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-


.
_______________ ..
_________________20


.
: 270800
: 270800.68.09

6018/10

..


, ...

..


, ...

..

-
2013

The Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation


St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University
Institute of Construction Engineering
the Department of Structural Mechanics and units

The project is admitted to defend


Head of department
________________ V. V. Lalin
_________________20
.
.

THESIS
For the degree of Master of Engineering and Technology
Permanent Formwork Systems in Civil Construction.
Field of study: 270800 Construction
Masters program: 270800.68.09 Technical Maintenance and Reconstruction of
Buildings and Constructions

Candidate for a degree


Student (group 6018/10)

__________O. I. Parkhomenko

Research supervisor
Professor, candidate of technical sciences
Academic adviser
Professor, candidate of technical sciences

St. Petersburg
2013

__________ V. I. Parikov

__________ V. A. Sokolov


1.

.............................................................................................................. 4

2.

. ........................................................................................................ 5

3.

- . .............................................................. 6
. ......................................................................................9
PLASTBAU-3. .............................................................................12
. ..........................................................................................15
DURISOL. ....................................................................................18
VELOX. ........................................................................................21

...................................................................................................24
.........................................................................26
............................................................................................................................27

4.

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......................................................................30
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...............................................................37

Velox. .................................................................................................42
.......................................................................................................47

5.

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..................................................................................................48
..........................................................................................48
.................................................................................................................51
.......................................................................................................52
............................................................................................................................52
Velox. .........................................................53
Velox...........................................57
................................................................................61
.................................................................62

6.

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7.

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8.

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1. . .........................67
2. SCAD. ...........................................69
3. . ........................................................96

1.

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(,
PLASTBAU-3, , DURISOL, VELOX). .

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SCAD.
NormCAD, .
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***
The thesis is devoted to the use of permanent formwork systems in civil engineering.
The purpose of the study is to choose the optimal formwork system suitable for different types of
buildings and structures.
The student compared the most common types of permanent form (IZODOM, PLASTBAU-3, SOTA,
DURISOL, VELOX) and drew his conclusions.
Object of the study is a preschool. The use of the option selected formwork bearing structures of the
building and the standard version without the use of permanent formwork are compared in the thesis.
Modeling of the building without the use of permanent formwork was made in the program SCAD.
Elements of the support structure were calculated using the programs Arbat and NormCAD, the results
of the calculations are presented in the main part of the thesis.
Reinforcement of the two types of bearing structures was based on calculation. Special attention is
paid to the installation of structures using permanent formwork. Conclusions about the effectiveness of
using this type of formwork in civil engineering are done. Conclusions are based on the volume of
materials used and the technical simplicity and installation work.
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6, .
, , . .
.

7.


.
.
,
. (.
.7). ,
. 3

8.


(, , ).

58

.
.
.

. .
9.
400-500 ( ).
, ,
.
10. .
250 .
,
, .
,
. WS 2- 3-
,
. 1-2 . .

(4 . / .).


. ,
.
11. ,
. (. 3 ./
). .
.
.

59


1. .
( ) ,
.
50 800 1000 .
.

60

2. . (
) (4 . /.).
() .
.
- , ,
.

3. .

16 .

50 . .
.

( )
:

WS 2 3
.

WSD .

,
:
61

, 10
, .

2
6 8 40 ,
20 20 .
50 .

16 .


. ,
. .
.

,
.

, , .

62

6.
,
, ,
.
.
.
, .
.
. . -

- ,

. ,
.
, .
,
,
.

.
:
11. .
Velox

Velox

112 3

242,83

53,9%

20380

21815

6,6%

141,7 3

157,2 3

9,9%

10403

10525

1,2%

63

, Velox
.

, ,
.
, 0,5.
,
.

