
, X - ).
, . .
- , X (-)
w (
) w, f
( . )
X. - + . .
,
X ( )
w ( ),
w, f (
)
. . .

[- -], . .
( )
. . ( ) -
: f w ( ,
), , w,
.

: 1)

, - ; 2)
,
( ), . 404

VII.


, , -
.
, , 1) 2),
, .
, ,
,
: . .
'', - - ''?
, , .. :
" ", " " " "
...
,
,
- ,
- ,
(
, - ), [1990: 64].

, ,

:

, .
, , 7
,
. .. , -
,
[
..]. ,
,
[ 1992: 121].
5.1.
,
,
,

, ,

. ,
, ,
(90) , 405

1.

, ,
(
),
,
, . . ,
.
. . (91) ,
- (92)
. . - ,

,
,

. ,
,
- ,
.
5.2. :
, [
1974],
, (. 4.7):
.

-
. . (93) [- -], ,
. . (93)
' ' [Lehmann 1982; 1993: 34].
5.3.


, f
w, , :
(94) .
,
.
406

VI1.

5.4.
A.M.
. ""

,
,
,
, , [
1956 (1928): 285].
: ,
, ,
. .
, ,
[ . 1999: 286], ,
, , .
,
,
: ) (. III);
) vs.
) , . .
.
-.
) )
.. [1974: 84-87], .. ,
) [ .
1997: 19]. ,
(, III . 5
): , ,
, , ,
( , ),
{ , ).
1980 .

.

: , , ,
, , ,
: ,
, , [ (.)
1980: 20-21].

.
407

1.

5.5.

,

[ 1992: 120]. ,
-
, ,
, ,


. ,
,
: - -, - -
[ (.) 1989: 561].

6.


,
.
,
(,
), (
, )
.

,
,
,

[ (.) 1989: 568].
X,
,

-: , , ,
, , ,
, . .

,
408

VII

- :
, ,
[ . 1999: 288]
.


, ,

. , X
w, X
f w.
,
, . .
, ,
, , (95) .
.
; (96) .
; .
[ . 1997: 16]. w,
, ,
(96), w
. , ,
,
,
.
,
, ,

. , ( ) X Y
, XY, ,
-
. ,
(95) ,
(956) , ,

.
( ) ,
, ,
,
.

409

1.


[ 1977 ( 1992); 1979*
1982; Nichols 1985; 1993; Wunderlich 1994].
[Moravcsik 1978; Lehmann
1982]; [Bosch 1983; Lapointe
1985; Barlow 1992], [Barlow, Ferguson (eds.) 1988; Brentari
et al. (eds.) 1988; Danon-Boileau (eds.) 1996]
Folia linguistica, vol. 33, no. 2 1999 . . .

[Benmamoun 1992; Gelderen van 1997].

- [Corbett 1983];
[Corbett 1991; 2000].
, . ,
www.surrey.ac.uk/LIS/ SMG/agr.html.
[Crockett 1976; 1990; Schmidt, Lehfeldt
1995], - [ 1971].
[Plank (ed.) 1995].
. [1958 (1924)];
. [ 1970-1971; 1990] ( nexus
juncture - . [Van
Valin 1993; Van Valin, LaPolla 1997], ,
, ).
410

VIII

, ,

-
,
. , .
,
. , ,
, ,
(. 1).
, ,
(. 2).

, , ,
, . ,

(. 3). ,
,-
(. 4).

, ;

(. 5).

, ,
(. 6).
, ,
. ,
,
, , ,
.
,
. , ,

, , ,
(. 7).

1.
III
().
411

1.

. ,

:
() ,
() (
) . ,
:
(),
,
.
,
. , ,
.

,
(1) . , .
:
(1')

(1")
:
(2) . , .
; (3) . ,
. . .

.
,
, .
, 412

VIII. , ,

. (23)
,

(
-, -
: ),
,

.

( ,
)
, : 1)
, ,
-; 2)
; 3)
( > > ( ) >
)
( > >
> ).
, (
,
) - [ 1974]. ,
,
(= ).
, (4) .
. (46)
1):
(
),
.
, (46)
:
. ,
(5) . . (56)
2):

, :
. ,
(6) . .
, (66),
3):
413

1.

(6')
.

, ,
,
, ,
(= ) , .

(66),
( ),
,
, , (7) . , .
. .
,
(: ,
)

, (66),
.
,
,
.


. , , (7),
.
414

VIII. , ,


, , ,
, (9) .
' '; .
'; (96)
- '' '', ''
.
,
. ,
,
: (10) J'ai vu manger des Mens
' , ' ' ,
'.
,
: (II) L'n voyait encore tirer les filets par
les pecheurs ' , '
(.: ' ' [ 1988 (1959):
258, 442].
, . (12) The river abounds in fish '
' . Fish abound in the river . '
'; . (13) . .
.

2.

,
,
. . [1974].

, -, - . . , .

(146)
(14): (14) . ; . ; . .

: (15) a. Ludzie chodzili '
'; . Chodzono ''.

(166) (16):
14 4755

415

1.

(16) . ] . . . . .
,
- 0 ( !
V .4),
.
,
.

. .,
,
,
(17) Stefan-a posla-no na front '(-)
(-...) ', .
; (18) Poczt si przynosi codziennie '
(-AKK) () (, ) '.

. . : (19) , .
.
:
(20) a. qatala ssurtiyy-u Vamil-a '()
(-) (-)'; . qutila l'amil- ' ()
(-)' [ 1974: 16].
,
, :
(21) Nid addol-ir yn capel ' ', .
[ 1998: 170].


(22) . , .
, (23) .
, . .
- (24)
, ,
(. V.4).


, ,
() :
(25) . gave me a book ' '; . A book was
given to me ' '; . A book was given by him
to me ' '; . I was given a book '
416

VIII. , ,

', .: : . Iwas given a book by


him ' ', .: .
, -,

, , es:
(26) a. Alle Kinder tanzen ' '; . Es wird von
alien Kindern getanzt ( ), . .

3.
,

.
, ,
, , 1,
,

, ,
(, [Fox, Hopper (ed.) 1994; Givon
(ed.) 1994]).
?

(
3.07.2000, 19) (27),
(28)
(286):
(27)
.

.
.

,
,
.
1


,
.
,

.

417

1.



.
(28) . [] 0 ,
.
.
(, ).
. . ... ,
... , ... , , ,
(. , ).
(27)
,
.
,
(, -
, , , ),
- ,
. (,
)
.
, ,
- (,
. ), ,
. -
, ,
.
, -
,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
, -
.

(28) ,

-
0, ,
( -
) , ,
(
~ ).
418

; VIIL , ,

, ,
:
, ; ,
( 7:2);
(, ). (28)
()
. , ,
: ,
,
, , .
(286) , ,
- ,
- .
,
!. :
(),
(); (),
:
- , . ,
,

(
).
.. [1986]
.. [19976; 1998],
, ,
: (29)
(). (29)
, ,
, . . -
; (30)
().
, ;

[ 1986: 6].

( )
?
.. [2000: 191, 195],
:
(31) . ;
.
.
419

1.

(31)
.
(32),
:
(32) . ,..
.
,..
-, (32)
(31), (316), (326)
(316), (31). (32)
(31), , [31]
, ,
, [316]
...
, "",

[ 2000: 195].
(31) (316)
, . .

() (
. IX . 1). ,
,
, *
.
. -
,
, ,
,
() . ;
. .

,

... ...
...

,
;
2 ,

. .

420

VIII. , ,

[
: 196].
,

. ,

(
,
), , (33)
( ,
,
).

, (= ):
(34) , ,
. : (35) :- - '(-) (-) -'
[ 1974: 50].
VIII-1.
-,
-.
.

II

III

IV


, ,
.

421

1.
:
, , , , ,
, , , , ,
,
, - .
- ,
.
,
.

4.
,

(),
. ,
, (=
) .
X Y (, )
, X, Y
.
(= ).
(36)


, . (37) .
; . ; (38) . ; .
.
,
: (376) , -

422

VIII. , ,
, (37)
; (39) .
. , ,
(39), ,
, (396) .
.. , ,
: ,
, ,
-
, : ~ '...
, '. , , ,

:
, , , ;

[ 1998: 174].
. .
,
: ,
;
;
, , , . . ,
, ,
,
, (40)
; (41)
. , , ,
, ,
.

-
, , , . .:
(42) . ; . -.
,

(. III .9). (, ,
, .) ,

: (43) . ; . -; (44) .
; . -;, (45) .
; . -.

423

1.

5.
,
. , , ,
( )
. . ,
, ,
. , ,
,
, - .
(46)


X ()

Y ()

X ()

Y ()
-

- (476-486): (47) .
; 6. ; (48) .
; . .

[Dixon 1994],
. [Dixon 1972],
[Dixon 1977] [Blake 1979; 1982] ( - -, ), [ 1979; . 2000] ( ), () [Payne 1982],
( , ) [Mithun 1994] ,
, [Goetze 1940].
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
. -

424

VIII. , ,

, [Kazenin
1994], [Polinskaja, Nedjalkov 1987; Kozinsky et al. 1988],
[ 1995]
(, , ) () , [Jacobsen 1985],
, ( -).

, , . .
, [ 1986]. ,
, , .


-
( ): (49) .
; . ;
(50) . ; . .

(dative shift) : (51) . /
gave the book to Jane ' '; . I gave Jane the
book . ,
.
, to (51),
(516). Jane (516)
, ,
.
:
,

.
, . . . ,
, ,
payer '': (52) a. Pierre Marie '
'; . Pierre cent francs a Marie '
() '; . Pierre livre cent
francs ' [] '.
,
payer, :
() () (
);
,
. . (53) . ; .
425

1.

; (54) . ; .
.
,
, [ 1998: 181], . , ,
[Polinskaja, Nedjalkov 1987: 240]

(556)
-.

( ),
, ,
( ), .

6.
,
,
, .. [19976; 1998; 1999]
: (56) .
; . ; (57) .
; . ;
(58) . 5 ; . 5
; (59) . ;
. ; (60) . ; .
; (61) . ;
. . .3
, (56-61 - 566-616)
:
. [ 20006].

426

VIII. , ,

,
.
(5661)
, (566616)
.
,
{
), , ,
, , . .
,
{ ) [ 1999:
490].
: (62) . , 6. *
37 , (63) . ;
.* .
(646),
(64): (64) . ,
', . , .


(. III .9),
:

, .

. .: (65)
', (66) ; (67) ,
,
,
, (6970) (68)
. ., . . : (68)
; (69)
; (70) (
. [ 1964; 1966: 82]).
(71) a. We elected John '
'; . We elected a president '
'; . We elected [sc John president] '
' (71)
(small clause, SC),

V 1.6 VI 3.2.
427

1.

,
.
, ,

, . .

, .
,
,
.

{
); -
(, );
; . .

? [ 1999: 498].

7.
(72) , (73)

. ,
(74) . . .

(74) ,
(74) (746) :

('X '), 4
:
,
(, ,
, ). (746) (74)
, ,
. (75) . ; .
().

( ).
, ,
-: , :
* .

428

VIII. , ,

, ,
(7273)
. , :

- -, (7273).
?
, .
7.1.
III ,
.
- ,
,
.
, ,
,
( III
).
: (76)
, (77) ,
(78) , (79)
. . [ 1967: 159-161; 1969: 303].

, -. ,
, -. , -. ,
- .
, ,
- , :

,
, ,

, . ...
...
[
1974: 153154].
,
.

{
429

1.

;
);
( ;
;
);
( ; ,
).
(
; ;
) [ 1998: 75-76].
, (76-79) ,
, ... ,

,
. ,
, :
,
.
,
.
,
.

. , (77) -
; (
,
).
, (77')
.
,
(77) :

(79).
,
430

VIII. , ,

: (79') (
, ).

, ,
. . , ,
:
(81)

,
,
:
, . .

, . .
(82) Paul schlief einen tiefen Schlaf '
(.: )'; (83) a. Paul kampfte einen schweren
Kampf ' ' (,
);
: . Ein schwerer Kampf wurde von Paul gekampft .
.
7.2. ,


.

.
, ()-
: (84)
- ; (85)
.
431

1.

,
.
,
(

) -
(
), .
,
,
, , - , .
- ,
.

: . (86) alter '' /aire alter '
'; (87) a. Jean ecrira lettre au directeur '
'; . Je ferai ecrire lettre au directeur par
Jean ' ':
/aire
ecrire ''. ecrire
,
,
.
(causee),
-.

par.

.
, ,
. , ,
. ,
-:
(88) . - '() (-)'; .
- -- '() (-) .(-.)'.
432

VIII. , ,


.
, ,
(89) a. Saya duduk di kursi '
'; . Saya men-duduk-i kursi ' (-) []
'. (896) ,
di kursi ' ',
kursi '',
-

/.

,
, ,
. - () : (90) a. Ich spreche iiber deine Arbeit '
'; . Ich be-spreche deine Arbeit '
'; (8485) (91) . ; .
.
( )

(, ).

.

, . (92) a. John bought a book for Mary '
'; . John bought Mary a book ;

(52), .
, ,
: (93) a. Dia membuat kursi itu untuk saya '
APT) '; . Dia membuat-kan saya kursi itu ' (-) (APT)' : (94) a. is emends
"-is pexsacmleb-s ' (-) (-); . is
u-cmends da-s pexsacmleb-s ' (-) (-)
(-)'. . . (94)
. .
(946).
(
,
, -z-) (
, -cw): a-gara
433

1.

'' - a-z-gara ' ' - a-cw-gara ' ';


(95) a. sara s-cejt ' (1.-)'; . sara jam s-i-z-cejt '
[] (1...-.-)'; . sara jam s-ic^cejt ' [] (1...-.-) [ , ]'.
(
) ;
(89).
: (96) a. John slept in this bed
' '; . This bed was slept in by John;
(97) These cars are designed to be slept between '
, '.

:
, -,
:
(98) a. man surati daxata kedel-ze ' []
(-); . man surati da-a-xata kedel-s '
(.-) [] (-
,
, ,
, - ,
,

: (99) .
; . -5.
.
,
,
: (),
(), (), ) . .
, , ,
, , , , ,
, ,
, - (
) .
, ( )
, , ,
(1006) (100) - (100) (1006): . (100) a. We broke the window '
'; . The window broke ' '.

434

VIII. , ,
.
, -, , ,
.

, , ,

, .
,

,
.

, ,
.. . [, 1970;
1979; Mel'cuk 1993; 1998: 163-195]
. , .. , .. . (.
III).
.. ()
, B.C.
[1974; 1981; 1991], [ 1999].
. [
1974; 1977].

-
. . (
VI); ,
,
. [
(.) 1974; Siewierska 1984; Keenan 1985a],
() [Comrie 1977; Frajzyngier 1982;
1998]; - [ (.) 1978; 1981;
1989], [ 1978; Geniusene 1987; ,
1991], - [ 1978; 1991].
,
,
, [Shibatani 1985].
[Klaiman 1991], [Shibatani (ed.)
1988; Fox, Hopper (eds.) 1994; Givon (ed.) 1994]
[Givon 1990; Van Valin 1993; Van Valin,
LaPolla 1997].

..
[Sanidze 1953],
, , ,
. .. -

435

L
,

[ (.) 1969].
.. [2000: 208-220].

[Comrie 1985], valence-decreasing valence-increasing
derivations. . . ..
- [,
1997], .. - [1998:
377-378], .. .. -
[1991], . .. - argument-determined con
structions [Dixon, Aikhenvald 1997].
- [Babby, Brecht 1975;
Babby 1983].
- ,
[Baker 1988]; ,
;
[Baker 1993].
..
. , ( )
[Shibatani (ed.) 1976; Comrie, Polinsky (eds.) 1993; Kulikov, Vater
(eds.) 1998; Abraham, Kulikov (eds.) 1999];
- [ 1994]. [Comrie 19766; Gibson,
Raposo 1986; Kulikov ( )]. . [ 1976, Harris
1981; Aronson 1982; 1999]; [Shibatani
1994; 1996].

, . [ 2000].
436

IX


,
. -
,
,
.
( ) , . .
(. 1). , ,
, .
,
, - ,
(. 2).
, , ;
, ,
, ,
(. 3).

. ,
,
(. 4). -
,
, (. 5).
,
(. 6).
, ,
; (. 7).

(. 8).

,

, .
,
,
. ,

. ,
(
,
, ):
(1) . .
. .
437

1.

(1)
;
, . , ,
(1), , , ,

- , ,
, . (16),
, ,
:
, , ,
-, .


. , ,

. , ?

: , (1)
, , ,
.
,
, ,
, (1) (16)?
, (1) .
, (1) , ,
(16) ,
. (1)
,
,
, , .

, ,
(,
).
:
1) , -
[ 1970: 31], [ 1972:
290297],
, 2) ,
,
,
.
I

438

IX.


. ,
,
, -
() . (,
, )
.
,
,
(,
, ;
-
[ . 1997: 68]).
.
, ,
, ,
, .

, (1),
, ,
,
, .
( . .
),
.
.


,
;
, . (1)

; (1) ,
(16) - .
,
,
, . . .
, (1) , , '
,
'.

[, 1987;
1998], . .
439

1.

. , ,
,
.
,
.
, (16) ,
,
(
), . . ,
.

.
,
,

(2).
(2)

,
,


, . ,
(3) . ;
. ; .
; .

.
,
(3) -,
,
.

.
440

IX.

IX-1 ( .. ).
( ) :
1. - . - - - . - . - - ? - -
.
. - . .
? .
2. - - ? - - -
?
? ?
3. -- - . - - . - - . - - - .
- - .
. .
. .
.
,
-
-
' ', - ' '.

-:
?
?
?

1.
,
.
, ,
,
.
.
,
.
, ,
, .
( ');
441

1.

(4)
.
'.
. '.
(1), (4)
,
. ,
(4) ?, (46)
?
(5) .
',
,
( ) ,
,
( ): . ' .

(56)
'
.
(6)
'

(7)
' .

[
1967 (1947): 497],
[ 1966: 54]: (8)
' ; '
; ' (
, )1.
;
[
1976: 134],
,
: (9) , , ' ,
' , , ,
' , '
(, ).
,
,
(, (. . II 4.1),
.

442

IX.

, ,
),
:

.
,
.

2, , , - (
) .
:
,
; ,
.
(. . 2),
. ,
,
. - ,

. , - -
, .
,

, :

[ 1999: 30; .
2001].
,
,

.
,
,
,
. ,
,
, .
:
2

,
(. ), . ,
,
[1955 (1950): 87].

443

1.

(10)

. '';
. * ?
( : , ; , )]
. ' !
(10)
,
.
- ,
[ 1999: 34].
S, , S,
,
-
[Gundel 1988: 210].


[Backhouse 1993: 132],
(11),

-
(116) - () : (11) . - ' (-) '; . . ? ' (-) ?'; . - .
! '(-) . !'.

XIX . ,

, ,
, [
1960: 339] (..
.. ). ,
,
. ,
,
XX . ,
. , . [Weil 1844], ,
,
3.
. (= ) ,
.

444

IX.
, ,
, ,

. ,
-
[19676 (1947): 240].

, .
, ,
,
(, )
, . .
. ,
,
' (- , . ),
, ,
'
,
, ,
""
[Payne 1992: 162; . . ., 1997: 329].

. [Danes 1959; 1970; 1974; 1986], .
[Firbas 1964; 1974; 1992], . [1966], . . [1980;
Hajicova, Sgall 1987; Hajicova 1994]; . [Vachek (ed.) 1983; Sgall et al.
1986; Luelsdorff (ed.) 1994].


. .. ,
(12)
,

:
[ 1977: 147; 1976: 531:

445

1.

,
,
[ 1999: 48] ,

.
...
,
[ ], ,
: \
\ ;
\
-
\ ( \ -
(-1, . . 1-

. . [1980]).

, (. cleft(iiig)).
-
,
, - .
(16),
, (17);

, - (. pseudocleft).
,
, (16) It is John who speaks () ' ',
, ... (17) The one who speaks is John
() , , - '.
: , .

