Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 1037

,

++

++
, ,
. ,
,
++: ,
.. ,
.

: , , -
- ,
.
.
,
.

15
1!
16

16

21
1. ++
31
1.1.
32
1.2. ?
35
1.3.
36
1.4.
37
1.5. ,
38
/
1.6. ,
38
1.7. ++
40
1.8. ++
41
1.9. ++
42
1.10.
43
1.11.
43
1.12.
44
++
1.13. ++
47
1.14. ++
48
1.15. :
48
1.16. :
52
1.17.
56
1.18.
57

1.19. :
1.20.



2.
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5. if ()
2.6. if/else (-)
2.7. while ()
2.8. : 1 (,
)
2.9. :
2 (, )
2.10. :
3 ( )
2.11.
2.12.
2.13. ,
2.14. for ()
2.15. for
2.16. switch
2.17. do/while
2.18. break continue
2.19.
2.20. (==)
(=)
2.21.
2.22. :



3.
3.1.
3.2. C++
3.3.

61
65

87
89
89
89
90
93
94
99
100
102
109
113
114
116
119
122
127
133
135
137
139
141
147

177
178
179
180

3.4.
3.5.
3.6.
3.7.
3.8.
3.9. :
3.10.
3.11. ,
3.12.
3.13. :

3.14.
3.15.
3.16.
3.17.
3.18.
3.19.
3.20.
3.21.
3.22. :



4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
4.7. : ,

4.8. :
4.9.
4.10. :





5.

181
182
187
189
189
195
198
201
205
208
211
213
214
216
219
221
222
224
226

259
260
261
263
263
276
280
282
285
290
297

321

5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5. const
5.6. ,
5.7.
5.8.
5.9.
5.10. :
5.11.
5.12.
5.13. :




:

:

6.
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4. Time
Struct
6.5. Time
6.6.
6.7.
6.8.
6.9. -
6.10. :
6.11.
6.12.
6.13.
6.14. - -
6.15. : -
6.16.
6.17.
6.18. :

322
323
324
326
330
336
340
344
348
349
354
358
367

405
406
408
408
409
411
418
419
423
426
429
429
433
433
436
441
443
445
445





7. : II
7.1.
7.2. -
7.3. :
7.4.
7.5. this
7.6. new delete
7.7.
7.8.
7.9.
7.10. :





8.
8.1.
8.2.
8.3.
8.4. -
8.5.
8.6.
8.7.
8.8. :
8.9.
8.10. :
8.11. ++ -8.12. :

,


9.
9.1.
9.2.
9.3.
9.4.

459
460
461
467
471
474
479
480
485
489
489

497
498
499
501
502
504
506
507
508
519
520
531
532

551
552
554
556
556

9.5. -
9.6.
9.7. ,
9.8.
9.9.
9.10.

9.11.
9.12.
9.13.
9.14. : , ,
9.15.




10.
10.1.
10.2. switch
10.3.
10.4.
10.5.
10.6. :
10.7.
10.8.
10.9. :




11. - ++
11.1.
11.2.
11.3.
11.4.
11.5. - read, gcount write
11.6.
11.7.
11.8.
11.9. -
11.10.

562
562
566
568
568
571
573
574
575
575
580

595
596
597
597
599
600
602
612
613
614

629
631
632
635
639
645
645
650
660
661
664



12.
12.1.
12.2.
12.3.
12.4.
12.5.
12.6.
12.7.
12.8.


13.
13.1.
13.2.
13.3.
13.4. ++
13.5. :
13.6. try
13.7.
13.8.
13.9.
13.10.
13.11.
13.12.
13.13. ,
13.14.



14. -
14.1.
14.2.
14.3.
14.4.
14.5.
14.6.
14.7.

683
684
685
688
689
694
695
695
696

703
704
708
708
709
710
713
713
714
718
719
719
720
721
722

737
738
739
741
742
746
750
751

14.8.
14.9.
14.10.
14.11. :
14.12.
14.13. -


15.
15.1.
15.2.
15.3.
15.4.
15.5.
15.6.
15.7.



:

16. , ,
16.1.
16.2.
16.3.
16.4.
16.5.
16.6. :
16.7.
16.8.
16.9.
16.10.
16.11.
16.12.
16.13.




17.
17.1.

753
754
756
758
763
767

781
782
783
784
786
799
804
807

847
848
849
851
852
852
853
855
863
866
872
876
881
884

903
904

17.2. #include
17.3. #define:
17.4. #define:
17.5.
17.6. #error #pragma
17.7. # ##
17.8.
17.9.
17.10. assert



18.
18.1.
18.2. - UNIX DOS
18.3.
18.4.
18.5. ,

18.6. exit atexit
18.7. volatile
18.8.
18.9.
18.10. : calloc realloc
18.11. : goto
18.12.
18.13.
18.14.




.
.
. ASCII
.
. 1.
. 2.

. 3.