64

7.
[1] - http://www.izodom.ru/tehnologia.html
[2] -3 (): www.parthenon-house.ru
[3]
PLASTBAU-3. - .
[4] -,
. - http://opalubkainfo.ru/technology-intro.html
[5] / 5 (56), 2010 / (Durisol)

[6] - http://pro100stroyka.ru/durisol
[7] Velox/

[8] Velox - http://www.rosstro-velox.ru/
[9] .. . .
[10]
ROSSTRO-VELOX
[11] .. , .. , .. . .
,
[12] .
[13] . . , .. .
, .
[14] / 4 (87), 2011/
. .
[15] 23-01-99 .
[16] 12.13130.2009 ,
;
65

[17] 21-01-97* " "


[18] 2.08.02-89* " "
[19] .
.
[20] 2.1.2.1002-00 -
.
[21] II-3-79*
[22] 23-02-2003 .
[23] 2.01.07-85* . . 2007.
[24] 52-101-2003
. . 2004.
[25] 3.09.01-85 .
[26]
( 52-101-2003)

66

8. .
1. .

270,
12,5 , 14,5.

22,5,


16.

2,4 2*0/


22,5,

16.
3,65 2*0/

46

49

, .

5
6
7

Plastbau-3

120, 150,
200,
250.
-50.
-50-150
.

( 9 )

200 ,
100 -

Durisol
150,
220, 250, 300, 375 .

Velox

,

. 250,
350 .

,
,
,
.

30-35.

, ,
.

22,5,


16.

22,5,


16.

3,068 2*0/
(- 100)

3,5 2*0/
(- 100)

3,24 2*0/
(- 100)

46 (100)
600

50

50

300

F100

: ,
, ,

67

, .
, .
, .

Plastbau-3

Plastbau-3

1,5

,
,

6,5-7,0 /2

10

17 (50 )

11

Durisol
,

.

,
,


12 200-220 .

3
,

.

40%.

, ,

.

Velox
,

, ,
, ,
.

6-15 .

20-49

16

25


,
, 100%
.


,
, 100%
.

68

2. SCAD.

69

. .1. Z.
70

. .2. X.
71

..3. Y.
72

. .4. .
73

..5. () (*/)
74

..6. (Y) (*/)


75

. .7. 1- .
76

. .8. 1- . () (*/)
77

. .9. 1- . (Y) (*/)


78

. .10. 2- .
79

. .11. 2- (MX) (*/).

80

. .12. 2- (MY) (*/).


81

. .13. 3- .
82

. .14. 3- (MX) (*/).


83

. .15. 3- (MY) (*/).


84

. .16. .
85

. .17. (MX) (*/).


86

. .18. (MY) (*/).

87

. .19. .
88

. .20. (MX) (*/).


89

. .21. (MY) (*/).


90

..22. (NX) (/2)


91

..23. (NY) (/2)


92

..24. .
93

..25. (My) .
94

..26. (Mz) .
95

3. .
.
:

:
- M = 1,721 = 1,721 / 101,97162123 = 0,01688 ;
:
-
l = 600 = 600 / 100 = 6 ;
:
- h = 18,5 = 18,5 / 100 = 0,185 ;
:

-
b = 12 = 12 / 100 = 0,12 ;
- h'f = 5 = 5 / 100 = 0,05 ;
- b'f = 50 = 50 / 100 = 0,5 ;
:
- S
a = 2,8 = 2,8 / 100 = 0,028 ;
:
( , 16 ; 2 .):
- As = 4,02 2 = 4,02 / 10000 = 0,000402 2;
:
1)
- B25.

. 5.1 Rbn = 18.5 .

. 5.1 Rbtn = 1.55 .
96

2)
- .
. 5.2 Rb = 14.5
.
- .
. 5.2 Rbt =
1.05 .

:
Rb, ser = Rbn = 18,5 ( (5.1); . 5.1.9 ).