: ,
, [
1987; 2001].

446

IX.
theme rheme, , , .
topic comment focus
. comment
, , focus, , ,
: 1)
, , ,
; -
; 2) , . . ,
(, ),
[
1997]; 3) [Selkirk 1984], . . 4; 4)
[Bolinger 1985]; 5) ,
,
[Halliday 1967: 204-205]; 6) [Jacobs
1983; 1988].

2.

,
, .

,
(. categorical, . kategorisch).

; ,
: (18) ; (19)
; (20)
; (21) ; (22) (!) ;
(23) - -
.
, - (. thetic, .
thetisch).
(. IV .): ?;
?; ? . .

; ,
, ,
-
[ . 1997: 72].
- ( )
15 4755

447

1.

(18-20), (2123). (21-23) - , , ,


: (21)
, (22)
- , (23) - ,
. ..
.. [1983] (21-23)
(. .
) ; .. [1991; 2001]
.


[ 1976: 48]. [Sasse 1987;
Maslova 1995],
, , . .
,
, .
.. ,
(2425; ) ,
(2627): (24) .
; . ; (25) . ; .
; . ; (26) . ;
. ; (27) . ; .
. (246-256) ,
, (2425),
, (25), .
(26) ,
, ,
- ,
.
, (266) .
(27),
, (276)
, . . -
, [Maslova 1995].

,

. , (28)
'
?, ?, 448

IX.

?,
(28) , (28)
, .
. [1996: 185]
, ,
: ?
:
(29) ' ' ' !;

[Lambrecht 1994: 223-226, . (43)].
.. [2001],
(28) .

,
, .
, . . ,
,
, . (89):
(30) . ' / '
! (, ),
(31) , ,
,
... ' / / ' .
' '
, ' , //, ' (. ,
), (31)
.
; (31) ,
.

. [Marty 1918],
.
, , - ,
. ,
:
.
. [Kuroda 1973],
, . . -
?, -
X?
[Ulrich 1985; Sasse 1987].
15*

449

1.
IX-2. ,
?,
? ?
, , :
(1) - ?
- .
(2) ? ?
- .
, (1)
( )
( ), (2)
( ).
#, :
(2') - ? ?
- # .
,
,
?, ? ?.
(3) . ,
. # .
(4) . .
. # .
. # .
(5) . .
*
. # .
(6) . ,
. .
(7) . ,
. # .
(8) . .
. # .
. # .
(9) . .
. # .
(10) . ,
. .
(11) . ,
. # .
(12) . .
. # .
. # .
,
.

450

IX.
, ( )
, ?,
? ? , :
(i)
.
() .
() .
(iv) .
(v) .
(vi) .
(vii) .
(viii) .

(32)
'. ' (32)
: (33) . ?',
. ? . ?',
. ? ()
(32) ;
, ,

, , , (33)
, . .
,
. (R)
:
(32') a. [R '].
. [R '].
. [R '].
. \ '].

, X ,
, Y,
X, ,
; Y ,
[Vallduvi, Villoma 1998: 81].
(32),
, . .
(2'),
, .

() .
() ,
, , 451

1.

,
, :

[ 1996: 183]:
(2') - (32')
, , ,

.

[Selkirk 1984; Drubig 1992]. ,
(32) (33) .
' . ', (33)
!, (336)
!
:
(34) ?
The pipes are [R 'rusty]
'.
(35) ?
The pipes [R are 'rusty]
'.
(36) . -
, ?
[R The 'pipes] are rusty]
' .
(37) ?
[R The 'pipes are rusty]
' .

(34) , (35),
,
(36) ,
(37).
,

? ,

( )
[Sgall et al. 1986: 198-199]. 452

IX.

[ 1999: 41],
:
(38) < <
< < .
(38) , , ,

, (39); ,
(40); ,
(41) . .:
(39) ? ' .
(40) ? ' .
(41) ? ' .

. [Lambrecht 1994: 223-226]
,
, :
(predicate focus) (42), (sen
tence focus) (43) (narrow focus) (44).
(2') (36),


:4

. [1996: 186] , :
(i) ! - '; (ii) .
'. (i) , (ii) ,
.

453

1.

3.
(
, )
,
1970-
. .. , ""
, ,

[1976: 42];
, .
- ,
. , (45)
, : :

. .
(45) (,
).

. -, ,
,
. , ,
, .
, ,
, :
(45) .
?

454

IX.

-, , ,
,
. ; ;
; ; ,
- ; ; ;
; ,
,
,
.
(46) . . .
, (46) ,
, ,
,
(46).
(46) (466) , (46)
, (466) .
,
(46), -

(466), , , ,
.
[ 1982 (1976);
1984; Lambrecht 1994; Dryer 1996]
. . , (
) - , ,
,
[ 1982: 281].
, /
, :
,
,
.
, ,
, . :

, ,
,
.
,
.
455

1.
,
. , . [Prince 1981]
: (brand-new), ,
,
(anchored new) ,
, -
. .. [1984]
: (),
- , , , . .
, ,
. .
(semi-active), . . ,
(backward awareness),
[Chafe 1987].

, - ,
(45). , ,
: (47)
, (
); (48) . ,
( .
).
. ,
[Yokoyama 1986],
(47-48)
. ,
, , .

,
,
, .
, . , ,
,
,
.

:
, , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, (, )
?,
,
,
456

IX.

(,
). ,
,
: . ;
; ,
- ? , -
[ 1999: 31].
.. [1976: 4546] ,
- { )
, , { )
.

. , (38),
: ,
,
"" [. .
(38) - . .] ,
[ 1999: 41; 1996: 186].
, (49) . ? ' ,
. ? ' ', (50)
? . ' ; .
, '; (51) . , ?
' ; .
. ' .
,
,
, ,
(49-51), .
(38) ,
, :
(38') < <
< < < .

, . (52) . '; .
' ; . '
. . [ 1996: 183-184]. ,

: (52)
, (52) .

457

1.

4.

, . [Bolinger 1961], ,

. , ,
,

,
. ,
, - (
-),
, ,
, , ,
' '.
(53) ?
{,
) . ,
(54) , ;
(55) , /
(.. , ) ,
{, , };
{, }, .
, ,
(= ).

( 2 , 57).
, ,
, .
,
,
, [ 1999: 35].
[ 1996:
386], . , (53-54) , (55) - . ,
, ,
:
(56) !.. ,
/ (. , )
458

IX.

{ , ) {, },
[ 1999: 36]: (57)
, .
.. [1984] ,


.

.
( "),
,
[ 1996: 189]: ", .
, , ,
(57).

, , " ( - )
" ( - ).

;
: (58)
: " ", '\ ". (58)
, .

(59) (60) : (59) "
?; (60) " !

: ;
:
.. [1988]
.

,

.
:
, ,
.

. , 459

1.

(6162), (63) (64).


,
,
:
(61) ,
- .
(62) , - , ?
. .
(. ,
),
(63) ...
. ... ,
. , , ...
,
(, ).
(64) , / ,
(.. , , ).
(
):
(65) , / /
, ... , ,
,
, ... ... ,
(. ,
).


. ,
,
,

. (,
, )
: (66) ,
, [
] (
);
(67) ,
,
. ... , , ,
460

IX.

[ [
]], [
[ [
[ [ [ ]]]]] (.
, - , .
). (67)
: {; ) {
; ).
, ,
, ,

,
, .

5.
, ,
,
,
,
. , , ,
, : (68)
. , . . , ,
, (68), .

'' '',
, , ,
. ,
, ""
"", "" "", " " "
" [ 1999: 38]. ,
(68)
,
: (68') "; (69) ,
, , : " [ 1996:
193; 1999: 38].
,
, ,
,
.
461

1.

,
. . [1966]
,

", -,
"
.

6.

, , -,
( ).
[ 1999:
39]: !;
.
( ): .
, ? .
,
, , ,
.

7.

(topic),
, ( .
theme) .

, ,
. ,
. ,
(70) .
, . . '
', (71) .
: '
', (72)
, . , [] ,
- .
, , 462

IX.

- ,
, , , : (73) : - , . (-) (-)
., ' , '.
(7073)
,

.
,
- .

, :
(, ),
: , .

. :
, -, ,
,
[1982 (1976): 309]. , ,
: ,
, ... . . ,
, , ,
.
. ,
,

. , , :
,
.

8.
,
, .
,
, ,
.
(,
1- ),
. ,
( 2- ),
. 463

1.

, ,

, .
, , ,

-self (74) . [ The young man, whose name was
Robert Jordan],, was extremely hungry and he was worried. i w
often hungry but hei was not often worried because hei did not give
any importance to whatj happened to himself (E. Hemingway, For
Whom the Bell Tolls) ' ,
, , .
, ,
oi , i i ';
. She, remembered also, that till the Netherfield family had quitted
the country, he} had told his story to no one but herself (J. Austen,
Pride and Prejudice) 'i ,

, i .
himself {1 ) herself (746),
,
, ,

[Zribi-Hertz
1989]. (74)
-
.
.

(75) # .
,
, ,
,
. (75) ,
:
.
(75) ,
, -, .
, ,
: , ,
:
, (. ; [ 1998:
172]).
464

IX.

. [Kuno 1987],
. ,

:
, ,
.

(76) '', ,
. (766)
, ,
. (76)
,
, (766), .


. [ 1966; 1965;
1976; , 1976j 1976; 1981;
1984; Yokoyama 1986; 1992; Maslova 1995; 1999;
2001] .
,
, . [ 1980; 1997; 1982; 1982;
1996] 8 [, 2001]
. .
[Halliday 1967; 1982 (1976); 1988; 1990; Gundel et al. 1993;
Lambrecht 1994]. .
[Kuroda 1973; 1982; Ulrich 1985, Sasse 1987; Matras, Sasse (eds.)
1995], [Kuno, Kaburaki 1977; Kuno 1987];
[ 1984; Prince 1979; 1981], [ 1984;
1984].

465

1.

[Dane 1974; Firbas 1992; Vachek (ed.) 1983Sgall et al. 1986; Luelsdorff (ed.) 1994]; [Hajicova, Partee, Sgall
(eds.) 1998]
. .
.. [1963].
[Rochemont 1986; Rochemont, Culicover 1990].
466

, ,
.
,
.
.. . 1970-
.
467

, -
; ,
- . ,
( ) , .
,
,
(. 1).
, (. 2).

(. 3).
;
, . . ,
(. 4).
: ,
.
, . .
,
, . . ,
(. 5).
,
,
, (. 6).


, . . ,
.
, ,
,
XVI-XVII .


.
: -,
; -,
; , -,

...
: "
", ; npOBO469

2.

, ,
!
,
- ,
, [
1999: 300].

1.
. ,

;


. .
,
, ,
-
.
, ,
.
,
.

.
- .

-.

.

,
, , ,
:
.
, ,
, ,
, , .
,

470

X. ,

- , , ,

, . ,
, ,
. . ,
. . , (
, !) -
- ,
( ,
, , . .).


, , ,

. . -,
(
,
).
, - ,
-
homo sapiens:
, , ,
.

:
,
.
, , ,
, ,
,
.
( ) -
,
,
.
,
, - .
XIX .
. ,

-. ,
,
471

2.


,
.
-
,
XX ,
[ 1986: 30],
.

,
, ,
:
- ,
?
,
, ,
,

.

XX . .
,
,
,
, , ,
, ,
, .
,
. -
,
-,
( - )
.
(. . XV . 3)
, . .

, ,
. ,
.

,
- ,
, , .
472

X. ,

, .
, ,
.

. ,

, . .
.

? ,
,

.
,
, ,
( )
,


. , , ,

( ),
.
,

.

-
( - 1930-1950-
).
,
,
, ,
. ,
,
,
,
,
(, , , ).

. , ,
,
[ 1968 (1933): 34].

473

2.


. ,

, ,
,
,
,

.
( , - ,
,
),
, ,
. -, ,
, ,

;
. -,
,

.

: 1)
; 2)
3) , , ;
,
, .

, . .
,
. ,
,
,
, .
, .

2.

, 474

X. ,

, , ,
.
, ,
, , ?
,
. , . .

, ,

, .
, -
.
(1) * ,
,
(2) ^ , ,
,
(3) * ,
,
,
. . ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
(
, (1), ,
, [Corbett 1988: 24],
: - ,
, [ . 1976: 31]).
(, )
(
(2)),

( (3))
. .
(4) *
, ' '.
(4)
.
. .,
475

2.

; (4)
, .
(4) - , ,
(1 3).
,
(4) , ,
.
, ,
(
),
,
, .

.
. , (5)
,
(
): (6) . - , .
, . , ,
: .
, , . ,
.

: . ? , .
?? , . , -
, , -
(6), ,
.
:
(6)

. ^, .

476

X. ,

,
. . ,
: . * ,
, . * , :

()
, (6). , , ,
. ,

( - )
, ,
, , , -
, ()
.


.
(. III, (5152)):
(7) . , .
. , ?
. , .
. * , ?
, (7) ,

.
,
(7) ,

.
-
: . (8) . has finished his work
' '; . Has he finished his work? '
?'.
:
(9)
.
477

2.


(
). , (9) , , ,
:
(10)
.
,

, (10). -

, . , ,
.
,
.

.
, , , ,
,
.
. , -
,

, .
, ,
-
,
.
(9), (10)

- ,
.


.

: ,
,
. ,
, 478

X. ,

(11),
(12) ;
(11) ,
(12) .
(11) ,
, (),
(, ) (12), , , ,
, .

.

,
,
: 3- .
,
(11-12) ,
.
,
[ 1987 (1978); Iatridou 1986], ( , [, 1998]),
( , [ 1999]),
( [Cole, Hermon 1998]),
,
, ; .
(13) gade $uqa ,
' ' '
', iuqa ' ; '
. ,
, ,

.

3.
(,
X)
- :

-
, .

479

2.

,
. 50007000 ,
,

- 100, 200, 800
,
.

, ,
,
,
. ,

. ,

,
,
.
-
,
.

,
,
,

, .

100 .
X. : "
X". , ?
,
X.
, , ,
5000 (
). , -
( X) - . ,
100 ? 100 : 5000=0,02!
, -,
, (
) 2%! , -
90%
90% .

480

X. ,
,
, ,
. , 100
X?
, : ,
0,95 3% -
, 0,99, 4,5%.
,
: "
X". , , "
"? . ,
90% - "
".
X, , X ,
( ,
, - , ;
, , ).
,
10%, , 30
( 0,95) [ 1979: 5-9].

, ,
( )
X, , (14)
, (15)
,
, :
(16)
, ( )
( 2
. [1970 (1966): 120])
, :
(17)
,
( 25 . [ : 136];
(18) (=
-)
,
-
[ 1979: 189];
(19)
,
[Dryer 1988].
481

2.


.
.



. ,
,
,
, .
,
; , , ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
;
( ), ,
, . . [Dryer 1988,
1992].
- .
(
;
, :
):

( )
( ) ( 482

X. ,

; ,
, ,
, ):


, ,
,
?
.

4.

( )
- .

,
.
, ,
,
.

,
. , -

483

2.

,
,
. ...
,
, ,
,
, , [ 1986: 503].
- ; ,

- , ,
. ; ,


(
, , ,
).
,
. ,
(, ,
).
,
.

. ,

.
, [. .
. - ..]
,
,
, [Chomsky 19806:
239]. - ,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
.



484

X. ,

( , , .
. 6).
,

.
, ,


.


.
. -
.
, ,

(
, ),
( ,
),
. ,
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
-
: [Stowell 1981].
, ,
.
[Hawkins 1990, 1994].
. XV . 2,
:
,
. (
)
,
.

, 485

2.

, .
,
(20), (21)
: ,

.
,
, . ,
,
,

.
,
. :
(22)
, ; ,
, (
[ 1970 (1966): 137];
[Greenberg 1957]).
,
.
, (,
, , , ),
(,
, -
, , -
, ,
. [ 2000: 89]).
, ,
(, ).
,
.
( -, . ).
, ,
(
) ( )
.
,
:
, .
,
, 486

X. ,

, -
, .
, : (22) -
(23):
(23) ,
.
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,
- ( ) :
,
. , ,
, ,
(24) (
) ,
( ).

, ?
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.
, - ,
, . .

, -, ,

(
, - ).
, ,
:
,
.
, ,
, . .
,
.
, . . ,
. ,
. . ,
, :
- , - [Hawkins, Cutler 1988; Hall 1992].
-, (22),
,
487

2.

. ,
[Williams 1981; Selkirk 1982] ,
,

. ,

, ,
.
- ,

; . [Hawkins, Gilligan
1988].
,


.

5.
?
.
XX .
?.

.
, , ,
, . . ,
, , , ,
, ,
.

, ,
, ,
. ,

, . .
( ),

(
. . XVI . 1).
488

X. ,


,
, . .
.

.
, ,
, ,
,
.

- (25) (26):
(25)
, ;
(26)
,
.
(25) ,

. , (27)
, , ,
, , and f.

(26) ,



(28):

489

2.

(25) :
(29) -
, - , (30) -, -a,
, (31) -,
-, .
(26),
(2930) (31)!
(26)
?
..., ,

?., ,
, , ?..
,
, -
.
-, ,
, ,
, (25), -, (26).
: (25)
,
, (31).
(25), (25'), . ,
. .
,
,
,
.
(25) ,
(31):
(25')
, ,
,
z ( [ 2000: 143]).
(25') ,
, b d (27), , ,
(31) . , ,
:
, : (32)
, -;
- . ., 490

X. ,

,
,
(.
VII), . ,

, (25').

6.
,
, ?
,

, , ,
, . ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
.
:

.
( )
.

,
, , :
(33) ,

.

, .

,
.
( ).
(33)
( , 491

2.

,
),
. ,
,
,
(
)
.
(33) .
:
(34) . ;
. ;
. ;
. .

(34),
(34).
(33) .
(34), ,
,
, . .
,
,
( (34)).

, ,
.
,
, ,

.
, (
) , . .
, .

?
:
(35) .
.
.
.
.
492

X. ,

.
.
.
.
.
, (35)
? N
:
(36)
. * N,
{, ),
{, , , ),
* ( , S. Kleene,
) ,
;
. N, -
{, ), - ,
N (36).
, (36),
, . .
,
,
,
. , ,
, ,
- .
, N, , , ,
,
, ,
, .

(), , . .
-> ,
, - :

493

2.

(36') (36') ,
, .
:
,
, ,
, .
(36') N -> () , (36')
-> () . (6'-), ,

, ,
() .
(36') -> , ,
(') -> , , , ,
(36') - , .
N (36')
.
, : 1)
, 2)
, 3) ,

,
( N -
1 ), 4)
, , (36').
,
, .
XI-XIII.
-> :
, . . ,
,
, .

, ,
,
( 1

(36'), (36),
.

494

X. ,

, .
[, 1969: 4346]).
, ,

. ,
,
, . .

. ,
, .
,
,
, ,
, . ,
,

.


,

.
, (36'),
.
, : ,
. ., . . . .:
, - -
. '
,
,
-. ,
N - .

(36') ,
:
-,
, .

,
(* ),
. , , -495

2.

, ,
.
, ,
(36'),
. ,
.
-, :
, ,
,
.
,
, , .
:
,

[, 1969: 8384].
-,
,
,
,
, ,
,
, , 1000
.

, ,
.
,

, , ,
. ,
,
,
,
. ,
, ,
,
,
.
G1 ,
G2, ,
G2 , , G1 G2
496

X. ,

.
, , ,
, . .
,
,
.
,
, . .
. , (36') (36')
- > (
),
,
(36') .

, ,
(36'),
, .
, (36'),

, - (con
text-free) , . . ,
, .


, . .
. (36') -
(), ()
(),
- .
. ,
,
, . .
, ,
,

.
, ,
,
,
[ , ]
[
, ].
497

2.