. 4. ,

905
905
906
908
910
910
911
911
912

919
920
921
922
924
924
927
928
929
929
932
933
934
938
939

949
988
989
991
992
995
997
997

. 5. ,
998

.6. :
999



1007

!
-- , 114116
(), 139
::
, 416
!= , , 62
#define, 421, 422, 685, 905, 906-908,
< , , 62
909, 911
<< , 861
- DEBUG, 909
<<=
, 862
- NDEBUG, 484, 912
<= , 62
#elif, 909
#else, 909
<ctrl>-c, 930
<ctrl>-d, 130, 642, 745
#endif, 421, 422, 909
<ctrl>-z, 130, 642, 745
#error, 910
= , 55, 62
#if, 909
#ifdef DEBUG, 909
== , , 62
> , , 62
#ifdef, 909
>= ,
#ifndef, 421, 422, 909
, 62
#include, 49, 189, 267, 905
- <iomanip.h>, 650
>> , 861, 862
>>=
- <iostream.h>, 52
, 862
- <math.h>, 180
?: ,
- <string.h>, 926
#line, 911, 911
\
, 908
#pragma, 910
\"
#undef, 908, 911
, 50
% ,
& , 218, 324
\\
, 50
, 866
\a
& , 858
&& , 137, 140, 211
( ), 50
\n
&=
, 50, 636
, 862
\r
* ,
323, 324
, 50
\t
* , 59
, 50
+ , 55
^
+ , 59
, 861
++ , 114-116

^=

, 862
_DATE_,
, 911,
_FILE_,
, 911,
_LINE_,
, 911,
_STDC_,
, 911,
_TIME_,
, 911,
| , 860
|=
, 860, 862
|| , 137, 140,
211
~
(, ), 861
A
a.out, 44, 46
abort, 484, 710, 715, 720
abs, 980
acos, 956
ANSI, 487
C, 33, 41, 331
,
, 41
ASCII, 360, 365, 837, 900
assert , 912
assert.h , 190, 484,
912, 950
atan, 955
atan2, 956
atexit, 927, 928, 975
atof, 873, 971
atoi, 873, 842, 971
atol, 873, 874, 971
auto, 92, 199
B
bad -, 660
badbit, 639, 661

Borland C++, 44, 223, 278, 856, 910,


927
break, 92, 130, 132, 135, 136, 717, 933
C
calloc, 932, 974
case , 92, 127, 130, 131, 201
catch , 713, 714, 715, 718
catch(...), 715, 718, 719, 734
- {throw;}, 734
ceil , 182, 957
cerr (
), 46, 633, 741, 910
char, 53, 92, 127, 189, 779
- *argv[], 924
cin ( ), 46, 633, 741
cin, 54, 55. 504, 641, 642
cin.clear, 661
cin.eof(), 642, 661
cin.get() , 127, 129
cin.get, 641
cin.getline, 360
cin.tie, 664
class, 146, 270, 368, 407, 412, 596, 739,
848, 863, 905, 936
clear, 750
-, 661
clearerr, 970
clock, 982
clock_t, 982
clog (
), 633, 741
const, 92, 215, 266, 278, 280, 332, 335,
409, 461, 474, 928
char*, 346
continue , 92, 135, 136
cos,182, 956
cosh,956
cout (<<), 46, 49, 50, 52, 639, 640, 633,
635, 741
CPU,45
ctune, 983
ctype.h , 190, 332,
867, 908, 951

D
DEBUG, 909
dec , 646
default, 92, 127, 130, 131, 192, 334
delete , 479, 480, 613
[ ] , 479
dequeue, 805, 807
div, 980
do/while, 92, 133, 134, 135, 146
DOS, 921, 924, 930
double, 92, 189, 779
E
EBCDIC, 365
else, 92, 94-98
endl , 56, 108, 636
ends , 764
enqueue, 805, 807
enum , 92, 195, 198
eof, 756, 757
-, 642, 661
EOF, 129, 130, 641, 644, 867
eofbit, 660, 661
errno, 709, 949
errno.h , 190, 949
exit, 927, 928, 975
EXIT_FAILURE, 927, 975
EXIT_SUCCESS, 927, 975
, 956
extern, 92, 200, 201, 925
"", 938
F
F , 929
f , 929
fabs , 182, 957
fail -, 660
failbit, 639, 660, 744, 765
fclose, 963
feof, 970
ferror, 970
fflush, 963
fgetc, 966
fgetpos, 969
fgets, 967

FIFO (
), 488, 807
FILE, 962
fill -, 653, 655
fixed , 657
flags -, 650, 658, 659
float, 92, 105, 108, 189, 779
float.h , 190
fmod , 182, 957
fopen, 963
for , 92, 119127, 135, 136, 146, 263, 294
fprintf, 965
fputc, 967
fputs, 967
fread, 968
free, 479, 480, 932, 932, 974
freopen, 964
frexp, 956
friend, 92, 423, 429, 436, 437, 488, 502,
503, 521, 577, 685, 695, 696
fscanf, 965
fseek, 969
fsetpos, 969
fstream, 634, 741, 743, 758, 759
fstream.h , 633,
741, 742
ftell, 970
fwrite, 969
G
gcount -, 645, 646
get -, 425, 436, 641,
643
getc, 967
getchar, 967
getchar(), 908
getenv, 975
getline -, 360, 504,
504, 643, 664, 798
gets, 967
gmtime, 983
good -, 660
goodbit, 660