NP (noun phrase), VP -
(verb phrase), PP - (preposi
tion phrase).
(37)
, , ,
(38) The big brown dog with fleas watched the birds beside the
hunter '
'. ,
"",
, ,
"" (
).
.
,
[, 1969: 61]:


, -
,
. ,

, 499

2.

. ., . . , -
,
(=NP): -, (
). ,
.
:
(40) a. The bird sings ' '; . The birds sing '
'; . *The bird sing, . ' ' . *The birds sings,
. ' '. (37)
(40),
S - NP VP : S -4 NP S -> NPMH VPMH;
.
,
.
VP -> V NP VP nepex -> V NP

^ -> V
, VP.

,

,

, .
,
(41) a. S -> NP e VPMH
. S -> NPMH V ,
(41).

.
, , NP -> S VP
( ,
),
, - ,
.
,

- .
, ,
, . . 500

X. ,

, NP,
N (-),
, ,
() . .
? , -,

,
.
,

.


, ,
.
,
, ,
, . . ,
, [Haegeman 1994; Freidin 1992; Radford 1988; 1997].
,
, , .
[ 1992; Givon
1984-1990, 1995; .., 1997 (
)]; . [
. . 1999].
, ^
,
; -
[ 1973 (2001)],
.
. . 5
, [ 1970 (1966)], [Comrie 1989]
, [ 1985];
- [Hawkins (ed.) 1988].
. [, 1969;
Partee et al. 1993, . 16-18].
501

XI

:

.
, ,
(. 1).
( 1960- )
- (. 2).

(. 3). ,
(. 4).

(. 5).

1957 .
(Noam Chomsky, p. 1928),
,
-,
[ 1962 (1957)],
,
.
. ,
, ,


: .
, -
(1786 .), .
,
-
(1876 .), .
(1916 .) [Hockett 1965:
185]. 40 (=
) . ( )
,


1.
1


(humanities),
, , , , ,
, ,
[Pinker 1994: 23].
- (

502

XI. :
.
. [ 1962 (1957)],

[Chomsky 1975 (1955);

[ 1965 (1962)], .
[Chomsky 1959] . [Lees 1957] [ 1962
(1957)]. ,

-
.
,
,
,
.

.

,
.
-,
, . . -,
,
, ,
.
-,
- ,
,
.
1

, , .

,
.
-,
, .

,
, . .
,
. humanities),
,
.

503

2.
, .
, ,

. ,
, .

, ,
.
, , -
,
,
.
, 1960-,
19701980- . ,
(
.. [1973 (2001)], .. [1976] .. [1979],
. .. [1981]),
,
.
,


19201950- . , ,
.. , .. .. ,
, ,

.
. ,
[ 1990: 23].
, ( )
,
.
-
1980- , -, , . .
.
,
. , ,
1980 ., ,
, ,
,
, ... .. .
,
, , , , -

504

XI. :

( !)
1970 1980-
. ,
1990- .

.


, ,

.

1.
1.1. .

, .

XX .,
. .. ;
- ,
. .

,
,
,
, , .
-
.. -
, ,
,
.

,

. 1950-
,
.

; 10 ,
.

505

2.

,

. ,
,

. ,
,

, .



,
[Lees 1957: 377].


,
. ,

, -
- , ,
,
-
. , , ,
,

, ,
.
,

.
, ,

XIX-XX . - . ,
, .. , . , . , .. .
,
, ,
.

,
, 506

a XL :

, .

:
, .

, ,
.
,
,

.

.

,
.
,
.

,
, .

,
.


, ,
S (),
(
),
.

.

, . . .
,

( ).

. ,
, -

507

2.
(, , ...),
. ,
: V (,
) CV ( );
( , )
CV . .
,
,
X. , , :
(1)
. V - L;
. X , L;
. X - , - L.
(1) ():
(!')
. X -4 V
. X ->
. X ->
L,
() ,
,
, .
,
, .
L ,
,
,
(): , (2) *, *
,
. , (2)
, :
,
.
, , ,

: .
() . ,
,
: ()
.


, , .
, , 508

XI. :

, , ,
, . ,

. ,
,
, .
, , ,
.

. ,
(2), (),
, , .

.
, . . ,
,
,
,
(= ) ,
.
,
.
,

,
.
,
, .
, 30 40
,
,
. , ,
, -

, ,
.


: (3) a. Mary threw out [NP the note
book] ' '; . Mary threw
[NP the notebook] out ; . Mary threw [NP John's big notebook]
out ' ';
i

509

2.

. Mary threw [NP the notebook which John wanted back] out '
,
'; . Mary threw [NP the notebook which John had
told her he wanted back] out '
, ,
' [Freidin 1992: 19]. (3)
, ,
() ().
out threw, ,
(36); , ,
(), - ()
().
,
,
. ,

. ,
(3)
,
: throw out
,
,
-
. ,
,
,

.
, ,
. ,
,
,
(3) throw out,
,
. , (sich) aus-drucken '
' (4), 18 : (4) In
der Verschreibung der nachgelassenen Kompositionsskizzen und Tagebuchblatter
driickt sich ein freundlich-sachliches, fast mdchte ich sagen: gnddiges und sicherlich
mich ehrendes Vertrauen in meine Gewissenhqfhgkeit, Pietat und Korrektheit aus
(Th. Mann, Doktor Faustus) '
, -
, ,
, '.

510

XI. :

,
,
(observational adequacy). ,
,
;
, , , ,
( )
,
.
-
(descriptive adequacy).
,
, . .
,
.
, ,
,

: (5) *lVhat is he asking [whether I see]? . '[]
, []?'

, .
, ,
,
( )
.
,

, XI.

:

L


,
, , . .
,
,
1

7-4755

511

2.

. ,
.
, ,
,
,
, ,
. . , .


.
,
, .
(=
) .
,

.

,
,
.
,
,
.

(
, )

.
, . .
,
,
, ,
. .
, ,
(performance).
.
, , . .
, ,
500
. ,
,
512

XI. :

500-, .

().
1.2.

, , ,
,
.
,
, ,
, , ,
?
:
,
.
: ,
,
, . ,
,
, , , .

,
. . , ,
,
.
,

.
, ,
,
, .
,

, .

.

, . . , .
(= ) ,
-

"

513

2.
.
, ,

( , evaluation metric),
.
,
,
: ,
( )
.
. , ,
,
: ,
(
).

,
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
:
,
,
- , . .
.
, . .
,

. ,
,
( ).
, ,
.

,
, ,
. ,

, ,
, ,
. , -

514

XL :
, -
.
, ,
, ...
,
, , ,

. , ,
,
,
[ 1972 (1968): 38].


,
, ,
(. .
,
).

,
,
(innateness hypo
thesis for the language faculty).

,
. ,

, . ,
,
, -

. ,
,
,
.
,
,
.

, ,
(
).

515

2.

(argument from poverty of the


stimulus).

[Hoekstra, Kooij 1988: 38]:
(6) a. Where did John say that we had to get off the bus!
' , ?'
' , ?'
. Where did John ask whether we had to get off the bus?
' , ?'

. (6) , (66) -
. (6) ,
.
, ,
, .

.
.
(66)
. (66)
,
: ,
'
?', , .
(6) (66) ,
where ''
,
, .
,
, :

, . (7) a. What do you believe it is?
' , ?', what
. You believe it is what),
, .
(6) ,
where
( )
(
). (66)
(
). ,
516

XI. :

, - .
(5) , :


whether '',
. whether
,
, .
,

, (6)
, (66) ?
-
, ?
,
(66)
, (6)
. ,
, (8)
(6), (8)
(66), (8)
(66);
-:
(8) . .
. .
. , .
. , .

, , . (6)
(8) ,

,
.
(6) (8),
,
,...
, (

,
[Hoekstra, Kooj 1988: 38]. ,
, ,

517

2.

,
. ,
(6) (8)
,
.

,


, .
,
,
,

.


,
.

2.
2.1.
*



. II ,
.
, [] [ ], [] [ ], [] [ ]
[, [ ]], [ [ ]], [ [
]], [] [], [] [
], [] []
*[ ], *[<? ]... . .

,
,
(= ) . ,

, :
, ,
518

XI. :

. . ,


.
- .
,
-:
(9) . ->
, ,
: , . .:
'. ->

, , ,
: ; ,
, . (96') .
:
. ->
,
: [ [
]] . .:
. ->
(9-) ,
, :
. -> () ()
,
,

. , (10) The boy likes
the book ' ',
, ,

:
(11) a. S->NP VP
. VP->V NP
. N P - > D N
,
: S - (sentence;
- clause); NP - (,
- noun phrase); VP - (verb phrase); D - (, , ); N
, V - . ,
VP ( ), . II 4.2.

519

2.

S,
,

: (12) a. S, . NP VP, . NP V NP, . D N
V NP, . D N V D N (
,
(12) ).
( (12))
. , (12)
(10), ,
, This
man ate an apple ' ' Our team won
the cup ' '.
(11)
(phrase structure rules).

.
. , NP VP
S, a D N
NP.

(12) (13)
(13').

520

XI. :



(14) [ [ [ [
[ [ ]]]]]]. ,
, ,
.


, , , :
(15) a. [s John knew [s Einstein discovered relativity theory]]
' ,
'. (15) S,
NP John '' VP knew Einstein discovered relativity theory
', '.
VP, ,
Y knew ''
S Einstein discovered relativity theory '[]
'. NP Einstein VP discovered relativity theory '
',
V discovered '' NP relativity theory '
'. , relativity theory
,
[Freidin 1992: 11]:
(15')

NP

John

VP

knew

Einstein discovered relativity theory.


521

2.

,
, - (VP).
, (15),

:

(16) (15) ,
, S (Einstein discovered relativity theory
' ')
S (John knew Einstein discovered
relativity theory ' ,
').
, (15)
(17) Martha said John knew Einstein discovered relativity theory
' , ,
'. (16) (166)
, . .
.
, ,
.
,

(16).
,
-. ,
,
.
,
:
,
X, , . . ,
.
.. ,
, :

.
" "
1) ,

522

a XL :
; 2) , ,

, ,
[1990: 20].

, , ,
. .,
.
, ,
,
. .,
.
-
,
, , ,
, . .
(position) ,

, . .
.

[ 1958: 17-21; 2000: 163]

, .
2.2.
,
,

,
.

.
, , (18) Who
did Mary see
? ' ?'.

,

( (18) ,
;
), ,
523

2.

(did)
().
(Qui est-ce que Marie a vu ?)
(Wen hat Maria gesehen ?) .

, ,
, . ! !
(18), (19)
: (19) .
When did Mary see him! ' ?'; . *Did
Mary see him when?; . Mary saw him when! '
?'
(echo-question), ,
, yesterday '' Mary saw him
yesterday ' '.
(18-19)
? ,

:
(20)
S -> (who) NP VP

(NP + VP)
,
. ,
. ,


,
, . . : (21) a. *Who does John
think that Bill saw Mary? .: [] ,
?; . Who does John think that Bill saw?
[] , (, ) ?; . John
thinks that Bill saw Mary ' ,
'; . ? John thinks that Bill saw ' ,
'.
(21) ,
(
) ().
,
(216), (21 ).


524

XL :

/21 ); , :
, (216), , (21 ),
, (21).

,
,
(21)2. ,

,
.
:
,
.
,
,

.
,

, - ,
, .

, . . ,
, .

,
, 1950-
3. [Harris Z. 1981]. ,
,
,
.
, . ,
, .
, ,
(deep structure, underlying
structure), , 2

1960- .
,
.
1980- . . . [Gazdar 1982; Gazdar, Pullum 1982];
, ,
-
[Pollard, Sag 1994].

525

2.

( ) (surface structure).

:
,
( , structural description, SD),
,
( , struc
tural change, SC). ,
(
, wh-phrase, wh-,

) :
(22)
SD: X
wh-phrase Y
SC: wh-phrase X
Y
(22):
(23) a. Mary saw who yesterday ( ,
who '' ,
VP) -> . who Mary saw yesterday '
'. (236)
(the man [who Mary saw yesterday] '
, '),
, ,
,
(23) Who did Mary see yesterday? '
?'
X Y
(22).
, ,
. .

, . , 526

XL :


: (24) a. did Bill tell [s Mary saw
who] - 6. who did Bill tell [s Mary saw] '[]
, [] [, ] ?'. X (24) - did Bill
tell\s Mary saw, .
, ,
(22), (X) (Y)
,
.
, ,

,
.
.
2.3.

, ,
1960-

, .

.
,
(
).
2.3.1. (Inversion).

(Aux).
;

:

: (26) a. John can open the door '


'; . Can John open the door? ' 527

2.

?'; (27) a. You have seen the opera '


'; . Have you seen the operal ' ?'
,
,
Aux -
( ,
Aux).
(
, ): (28) a. John
-s like fish -> . -s John like fish ' '; (29) .
Mary -ed go home > 6. -ed Mary go home ' '!
, (28-29)
(26-27). ,
Aux,

.
:
2.3.2. (Affix Hopping).

:

[4-Aff]
; Aux
(,
will), .
: (28) John likes fish,
(29) Mary went home ( went
go-ed ).
:
.

,
.
2.3.3. do (Do-Support). (286)
(296) :
, .
.
(31) do
SD:
X
Aux[+Aff]
X[-V] Y
528

do
,
- (
[V] ).
(286), Does John like fish?, (296) - Did
Mary go home?
2.3.4. (Dative movement).
,
^ :

(33) a. John gave a


letter to Mary ' ',
. John gave Mary a letter.
2.3.5. (Extraposition).
( )
.
(34)

: (35) a. I gave [NP the gun [s which I had cleaned]]


to my brother] ' , ,
'; . / gave [Np the gun] to my brother [s which I had
cleaned]. , ,
,
(
).
2.3.6. (Negative Place
ment).
:

: (37) a. not Bill has received it -> 6. Bill has not


received it ' '. ,
not
,
529

2.

530

XI. :

2.3.10. (Reflexivization).

. VI 2.2.2
.
(44)

2 4,
S (). : (45) John saw John -> John saw him
self' '; (46) You mustn't blame you - You must
n't blame yourself ' '.

[+N]
destroy '' -> destruc
tion '', fly '' flight ''. : (48) The enemy destroyed the city '
' -> the city's destruction by the enemy '
'.
,
1
, 1960- .

3.
-


.
, .
,

, .
, ,

531

2.

,
.
.
,
. . ;

. ,
, , ,
, ,
,
.
,
, -
. -
,
XIX .
.
, , , .
, -
, ,

. , *
(): . *dhum- > . , . *- >
. .; - ch-: . carbo
'' > . charbon, . caldus '' > . chaud .;
- . 1 - xai6, mesto - . .
-

( ),
.
:
X (. .
X - Y X - Z). ,
(
, t d,
t),
.


.

1960-
,
532

XL :

, ,
.

.
, , , , ,
1)
, 2)
,
3)
, , 4)
, . .
, ,
, 14), , -,
, , -,
, .


1-4):
, .
,


, 14).
.
,
, , -

.

, [ ,
. . .]
(. . ) [
1988 (1959): 93]. ,
,
.

.

(phrase marker), . .
, . ,

. , , ,
-

533

2.
, , ,

[Chomsky 1972124-125].


, . 2.3 .
(49)

+
(Past Participle), +be
Aux (
, ).
: (50) a. The enemy -ed destroy the city by '
' ( ) - . The city was destroyed
by the enemy ' (
).

,
,
[Riemsdijk van, Williams 1986:
35-57]):
1.

( ) ,
, be, -en by,
?
,

-
,
,
.
2. (49) 2 by, 5
2. , 3

by,
, [Lees 1964]
;
,
.

534

XI. :

?
-
, , ,
?
3.
,
(X, Y Z), (=
) NP, Aux, V by. -
,
?
4. (49) V - -,
.

, . (51) a. The
enemy destroyed the city ' ', . The city was
destroyed by the enemy ', . the
enemy's destruction of the city . the city's destruction by the
enemy ' '. (49)
(51) (516).
, (51) (51)?
, 5. ,
(49) ,

5
2, -
by,
,
: -> NP (
). ,
by
, ,
,
: (52) Who has this book been read by? '
?'.
,
,
?
,
,
,
.
535

2.

, ,
.
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
.
4.
, (51)
(51)
,
(49). (53)
, :
(53) . (
) (NP);
. () (
);
. of -'s;
.
: destroy-ed '' destruction '
';
. .
, ,
,

,
.
1970 .
[Chomsky 1970],

, (5151) , .
, (53),
,

,


,

.
536

XI. :

, ,

(. . - ),
:
(54) a symphony by Beethoven ' ', (55) the
author of the book ' ' . ,
(54-55),
, ,
.


( ,
) , .
:
(56)
prove '':
refuse ''
amuse ''
destroy ''

proof
*refuse
*amuse
*destroy

*proval
refusal
*amusal
*destroyal

*provement
*refusement
amusement
*destroyment

*provation ''
^refusion ''
*amusation ''
destruction ''



, . (57) try '' trial '', (58) revolve '
' revolution '' . .
, ,
, destruction '
' (51), :
(59) a. John criticized the book ' '; .
The book was criticized by John '
'; (60) a. Bill refused the offer ' ';
6. The offer was refused by Bill '
'; (61) . John's criticism of the book; r. *the book's
criticism by John ' '; (62) . Bill's refusal
of the offer; r. *the offer's refusal by Bill '
'.
, ,

,
, (
)
.
.
537

2.

,
.

, , ,
.
, Aux V,
.

: (63) was
destroyed the city by the enemy -> the
city was destroyed by the enemy.
(64)



4 , , 2,
,
, .
1,
,
,
.
,
, ( 2). ,
,

( 3).
, ,
,
. ,

: (65) a. Mary sent 0 for her husband '
'; . *Mary sent her husband for 0.
,

,
(overgeneration). ,
,

(656).
538

XI. :

5 ,
- ,

? (64)
,
:
(66) ( )

(66) : Y
, , ,
, (NP)
, , ,
(2 4).

.
,
,
. 1970-
,
,

.
(Structure Preserving Principle [Emonds
1976]).
,

:
, . . .


.
.
[1976: 6871] , ,

- -,

.

1
, ,
:
539

2.

(67) -:
S
NP

Germany

by

NP
Russia

, ,
(68) a. Germany was defeated by
Russia ' ' ,
. *Was defeated by Russia Germany
. *Germany was Russia defeated by . ,

, (68)

; -
,
, (68), .
, , (68),
,
,
.


,
[ 1984],
, -
.
, ,

.
64-,
, ,
(
540

). ,

.

4.
(51) The enemy
destroyed the city ' ' (516) the enemy's
destruction of the city ' '. (51),
(516) the enemy '' , a the city '
' - .
(51)
(516).
? ,
,
,


.


.
,
,
,
. ,
( -> ...),
(. .
).
, ,
VP, , AdvP, NP
:

541

2.
(69): 1 spoke to Mary ' ' fond of her son ' '; differently from mine ''
'; independently of me ' '; IVB reply to John '
'; VB until after the wedding ' '; out of the window
' ' [Radford 1988: 254, 265]
,
, ,
, , ,
.

,
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
. .
,
.

,
(,
,
),
.
,
, -, .
,
, : (70) a. NP -> A VP (
); . V -> (
);
. VP -> NP V V V ( ,
, , ,
); . -> NP VP
. . , , ,
(70), .
,
(51; 69)
,
,

. X,
, X 542

XI :

, X (X
, -_ (-bar)),
, X
X ,
X (X , X (X-double-bar)). X X
X: X - , X - .


: X' X".
(115) II:

Adv

NP


, X'- (--)-,

,
(70). X'-
,
. ,
[Stowell 1981],
,

4; ,

, ,
, ,
, -
. X'- . XII . 2.

5-
,
, I .

543

2.

.
,
, ,
,
. , ,
(31) (32), (72)
(73):

(73) . / gave [NP the gun [s which I had cleaned]] to my


brother] ' , , '; .
I gave LP the gun] to my brother [s which I had cleaned].
(72)
,
Y X. ,
(72) , ,
: (74) a. [s That I gave [NP the gun
[s which I had cleaned] to my brother]], was bad To,
, , , ' (
S' ) -
. *[s, That I gave [NP the gun to my brother]], was bad [s which I
had cleaned]. (746) ,

Y,
(72).
,
.
,
, ,
.
,
,
, -

.
1967 .
(MIT) ..
,
, 544


. 20
[Ross 1986], ,
,
.
, ,
. ,

,
.

, ,
, . . ,
: (75) .
L Mary said [s John likes persimmons]] ' ,
'; . [s Sam knows [s Mary said [s John likes
persimmons]]] ' , ,
'; . [s Joan told [s Sam knows [s Mary said [s John likes
persimmons]]]] ' , ,
, '... . .
, ,
(75),
( ,
;
- , ,

). ,
. .
(76)
, persimmons
(75): (76) a. [s What did Mary say [s John likes
]] '[]
, []?'; . [s What does
Sam know [s Mary said [s John likes ]]]; . [s What did Joan
tell me [s Sam knows [s Mary said [s John likes
]]]] .
[] , ,
, []?'. ,
, ,
.
, (76)
what ''
likes ''. ,
18*

545

2.

, ,
-
.
.

(unbounded).
, , ,
. (bounding)
,
( , ),
. '

,
.
, ,
.
,
(77)
(776): (77) a. [NP John's enthusiasm for his sister]
pleases '
' -> *Whom did [NP John's enthusiasm for ] please Mary?
' ?'; . [s That
Mary was going out with Sam] bothered you] To,
, ' -> *Who did that Mary
was going out with
bother you? To,
, ?'.
,

. ,
: (78) [s For him to leave tomor
row] would be a pity ' ' ->
*Tomorrow [s for him to leave ] would be a pity.

. , ,
: (79) They said John
[w payed the bill], and [yp pay the bill] was what he did '
, , ', , [,] -
.
: (80) *They said that John would [yp win the race], and
[vp win the race] that he did
was evident for everyone '
, , , 546

XI :

, '. (80)
,
that he did win the race ',
'.

: (81) Linguistics you gave up
'[ ] , '; . (82)
*Linguistics, [s for you to give up ] would be a wise move '
'.
,
, though
'' (though-inversion): (83) Though she is [AP extremely attractive], I don't like her ' ,
' ->[ Extremely attractive] though she is, I don't like
her. (84) *[AP Extremely attractive though [s that
Mary is
] may seem obvious, not everyone thinks so ' ,
,
, '.

(Sentential Subject Constraint).
(85) :

, (
)5.

:
(85)

,
: , S,
S, S NP,
() S. ,
:
() ,
.

547

2.


(X) S.
,
, ,
(86) (Complex NP Constraint):
, ,
,
.
,
,
. ,
-
.
: (87) / read a statement [s which was about
that man] ' , '
-> *The man who I read a statement [s which was about
is
sick], . ', ,
, ' (
,
).

,
that , . (88) . / believed
[the claim that Otto was wearing this hat] ' []
, '; . I believed [that Otto
was wearing this hat] ' , '; (89)
. * The hat which I believed the claim that Otto was wearing
was red . *, ,
, ( !); . The hat which I believed that
Otto was wearing was red ', ,
, '. ,
,
: (90) What I said was [that she was lying] '
, '; Bill told me something awful, [that ice won't
sink] ' : '; [That
the defendant had been rude] was stoutly denied by his lawyer 'To,
,
'.
:
,
.
548

. :

: (91) a I don't think [s I'd ever do that kind of thing] 'He


, - - ' ->
that tkind of thing, I don't think [s I'll ever do
]; 6. / know a
man[s who does that kind of thing] ' ,
' -> * That kind of thing, I know a man [who does ],
.: ' , '. (91) ,
(916).
though. (92)
. Though I think [s she is very pretty], I donyt like her '
, , ';
- Very pretty though I think [s she is
], / don't like her,
. Though I met someone [s who is very kind], / don't want to marry
him ' , ,
' -> * Very kind though I met
someone [s who is
], / don }t want to marry him.
: (93) .
[ Playing cricket] I suspected [s that he was
] '
, '; . *They said they were looking for
a man who was wearing pink tights, and [VP wearing pink tights]
they found a man [s who was ] ' ,
, ,
'.
: (94) . / think [s
go to a disco tomorrow] ' ,
' -> Tomorrow, I think [s 11 go to a disco
]; 6. / know
someone [s who's going to a disco tomorrow] -> * Tomorrow, I know
someone [s who's going to a disco
]. -,

(94),
(946).

, , : (95) . ] . , [s ], ', . , [s ], ; . *
, [s ,
,
], .

[Ross 1986 (1967): 77]:
549

2.

[+N+Lex] , ,
, . , ,
,
, , , , ,
,
: , ; ,
, / (,
).

(886) (90),
, (896)

,
:
(86")

NP

,
,
(Coordinate Structure Constraint):
550

XL :

(96)
,
, ,
.
:
(97) * What sofa will he put the chair between [some table] and
[r
]?, . '
-
?'; (98) *The lute which [Henry plays ]
and [sings madrigals] is warped, . ',
, ' ( (98)
, ,

). though: (99) * Handsome though he's tall, dark
and
, she doesn't fancy him ' ,
, ';
: (100) * Tomorrow, I will go to a disco today or '
'.

: (101) . ; . *

?; . *
cecmpyl;
. * cecmpyl
,
, ,
:
(102)
,
.
(103) *What
might he ask where // whether I hid
?, .
, // ; (104) "Linguistics, he asked me whether we teach .
, , ;
- (105) "Playing cricket, I don't know
whether he is
' , ';
- (106) *Tomorrow, I don't know whether he is
leaving . , , .
,
,
(islands).
, ,
, ,
. .
551

2.

,
,
,
.

;
, , .
,
,
.
6
terra incognita

,
,

.

.

,
.


19701980-
- ,
.


, [1962 (1957); 1972 (1965);
1965 (1962); 1972 (1968)], [Chomsky 19866], ,
.
. [Kirby 1999] . 6

19 ,
, , , :
, ,
. ?.. ... , -
(insular) . ,
,
, [Ross 1986: 288].

552

XI. :

- [Riemsdijk van, Williams 1986].
1970- - [Akmajian, Heny 1975].

[Newmeyer 1986],

1950-1980- ;
.

XII


-
,
1980- . :
-,
(. 1). '-
(. 2).
(. 3).
:
- (. 4).
,
(. 5). - ,
(. 6).
(. 7).

(. 8).
,
-
(. 9). ;
(. 10).


,
I9601970-
.

1.

,
1980-
, ,
1979 . Scuola Normale Superiore . (
),
[Chomsky 1981]
[Chomsky 1986a];
.

1970- ,
, .
[Jackendoff
554

XII.

1977]
[Fiengo 1977], [Chomsky, Lasnik 1977]
[Chomsky 1980a].
. ,
. , . , .-. , . , . ,
. .


,

- .
,

.

,
.

,
.
,
, ,
.

. ( )
,
(
, ).

.

, , ,
.
:
X'-,

;
,
,

;
;
555

2.

(Bounding theory),

, ;
(Government theory),
,
;
(Binding theory),
,
;
() (Case theory),

- , , . .;
- (Theta-theory),

( , )
;
(Control theory),

PRO.

,
.

D- (D-structure) S- (S-structure). D
.

, S-.
.


( ).
( )
,
(
), ,
, , . .
, -
.
.
,
, , 556

XII

: () (
) . ,
, (


), ( ,
,
, ).
,
, . , (Logical
Form, LF) - ,
(= ).
, (Phonological Form, PF) - ,
.
,
,
S-. ,
,
, ( , ,
<->,
, ,
. XVI). ,
,
, S- .

S-.

557

2.

(Lexicon)
, .

, .
,
, :
1) , . .
() [N]
[V];
, .
(N) [+N, -V],
() - [+N, +V], (V) - [N, +V],
() - [-N, -V];
2)
(theta-grid), . . (=
) ,
.
, . . ,
- ,
, ;
3) (subcategorization frame),
. . ,
.
,
, , kill '
' :
kill
[-N, +V]
(Ag, Pt)
[NP, [yp _ NP]]

.
,
: 1) ? 2)
? ,
, , ,
, .
,

.
,
; ()
558

XII

. ,

(, ,
,
, ).

.
,
,
, ,
.

2. X'-

,

.
,
-,

,
'-.

(Endocentricity Constraint)1:
;
;
.
'-

,
,

.
,


. 1

. , ,
-, . [ 1968 (1933): 207];
,
.

559

2.

,
,
-
.

,
: ,
, .
, , ,


(, , ...).
, ,
-> ...,
,

. ,

. ,
,

.
,
,
.
,

,
(N , , V , Aux
. .)
, ,
,
.
:

?
, .. . , ,
,
,
(. ., , ,
,
, , . .).
560

XII.


, ,
,
, ,

, (,
). -,
,
, . -, ,
,
.

:
(1) a.
sleep '' [+
]
.
put '' [+
NP ]
.
mention '' [+
NP]
.
promise '' [+
S]
(1) , sleep - ,
,

,
; (16) (1) , put mention
,
(NP); put
,
(). (1) , promise
()
,
(S).

[N+ V].
,
,
(complements). (arguments)
.

. , ,
,
, ,
, ,
,
.
561

2.

X'- ,


, , , ,
( ).
( , . II . 5)
.
,
, ,
( ).

: (2) a. [studies
physics] in Cambridge ' '; . ^stud
ies in Cambridge physics; (3) a. student of physics in Cambridge '
(, ) , ' (
, student ,
); . *student
in Cambridge of physics. To : (4) a. le
professeur de francais aux cheveux longs; 6. */e professeur aux
cheveux longs de francais '
'.
,
: [studies [n physics]]
(2) - V ( ), [student [ of physics]]

() N' ( ); [with [NP! the


handsome girl] ' ' ' (
); [that [s he went home]] ' ' -
( ,
); [proud [PP of his son]] ' (
).
, X'.


. , one N'
(5), N (5): (5) a. Mary has a beautiful
[^], and John has an ugly one '
, '; . The [N> student] from Princeton
was wiser than the one from Harvard '
, '; . *The [N> student of
philosophy] was wiser than [N> one of physics] ' (,
) , , (, )
).
562

XII.

sleep '' ,
(1).
, ,
. ,
: (6) a. *soundly, John slept
' '; . * the couch, John slept '
'; . for three hours, John slept ' ';
. because he was tired, John slept ' ,
'. ()
( ), () .
,
, .
,
, (adjunct). ,
soundly V, a for three hours
. , ,
,
. ,
X':


,
.
,
,
.:
a Cambridge physics student, * physics Cambridge student

(, ) '; in Cambridge
he studies physics, he studies physics in Cambridge, : *physics he
studies in Cambridge.
(8) a. John will [read the letters
in the garden this afternoon], and Bill will do so too '
563

2.

,
'; . John will [read the letters in the garden] this afternoon,
and Bill will do so tonight'
, ';
. John will [read the letters] in the garden this afternoon, and Bill
will do so in the garage tonight '
,
'. do so, ,
.
-: r.*John will
[read] the letters in the garden this afternoon and Bill will do so the
diaries in the garage after dinner '
, -
'. (8) do so
V, , (86)
,
, (8)
, () V, . .
+ . , V
,
[Haegeman 1994: 87-91]:
(8) John will read the letters in the garden this afternoon

1) , ,
enough '', . isn't proud enough of his country '
' * isn't proud of his country enough, of his
country proud '';
' ,
, ();
2) X', , ,

564

XII
3) - ,
, even '', . [NP Even [NP the older residents]} were surprised
[NP[NP The older residents] even] were surprised '
'; was very fond of his sister, and [AP even [^ very fond of his
brother]] He was very fond of his sister, and [ A PLP very fond of his brother] even]
' '.

, ,
,
X".
, ;

.
() (NP),
- (VP) . . X"
( )
X':
==="

,
, V - V,
,
V.
V ,
. ,

all '', ,
: (9) a. The boys have all read the letters in
the garden after lunch '
', . 6. All the boys have read the letters in the gar
den after lunch '
'. (96) all ()
, (9)

: . They have? '565

2.

?', all :
. *They have ll? ,
all,
do so,
V: . The girls have all done so too ' '.
all ,
, . .
.
, all
(X' X"). '- ,
- (V), (V')
(V" VP)
, -
,
.
,
,
. ,
. (10), ,
- (11),

(12) [Freidin 1992:41]:
(10)
Np=Nmax

566

'

XII.

extremely
proud
of his son
' '

', ",
-: (13) John is [A very [> fond of Mary]
and [A> proud of her]] '
'; ', , :
(14) John used to be very [A> fond of Mary], but now he is much
A" less [A' so]] ' ,
( )'. (1314)
, fond
''.
1987 . . ,
,
,
(* John's the book ' (. .) '). ,

567

2.

(DP),
.
[Abney 1987]:


, (16) [DP John's [yp quietly having read the
book] ', '
, (. *It is believed John's quietly having
read the book, It is believed that John has quietly read the book
', ', (16)
, ), ,
, [VP quietly having read the book]
, N',
, (16) : (*... hav
ings...), ,
. .
,
DP NP
. ,
, , ,
X'-

,
DP. , ,
,
N, a D, . .
, ,
,
.
,
568

XII


.
.

, , ,
, (verb phrase, VP).
VP, S,
II. ,
, ,

,
: -,
Aux (
).
'-? :
Aux,
(
,
can, may, must, shall, have, will...).
, Aux:
(17) a. Poirot abandoned the investigation '
', ,
:
Aux
.
(17) . Abandon the investiga
tion, Poirot did indeed '
', . ' () ,
' . What Poirot did was abandon the
investigation ' ', . ',
, '. (176)
abandon investigation
,
-ed
do: di-d. (17)
: abandon the investigation '
' .
,

,
. ,

569

2.

(, will), , Aux, -
Infl ( inflection ),
I.
, (
), ,
.


, . IV: ,
,
, ,
, - .
,
: (),
( ) (
, ). ,

: ,
, ,
,
- X' X".
.
InflP (= Inflection Phrase),

, , ,

, , (
V 1.5), .
Infl ( I). Infl
,
(. . ).
Spec,
, (SpecIP,
SpecNP . .). ,
Infl-
,
- (V),
(VP), Infl

:
570

XII.

,
, ,
,
(complementizer), . ,

IP ().
,
(), (")
?
,
,
.
, ( ) (
)
(, ).
.
, -
. . ,

: (19) a. I believe that John
talked to Mary ' , '; . */ believe
571

2.

whether (if) John talked to Mary; (20) a. / wonder whether (if) John
talked to Mary ' , '; . */ won
der that John talked to Mary. wonder ''
ask '' //
whether '', believe think ''
that.
,
. whether, // ''
,
[+Q] ,
[Q],
that ''.

,
. -
,
: (21) I won
der who talked to Mary ' , '.
,
, .

(Spec-Head agreement)
, ,
. (21)
, , ,
[+Q]. ,
wonder, ,

, :

572

XII.

, (V)
() ,
( )
. ,


(), , , -
(landing site) .
(
) ,
, .
X'- (
-
X'):

,
. D X' ,
, (. .
X'- ),
- .
, (22) ,

. ,
(, , ,...)

, (, ,
,...)
. ,
573

2.

( vs. ),
(head parameter).
X'-

. ,
(
), .

3.
- ,
[Ross 1986 (1967)]:

, .

. ,
.
(movement site)
,
.

:
(trace), t.
,
:
(23) :
(
)

.
(argument position, A-position)
,
,
.
,
(, seem ''
).
: 1)
, . .
; 2) , . . ,
Y'.
574

XII

(A'-positions,
A-bar positions).
(SpecCP),
-
(,
),
. ,
,
.
, . .

.
-
pro
,
, , . pro ho telefonato
' (.1.) '.
, ,
,
.

, ,
, (24) Who [does John know [Maty
admires]]! '[] ,
[]?' (25) Which books [did Jill forget [her neighbor had bor
rowed]]? '[] ,
[] ?' . . ,

,
(2425):
, ,
(26),

(266).
(long movement), (successive cyclic):

575

2.

,

,
,
. , , (27)
a. Martha told Ben Barbie said Bernie knows Adam wants what '
, , ,
?' (27)
- (echo question).
. Martha
told Ben Barbie said Bernie knows what Adam wants; . Martha told
Ben Barbie said what Bernie knows Adam wants; r. Martha told Ben
what Barbie said Bernie knows Adam wants;
. What did Martha tell Ben Barbie said Bernie knows Adam wants?
[Freidin 1992: 92]:

576

XII

NPj ,
( what), tj,
,
.
,
, . . ,
, .
Di3
Dj, Dx . ,

,
, .
,
.
,
, , ,
. ,

,
.

.

( ,

(VP): (29) a. A man [who I want to meet] is coming to
dinner ', , ";
. A man is coming to dinner [who I want to meet] ( ) [Freidin
1992: 971.

577

2.

.
,
,
: (31) a. [Np A
picture of[NP a man [CP:i who I admire tremendously]]] is on the
wall ' , []
, '; . *[ NP A picture of[NP a man ti]
is on the wall [CP:i who I admire tremendously]; . [Np A picture of
[NP a man [CP:i which I admire tremendously]]] is on the wall
' , []
, ; . [NP A picture of[ NP a man ti]] is on
the wall [CP:i which I admire tremendously].
(31)
man '' (
who)
, .
(316) ,
. (31)
picture ''
(31). ,
,
.

,
(7374) XI ,
(32) (33): (32) a. Igave [NP the gun [s which I had cleaned]]
to my brother] ' , ,
'; . I gave the gun to my brother [s which I had cleaned];
(33) a. [s That I gave [NP the gun [CP which I had cleaned] to my
brother]], was bad 'To, , ,
, ; . *[ That I gave [NP the gun to my
brother]], was bad [s which I had cleaned].
,
,
. 1973 .
,
,
[Chomsky 1973].
(NP) (IP)
, ,
(bounding node).
578

XII

(subjacent)
,
,
,
,

.
,

(34) :

.

, .. .

: , ,
.
- NP ()
IP ().
,

. ,
, ,
-
.
, ,
.
, IP, . .
, , .
( ,
) IP.

.

. ,
,
IP
,
.
,

: ,
579

2.

(

).

, . .
(35) *[ Whox [IP does
John remember [Cp what} [IP mentioned tj ]]]], .: '[]
, [] '.
what,
SpecCP
IP, 2
.
,
,
.

. , , ,
[ de ], de
,
''.
,
(366),
(376)
: (36) a. J'ai lu [NP la preface [PP d'un livre]] '
', .: ' '; . J'en ai lu
[NP la preface
] ' ', : (37)
a. J'ai lu [NP la critique de [NP la preface [PP d'un livre\\\ '
'; . *J'en ai lu [NP la
critique de [NP la preface ]] '
'.

(. . ,
): Pierre croit [$> que Marie le connatt ] '
, ', *Pierre k croit [s' que Marie connait
].
, , .


NP IP, , a NP
. , , ,
2 , ,
who ,
what, ,
, ., [, 1997: 70].

580

XII.

: (38) fratello, [CP [a cuix ] [IP mi domando
[ [che storiei [iP abbiano raccontato ti}]]] era molto preoccupato
' , -, []
, '.
a cui' '
IP, ,

, , ,
.
,
, , .,
, : (39) *tuo fratello, a cui temo
la possibilita che abbiano raccontato tutto , ' ,
, [] '.
,
.

:
, .

,

.
, [Torrego 1984]
,

:
(40) . [ En que aula
[iP esta el profesor]]
APT
' ?'
. *[cp En que aula [IP el profesor
estd]]
APT
(406) ,

.
:
(41)

- [ con quien [s creias tu [cp que [queria Juan [CP que [ hablard
Maria}]}]}]

' , , ?'

581

2.