goto, 92, 933, 934

hex , 646
I
IBM, 38, 43
if, 61, 67, 92-94, 97, 98, 127, 146
if/else, 92, 94-98, 127, 146
ifstream, 635, 741, 743, 756
ignore -, 661
inline, 92, 214, 215, 220, 258, 417, 907
int, 53, 92, 189, 779
internal , 654
iomanip.h , 108,
263, 633, 646, 905
ios , 635
ios::adjustfield, 654, 656, 657, 659
ios::app, 743, 764
ios::ate, 743, 755
ios::badbit, 660
ios::basefield ,
656
ios::beg, 748
ios::cur, 748
ios::dec, 656, 659
ios::end, 748
ios::eofbit, 660
ios::failbit, 660
ios::fixed , 108, 126, 657
ios::fixed, 657
ios::floatfield, 657, 659
ios::goodbit, 660
ios::hex, 656, 659
ios::in, 746, 759
ios::internal, 654, 659
ios::left, 654, 659, 750, 761
ios::nocreate, 743
ios::noreplace, 743
ios::oct, 656, 659
ios::out, 743, 744, 759, 761, 764
ios::right, 654, 659, 750, 761
ios ::scientific , 657
ios::shobase, 654, 657
ios::showpoint, 108, 126, 651, 750

ios::showpos, 654
ios::skipws , 681
ios::trunc, 743
ios::uppercase, 658
iostream , 632, 634, 635
iostream.h , 49, 52,
324, 741, 763, 905
isalnum, 867, 868, 869, 951
isalpha, 867, 868, 869, 951
iscntrl, 867, 871, 951
isdigit, 867, 868, 869, 951
isgraph, 867, 870, 871, 951,
islower, 867, 869, 870, 951
isprint, 867, 870, 871, 951
ispunct, 867, 870, 951
isspace, 867, 870, 951
isupper, 867, 869, 870, 951
isxdigit, 867, 868, 869, 951
L
L , 929
l , 929
L- (lvalue, ),
141, 218, 262, 324, 441, 519, 521,
530
labs, 976
ldexp, 956
ldiv, 977
left , 654
LIFO
, 485, 692, 799
limits.h , 190, 985
locale.h , 190, 952
localeconv, 953
localtime, 983
log , 182, 956
log10 , 182, 956
long double, 189, 779
long int, 92, 133, 188, 189, 779
longjmp, 709, 958
lvalue ( ), 141, 218, 262,
324, 441, 519, 521, 530

main(), 50

make , 927
makefile, 927
malloc, 479
math.h , 125, 126,
180, 188, 190, 955
mblen, 977
mbstowcs, 977
mbtowc, 977
memchr, 881, 883, 980
memcmp, 881, 882, 979
memcpy, 881, 882, 978
memmove, 881, 882, 978
memset, 881, 884, 981
mktime, 982
modf, 957 MS DOS, 130
N
new , 92, 446, 479, 480, 484,
489, 516, 517, 528, 734, 784, 796,
932
new_handler, 709 NULL, 324, 484,
852, 875, 877, 880, 883, 909, 950,
963, 978, 982
O
oct , 646
ofstream, 635, 741, 743, 744, 745, 748,
756
open, 744
operator - ios,
744
ostream, 763, 765, 767
P
pd, 223
peek -, 644
perror, 970
pf, 223
pop, 485, 800
pow, 125, 253
pragma, 910
precision -, 647, 657
print, 800, 807
printf, 965
private:, 425
protected:, 92, 423

public:, 425
push, 485, 800
put -, 635, 638, 639,
642
putback -, 644
putc, 967
putchar, 908, 968
puts, 968
R
R- (rvalue, ),
141, 218, 515
raise, 958
rand, 191, 973
RAND_MAX, 190, 194
rdstate -, 660, 765
read -, 645, 646
realloc, 932, 933, 974
register, 92, 199, 200, 324
resetiosflags , 650
return , 712, 718
right , 654
rvalue ( ), 141, 218,
515
S
scanf, 965
scientific , 657
SEEK_CUR, 961
SEEK_END, 961
SEEK_SET, 961
seekg, 748, 750, 758, 761, 762
seekp, 748, 754, 762
set_new_handler, 709
set_new_handler (), 709
set_terminate, 715, 720, 735
set_terminate (), 715, 720, 735
set_unexpected, 720, 735
set_unexpected (), 720, 735
setbase , 646
setbuf, 966
setf -, 650, 654, 656
setfill , 655
setiosflags , 108,
126, 650, 654, 750, 758, 761

setjmp, 709, 957


setjmp.h , 190,
709, 957
setjmp/longjmp, 735
setlocale, 953
setprecision , 108,
126, 750
setprecision, 108, 126, 750
setvbuf, 966
setw , 126, 263,
647, 654, 750, 758, 761
short, 92, 133, 188, 189
int, 133, 189, 779
showbase , 657
showpoint , 652
showpoint, 652
SIGABRT, 930, 930, 958
SIGFPE, 930, 958
SIGGILL, 930, 958
SIGINT, 930, 958
signal, 930, 959
signal.h , 190, 930,
930, 958
signal_handler, 930
SIGSEGV, 930, 959
SIGSTERM, 930, 959
sin, 182
sinh, 956
size_t, 361, 877, 950, 963, 982, 982
sizeof, 92, 339, 340
skipws , 651
sprintf, 965
sqrt, 180, 182, 188, 957
srand, 192, 194, 195, 974
sscanf, 968
static, 92, 199, 200, 201, 203, 219, 273,
480, 927, 936
stdarg.h , 190, 922,
961
stddef.h , 190, 361,
950
stdderr, 962
stdin, 962