,

, .
SpecCP,
. (41)
,
, ()
SpecCP. (416)
,
,

.
, ,
, NP ,
IP. (41) ,

. (41) ,
.
,
.
(41 )
;

.
,
, IP
. ,

, ,
, .
,

,
582

XII.

.
.. [1974].
: (42) , ,
?; (43) - ,
.
, .

: (44) ... [

.. , 3 1834 .).
, ,

.

4.



.

(
),
. ,
,
,
, , .

:
(46) ,
- .

(46) ,

, (
-

583

2.
, ;
- , - -) (
,
) . . ,
,
. ,
,
.

,

(, ),

.

, .

(head movement).

.
, ,
,
.
(V)
,
, . . (47) a. Max wird heute einen
Roman lesen ' '; . Heute wird
Max einen Roman lesen ' '; .
Einen Roman wird Max heute lesen '
'; . Was wird Max heute lesen? '
?'. (SpecCP;
.. [1984: 194])
,
(47),
. ( .. ,
) .
:
. Ich weifi, dafi heute Max einen Roman lesen wird ' ,
'.
, ,
D,
584

XII.


.
, . .
, (I), ,
, ():

,
, ,
.
Infl : Will he go?
' ?'.
[Radford
1988: 296-297]:
(48) . Vai mate maja? ' ?';
. Kas suitsetate? ' ?';
. ketab daradtt ' ?';
. zy zamykacie ! ' ?';
. Ob sie den Wagen verkauft hat? '
?';
. Qu'elle est bavardel ' !';
. Iwalada qad taraka Ibayta '
'.
[Fiengo 1977]
: ,
,
, (
. II . 2). 585

2.


.
,
.

5.
() -
,
.
,
, ,
.
, , ,
.
, . . , . .
, . .
( ), . .
, . . , . .
.

,
. , , , . . ,
, , : . . (
X'-).
,
.

- ,
, ,
, , , , ,
, ,
.
.
( ),
, , .
, ,
, ,

.
586

XII.

,

, , , . .
, ,
,
.
(
: Case) (
: case).
, -
.

- (
) (
).
believe
'', (49),
(50) : (49) Everybody believed
the rumour ' '; (50) Everybody believed that the
rumour was true ' , '.

: (51) [The rumour]i was widely believed ti '
' (52) [That the rumour was true]i was widely
believed ' , , '.
,
,
it. (53) It was widely believed
that the rumour was true ' ,
'.
: (54) * Jf was widely believed the rumour '
'.
(54) ,
the rumour ,
- ()
believe, .
- ,
. , - (53)
. ,
.

. , 587

2.



. . .
, (53),
.
,
, - PRO
(* )
(* , ).
,
( ?) , ,
for. [For Mary to have gotten this job] was ille
gal To, , ', .
*[Mary to have gotten this job] was illegal. ,
, , ,
. , ,

.
,
,
.

,
, ( ,
, PRO) .
, , ,
,
.

.
,
(55) * [ |j
] (. ,
: ...
)] . . (56) *[
] (57) *
[ ].
, PRO
, . .
,
(55-57)
PRO? 588

XII.

(58) * \\ him to strike her would surprise me '


, ' for,
: (59) For him to strike her
would surprise me. ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
(assigns) .
,
( , )
. . ,

(60) (Case Filter):



.

() ,
PRO,
.

? (
), Infl
( . . ).
Infl (, to )
.

,

, . . .
,

?

?
.
,
, ,
.
X
YP, X
NP , 589

2.

. ,
(. . ,

, ).
,
.
. , X
YP, X YP

.
, , (V)
(NP), VP.
.
(
IP),
(VP).
.

,
. ,
(per
colates) -
,
.
, ;
,
, . . , , ,
,

(), .

6. -
- ,
,
,
.
, (=
) : thematic roles, th-roles ,
v, theta-roles
590

XII.

v-roles -, ,
-.


.
, n- n ,
v1 ...,v .
, ,
, , , (61)
;
; , . .
- ,
-
. - - (Theta-criterion):
(62) -:

,
.
,
, - (v-positions), ,
, -- (-positions).
-
, .

, , ,
. -
.
- ,
,
, ().
(63) -:
(63) . , . * ] . ;
. ? ( : '-, '); . *
( ' '); . * (
' '); . ??* .
(636) ,
-. - ,
,
, - (63-). (636)
, ( ), 591

2.

, ; (63)
(63)
( , ); (63)
; (63) ,
, . .,
- , , . . *The sky
is raining.

,
,

. -
,
,
,
, , .
, ,
(,
).
-
.
,
-
:
(64) - , =
', - .
, ,
-, ,
(Subject-to-Object Raising)
, /
believe him to be intelligent ' , '?

,
, PRO: / believe [IP him to be intelligent] (
VI 3.2 ,
).
, ( )
( )
( believe),

(exceptional case marking). 592

XII.

,
, , ,
. , ,
- .
-
- , . .
, , -
, , - ,
, .

-
(= - )
, . .
.
:
,
, -
,
. *Hit
John, *It hit John. ,
.

: (),
- , , .


,
. ,
, ,
,
: -.
, ,
yp[V NP],
( V
s[NP VP]). ,

.
,
-,
( ): s[NP VP]. ,
,
,
593

2.

(external argument).
.
, -
,
-- . , John
seems to like pizza ', ' seem
'',
, -
John,
. John
like ''
-
seem.

7.
,

.
. ,

(65);
,
(66): (65) . i; . *i ,
i; (66) . *i i; . i
, i
1960-
,

, . .
.

;


. , (67) .
Maryx knows that John likes Maryx '^ ,
i . Mary[ knows that John likes herx 'i{ ,
eei', , (68)
i i, (65).
594

XII.



, , 1970-
,
. ,
.

.
, -

(69) a. Each of Mary's sons hated his brothers '
',
y . Each of Mary's sons hated
each of Mary's sons brothers '
'. ,
, . .
,
,
: (70) [NP The
man who shows he deserves itj]i will get [NP the prize hex desires]j
'[ N P , , ; ] v
[NP , OHi ]j [Bach 1970].
, ,
(
), ,
,
,
.

.

(Index Freely). ,

( ,

,
).
;
.

,
595

2.

XII.

N
N
NP2
their
criticisms of each other
'
'
(74), (746), ,
NP l5
NP2.
NP2. NP 2
NPi,
NPi : (74) . *each other
(themselves) criticize them '* () ';
(74) . *each other's (themselves') criticisms of them ""
()'.
,
,
.
,

.

: ,
. (anaphors)
,
. (pronominals) ,
, , .
(referential expressions)

, .
, ,
. -
,
(pro).
. ,
, ,
(opacity domain,
, binding domain). On597

2.


:
(75) ,
,
.

,
-
. (75) ,
,

.
, ,
,
, .
, . .
(, ,
), .
, ,
( ),
, , ,
, . .
, (NP) (IP),
.
. ,
. ,
,
.
:
, ,
, .

,
[Chomsky 1981],
- , :
A. .
B. (..
) .
C. .


(76) ,
. , , 598

XII

(76),
.

;
3.


i ... j ... k ... l,
(
, . .
, ).
... ... } ... i
, (
,

). ,
ni... j... k ... i ,

( ).

,
, : (76') i ,
} i j (76") ,
) k j
.
, ,
, . .
.

.
,
(. ,
, (74)).

, :
(77) a. Theyx have read [NP books about each otherx] '
'; . *Theyx have read [NP [NP John's]
books about each otheri] '
'; . John has read [NP [NP theirx] books about each otherx]
3

; ,
, . (77) { j I.

599

2.

' '. (77)


,
, ,
. (776) ,
John's; , ,

, (776) . (77)
, ,

.


(78) . i , i
. *i , i .
, (78)
, .

, (786), ,
(786).

,
.
, . [Rappaport 1986],
,

(. ),
(..
-), (
). .

(79) (80)
(79') (80'): (79) John thinks that a pic
ture of himself will be on the show, (79')* ,
; (80) John knows that an article
about himself appeared in the paper, (80') * ,
.
:
, ..
( ),
. (79'80')
( ): (80') ...
600

XII .

[s,[NP ] ] [NP
] .
, :

.

(7980): -
. ,

,
,

. ,
(7980)
, - . ,
,
(accessible), . .
.
, ()
.
, (7980)
.
,
, him
self, John.
(
) . ,
, .. ,
, .
, ,
(79'80').

,
.
.

,
. , ,
, ,
(7980) .
,
, , , 601

2.

. [Klenin 1974]
, , , PRO,

,
: (81) j [IP PRO,
i/j ]; (82) i
j[IP PROj k [IP PROk i/j/k
]] ( . ).

(
). (83) . i
i, . i i i , . i
[ ] . *i [
i], (84) . i i, . i i , . i [
] . *i [
i]. , -4
, :
(8384) ,
.

, : (85) i
j [PROj i/j ]; (86) i
j [PROj j/*i ].
(86)
,
. (86)
' ( )
( ),
'. ( ,
)
, .



. , ,
-,
: , 4

, ,
- ,
, ,
.

602

XII

, .
,
,
: (87) i [j [k
i/*j/k]] ' i , Cj ,
i/*j/' [Cole, Hermon, Sung 1990].

8.

-
,
.
,
,
,
(-
(weak
island)): (88) a. What do [you wonder fCP whether [John [yp fixed
t]]]]? . ' , ?'; . *Who
do [you wonder [CP whether [ t [yp fixed the car]]]]! . '
, ?'; . *How do you wonder
[CP whether [John [yp fixed the car] t ]]], . '
, ?'; . : (89)
. , ? . * ,
?
(88-89), (886)
- (88, 896).
.
, ,
,
, ,

(
) ,
(, Infl) .



.
603

2.

(90) (Empty Category


Principle, ECP):
,
.
(88),
, ,
t ( fix);
(89)
. (886)
Infl,
; (88)
.
,
Howx did [s John [wp fix the car] ti? '
?', (88) ,
,
.

; , ,
[Baker 1988].

9.

,
,
. , S- D-,
,
.
,

, , , .

, .
S-
.

-
, .
,
, . . ,

604

XII
,
, .
, , ,
.
,
. [1972 (1965)]
- [Katz, Postal 1964] ,
, ,
(, ,
,
).

1960- , , -
, :
,
?..
( ,
,
- )
,
.
.
<=> .

,
, , .

vs. ,
, ,
, ,
. . [Jackendoff 1972] ,
, , , .
,
- .
1970- ,
, ,
. ,
,

. 1970- , , ,
,
,
.

605

2.

(91) -
, ,
,
: (9) '
, : ' (91") (
) , : '.
() .
(9 )
, (91").
,
?

, .
(9),
,

,
, .
S-
, : (9 )
[- t]. t
, .
-,
(IP),
(
(9)): (9) i [- [tj t].
(91")
,
,
: (91") - [ } [ti tj]. ,
,
, ,
(91).
,
S-
,
(overt) . ,

:
( )
D- S-,
S- .

606

XII.

S,
, . . ,
,
.
(covert) ,
(overt) , S,
.
,
.
.
,
.

,
SpecCP, ,
: [ What [IP did he see
?]] ' ?'. ,

,
.
[Huang 1982]
. ,
,

, , ,
, , in situ.
, ,
. ,
. ,
(92)

[ [IP

]]

: . ' [ ,]
?' (What did Zhangsan know that Lisi bought?) .
' , ' (Zhangsan knows what Lisi
bought). , ,
(92),
SpecCP ,
(92) ,

:
20 - 4755

607

2.

,
, (926)
SpecCP
,
,
(92):
(926)
,
S-
,
, .
,
(92)
,

. ,
S-
( - )
, .

. ,

:
, ! vs. * ,
?
in situ,
(93), , (936):
(93) a. Pierre a dit que Jean a vu quf! ' ,
?'; . *Pierre a dit que qui a vu Jean? . '
, ?'.

(94)

.

:
'' ''. (94)
' , ?',
*' , ?'.
,
,

608

XII

.
,
S- -
.
.
, (95) a. Hisx
mother loves Johnx 'Eri i ', . *Whox
does hisx mother love ix ? 'Kori eroi ?'. -
,
.
, (weak crossover),
,
: . Whoi ti loves
hisx mother? 'I } ?'
,
: (96)
. Everyonex loves hisx mother ' ',
. *Hisi mother loves everyonei, . ()}
i . ,
,
: everyone
SpecCP,
:
(96') . [ Everyonei [iP ti loves hisi mother]]
. *[ Everyonei [IP hisi mother loves ti];
(966) (96')
.
: (97) . ,
, v
,
.
. *, i ,
i,
. (976)
,
.
(976)
(97). ,
,
: (97')*i [, i
, ti]. . (98) i 20

609

2.

, i ( ), (98')
i [ti , i ],
, .
.
,
,
, SpecCP: (99) . [ Whoi[1 ti
bought what]]? ' ?', . *[ Whatj did [IP who
buy tj]]?
(99)
,
, , ,
(9394) -

. , , ,
.
, SpecCP
,
. , ,
,
( S-). S- (99)
(996)
:
(99') a. [whatj whoi]i [IP ti bought tj]
6. [whoi what j ] j [IP ti bought tj]


,
.
(99'),
,
, ,
; (99') . (99')
,
,
( ).
(996)
.
, -,
(100) a. Cine
' ?', . * cine '
?' [Hornstein 1995: 16].
610

XII.

10.
( )
(101) Will John meet everyone? '
?'
,
:

Will

(103)

John

meet everyone

S-:

Will

John}
611

ti

tj

meet everyone

2.

(104)

ti

everyonek

/j

meet

/k

D- -

(VP). S-
SpecIP,
.
,
(104)
,
everyone '' VP,
VP,
.
,
,
.
, ,

.

, ,
. ,

. 612

XII.


1992 .,
.

, ,
, (
)
[Webelhuth (ed.) 1995].

XIII



,
;
,
.
, ,
, !

, ?
!..
-,
,
.
.
,
1989 .
I(nfl),
(= ) (. 1).
, ,
.
-
- (. 2). 1992 .
- ,
S- D-,
.

(. 3). ,
,
(. 4).

,
(. 5).
.
,
,
, .

. . ,
; -

614

XIII.
,
(. 6).


1990- .
, ,

. -
, . .
-

.
,

. . -
,
.
:


, .
,
,
.

1.
1989 . .-.
[Pollock 1989]
.

(
, . II 4.2.2): (1) a. John
has often kissed Mary ' ',
: . *John kisses often Mary ' '.

,
: (2) a. Jean embrasse souvent Marie
' ', . *Jean souvent embrasse Marie.

, , 615

2.

, ,
V Infl,
.
( )
,
.
,

(3) . *Pierre a peine park Vitalien '
-'; . a peine parler Vitalien '
-'; . parler a peine Vitalien,
( ,
): (4) a. *to speak hardly Italian '
-', . to hardly speak Italian.

pas,

(IP)1.
(Jean
'est pas heureux ' () '),
(n'etre pas heureux '
'), ( pas etre heureux).
,
.
,
( pas sembler heureux ' '),
(* sembler pas heureux). ,
,
:
VP a peine ' ',
pas.
, ,
,
I.

, :
,
. V I ,
V ( )
:
1

{)
.

616

XIII.
I

pas

souvent

I
, ,
, - [Tense]
[Agr],

. (V)
.

,
.

.
Agr
.
,
. ,
. . -,
. .,
. -
SpecVP AgrP,

Agr (Spec-head agreement).
Agr -
(-features, phi-features).
VP.
Agr .
,
Agr , [ V[T]];
(
, ) Agr
Ugr[TV[T]][Agr]]:
617

2.

(6)

Agr


VP, Agr:
(7) a. John does not eat any chocolate '
'; . *John eats not any chocolate; . John has not eaten
any chocolate ' '.
not, pas ,
Agr V.

.

5 ,
2. ,

, - . 618

XIII.

Agr ,
Agr ( )
.

, 2,

:
(8)

Adv

Agr,
-
,
, .
, ,
- X' X", .
.
- N (
), V (), () ( ). , 2

,
: (i) Souventfaire mal ses devoirs - 'est stupide . '
() '. souvent '
' mal '' , ,
.
(
),
, , (i)
[Iatridou 1990: 5671.

619

2.

- .
,
(, , ,
. .); - (. XII . 6)
-
.
, ,
-
. , ,
(V), ,
VP. ,
invite ''
, SpecVP;

. ,
(, )
, , - invite

, . . SpecIP, ,
.

2.

,
X'-,
, . .
.
1980-
: (9) ,
, . . ,
(10), :

620

"
i

XIII.

(10)


,
-
. ,
,
,

( ; , )
( ',

). 3,
, , . [Larson 1988].

,
(give '', show '', send '
')
( , dative shift) /
showed Mary a book ' '

, ,

. ,
,
( ),
: (11) a. I showed Mary herself''
', *. I showed herself Mary, . };
,
: (12) a. I gave every worker^ hisx paycheck '
i eroi ', . *I gave itsi owner every pay
checki . erOi i.
, D-
, ,
,
: (13) V.Whoi does [IP [NP hisi moth3

[
1994] [Johannessen 1998].

621

2.

er] [vp see ti]]?, . Koi eroi ?. (13)



,
,
.
, , (13),
, . XII . 9.
,

: (14) a. Which i did you ti send
hisx paycheck? ' ?',
. *Whosei paycheck did you send hisi mother ti? . "
"? (14) ,
which man ' '
, ;
, . (13) (15) Whoi ti sees hisi
mother! ' ?'.
, (. XII . 9)
,
: (16) a. Who did you give which paycheck? '
?', . * Which paycheck did you give who? .
?. ,
any-,
,
: (17) . / showed no one
anything ' ', . * I showed any nothing.

,
to: (18) a. I showed Mary to herself
'; . */ showed herself to Mary ( );
(19) a. I sent every checkx to itsx owner ' |
eroj '; . ?? I sent hisx paycheck to every workerx .
eroi i (
); (20) a. Which check did you send to its
owner? ' ?'; . * Which
worker did you send his check to? '
?' ( ); (21) a. Which check did you
send to who? ' ?'; . "Whom did you
send which check to? ' ?' (
); (22) a. I sent no presents to any of the children
622

XIII.

' '; . */
sent any of the packages to none of the children
' (
).

:
,
,
(NP1) (NP2)
:
(23)

VP

NP2

,
(23).
[Chomsky 1975 (1955)],
(24) a. The teacher gave several books to him '
'
[gave to him] . The teacher [gave
to him] several books.
,
( X),
. ,
,
,
(18-22):
(25)
VP

gave to NP2

sent
a letter to Mary ' '
:
623

2.

, ,
,
, v (light verb;
) VP .
VP , a letter '', -
to Mary '',
send-to-Mary. a let
ter, ,
. , ,
. , a letter
send to Mary .

v, (t),
(26) .
, , ,
a letter , . .
: ,
, .

(18-22),
(26) ,
(27) John
624

XIII.

sent [[a letter to Mary] and [a book to Sue]] '


'. ,
,

, 4.
,
,
(Heavy NP Shift), ,
, ,
,
to: (28) a. I gave to John everything that he demanded '
, '. ,

(28'), (28'):
(28') . I gave t to John [NP everything that he demanded]

. / [ gave to John] everything that he demanded t



:
(29)
vP

a letter

sent '',
, ,
, . : [[
ti [ ti]]? (across-theboard) .

625

2.

(29) .
:
, ,
, ,
. VP (26)
(29) ,
,
V. ,
(26).
, (1117),
,
.

,
,
(VP-shell hypothesis).
,
,
.
,
,
, :
(30) . -> SpecX X'; . X* -> X YP*.
'-,
(Single Complement Hypothesis),

.

3.


1980- - 1990-
,
1992 ., - (Minimalist
Program, [Chomsky 1995]). ,
,
, ,
.

.
626

XIII.

,


,
.
,
,
[Haegeman 1994; Radford 1997a;
Uriagereka 1998; Ouhalla 1998; Culicover 1997].
- ,
, ,

. ,
. [Radford 19976],

, ,
.
,
,


.
,
,
.
3.1.

,
,
:

, .
,
. ,
- D-,

, S-,
.
D- S- 627

2.


,
. ,
,
. ,
S-,
,
,
.
, -
,
Tough- (Tough Movement;
[Postal 1971: 27]) - ,
, , tough '
; , ', good '', easy '
' .: (31) John is tough to follow '
'; John is good to give things to '
'; John is easy to talk to
'
' . .
John

. ,
(. . ,
)
. .
. ,

, easy
.
, it: (32) It is
easy to please John ' ',
, . (33) a. Mary is
pretty to look at ' ' . *It is pretty
to look at Mary: pretty '',
easy '',
, ; it
(336).
, Tough Mo
vement
. [Chomsky 1981]

,
628

XIII.
(exceptionally)

.
, ,
,
, ,
: (34) [ That John likes pro-wrestling] is
hard to understand To,
, ' (35) \ Pictures of Mary] are easy
to sell ' '. ,

, , ,
- :


(34-35), ,
,
. . ,
. ,

. ,
.

,
, ?
,
,
D-.
( -,
,
),
S-,
, .

629

2.

3.2.
D- S-
.
, . . ,

,
.

,

.

(lexicon)
(computational system).

. (derivation)

,
;
.
,
.

.

.

(Spell-out),
.
,
, , (converges) .
, ,
(crashes) .

, .

. , ,
, ,
, -
.
630

,
,
( ).
,
. ,
, - ,
(- )
,
(- ).
1

X'-. , girl '' boy
''
[NP [N, girl]] [NP [N'boy]],
, the DP: [DP the [NP
]] . .
( '-)
, (general
ized transformation). [v [DP [the boy [v
likes [DP the girl]]] ' ',
I (
)
(36) [1 [i' I [ [DP the boy] [vp likes [DP the girl]]].
(SpecIP)
. ,
631

2.


; ,
,
,
( ).

:
,
.

,
,
.
,
-. , ,

.

SpecVP SpecIP:
(37) [IP [DP the boy][i'I [yp tthe boy [v' likes [DP the girl]]].

.
, -
: (38) *How does John wonder what Mary fixed? .
, ?.
how ''
, . . , SpecCP
what ''.

: (39) . [ [IP John wonder [CP e [1
Mary fixed what how]]]].
,
- ,
.
: . [ how [IP John wonder [CP e [IP Mary fixed what
thow]]]] - [ WHAT [ip John wonder [ [IP Mary fixed twhat
how]]]].
(396), . [ how [IP John wonder [CP what [IP Mary
fixed twhat thow]]]] (396) (38), ,
,
( ), .
632

XIII.

(38)
:
wonder ,
what '' . ,
,
how ''
:
(40) [ how [ IP John wonder [ CP what [ IP Mary fixed t w h a t t h o w ]]]].

how
what,
,
how.
,
, ,
, . (41) a. John will have left by the time we get there
' , '; . ""Have
John will thave left by the time we get there! '
, ?'
have ,
,
- I will
( , Head Movement
Constraint [Travis 1984]).
: (42) . It is likely for John to have left
', '; . John is likely to have left ; .
*John is likely for it to seem t to have left . ,
, . ,
,
D- (42): (43') is likely John to have left.
likely ''
, D-
( likely
).
John ,
, ,
. , John
for, -
(42);

it.
is likely, (426). 633

2.

,
-.
.
, , , (42)
it, .


(Shortest Move):
.

,
,
,
. ,
,

.
,

; ,
, .
,
,
(Procrastinate), (Greed)
(Last Resort).
, ,

, .
, , ,
.
,
.
,
(
).

.
T(ense) ();
, (. . 3.3),
( ).
, -

634

XIII.
,
.

.

. ,

. ,
. ,

-
.

,
,
(,
),
. , ,
(44) . *John seems [t is leaving];
6. *John seems to t [that Bill is leaving]; . *John was said to t [that
Bill is leaving]. ,
, .
John
f-; ,
.
John (44)
, , Agr,
. . ,
, .

. ,
,

. ,
do

.
3.3.

, 635

2.

.

,
(inflectional) .
,
,
.
.

,
. V
I
, ,
I , V
, .
I V ,

,
.

.
.
( )
( ).
,
.

:
(45) [ [AgrspSpec [GRSP Agrs [TP T [AgroP Spec [ Agr0' Agro.
()
-

, . .
,
, (, -
tensed) .
Agrs
( ),
.
Agr0 (
). 636

XIII.

,
. . ,
.
( ) (
).
, ,
,
,
. ,
,
, , ,
.
3.4.

,
S-, -
,

,
S- , .
(46) Guess [in which house] John lived t '
, '. in
which house ' '
, t.
: which
[NP which house], [ in [NP which house]].
- (46),
,
.
(46) (46')
[[which x][x house]] John lived [in [x]], . . :
, ,
(46") [which x] John lived [in [x house]], . . ,
. ,
, (46)
, .
, S- ,
,
637

2.

, ;
.
,
, - .
,


, .
[Chomsky 1995]
, . .
,
(copy theory of movement).

,
.
, ,
, ,
, .

(47) [Which picture of himself]
did John buy t ? ' ?',
(

,
).
(47') [Which picture of himself] did John buy
[which picture of himself],
[[which x] [x picture of himself]] did John buy [[which x] [x pictur
of himself]].
[ picture of himself] ,
[which x] .
(47") [which x] did John buy [x picture of himself], . .
, , ?
,
.
(48) John wondered which pic
ture of himself Bill took.
; , to take a
picture of '
', ''.
, (48) 4 : . ' ,
'; . ' ,
638

XIII.

'; . ' ,
' . ' ,
'. , ,
John - ,
. (
) Bill himself
, (48)
(48), (48). ?

(49) John wondered [which picture of himself] Bill took
[which picture of himself].
: (50) a. John wondered [which x] [x picture of himself]
Bill took [x] . John wondered [which x] Bill took [x picture of
himself]. (506) Bill ,
(506), (50)
.
,

.
, ,
.
(50), John ,
,
,
(48). (506),
Bill, ,
,
(486).
3.5.
[Chomsky 1995]
, .
,
(
), ,
.

,
( X'-).
21 - 4 7 5 5

639

2.

- (Select) (Merge).

,
.
{ {, }},
.
, , - ,
. ,

:

D
the

N
man

DP
( )
the.
, .
,
. ,

.
, (51)
DP. 'man
'', , ,
, (51),
.

( Phrase Structure).

4.


,
:
.

, , ,

. ,
640

XIII.

, (
)
, ,
. ,
,
[Hale 1983], [Blake 1983]
[Heath 1986]
:
, -,
:
,
.
, ,


, ,
,
,

... ,
[ 1972 (1965): 119].
.. [Ross 1967
(1986)] ,

(Scrambling),

, (core rules).
.
, ,
, ,
, . .

. (,
. .) .
,
,
,
,
,
, .

, , ,
, , -

21*

641

2.
,
, - ( ).
,
, . .
, ,
(,
. .), ,
,
. , ,
,
.

. [Hale 1983]


(configurationality parameter).
(, )

X'-.

(, ) ,
X'- .
,
.
,
,
,
X'-.
,


.

. X. [Saito, Hoji 1983],
.
,
(52) (526) ,
:
(52) . [[-
-
:i-
-

-

- .
:
]]

642

]-
-

XIII.
. ?? :
i-
-
]- ti
-

[[-
i-
- -
:
]

, eroi (, ),
i'.
(52)
'; ' : . (526)
, , :
. ,

(52). (52) :
'; '
( , ).
, (526) ,
- ,
(ti) .

(. ) ,

.
. (526)
, (13) . 2, . .
, , (526) (52)
, (13),
,
, ,
who (13).
,
.
, ,
,
.

, ,
, ,


, .
, , ,

. . [Webelhuth 1992] 643

2.

,
, (526), :
(53) a. *Er hat seinemi Nachbarn jeden Gasti vorgestellt
eroi

.: eroi i
. Er hat jeden Gasi seinemi Nachbarn ti vorgestellt
i i

i eroi ' (

(53)!).
, (53)

. ,
(536), ,

jeden Gast ' '
, .
:
, ,
.
, , . .
.
(536)

, (53). (536)
, .

, ,

( )
( ).
i,
9
, . (54) Which articlesi did you
file ti [without reading i]? * ,
[]?'; (55) *The articlei was filed ti [without reading ei ].
[]. (54)
,
, SpecCP,
. (
), ,
(55).
644

XIII.
(56) ?Peter hat
die
Gastei
[ohne PRO ei anzuschauen]
APT

einander
ti
vorgestellt

'

}'.

die Gaste ''


einander ' '
ohne PRO e anzuschauen, ,
' , ' - ,
anschauen '',
.
, .
,
[Corver, Riemsdijk (eds.) 1994; Beerman et
al. (eds.) 1997].

[King
1995; Bailyn 1995; 1997; 1997 (1987);
Sekerina 1997].
. . [Junghanns,
Zybatow 1997]. ,
, ,

.
, ,

,
. . . ,

, . .
(= ) .
in situ,
, . . .

( ).

, ,
, . .
.
645

2.

:
(Focus-Background Structure),
,
(Topic-Comment Structure),
, ,
. ,
, , (57):
(57) : .
?


, . .

, . ,
(. IX . 2) , ,
, ,
. . (
). ,
, IP ( SpecAgrSP,
I).

.
(58) (59)
SpecIP, SpecVP,
SpecIP. (VP-internal subject hypothesis)
[Koopman, Sportiche 1991]
:
(58)
VP

646

XIII.


. . [
1976; , 1976; (.) 1980]:
] ; ;
. . ,
, . ,

(
. VI . 2).
,

, (unergative). ,
,
.
,
, (unaccusative); , ,
(SpecIP).

,
-
(
. VI). - ,
, ( ), ( )
, . .
;
[ 1977]. ,
, ,
,
, ,
.
. [Perlmutter 1978],
unergative unaccusative.
[Harris A.
1981; Rosen 1984].
[Burzio 1981; Belletti 1988; Levin, Rappaport Hovav 1995]
[Pesetsky 1982].

, ,
( ), . .,
. .:
647

2.

, ,
-

,
,
, .

, VP-shell,
, . , .
. ,

. . .
VP,
. .
vP, ,
.
,
,
[ (.)
1980: 207].

, (5860),
() , . . , 648

XIII.

,
. ,
(61) (62)
-
? ,
, . .
.
(
, . IX . 2).
(
, . ).
(. ),
,
, , ,
- VP. (62)
: 1)
[V ],
; 2) [NP ];
, , .
,

, .
(63)
.
, (62). (63)
,
('gave the apple to a
boy', 'gave an apple to a boy'). , (63)

: ,
(62), . ,
: ,
VP ,
, (62),
.
, ,
.
VP
(
) .
(6466; 68), - (67)
SpecAgrsP ( ) AgrsP. 649

2.


, ,
(64),
VP (. II 4.2.2); ,

, ): (64) i
[VP [v ti ]]; (65) i [VP
[VP ti ] ( ); (66) i ti
( ); (67) i ti (
); (68) i ti (
).
(focus)
[F]

.

:

(69)
: ! (), !
() ! ().
,

, ,
, !
,
, , [F],
:
(70) [v [[F][NP ] [ ]] -> [ [v ti [v'
]] [F]-[NP ][i] ( [F]
, ).
650

XIII.

5.
,
,
,

(Optimality theory),
[Prince, Smolenky 1993].
,
:
[Grimshaw 1997; Pesetsky 1997; 1998; Anderson 2000; Bresnan
2000].

,

(= ), (= ).
:
, .
: ,
, ,
, - , ,
,
.
,
. , ,
-, , -,
, .

,

(Evaluator).
,
. 5
(
)
. ,
.
,
,
5

,
, , . .
.

651

2.

.
(, )
{}
, {}
,
( ).
,
{}.



, [Pesetsky 1997; 1998]. .
,
() ,

, , (71) . ,

. , ,
. , .


,
.
(72) (Left Edge, LE):
, (
), (
).
, ,

que ''
(73), qui '':
(73) . *1 qui queje connais , ,
; . *1 guije connais ', ';
. Vhomme queje connais , , . (
que '' (73)
,
.)
(74) (Recoverability, R):

.
,
. 652

XIII.

, ,
, ,
, *,

{, ; ,

; , ...)6.
(75) (Telegraph, T):
.

.


:
(76) R > LE > .

,
.
,
,
.
(77) (77),

:

(78),
avec qui ' ',
(78).
(78)
.

, (786)
, (786), (78)
que ''.
,
,

, { . .).

653

2.


:
(79) R > LE = .

, . . (constraint
tie). ,
:

, ,
, ,


SpecCP ( ) (),
, *, .
,
, , -

,
. ,

, . [Haspelmath 1999B].

6.
,

, , ,
,
,
,
654

XIII.

.
,
,
( 1960- )
, ,
.

, ,
,

.

,
,
. ,
(81) . ,
, 1930 . .
, 1930 .,
, ,
(8),
(8 ): (8 ) . , , ,
1930 ., . * ,
, ...


.
,

.

, , -,
, -, , . .
.

,

,
,
.
,
655

2.

,

.
,
,
.
. ,
,
.
, :
,
,
, - ,
,

...
,
[. - . .] [Webelhuth 1995: 84].
,
, ,
, .
,
. , 1989 .:
... , ,
,
, . . ;
,
,
, ,
;
,
, ,
[Comrie 1989: 5, 15].


,
.

-
,
,

.

656

XIII.

,
homo
sapiens,
, , , ,
.
,
, , ,
, .
, ,
. -
, - ,
,
,
.

( ) ,
.
,

,


. ,
,
, ,
, .
, ,
,
,

.

,
,
- 10-
,
. ,
, ,
,
(
). ,

657

2.

,
.
.
,
,
, ,
,

.
. ,

explananda (, )

[Newmeyer 1999].

,
.
,
, ,
,
,
. ,
- ,
( )
, 7 ,
.
()
()
: ,
. ,
, ,
.

.

7


:
(, ),
.
, -

.

658

XIII.

() (), . XII . 7.
,
[Chomsky 1981],
,
,
[, 1998].
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
(. [Harbert 1995],
[Huang 2000]).
,
, ,


.
, ,
, ,
: ,

, ,
.
-,

, , -
(). ,
, ( . ), ,
, .
( -
)
,
, ,
(). -, ,
, ,
(. II 4.2.2).


.

,
659

2.


,
. ,
,

, .


. , (,
, )
(, ). ,
, , . ( XV
. 2),
,
,
,
.

, ,
, , .
,
,
,
, .
, ,

, ,
, , .
,

, , , .


, - ,
8.


, 8

,

, , .
[Grimshaw 1990].

660

XIII.

,
,
,
,
.

.
,

.

,
. , , ,
X

Y
Z

,
,
, .

,
. ,
: (
)
,
,
(, ).
,
(
), . -,
,
-,
, ,
.
,

X . 2.

,
661

2.


.
, , .
, ,

, -

[ 1972 (1965): 9].

,

,

,

,
.


.
, ,

, , ,
-
.

,

- ?
?.
, , ,
,
,
.
,

,
,

; ,
[Pinker
1994: 24], , 662

XIII.


.
,
, ,

, ,
.
- ,
,
, ,
,
,
.
,

.
( )
,

, .

XXI ,


. ,
,
. .
,
.

, , .
[Lasnik 1999]
[Chomsky 1998].
[Grewendorf, Sternefeld (eds.) 1990; Corver, Riemsdijk (eds.) 1994; Beerman et
al. (eds.) 1997].
Lasnik . Minimalist Investigations in Linguistic Theory. Routledge Ltd.
Lasnik H. Uriagereka J. A Course in Minimalist Syntax. Oxford:
Blackwell.

XIII.


.
,
, ,

, ,
.
- ,
,
, ,
,
,
.
,

.
( )
,

, .

XXI ,


. ,
,
. .
,
.

, , .
[Lasnik 1999]
[Chomsky 1998].
[Grewendorf, Sternefeld (eds.) 1990; Corver, Riemsdijk (eds.) 1994; Beerman et
al. (eds.) 1997].
Lasnik . Minimalist Investigations in Linguistic Theory. Routledge Ltd.
Lasnik H. Uriagereka J. A Course in Minimalist Syntax. Oxford:
Blackwell.

XIV

!

,

. (. 1) . (. 2).

( , ,
),
.

- , . . (. 3).


(, Categorial Grammar)
.
(

, ),
-
.
, ,

.
,
,
,
.

,

, .

,

(
, . . 3).
,
, -
, , ,
,
.
1

XIV .. .

664

XIV.


,
, . . ,
,
,
.
,
, , .
, ,
,
(
, [Ades, Steedman 1982, Morrill 1988, Zeevat 1988]).
,
, 1930-
1980-
,
. , 20

,
, .
,
(. 3),
. 12, .

1.
1935 .
. [Ajdukiewicz 1935].
, ,
.
( . X XI)
,
, ,
.
.
, . . ,
,
,
.
.
665

2.


. [, 1969: 150-153]. ,


, . [Karlgren 1978, Marciszewski 1988: 10].


, . ,
,

1920-30-
, .. ,

, ..2
,
,
.
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
(N)
(S). ,
(
) (

).

,
,
. .

, ,
. ,
, ,
, , -,
.
S-N,
;
,
, .
2

.
. [Lesniewski 1929].

666

XIV.


,
.
,
(
),
. ,
,
, ,
(X\Y);


(X/Y)3.
()
,
. ,
came
(S),
(NP);
(S\NP).


. , ,
(N, NP, S, ... . .)
,
,

,
-> YP X5; X' -> X ZP,
.

,

,
,
.
,
" ", "", ,
,
3

, , [Steedman
1985], ,
(X|Y), ,
Y X.

667

2.

,

. ,

...
[, 1969: 123].
,
, ,
,
, .

S ,
.

S, ,
,
,
, .

, .
,
.
, ,
, ,

:
(1)

a. Y X\Y -> X
. X/Y Y -> X


,
,
.

, .

.
. - [Hillel 1953; 1964; - 1964 (1959)]

. .
668

XIV.

came '', ,
S\NP.
S
(

, ;
,
, ):
(2)

John
NP

came
S\NP

"John
came Bill . * .

, (2).
S NP
,
S :
(3)

*John came
NP
S\NP
S

Bill
NP
NP

() ,
,
saw ''.
,
(S\NP)/NP.
,
, .
,
, ;
(4)

John saw
Bill
NP
(S\NP)/NP NPA
NP
S\NP A
S


. -

669

2.

,
,
( - )

( ,
, ,
). ,
,
, ,
,
, .
,
.
,

,
NP.
,

, ,
. ,
NP,

NP/NP ( ,

). (5)
poor John ' ':
(5)

poor
John
NP/NP NP A
NP

.
, ,

,
. , ,
,
,
, . . S. ,
S/S S\S, ,

670

XIV.

. .
John works here ' ':

,
, , (6),
, .
,
, ,
,
, ,
(
), . . S\NP. ,
,
(S\NP)/(S\NP),

, (7) John
never saw Bill ' ':

,
here '' never ''

. ,
S\S S/S (here)
, (S\NP)/(S\NP)
(never) ,

S.
, ,
, .
,
22 4755

671

2.

.
,
.
,
, . 2,

.
,
. 3.

2.
,
, 1950-
,
. -.
, ,
-, , ,
, , ,
. ,
[Bar-Hillel et al. 1960]
, ,
,
, -
. 1960-70-
, ,

. ,
, ,
-
,
,
-. ,

1980- , -
,
,
(., [Gazdar, Pullum 1982]).
,
1950-60- , 672

XIV.

.

. , 1958 .


(
[Buszkowski et al. 1988],
; . [ 1964]).
,
(Lambek calculus).

. 1 (
).
S
,
;
,
.
,
.
, ,
(,

, ).

.
:

, ,
.
,


,
.
poor little John '22*

673

2.

' (
,
, ,
):

(type raising) - ,

.
:

. , -,
NP. (2)
(S\NP).
NP S/(S\NP),
, , . . S\NP, ,
, :

, [Dowty 1988],
(11) (116):

, (10)
(116).
(11)
(
() ,
).
,
, (11).