stdio.h , 190, 908,


961
stdiostream.h , 633
stdlib
484, 872, 912, 927,
932
stdlib.h , 190, 484,
741, 872, 927, 932, 971
stdout, 962
str -, 763, 764
strcat, 362, 363, 528, 926, 979
strchr, 877, 878, 899, 980
strcmp, 362, 364, 365, 926, 979
strcoll, 979
strcpy, 361, 362, 363, 528, 978
strcspn, 877, 878, 980
stream.h , 633, 763
strerror, 884, 885, 981
strftime, 988, 983
string.h , 190, 361,
779, 978
strlen, 362, 367, 981
strncat, 363, 979
strncmp, 362, 364, 365, 979
strncpy, 361, 362, 363, 978
strpbrk, 877, 879, 980
strrchr, 877, 879, 980
strspn, 877, 878, 980
strstr, 877, 880, 899, 981
strtod, 873, 874, 875, 971
strtok, 362, 365, 366, 367, 832, 842,
981
strtol, 873, 875, 876, 972
strtoul, 873, 876, 973
struct tm, 982
struct, 92, 408, 425, 739, 783
strxfrm, 980
switch , 597, 660, 717
, 92, 92, 127-133,
135, 201, 390
system, 975

tan, 182

tanh, 956
tellg, 748
tellp, 748
template, 92, 224, 686, 783, 787, 805
terminate, 710, 715, 717, 718, 720, 721,
735
terminate.h , 721
this , 474, 475, 476, 483, 420,
502
throw, 92, 713
throw(), 720
throw;, 719
tie -, 664
time.h , 190, 194,
986
tolower, 867, 869, 870, 951
toupper, 867, 869, 870, 952
try, 92
typedef, 92, 852, 853
U
u , 929
U , 929
ul , 929
UL , 929
unexpected, 720, 721, 735
unexpected.h , 721
ungets, 968
union, 92, 863, 934-938
UNIX, 38, 40, 44, 46, 130, 642, 707,
745, 921, 930
unsigned, 92, 189, 192
char, 189, 779, 883
int, 189, 192, 361, 779, 877
long int, 189, 206, 207, 361, 876,
779, 877
short int, 189, 779
uppercase , 658
V
va_arg, 922, 960
va_end, 922, 960
va_list, 922, 960
va_start, 922, 960
vfprintf, 966

virtual, 92, 936


void, 92
* ( void), 343, 638,
641, 716, 881
-
ios, 744
volatile, 92
vprintf, 966
vsprintf, 966
W
wcstombs, 978
wctomb, 977
while, 92, 99, 100, 104, 117, 118, 120,
146
width -, 647
write -, 635, 645, 646,
753-755
ws , 650
Z
zc, 223

, 182
, 66, 553
, 599-602,
614
, 600, 601
, 411, 485, 487, 488, 498
,
709
, 203, 800
, 199,
260, 274
, 264, 267
, , 274
, 689
, 43
, 64, 140
, 323, 324, 328, 344
(&) , 935
(&) , 850
, 866

, 328
, 324
(&), 324, 327, 336, 500
, 851
, 354
, 866
, 386, 389
, 57, 59, 60
, 57, 59, 65
, 89, 93, 94, 112, 122, 130,
134, 281
(&), 216
, 936, 937
, 33, 35
, 179, 181, 183, 686, 905
, 924
, 220, 429
,
501
, 220, 429
,
499

(), 36
, 57, 59
, 705
, 59, 116, 140
, 501
, 62, 64, 116, 140
, 64, 107, 116, 129
, 66, 226, 369, 413, 552, 574
, 227

, 741
, 205, 208,
211, 553
, 553, 555, 556, 599, 600
ios, 641
, 567
, 709
istream, ostream
iostream, 60
, 566

, catch, 715
, , 599
, , 613
, , 568
, , 568, 571
, , 553. 556, 573, 597,
719
, , 568
,
, 597
, , 554
, , 556, 573, 597, 600,
601, 602, 611, 612, 613, 620
, , 562
, 632, 739, 741, 748, 751
, 335, 445
, 208, 212, 516,
562, 566

(), 99,107
, 99, 107, 121, 134,
208, 212

, 125, 126, 180, 182, 190
, 361, 362, 876
, 930, 930

(stdio), 190
, 908, 922, 926
, 487
stdlib,
484, 873, 912, 927, 932

, 881884
, 41, 420, 445,
487, 553, 573, 635
, 708, 938

(::), 416, 417,
480, 586, 696
, 782, 807, 808, 825
, , 827

,
107
, 55, 57, 140, 210, 501,
508
, 738, 848
, 863866
, , 739, 855, 866
, 98, 185, 199, 260, 434
catch, 714719
try, 710, 712, 713, 714, 715, 716,
721, 735
, 479, 872
(CPU),
36
do/while, 135
for, 123
, 91, 92, 94, 100, 123, 131
, 739, 866
, 643, 660
, 635

(rapid application development
RAD), 445
, 783, 845

,
763
, 741

getline, 643
, 631, 961
, 763

, 631, 661
, 631
, 635
, 126
, , 386
, , 360
, 191
('\v'), 870
, 367, 368,
486

, 573, 596, 597,


601,
, 599
, 599, 601, 602, 607, 614,
618, 603, 607, 613, 614
, 185, 201
, 709, 710, 714,
735
try, 714
, 109, 130,
143, 933
float, 935
, 119, 179, 186, 719
(
8), 635, 646, 656, 876,
992, 994, 997
, 656, 995
inline , 214,
215, 220, 258, 417, 907
, 188, 407, 488, 635,
686
, 486
, 146, 933
char *, 638
,
635
, 638
, 635
, 635
, 635
, 932
, 709