674

XIV.


,
. , ,
, ,

- .
/ \
, (11). ,

S/(S\NP) ,
S\NP. ,
S
- -
( (4)).

. 3.
,
.
,
. , ,
, -, ,
, ,
[Partee, Rooth 1983].

3.
1980- , ,
,
. ,
,
. [Steedman 1985; 1990; 2000],
. [Dowty 1988J, . [Wood 1989, 1993], . [Moortgat 1988], . [Benthem van 1988].

, . ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
675

2.

.
conj ( . conjunction '')
:

1980-90-
,
, ,
(Head-driven Phrase Structure
Grammar, HPSG [Pollard, Sag 1994]).
, ,

. , ,

,
.
,

,
.
,
: (
) ,
, ,

, ,
.
,

,
.

, - ,

,
, , X/Y
X\Y Y
.
,
,
(Right Node Raising) :
676

XIV.

(13) John cooked and Mary ate the beans ' ,


'.

1960- . ,
:

,
. ,
, ,
.
,
, : (14) "John
cooked the beans and Mary ate ' ,
'.
,
, ,
, (13), , ,

: (15) "John ate after Mary cooked the beans, .
, .
,
(13)
,
.
, :
, .
(16) , , (17) ,
.


(13)
,

, ,
,
.
:
(18) [XZ] & [YZ] => [X&Y] Z
(13). , -

677

2.
.

(Shared Constituent Coordination);
- .


, (14) (13)
(18). ,
ad hoc. He ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
- . (18)
.
( ,
. [Postal 1994])
,
.
, , ,
[McCawley 1987] -
(. XI . 6). ,
(19) ,

: (19) Mary buys and Bill knows a man [who sells pictures of
Elvis Presley] ' , ,
'.

, ,
(13),
.
,
,
: ,
(,
),
, , (13),
, .
.
'
678

XIV.

' ' ' (13)


,
' , '
. ,
(
!) :

,
(11). , NP,
, S\NP, (11).
- S,
, , , (4),
.


, (20),
. ' ,
' S/NP,
,
S,
.
,
(13) S
( )
. , ,
,
,
S/NP, , ,
S. ,
,
,

4.
4

,
(14), .
, , ( ),
,
(13). :
(13) (14) ,
, (13), (14).

679

2.

,
, ,
(21) ( [Dowty 1988]):
(21) a. John eats [rice quickly] and [beans slowly]
' , ';
. Mary eats [beans on Tuesday] and [rice on Thursday]
' , - ';
. John gave [a book to Bill] and [a record to Max]
' , - '.
and ''
, ,
, ,
(21), , ' * ' '.
,
, , ,
, , . .
,

, (21) ,
. , [Hudson 1982, Jackendoff
1990]


. ,

. ,
,
(21) . ?
(21). rice quickly ,
NP,
- S/S (S\NP)\(S\NP) (. . 1). ,
(22),
,
(S\NP)\((S\NP)\NP). beans slowly ,
, ,
.
-
.
(
(21)) ,
,
,
680

XIV.

(. . )
, :

,
(22) -.
(11):
(NP)
(S\NP), , NP
. , -
(S\NP),
, (4).
, (22),

, (21)

. ,
,
.

(23) , -.
,
-
,
, (23) . .,
. . ,
, -
,
, , (22),
,
, , . .
,
(24)
.

681

2.

: . .
, ,
, -.
(23) (25)
( , (22),
, ; ,
):

,
(23) ,
,
,
, , , (23') *
, -.
,
, -
, , , (, . .).
,
, ,
.
( ,
,
, S/NP):

,
682

XIV.

NP S/NP. S
: S/NP ,
NP , .
, . [Steedman 1985, 1989]
,
,
,
. . [Dowty 1988],
, ,
-
,
.
. [Woods 1993: 104
.]. , ,
, | ;
(27) :


,
,
.
(. XI . 6),
,

, .:
(28) * ! (29) *
!

. -
. , ,
(30):

683

2.

,
S. S|NP
conj S\NP ,
.
NP S|NP, S,
, S\NP, S
. , (30)
- ad hoc

, ,
(30) S.
, -
,
,
,
.

,

.
,
.
,
1980- - 1990- .

. , ,
, . . , ,
, ,
, - ,
,
. ,

? , :
, - ,
, ,
- ,
.
,
.
,

684

XIV.

. ,
(31) (32):
(31) ,
;,
(32) * ?/*
?
(31) ,
,
. , , ,

, . .
. ,
, . .
,
.
(31), (32),
, (32)
. (32)
,
- .


[Steedman
1987, 1989; Moortgat 1988; Morrill 1988]. ,
- ,
.
,

, . , ,

,
,

,
- .
, ,
,
. , ,

(Gapping), -
: (33) , .
685

2.


[Steedman 1990, 2000: 171 ., Wood 1989,
Oehrle 1987],
,
, ad hoc5.
,
,
.
(33), -
, ,

, . .,
(23) - , -.
, , . .,
, ,
.
,
,
(23), (33)
.
.
- , -
,
, .

. , (20) ,

+
,
.
, ,
+ ,
, (4). (4)


: , ,
( + ),
. +
, (20),
.
5

,
, , .

686

XIV.


, ,
, (34),
[Steedman 1985].
,
/ can believe that
she ate those cakes ' ,
', -
, (
those cakes ' ' ):

(S\NP)/X; \NP
; /X -
, ( ),
believe '' (/S). ,
{ ), (S\NP)/(S\NP),
/(S\NP) .
7
S/S,
.

687

2.

,

,
,
. , ,
,
;
,
(34)
. (34)
, ,
, (35) [I can], but [you
cannot] believe that she can eat those cakes ' ,
, '; (36) [/
believe that you], but [I cannot believe that she] ate those cakes
. ' , , ,
' . .
,
.
, ,
(
, ),
, ,
,
. ,

,
,
,
, ,
,
, . (37)
vs. (38)*i/i i '. ,

. , (13)
, (39) ,

,
: (39) * , .

, 688

XIV.

(39) ' ,
'.
,

. ,
, ,
, , , ,
,
. ,
, .
-
,
,
, ,
,
(. [Chierchia 1988]). ,
,
-
,
, ,
([Pollard, Sag 1994: 238
.]; . [ 2001]).
,

. [Steedman 2000, . 9]

,

(parsing).
1980-
(Strong
Competence Hypothesis), [Kaplan,
Bresnan 1982]. ,

,
. ,
, . .
,

.
,
, 689

2.

(rule-to-rule hypothe
sis). ,
, . . , ,
. , ,
,
.
,
-
, -,
.
,

:
,
.
, ,
,
.
, [Steedman 2000] ,
,
(40) ,
sent '
',
'' - '
',
arrived '',
', '.
(41), (40) ,
,
. . sent .
,
(41) ,
(40),
, (41)
:
(40) The doctor sent for the patient arrived.
' , '.
(41) The flowers sent for the patient arrived.
. ' , '.
690

XIV.


, ,
:
the doctor sent the flowers sent,
.
, ,
,
,
.
,
:
. [Steedman
2000]
.


,
. -
,
, , ,
, ,


. ,
, [Steedman 1988]
[Szabolsci 1987].
.

,
.
,
,
,
.

, , ,
, .
,
,
. 691

2.

, ,

.


[Wood 1993]; -
[Moortgat 1988] [Oehrle et al. (eds.) 1988; Buszkowski
et al. (eds.) 1988]. . - [1964] . [1964].
. [Steedman 1985; 1987; 1989; 1990]
[Steedman 2000].
692

XV


,
,
. -, ..
(. 1), . (. 2), .
, . , . (. 3).
- ,
(. 4).


XX . ,
,
, .

,
, P.O. ,
.. . 1929 .
, . [ 1965].

P.O. [1985], .
[1960; Martinet 1960; 1962], . [Halliday 1985],
. [Dik 1978; 1989; 1991; 1997], .. [1984;
1987], .. [1973; 1982],
( .
IX) .


, ,
[ 1973: 9].

, ,
:

(
);
, . . ,

;
693

2.


, , ;

. .

,
, -
.
,
,
.. .. [1997].

1. ..
,

, .. .
1980- ,
,
[ 1992].
.. ,
[
: 12],
.
,
[ : 20].
,
[ :
21]. . :
( );

,
;
( );
(,
,
. .);
, ,
(
,
).
694

XV.


,
.
-

; ,

,
,
, (,
,
).
-
-,
,
/ [ 1992: 29].

,
. , ,

,
,
, . ..
,
: + +
+ ;
.
, ', X' ,
X
; , ,
. .
,
[ 1980; 1992:31; 1983];

. [Bybee 1985].
, ,
. [Haiman 1985]
.

, 695

2.

.
, ,
,

,
,
- [ 1992:
35]. ,
[Cooper, Ross 1975; 1987],

: > ; ,
; ; ; Against the Pope, the
Devil, and the Pretender*, ' ,
!' (
XVIII .) . .
..


.
, ..

( , -
)
.
: 1) , (
), 2) ,
ag( ), 3) ,
S ( ) 4)
SPat ( ), .. ,
15

(
, ,
S):
(1) (-) :

XV.

, ,
: S
;
.


, ,
- (,
).
, .
(125) VI:


, ,
,
697

2.
( , ),
;

:
(3) . '
fasi
le teine
le
tama
APT APT
* ',
. '
alu le
tama
APT
' '.
,

, - [ 1977]:

,

.
,
( ) .
( ,
):

(4) :
(-), (-)
.
698

XV.

, -
, (,
[ 1997: 135]) ,
(. , , .).

( ,
[Comrie 1978: 334]):
(7)


* '.
. mew
ese

4
'.

3JI

aniani

ginimu

heni-gu
-


, ese
;
.
(8) :

,
,
; , (- )
[, 1982 (1976)]
(Riau Indonesian; [Gil 1999]).
10
. ..
,
699

2.


:

(
, );
(
,
);
(
, ,
, ,
,
).
,
,
( ,
, ,

, 4 ).
,
-
,
.
, ,
,
[ 1992: 186]
.. [1997; Kibrik 1997]
(
, ),
.

2. .
. ,
(Performance theory of order
and constituency) [Hawkins 1990; 1994] -

.
( -

700

XV.


, ,
), ,

.

[Newmeyer 1998]1.
2.1.

. ,

()
; ,
.
,
,
, ,
.



.

, .
. .

( ).
,
,

, .
,
,
. ,
, 1

- ,
,
,
[Haspelmath 2000: 241].

701

2.

2; ,
.
, ,

,
().
. ,
:
, , . .
,
.

(unambiguous signals on-line) ,
. ,
, :
)
, (
, ),
,
, )
(look-ahead buffer),
,
.

. ,
, (,
,
), (
,
;
. .). I XII, , .

,
. ,
,
.

.
2

, X',
.

702

XV.

X - ,
X
(. .
-). ,
X,
.
X,
, X .
X, ;
( )
X, .
X
.
,
. ,
X
,
X.
,
X,
,
, X
. , ,
X,
.

(; Constituent recognition domain) X.
,

X, ,

X ,

X
.
2.2.

(Heavy NP shift). ,
,
23 - 4755

703

2.

. ,
, ,
: (9) .
[v donated [NP the beautiful desk dating from the early
Victorian period] [PP to charity]] '
,
, '; ~> . [VP donated
[ to charity][NP the beautiful desk dating from the early Victorian
period]].
(96)
-
:
(9') . [v donated [NP the beautiful desk dating from the early Victorian

period] [pp to charity]]


6. [vp donated [PP to charity][NP the beautiful desk dating from the
early Victorian period]].


; , ,
.
. NP
the, :
NP.

to, , ,
, - PP. (9)
,
, 8
. , (9)
11 - 3 8 ,
,
. (96)
,
4 .
,
,

,
, 704

XV.

.
,
. ,
,
, : ,

, ,
.


,
. 90%

: (10) a. The raven [? flew [PP through the barn] [PP into
the blue but slightly overcast sky]] '
, '; . The raven [vp flew
[ into the blue but slightly overcast sky] [PP through the barn]]:
(10') a. [vp flew [pp through the barn] [ pp into the blue but slightly
overcast sky]].
6. [ vp /few [ Pp into the blue but slightly overcast sky] [PP through the
barn]].

(10)
5 , (106) - 9 ,

.
XI 1.1

,
.
,


:
(11) a. Joe [ vp [ v looked] [P up] [NP the number]]

' ',
. Joe [ vp [ v looked] [NP the number] [P up]]

705

2.

' , '.
,
. (11) (
), (
) .

,
.

? - .
,
:
(12)

(12)
,
-
, .

X
X ,
.
(Early Immediate Constituent ratio,
).
. ,
EIC,
706

XV.

.
(9) 1=3/11=0,27, (96) 1=3/4=0,75; (10)
1=3/5=0,6; (106) 1=3/9=0,33; (11) 1=3/3=1;
(116) - 3/4=0,75; () 3/7=0,43; () 3/8=0,38;
() 3/11=0,27
;
(12) 1=6/9=0,67,
, .
,
X ,
X

X.
1.
2.3. -
,

.
-
( ,
).
,
,
, (

)
.
,
, -
. X . 3 ,
,
, ,
.
, . . ,
. [Dryer 1988; 1992]. ,
, (
, , , ),
, , , -

707

2.
,
- .

,
,
, -
. ,
, ,
, ,
,
, .
:
(13) . - : -

-

. :


' , '.

(13)
:
-
. (136) :
, ,
{: - '
'). ,
, .
,
.
, (136)
(13), .

(136) ,
.

(13),
,
;
, .

. ,
, ,
. ., :
708

XV.

(14) im
problem-is
amoxsna
. - .
' '
,
, , 3 ,
:
(15) . ? [ im
problem-is,
romelic didixania
. -
gv-acuxeb-s,]
amoxsna
l.MH.OB--..
. amoxsna [ im
problem-isa, romelic didixania

. -
gv-acuxeb-s]

l.MH.OB--..
' , '
(15) (156)
,
. (15) ,
(amoxsna '') - (problem-is
'') .
,
.
,


.
- .

,
. ,
Q Cj. , Cj
. [ , ,
,
CjCi (16),
Ci
Cv ,
, CiCj
3

, ,
, ,
, .
. [Hawkins 1990: 252257].

709

2.

(166) Ci
,
, G:

, Ci

.
:

CiCj ,
Ci C i ", Cj'.
Ci' ,
C i 'C i " - Ci'
, ,
Ci Ci'.
, Ci
C'.
(176)
:

{ { ]]]
[
{ ]]]
[
{, ]]]
\
{ ]]]
\

710

XV.

,
,
,

,

,
. ,
,
,

.
2.4.
,
.
, ,
,
;


EIC. ,
, ,

,
:
(18) La citerne, qu' il fit creuserpar un architecte dont une reclame
lui avait donne I'addresse, s'ecroula ',
,
, ' [ 1989: 168]. ,
, ,
, . ,
,

. , ,
,
, , ,
, (19) a. gab ihr
das Buck ' (APT) '; . gab es dem Madchen '
(APT) '; . *gab das Buck ihr, r. *gab dem Madchen es.
711

2.

+ ,
, , , ,

(
).

(N) - (Adj)
.

, . .
, - -
(CompS) (SComp).
12
4,
1:
(20)
.
[] [] [ ]
.

[] [] [ ]

I
.
.

[ ] [] []
[ ] [] []

, ,
,
. (20) , , ,
; (206) - , , ;
(20) , ,
(20) , .
N adj [SComp]
(-
), AdjN [SComp] - .
,
, ,

, .


-
, ([ [NP
N...]). ,
, . 712

XV.

.
(, )

; (,
...) .
- -
12% (,
). , 1%

- ().
,
VOS (- +
4- )
. ,
:
(21) a. Mihevitra Rabe [s'fa mitady ny zaza
Rasoa]

APT
' , '.
. * Mihevitra [s fa mitady ny zaza Rasoa] Rabe

APT
(21) VOS,
, , ,
(216).
, ,
,

.


-
,
:
(22) a.
.
.

Er

'
r

'
*r

kann deine Worte


nicht
verstehen

'.
nicht verstehen, [was
du sagst]



, '.

\was du
sagst]
nicht verstehen

713

2.

2.5.
,
,
,
.
( ),
. ,
, ,

.
, ,
.

.

,
.
(
) ,
.
, . .
,
- .

. , ,
.

,
.

, . ,
,
,
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
[Hawkins 1999]
714

XV.

, ,
,
, ,
.

3.


(
).
[Tomlin 1986; Payne (ed.) 1992; Downing, Noonan (eds.)
1995] [, 1997],
. [Givon 1988; 1984
1990; 1995],
.
, ,
,

, .
, ,
, ,
- ,
.
,
,
,
.

,


. (
) ,
[1988: 252].
,
.
, ,
( ,

) 715

2.

. ,
, ,
, ,
, John, ,
(23) . It was to John that I gave the book '
'; . to John I gave the book ' ';
. I gave the book to John. ,
,
(23), Yiddish
Movement (236)
(23).
, ,
,
(referential distance), . .
, , ,
,
(persistence), . .
.

-
. [Van Valin 1993; Van Valin, LaPolla
1997];
[, 1997],
.

.

, ,
. ,
, ,

.

:
,
,
, .
,
[Haspelmath 19996: 587]:
1) .
, . chies '' > .

716

XV.
. chez '' ().
[Haspelmath 1998].
2) . -
;
. , habere
''
: . cantare habeo ' ' > . cantaro'
' '. [Givon 1975; Lehmann 1995].
3) . ,
, ,
.
,

. . [Cole et al. 1980].


,
, ,
.

: [Bybee, Thompson 1997; Lehmann 1995;
Haspelmath 1998].
,
,
.
,
. . [Newmeyer 1998]

-
.
[Darnell et al. 1998-1999], [Croft 1995;
.. 1999]
[Haspelmath 2000].

4.


,
.

717

2.

. ,
,
, ,
, . , ,
,
, .
, ( ,
),
,
:
,
, ,
, , ,
, .
,
, ,
, ,
- .


, , ,
( ), . .
,

,
.
, ,
, . .

, ,

.
, , ,
, ,
(
) ,
, ,
[Givon 1980].
,

[Givon 1993: 2].
, :
, -

718

XV.

, ,
.
, -
(She let go of the knife '),
(She made him
shave '),
(She told him to leave ');
(She suggested that
he shoud leave , '); -
(She said that he might leave later ,
') , , (She said He might leave later
: ').
( , -
, , . .), -
.
: > > .
,
.
. , ,

. ,
,
, , ,
, , ,
(., , )
;
, ( ), (
), ( ), ( ), (
),
. .

,
,
,
, . .
,
. ,

.
, , .
,

, 719

2.


.
:
(24) () >
() > (.
1 '') >
(24)
,
.
,
, [Givon 1988: 249].

. ,

.
, ,
, ,
, ,


.
, ,
,
.
, : 1)
, 2) (
) 3)
.
, .
,
- .

, . . ,

; , ,
, , ,
,
, . ,
,
, ,
, . . [Barlow, Ferguson 1988: 17-18].

720

XV.


,
, ,
. ,
,
-
, -

.
, ,
, ,
. :
. , .
, ...
... ,
, ? ...
-, " "...
, ,
, ,
... , "
" - ,
, ,

... (. . , ).


.. ..
[1997]. , ,

, .

XVI

<=>
Though our smoke may hide the Heavens from your eyes,
It will vanish and the stars will shine again,
Because, for all our power and weight and size,
We are nothing more than children of your brain!
R. Kipling,
The Secret of the Machines
<=> (),
, 1960- .. ..
, -
. ,
,
.
(. 1).
, - ,
(. 2). -
, ,
- (. 3).
-
- -
(. 4). - , -
, -
- (. 5).
,
(. 6).


-
<=> (),
1960- .. .. ;
..
.

.. .
,
,
,
X.
.. ,
,
[ 1999: ix].

722

XVI. <=>
..
,
, ,
.
1960- ,
(. . -)
, , .

, ,
, .
,
, ,
, ,

, . . 1960- . 1970- .,
, ,
, .

,
, . ,
, -,
. ..
. ,
, . .

.
, -,
,
, (
. [ 1974: 78-109; 1974: 43-50]).

,
, , ,
(
) . ,
,
[ 1988: 48].
.. ,
.
"-
" . ,
, ,
[ 1974: 17]. ,
, 723

2.

1960- :
-> -> ->
,
. , , ,
,

(
,
. .).
: 1960-
,
() ,
( [Katz, Postal 1964]).
-
,

I9601970-
( . [Lakoff 1971; McCawley
(ed.) 1976; Newmeyer 1986]);
,
[ 1997: 475].
,
.. .
. ,
,
. -

, (
) , 40

, ,
, ,
, . ,
, , ,
,
[ 1972 (1968): 84].

: ,
- .
,
,
724

XVI. <=>


, ,
,

,
.
.
,

.

1.

.

.
, .
, ,

,
(
). , ,
,
, , ,
.
, ,
.
-
( ) ( ), , ,
- < , . j ,
, , - . .,
(
X; Y...) < .
,
, 725

2.


.
,

, ,
,
. - , ,
, ,
, (1) ,
(2) , ...
, ... . .
(1) (2) , -
, .

,

,
, ,
( , ),
,
,

.
.
X Y
, , o,
Y, , ,
Y, -
, !
Y, Y [ 1974: 13].


, .

.
-, . ,
: , - ; -
- ; -
- .
, - , ,

, .
726

XVI. <=>

,
,

(
, ) [ 1977: 34].
-, ,
. . , -

.

, :
;
; -
-;
. ,
,
;
.

-,
:
,
,

, .
,
, , , ,
{//^)
,
, , (//*)
[
1990: 21];
, ,
, , .
, . . , ,
, , , . .,
, , : 1)
: * (.
), * (. ); 2)
, . , * ; 3) :
* , . ; 4)
.
,

727

2.

,
,
[ 1986: 58-60].

-,
(), . . ,
,
, .


, . ,
, ...
...
[ 1998: 41].
, -
(. . ).
, ,
, "
" [ ]. , ,
,
. ,
,
. : ,
, , ;
, .


.
:
,

[
1974: 11].
.

1950- .,

.
, ,

, ?, ?... . .


728

XVI. <=>

.
(

).

. . [1967].
, ,
[ (.) 1973; . 1982; 1997].


. ,
, , , , .,
, .
, ,
(. .
), , ,
.. , .. B.C. (. VIII).
,
,
,
. -
, , ,
, ,
, ( . [
1974: 5660]), .


,

.
,
(. ).

,
, - ,

, 1.
1

. : " <=> "


,
[ 1974: 17] : The models of language
that were being discussed and investigated had little plausibility, so far as I could
see, and I had no personal interest in... technological advances. The latter seemed
to me in some respects harmful in their impact... I have been surprised since to
read repeated and confident accounts of how work in generative grammar devel
oped out of an interest in computers, machine translation, and related matters. At
least as far as my own work is concerned, this is quite false [Chomsky 1975: 40].

729

2.




, . ,
-

,
. ,
.

,
. ,
, (
"")
(,
- ,
, . .), .. ,
,
.
,

[ 1974:
20]. ,
,
,
, . X-XI.

,

.
,
1960-1980-
:
)


;
)
( )

, , ,

;

730

XVI. <=>
) ,
;
2;
) , , , , ,
,
;
) - .
- ,
;
-; ,
. . , .
,
, )).

2.
, - ,
, . .
,
. ,
.
, ,

(,
),
,
[ 1974: 42-43].
, .. ,
,
[Mel'cuk 1988: 45]. , ,
,
, , .

.

- , ,
, ,
.
-:
2

,
, " 'X' L?" "
'X' L?" [Mel'cuk, Pertsov 1987: 43].

731

2.

, (
), ().

,
.
,

. (
-
-),
- -,
( )
.

,
() .

. -
, .
, ,
(, ,
. .).
(-)
-
(-) .
,
,

(,

)
-
- , . .

. -
() - ()
. ,

, ,
. .
,
. ,

732

XVI. <=>
* ' ',

.
. ,


,
.

.
-
(), 10.

,
,
3,
,

(
, . .
,
).
, -
: ,
.
- -
,
. , , -,
-
-. 1)
,

, -
; 2) ;
3) ; 4)
- .
3


[ 1974: 214-215]
( ) [ : 44, 242-243].

733

2.

-
- ()
,
. , ,
. () .

.

, ,
. , -

5
2
(3)
,
, -
, 5 2 (
2- ),
- (4) (5), , ,
,
:
(4)
(5)


,,

, , , -
.
-

, . . . ,
(4) (5) (6) (7) :
(6)


., z

.,

(7)

,
z

., z'

z ,
.
-
( -
)
.
734

XVI. <=>

- (),

.

.
-
-
.

. ,
.


(. .
).
,
: ,
, .
,
1980-1990-
.
,
, . . ,
n- ,
-1- ( +1-), ,
. ,
, ,
.

(, ,
-
).

[ 1974: 43].
,
,

.
,

,
24 4755

735

2.



.
( ,
),
, : ,

, -,
, , ,
.

3. -

- .
, . /aire boire '' . ,
: - ' ...';
: ,
- [ 1974: 141].
,

. ,
,
( , ) .
,
, ,
, :
- -

5
2
2-
(8) -> -> => => -
(8)
- 2- .
,
, ,
, -
. , ,
:
736

XVI. <=>

( ), Q
' - , '.
.
-
, .
,
(. . ),
,
, (
, , . .).
:
, .
( 10).
,
, ,
, . ,
,
: 1)
; 2)
; 3)

, , ,
; 4)
, ;
5)
.
,

.
, ,
, , ,
24*

737

2.

,
,
- , . .
, .

, ; ,
[ 1974: 152-161].

, (10)
(11),
:

(1011): []
[] [] [] <=>
[] [] [] []
[] .
,

,
[, 1971]:
1) (= ):
= -> ,
,
;
2) ,
(12) (13),
, , (13) (12):
(12)
>
738

XVI. <=>

3) (= ):
-> => , ,
, .

(. ),
. 80
: 12 , 62
6 . .. ,
,
-
,
[1974: 165].

4. -

.
,
, ,
,
( ),

.
- , ,
, ,
(, ,
). (
, ,

, . I.)
I . 6,
, - ,
,
, . .
,
739

2.

(
).
.
. [ 1974: 221-234;
. 1978: 265-269], . [Mel cuk,
Pertsov 1987: 85156], .
[Mel'cuk 1988: 140-144; Mel'cuk, Pertsov 1987: 70-72].

(

, )
- )
; )
- )
. ) ):
, , ,
.
) - 1-
{ <- ;
- ):
(14)

X ()

X ( )

Y ()

Y ()

)
Z
( -> ; -> ):
(15)
X
X
5

) - 1-
( , -> ):
740

XVI. <=>

- , ,

( Equi-NP deletion ),
- (, , , ,
) {, )

, (17)4.


[ 1988: 80
81]
, ,

( , ,
., . XII . 7)
(
4

[Mel'cuk 1988: 80-81]; [ 1974]


, .
( i, i vs. *i
, {) ,
.

741

2.

. [Wasow 1979;
1985: 143-147], Equi
[Larson et al. 1992]).

5. -


, . . ,
.
-
5. ,
- ,
-
( , )
, -
. , ,

,
(
us, whom . .),
( ,
, ):

,
,

5


( ),
. ,
,
[ 1964; 1967; 1981; 1988; 1977; 2000] ( - ,
[ (.) 1997: 474]).

742

XVI. <=>

(COrJIACV(N))-
, ,
.
,

.-' . .
.
01_
, . .
, .

-
[ 1995: 241-243]:

(19) :
,
AVP, . .
, -
, .
(1[]) , -
. .
, . (S),
(), (Num) ,
ANUMP.
,
{ ).
1 ; 2

I ,
; 3
, 743

2.

. .; 4

;
.
(20)
last week ' ', next year
' ', the same day ' ':

(20) , (N),
(
), , ,
,
,
: Last week
we traveled to Boston We traveled to Boston last week 'Ha
'.
, ,
.
-
, . . ,
. ,

,
, ,

(, !)
.
: 1)
,
: . these four interesting German books '
744

XVI. <=>

', * German four


these interesting books', 2) ,

- ,
, ,
- /, / .,
(, . enough '
', , ,
)
,
.

.
- ,
, . . ,

.
,
,
,
. . ,
,
.
( . [ 1995, . 10]).
-

.
, -
-

.
III 1.2.

6.


, (
) .
745

2.

, ,
.
,
, ,
, -
.
, ,
,
, ,
-
, .
,

-
,
.
-
,
,
(
). , ,

.
,
1970-
.
1960- ,

, .
,
,
6.

, 6

,
. -,
,
;
, . XV; Headdriven Phrase Structure Grammar ;

, , ,
.

746

XVI. <=>
.
, , , ,
1970-1980- ,
. , - ,
,
.


,

, ,

. ,
,
, ,
. , ,
, -
,
.
, ,

.

[ 1999: xvi-xxii].
[ 1974;
1995; 2000]; [Mel'cuk
1979; 1988; 1985]; [Mel'cuk, Pertsov 1987]
,
[, 1973,
1975]. [ . 1978; . 1989;
, 1975; 1990].
(, ),
[ (.) 1996].

(- ), . [Mel'cuk, Sawina
1978] 7- [Mel'cuk 1988], (
), . [ 19776 (
)].

, ,

, ,

, .

,
-

[Jacobs et al.
1993; Brown, Miller (eds.) 1996; Baltin, Collins (eds.) 2001],
. , ,

, -
.

, ,

, ,
.
,
- , ,
.
,
, ,

, ,
. ,
,


[ .. . (.) 1997; Newmeyer
1998; Darnell et al. 1998-1999; Haspelmath 2000]
. ,

.

- ,
(. ),
748

.
,

.
.
,
,
,
.

,
.



.
,
, (

),
, ,

,
1990- .
,
,
.
1 ( )
, , ,
, ,
, ;

. 2 ( )
,
, , ;

, , .

,
[Mallinson,
Blake 1981; Comrie 1989; Croft 1990; Tallerman 1998].
749

, ,
,

,
.
750


III 10; VI 2.4
III 10
XI 1.1
XI 1.1
X 5; XI 1.1
X 5; XI 1.1
III 10
III 5
XII 2
XV 1
III 4
XII 6
III 8
-. III 3
III 8
III 1.1
III 4.1
III 1.2
.

VIII 7
IX 3
XV 1
IX 1
III 10; VI 2.4
IV 1
XII 7
V 1.1
VI 2.2.3
VIII 7.2
.
VIII 7.2
XIV 1
XI 1.2
.

XI 2.2
III 6
- XII 7
III 10
.
-
IV 5
XIII 2

I 4.4; III 1.2


III 3
III 3
III 1.2, 3
III 2

- III 3
- I 4.4; III 1.2
- VIII 7.1
- III 1.1
- I 4.4; III 1.2
- III 3
- III 3
- III 1.2; VII 2
XIII 4
IX 5
VIII 7.2
I 3-4; XII 2
- II 1
- X 4; XII 2
VII 3
II 2
II 1

- IV 3
- IV 3
- IV 3
- IV 3
- IV 3
- IV 3
- IV 3
IV 3
XIII 5
IV 2
.
*

XIII 3.5
IX 4
X 6; XI 3
IV 1
XIII 3.2
IV 7
III 10
.

- III 12
- .
- III 12
- III 12
- IV 4
- III 12
- XIII 4
- XIII 4
- III 12
- III 12
- IV 4
- IV 4

790


IV 4
IV 4
III 12
III 12
II 1
XI 2.2
-
XVI 2
-
XVI 2
-
XVI 2
-
XVI 4
-
XVI 2-3
-
XVI 2
IV 5
XI 2.1
XV 2.4, 3
XI 1.1
I 3
II 1

II 5
IX 3
XI 2.3.4; XIII 2
IV 7
IV 7; V 1.1;
VI 2.2.5
VIII 7.2
I 3

() I 3
II 1
I 6; II 1
II 1
II 1
XIII 3.2
XIII 3.2
XIII 3.2
II 5
II 5
II 5
II 5
XII 2
V 2.1
VIII 1
VIII 1
- VIII 5
VIII 5
VIII 6
VIII 1

IV 2
III 7
I 4.4
II 2
- II 2
VI 5.2
II 2
I 3
- I 3
- I 3
I 3

I 3
XIII 3.2
XV 3
I 3-4
- II 2
.
VII 3
VII 3
I
- I 3
IV 6
VIII 1
- () VIII 1
- () VIII 5
- () VIII 1
- () VIII 5
I 3
VII 4.5
XI 3
II 1
IX 3
XIV 1
XI 2.3.1
III 10
IV 7
IV 7; V 1.1
- VI 2.2.3
XIII 4

XII 6
III 10
XII 3
XIII 5
IV 6
XIV
VIII 7.2
VIII 7.2
() VII 4.7

791

() VII 5.2
VII 4.1
.

IV 5
IV 5
III 6; IV 6
V 1.6; VI 5.2
IV 6
IV 6
IV 6
IV 5
IV 6
IV 6
IX 1
I 4.3
II 2
II 2
IX
XI 1.1
I 4.3
XII 2
XII 2
XII 2
XIV 2
XV 1
XV 1
XV 1
XV 1
VII 4.8
- X 6
IX 4
II 2; VI 2.2
VII 4.4
PRO V 2.1
V 2.1
V 2.1
V 2.1
V 2.1
XII 1
XIII 4
XIII 3.4
IV 3
IV 3

XV 2.2
XIII 3.2

XIII 3.2
XIV 2
()
X 3; XV 2.3
XIII 5
XIII 2

XI 3
XIII 3.2
XII 1; 9-10; XIII 3
VIII 7.2
I 4.5
XII 2
IV 7
() III 4.1
II 2
I 6
XIII 3
II 2; VI 2.2
VII 4.4
IV 2
XVI 1
III 1.2
IV 2
II 1
X 6
IX 1
XIII 4
VII 2
XII 2
I 7
XIII 6
I 7
XII 7
II 1
X 6
IX 3

III 4.1; XI 2.3.11; 3


V
.

VII 4.6
XVI 2
XIII 3.2
V 1.3
X 4
XI 3-6

XIII 3.2
XI 6
XI 6
XI 6
XI 6
XII 1, 3
XII 3
XII 3
XIII 2

XV 2.1

792


XIII 3.2
XIII 5
XIII 5
XI 2.3.8
I 4.6
XI 6
- XII 8
II 4.2.1
VII 2
I 2
- I 8
- I 8
XI
2.3.6
XIII 3.2
XIII 5
() XII 1, 5
XII 5
IV 2
XIII 4
XII 1
.

II 4.2.1
.
XI 3
III 10
XII 34
- XII 3
- XII 9
- XII 3
- XII 4
XII 1, 4
XII 4
VI 2.2.4
XIII 4
III 11
V 2.2
V 2.2
XIII 2
XI 2.2
-
XVI 2
-
XVI 2
-
XVI 5
-
XVI 2
-
XVI 2
do XI 2.3.3
VI
- XII 7

- VI 2.2
- XII 7
- VI 2.4
XIV 3
XIV 2
XI 2.1
- XII 3
- XII 3
III 10
X 6;
XI-XIII
()
X 3; XV 2.3
XII 9
III 1.1
- IV 4
- III 9
- IV 4
- IV 4
II 5
IV 1
IV 1
- IV 5
II 1; IV 5; XIV 1
- V 4
- IV 4
- IV 4
- IX 2
- IV 6
- - V 4
- IV 5
- IV 5
- IV 4
- IV 6
- IX 2
- IV 4
- IV 6
- IV 6
- IX 2
- IV 4
- IV 4
- .
II 1

IV 6
XI 2.3.7
III 10
XVI 5
XI 1.1

XIII 3.3
- XIII 3.3
- XIII 3.3
- XIII 3.3
II 1

793

XII 1; 3
XII 3
VII 6
- VII 6
- VII 6
XII 1
.

VI 1
- VI 2.4
- VI 2.2
- VI 2.1
- . VI 2.4
- VI 2.3
V 1.1; VI 2.2.6
II 5
IV 7
IV 7; V 1.2
I 7
- I 7
XII 3
XII 2
XII 7
XI 2.3.9; XII 7
IV 6
II 4.2.4
XI 2.3.2
IX 1
XIII 3.5
III 7;
XII 8, 9
.
I 3
- I 3
- I 3
XV 1
VII 4.9
VIII 3
XIV 1
.

V 1.5
XIII 3.4
II 1
IX 4
III 7
.

IX 1
- IX 2; XIII 4
- IX 2; XIII 4
- IX 1
- IX 2; XIII 4
- IX 2

XII 7
XV 3
() V 1.1;
VI 2.2.2
- XIII 6
- VI 3.1
() VIII 4
XI 2.3.10; XII 7
() V 1.1
() VIII 4
.
III 9
.

.
XV 4
XIII 5
I 2
XII 7
XII 1; 7
I 2
XIII 2; XV 2.2
I 4.4; VII 2
XVI 2
XVI 2
XVI 2
XVI 2

XV 1
III 1.1
II 2

XIV 3
XVI 5
XVI 5
IV 2
.
III 1.2, 4
III 7
III 7
XVI 3
II 1
XII 9
II 4.2
VII 4.1
II 1
.
IV 7
VII 4
- VII 4.9
- VII 4.10.3
- VII 4.1
- VII 4.6
- VII 4.10

794


VII 4.1
VII 4.8
XIII 3.5

IV 6; XIV 3
XIV 3
II 12

II 2
II 2
II 1
.
XI 3
.

IV 6; XIV 3
VI 2.2.1
III 6
XII 2
.

XVI 5
( )
VII 3
VII 3
VII 3
IX
III 10
IX
IV 2
XII 1
VI 2.5
II 4.1; XII 9

XV 2.1
IV 2
.

XIII 5
() .
( ) IX 1
IX 2
XII 1
II 3; X 6
II 3
X 6
- XII 1, 6
- XII 6
- XII 6
XIV 1
IX 7
II 4.2.1
XII 2
II 5; XI 2.2

XV 1
I 3
I 3
I 7
I 3
I 3
X 1
X 3
XI 1.2
XI 1.1
VII 5; XII 5
XII 8
XII 8
VII 5.3
XII 8
VII 5.4
VII 5.4
XII 1, 5
III 10
XII 7
XVI 2
I 5; IV 2
IV 3
IX 4
IX 8
XII 1; XIII 3
XVI 2
VII 5
I 1; X 4
X 6
II 4.2.1
II 1, 4; X 6
X 4; XV
XIII 1
.
III 10
XIII 3.1
II 1
VI 1
II 5
II 5
I 4.4
XV 1
III 10
IX 1
XI 2.3.5
III 3; IV 6; V 1.1
III 3

795


IX 6
I 4.4
I 4.4
XII 2
VI 2.4
XV 1
II 4.2.1
VII 2
.

XII 7
XII 7
XII 7
D- XII 1, 10
S - XII 1, 10
phi- XIII 1
PRO V 2
pro V 3
Tough- XIII 3.1
X'- XII 1-2
'- XII 2


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1 - 1-
2 -
2 - 2-
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796







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Adv (adverb)
AdvP (adverb phrase)
Aff
(adjective
phrase)
Aux
(auxiliary)
- (comple
mentizer)
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plementizer phrase)
D - (determiner)
DP - (determin
er phrase)
EIC -
(Early Immediate
Constituent ratio)
I(nfl) - ,
(inflection)
IP , (inflec
tion phrase)
LE (left edge)
N (noun)
NP - (noun phrase)
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Pro
(pronoun)
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phrase)
R - (recoverability)
Refl
SC - (small clause)
S - (sentence)
S'
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VP (verb phrase)
V (verb)