, 709
, 571
, 216, 217, 218, 326,
327, 329, 331, 334, 336, 445, 515,
516, 528, 852
, 277, 334
, 216, 217, 218, 322, 326,
328, 331, 334, 334, 336, 409, 443,
445, 516, 852

,
445
, 326
, 179, 326
, 653, 654, 935
, 126, 653, 654
, , 784
, 851, 866
, 94

, 933
, 135
, 51 , 36, 58,
59, 486
, 342, 343

, 705, 709, 710,


714, 716, 719, 720, 721
, 148, 191, 194,
349
, 433
, 200, 201, 202, 203,
221, 480, 927, 927, 936
, 425, 696
, 784

, 390, 391
, 67, 297, 407, 413,
429
, 425, 436, 473
, 190, 400, 986
(:), 412, 559, 864
(
2), 856, 992, 994, 995,
997, 999
, 739
, 285, 288, 319
, 288
, 290, 291, 293, 294,
296, 297, 349, 782
, 114116
, 342

, 46, 104, 391, 486,


705, 930
, , 712
, , 712
, 260, 322, 849
, 807, 809, 813,
814, 826
, 416, 433, 434, 480, 516,
521, 528, 563, 566, 570, 721, 745,
787, 936
, 613
,
, 709

( 10), 635, 646, 876,
992, 994
, 53, 102, 105, 108, 126, 126
, 739, 995

, 434, 443, 500, 515, 516,
517, 528
,
260, 322, 782
,
479, 485, 566, 795797, 932, 933
, 44, 49, 52,
267, 421, 422, 685, 904, 906, 926
, 35, 36, 44, 631, 739, 751
, , 744, 907
, , 763, 768
, 800
,
362
,
425

, 554
, 412, 423, 472
, 418
, 409, 850
, 423
, 58

, 423, 437,
471, 472, 500, 507, 508, 696
, 423, 429, 436, 437, 488, 502,
503, 521, 577, 586, 686, 695, 696

, 704

, 705, 709,
927, 928
, 108, 189, 190,
191, 324, 361, 420, 424, 445, 573,
633, 721, 905, 927
, 46, 386
, .

, 556, 566, 567,


800
, 425,
436, 473, 480
, 333, 739, 741, 741, 748, 751,
754, 849
, 635, 647, 653,
655
, 99, 107, 121, 134, 208,
212
, 556, 566,
567
, 567
(*), 57, 324
, 50
, 208

, 53, 92, 685


, 555, 596, 597, 600, 601, 611,
613, 614, 741
, 562, 600, 601, 613, 741
, 634, 741
, 266

catch, 714
, 56, 116, 223, 261
, 261
, 344

, 261, 272, 294


, ,
521, 714
, 264, 264, 267, 272,
292, 429, 480, 851, 936
, 464, 468, 559, 568

, 479

, 467
, 264, 271, 292
, 103, 117
, 218


, 480, 696
, 851
, 323, 335
, 559
, 407, 417, 507, 553, 556,
562
, 114116
, 342
, 40
, 66, 407, 416, 417, 420,
441, 485, 601, 602, 614
, 420, 425, 485, 553, 602,
800, 805
, 821,
841, 845
,
, 821, 841,
845
, 712
, 708, 712, 719
,
930
, 716
, , 709
, , 709, 714
, , 484, 708, 709, 721
, , 713, 714

,
, 716
, 927
(), 420, 911

, 741
([ ]), 261
, 35, 36, 55, 631, 634, 741,
921
, 67, 146, 368, 407, 411, 596, 739,
849, 863, 905, 936
ios, 660
, , 423
, , 419, 472
, , 416, 417, 419, 420, 432,
445, 474, 508, 689
, 199, 260,
274
, 199, 200, 201
, 783, 784, 796
, , 412
, , 689694, 695, 696, 782,
787, 800, 802, 803, 805, 807, 845
,
467
, 599, 600, 601
, 426, 471, 489
, 198, 199, 926
, , 41, 420, 445, 487,
554, 573, 635
, , 562, 600, 601, 613, 741
, 423
(), 740, 741,
751, 753, 777
, 92
C++, 92
, 43
, 365
, 921
, , 924
, 49
, 39, 40, 44, 782, 783, 800,
828844, 927, 996

, 44, 420
, , 51
, 417, 446, 467, 489, 554,
575, 694, 782, 800, 803
, 35
Apple, 38
(|), 921
, 129, 130, 640, 641, 642,
660, 745, 748, 921, 924
, .
, 464, 905
, 445
, 598
, 461
, 266
, 266, 464
, 331
, 335
, 335
, 461, 466
, 466
, 426, 429, 434, 461, 467,
479, 480, 481, 489, 516, 559, 563,
567, 570, 721, 743
, 568, 571
, , 571
, 515, 516, 518, 526, 526, 528,
529, 721
, 429

, 721
, 936
, 520, 526, 526,
528, 529, 572
, 327, 443, 530
, 361
, 882
, 568
, 50, 52

, 807, 809, 813


, 796,
807

, 285, 287, 319


, 183, 184, 199,
200, 203, 334
,
434

, 190, 685, 904, 905, 906, 922


, , 906908

, 108, 650
, 859
, 260, 322, 434, 487, 489, 508,
738, 849, 849
, 264, 267, 274
, 274
, , 274
, 866
, 277
,
278
, 290, 291, 292
, 721
, 292, 297, 331, 782
, 486
, , 487
, 271, 359, 632, 642
, 348, 924
, 852
, 348
, 620
, 357, 358, 395, 396,
613
, , 270, 487
, , 734
, , 270, 270
, , 334, 344, 345, 714
, , 264, 274
, , 263
, ([ ]), 515
,
, 277
,
, 336

, , 276, 338
, 278, 344
, , 487, 508
, 191, 195
, 39, 341, 784,
851, 856, 862, 866
, 39, 44, 782, 783, 800
, 201
, 290, 291, 292
, 66,
554, 580, 584, 586, 634
, 47
, 276,
334
, 410,
425
, 64,
108, 140

, 132, 365, 651


, 251,
255
, 66, 368, 417, 553, 554,
555, 568, 573, 574, 575, 577, 599,
600, 601, 607, 612, 618, 634, 686,
721, 782, 805
, 556, 566, 567, 800
, 556, 567, 567
, 66, 554, 580, 584,
586, 634
, 556, 559, 566, 577, 567,
607
, 554, 580, 584, 586, 634
, 46, 98, 104,
187, 324, 391
, 796
, 958

, 930

, 108, 650
, 600
, 832, 926

,
483 506, 520, 531
, 483
, 107, 529,
562
, 556, 562
('\0'), 272, 345, 359,
360, 362, 366, 642, 643, 646, 764
(0), 783, 784, 933

, 199, 200, 201, 467,


705, 926, 927
, 201
, 417, 419, 468, 480
, 201, 419
, 484, 704
735
, try, 713, 714, 716, 721
, 763
, 929932, 959
(\), 50, 784, 908
,
('\b'), 870
,
814, 827
, 863, 934938
, 35, 41, 65, 67, 90, 147, 407
cin, 55, 639
, 434, 719, 721
, 434
, 467
(cin), 54, 55
, 65

(), 33, 35,


36, 66, 132, 147, 208, 367, 369,
407, 553, 573, 597, 705
, 41, 65, 147, 148,
176, 297, 367, 369, 407, 445, 471,
574
, 44, 46, 49
, 553, 556,
573, 596, 719

, , 367, 368, 486


, 53, 54, 117, 185
, 642, 643
, 58, 108, 182, 248
, 855863
, 55, 386
, 50, 133, 185
break, 130, 131, 132, 135, 136, 717,
933
continue, 135, 136
goto, 933, 934
switch, 596, 717
,
113, 862
, 55, 129, 441
, 97, 98, 107, 185
, 386
, 64, 108, 140
, 62, 64, 94, 123, 137,
140, 343, 508
, 386
+=, -=, *=, /=, %=,
113, 140, 568
, 61, 62, 64, 94,
140, 508, 508
, 739, 855863, 866
, 866, 872
, 107, 140, 324, 339, 501,
506
, , 58, 59, 62
, , 58, 62, 64, 96, 108,
116, 121, 139, 140
, 37, 38, 40,
360, 601, 632, 745, 782, 921, 930,
996
(+), 500, 503
(+=), 508, 529
(<), 529
(<=), 529
(>), 529
(>=), 529, 530
<<, 506, 515
>>, 504, 514, 515

char *, 520
new, 446, 479, 480, 424, 516, 517,
528, 734, 784, 796, 932
sizeof, 876
void *, , 661
>>, 751
<<, 751
(.), 599
(%), 57, 58,
59, 85, 191, 195
(- -), 114116
(.), 408
([ ]), 515, 519, 530
(++), 114116
(&&), 137, 140, 858
(||), 137, 138, 140, 860
() (1), 137, 138,
140
, 108, 188, 520,
641
, 107
(=), 55, 62, 64, 116,
443, 508, 516, 517, 935
, 568
(!=), 518
(==), 62, 139, 518
,
(::), 416, 417, 480, 584,
696
(*), 323, 324, 327
(,), 64, 121,
140, 211
(>), 408, 419, 935
(.), 408, 475, 935
(?:), 95, 116, 140, 640, 869
, 408, 849, 850, 863,
866
,182,183,188, 201, 216,
273, 685, 693
, 127,
200, 612

, 564

,
new, 718
, 631
, 556, 559,
566, 577, 567, 607
,
556
, 566
, 420, 425, 485, 553, 602,
800, 805
, 44, 47, 187, 192, 212, 484,
553,562, 597, 909, 911
char, 867
, 1004
, 260, 322, 489, 782, 805, 805,
849
, 46, 713
, 712
, 930
( )
, 120, 262
, 46, 98, 104, 187,
324, 391
, 51, 58, 62, 96, 98,
141
, 51
, , 704, 705, 708, 710
, , 639, 660
, , 660

, 37
, 37
, 35, 36, 56, 199, 263, 277, 291,
324, 408, 631, 850
, , 324, 339
, 36, 44, 738
, , 190, 479
, 183, 199, 200
, 686, 690
, 33, 34, 43, 44
++, 531
+=, 502, 508, 529, 532
--, 531

[ ], 503, 515, 530


>>, 504, 515,
639, 661
<<, 411, 504,
515, 520, 562, 620, 635, 637, 639,
661, 767
( ), 503, 530
, 520, 641
(=), 502, 503, 515,
516, 517, 521, 528, 572, 935
(==), 515,
518, 529
, 529
, 222, 223, 224, 685, 688
, 631, 635, 694
, 508
, 429
, 56, 411, 500, 631, 635,
856
, 506
, 222, 631
,
224
, 419, 461
,
924
, 276, 338
, 216
, 852
, 852
, 53, 67, 91, 92, 103, 260,
407
, 202
, 183, 184, 199, 200, 203,
334
, 266
, 921
, <, 921
, 921
, >, 921
, 47

, 599, 611

, 618

, 597, 618
, 930
, 391
, 705, 709, 710,
714, 721
, 35, 38, 44,
339
, , 499
,
, 107
, , 930
, , , , 102,
105, 107, 108, 109, 118, 181, 190,
646
, 40, 926
, 443, 500
, 200, 210, 216,
507, 685, 908
, 99, 100, 146, 146, 933
, , 102109
, 417, 445,
580, 612, 631, 685, 687, 800, 926
, 481
, 285, 287, 288, 489, 787, 814,
826
, 872, 881
,
, 876880
, 739, 741, 751
, 132, 368, 552, 554, 573,
577, 596, 597, 600, 601, 612
, 126, 263, 635, 645, 647
(&), 856,
858, 859
(|), 650, 856, 858, 859, 860
(^), 856,
858, 860
(, )
(~), 856, 861
, 862
, 861


(LIFO), 485, 692, 799

, 828
, 210
, 821,
841, 845
,
, 821, 841, 845
, 50, 660, 741, 743, 928
, 639
, 65, 94, 123, 130, 135,
719
, , 650
, 763
, , 635, 741
(}), 50, 53,
56, 423
, 58, 59,
62

, 143
, 807, 809, 809, 813
,


, 1003

, 821, 841, 845
, 107, 529,
562
,
717
, 872

,
556
,
520
, 519
, 44, 45, 108, 484, 904
, , 44, 49, 52, 267, 421,
422, 685, 904, 906, 926

, 705, 930
, 324, 343, 556, 562,
753
, 906
,
malloc, 479

,
573
, 55, 745
, 487, 270
,
199, 278, 330, 331, 337, 346, 420,
425, 461, 748, 926, 927
, 270
, 935
, 443
, 850
(' '), 64, 365, 870

, 199, 201, 420, 924927
, 33,
34, 36, 41, 44, 48, 65, 90, 91, 135,
407, 705, 933
, 33,
34, 36, 41, 66, 132, 146, 208, 367,
369,407, 554, 573, 597, 705
, 33, 36, 44,
47, 66, 91, 553, 573, 612
, , 705, 710,
927, 928
, , 64, 93, 97, 111
, , 410, 425
, 554, 555, 556,
574, 597, 599, 600, 602, 603, 715
, 554, 556, 559, 571,
573, 597, 601, 611
, 64, 93, 97, 111, 119
, 745, 907
, 183, 328, 331, 416, 597,
905, 927, 932,938
, 125, 183, 184,
188, 189, 190, 201, 214, 216, 328,

331, 338, 416, 432, 472, 597, 905,


927, 926, 938
, 90
, 554, 580, 584,
586, 635
, 567
, 192
, 89, 90, 93, 95, 96, 97, 99,
101, 103, 105, 110, 111, 112
, 218, 219, 441

,
416, 419
, 645, 649, 910
, 324, 328
this, 475
void*, 343
, 192
, 906908
, 500, 507, 601, 631
C++, 661, 704
, 208, 270, 413,
487
, 66, 407, 416, 417, 419,
429, 432, 485
, 44, 45, 90
, 205, 207, 208,
787
, 206, 207, 208,
800
, 212, 285, 319
, 162, 206, 212, 516, 562, 566
, 33, 92, 93, 94, 123, 126, 130,
135, 137, 146
, 807, 825

, 408, 850
, 783, 784, 796
, 476, 517, 521, 528
, 56, 635, 636
, 639, 645, 928

, 322, 426, 485, 489,


515, 554, 556, 573, 786799, 845,
849
, 44, 46, 198, 199, 420, 783,
807, 926
, 664
, 804
, 631, 705, 804, 855, 996
, 38, 804
, 33, 685, 938, 939
, 223, 531, 562, 599, 600
, 127, 739, 848, 866
>>, 921
, , 365
('\n'), 50, 52, 64, 132,
636, 638, 645, 870
, 360
, 905, 906,
911
, 64, 93, 273,
642, 870, 905
, 53, 358
, , 127
,
852, 853
, 51, 58, 62,
96, 98, 141
istream ostream, 664
(
8), 635, 646, 656, 876,
992, 994, 997

(), 741
, 277, 337
([ ]), 261
do/while, 133
([ ]), 290, 409
({}), 97, 98, 264, 412,
935
, 418
, 179, 407, 417
, 403, 515, 900
, 40, 386, 850, 866

, 342
, 820, 823
, 189, 191, 808
, , 148, 191, 194, 349
, , 192
, 56, 486, 487
, 751
, 280, 281, 338, 489
, 317, 393
, 280, 281, 308, 336,
354, 393, 758
, 53, 358

, 922924
, 184, 223, 687
, 872, 881
, 270, 508
, 935
, 364
, 850
, 344
, 59, 100, 102, 104,
105, 282
, 218, 219, 322, 324, 327, 441,
517, 600, 631, 798, 852
,
441, 443
, 335
, 218
, 535
, 502, 508
, 408, 418, 441, 507, 639
,
, 535
, 800
,
, 664
, 44, 179,
181, 324, 358, 361, 530
, 143, 145
, 107, 339
(cin), 46, 55,
633

, , 741
(cout), 46, 633
, , 50, 633, 741
(cerr), 46
, , 741
, 58, 62, 64, 96,
108, 116, 121, 138, 140
, 480,
480, 485, 519, 656, 696
, 483, 485,
519, 696
, 199, 200,
202

, 932
, 631, 632, 633
, 50, 322, 367, 434, 515, 848

, 348, 639
, , 361,
362, 876
, , 872,
872
, 271, 359, 359
switch, 92, 127
133, 135, 201, 390
if, 93, 97
, 92, 131,
132, 146
for, 92, 119127, 135,
136, 146, 263, 294
while, 99, 104, 117,
118, 120, 146
, 408, 850
, 9192, 103
, 33,
34, 36, 41, 43, 48, 65, 66, 89, 91,
135, 407, 705, 933
, 260, 322, 333, 848, 905
, 91, 92, 92
, 260, 348, 408, 485, 602
, 260, 322, 782
, 796

, 91, 92, 99, 133, 211


, , 408, 849, 850, 863, 866
, 260, 334, 426, 485, 489, 689, 782,
799, 849
, 334
, , 800
, 929
, 504
,
820
, 56
, 515
, 476
, 62
, 517
, 100, 102, 104, 111

, 137, 138, 139


, 263, 264,
263, 294
, 412
, 50
, 107, 119, 123, 135
, 53, 56, 108
, 53
char, 132
float, 107
, , 339
(;), 50, 64, 408, 412,
849
, 108, 647
, 408

(< >), 224, 686, 905


, 446, 480, 489, 529, 785, 787,
932
, 814
, 797
, 807, 809
, 807, 825
, 787, 804
, , 342, 343
, 263, 278, 322, 327, 787, 852

NULL, 324, 852, 877, 880,


883, 909, 950, 963, 982, 986
this, 474, 475, 476, 483, 484, 502
, 556, 573, 597, 600,
601, 602, 611, 612, 613, 620
void (void *), 343
,
601
, 408, 418
, 573
, , 341, 342, 343, 344,
345, 499
, , 345
, 36, 57, 58, 59, 62, 486
, 107, 140, 324, 339,
501, 506

, 899
, 116, 117,
120, 121, 123, 134
do/while, 92, 133, 134,
135, 146
if, 67, 9498,
127, 146
, 130, 131
, 870
, 67, 90, 91, 93, 94, 99,
130, 143, 933
, 109, 130, 143, 933
, 61, 91, 94, 96, 99, 134
, 137
, 904, 908910
(?:), 95, 96, 116, 140, 640,
869
, 388

, 904
, 95, 639, 720, 734
,
909
, 423
, 785
, 710

, 190, 426

, 633, 738, 739, 741, 748, 849,


921, 936
, 738
, 108, 189, 190, 191,
324, 361, 420, 420, 424, 445, 633,
721, 905, 926
, 742
751
, 751758,
778
, , 129, 130, 639, 641,
642, 660, 745, 748, 921, 924
, , 743, 748, 756,
965
, , 748
, 763, 768
, , 635
, , 763
, , 126
, , 108
, 651660
, 686, 687
, 225
, 108
, , 651660
, 126, 646
, 631
, 632,
635, 750
, 650
, 100, 102,
109
, 43
, 41, 50, 66, 146, 179, 181,
407
"set", 416, 425, 436, 438, 468
, 708, 938
, 360
, 574, 596, 597, 601,
603, 607, 613, 614

inline, 214, 215, 220,


258, 417, 907
, 222, 223, 224, 685,
688
, 872, 872
, 190, 426
, , 710, 712, 714,
734
, (), 530
, , 182, 183, 188, 189, 201,
216, 273, 685, 693
, , 222, 631
, , 125, 183, 185,
188, 189, 190, 201, 214, 216, 328,
331, 338, 416, 432, 472, 597, 905,
927, 926, 938
, , 334
, , 224, 258, 685689
, 67, 297, 407,
413, 416, 445, 562
, 36, 182, 212
, 425

, 499
, 58, 107
, 127
, 99, 100, 104, 117, 123, 123, 125,
127
, , 107, 134,
388, 831
, , 111, 134,
388, 831
, 53, 866, 867, 996

, 189, 191, 808


, 599,
601, 602, 607, 614, 618
, 52, 601
,
748
, 756,
758
, 54


, 224, 684, 783, 787, 800, 804,
805, 807, 845
, 222, 689694, 695, 696
, 222, 224, 225, 685689
, 689694, 695, 696,
783, 787, 800, 802, 803, 804, 805,
807, 845
, 224, 258, 685689
, 867, 992
(
16), 325, 635, 638,
646, 656, 656, 876, 992, 995
, 864
, 126, 263, 635, 646, 647

, 35, 36, 46, 56, 741, 751, 763,


921
, 211
, 411, 739
, 562
, , 413, 425, 472

, 39, 996
, , 99

, 66, 407
, , 208, 270, 413, 487