:
Rbt, ser = Rbtn = 1,55 ( (5.2); . 5.1.9 ).
3)
- .
- .
, :
gb1 = 0,9 .
- .
,
:
gb3 = 1 .
,
-40 .:
,
:
gb4 = 1 .
- .
- 6 .
. 2.14 II-7-81 "
":
mkp = 1 .
mkp = 1:
Rb = gb1 gb3 gb4 Rb = 0,9 1 1 14,5 = 13,05 .
:
97

Rb = mkp gb1 gb3 gb4 Rb =


= 1 0,9 1 1 14,5 = 13,05 .

:
Rbt = gb1 Rbt = 0,9 1,05 = 0,945 .
:
Rbt = mkp gb1 Rbt = 1 0,9 1,05 = 0,945 .
4)
- A500.
:
Rs = 435 .
.. gb1 < 1 :
:
Rsc = 435 .
- .
:
Rs = mkp Rs = 1 435 = 435 .
:
Rsc = mkp Rsc = 1 435 = 435 .
5)
:
Es = 200000 .
6)
:
es, el = Rs/Es = 435/200000 = 0,00218 ( (6.12); . 6.2.7 ).
sb = Rb:
eb, ult = 0,0035 .
:
xR = 0,8/(1+es, el/eb, ult) =
= 0,8/(1+0,00218/0,0035) = 0,49296 ( (6.11); . 6.2.7 ).
7)
- .
8) ,
- .

98

, :
b'fk = (b'f-b )/2 = (0,5-0,12)/2 = 0,19 .
, :
b'f = b +2 b'fk = 0,12+2 0,19 = 0,5 .
9) . 6.2.9
.. Rs As = 435 0,000402 = 0,17487 > Rsc A's = 435 0 = 0 :
:
ho = h-a = 0,185-0,028 = 0,157 .
.. Rs As = 435 0,000402 = 0,17487 < = Rb b'f h'f+Rsc A's = 13,05 0,5 0,05+435
0 = 0,32625 :
. (3.2-4) b = bf:
:
x = (Rs As-Rsc A's)/(Rb b'f ) =
= (435 0,000402-435 0)/(13,05 0,5) = 0,0268 ( (6.18); . 6.2 ).
:
x = x/ho = 0,0268/0,157 = 0,1707 .
.. x > = 0 :
:
Mult = Rb b'f x (ho-0,5 x)+Rsc A's (ho-a') =
= 13,05 0,5 0,0268 (0,157-0,5 0,0268)+435 0 (0,157-0) = 0,02511 (
(6.14); . 6.2 ).
10) . 6.2.9
M = 0,01688 < = Mult = 0,02511 (67,21324% ) ( (6.13); . 6.2.9 ).
11)
. 5.4 Eb = 30000 .
.. gb1 < 1 :
- 40 - 75%.
. 5.5 fb, cr = 2.5 .
, :
99

Eb, t = Eb/(1+fb, cr) = 30000/(1+2,5) = 8571,42857 ( (5.3); . 5.1.13 ).


12)
:
Es = 200000 .
13)

:
a = Es/Eb = 200000/8571,429 = 23,33333 .
- .
:
A's = 0 2 .
S' :
a' = 0 .
h'o = h-a' = 0,185-0 = 0,185 .
- .
:
A = b (h-h'f)+b'f h'f =
= 0,12 (0,185-0,05)+0,5 0,05 = 0,0412 2 .
:
Ared = A +(As+A's) (a-1) =
= 0,0412+(0,000402+0) (23,33333-1) = 0,05018 2 .
:
St = b (h-h'f) 2/2+b'f h'f (h-h'f/2) =
= 0,12 (0,185-0,05) 2/2+0,5 0,05 (0,185-0,05/2) = 0,00509 3 .
:
Sst = As a = 0,000402 0,028 = 0,000011256 3 .
:
S'st = A's h'o = 0 0,185 = 0 3 .

:
St, red = St+Sst (a-1)+S'st (a-1) =
= 0,00509+0,000011256 (23,33333-1)+0 (23,33333-1) = 0,00534 3 .

:
yt = St, red/Ared = 0,00534/0,05018 = 0,10642 .
100


:
yc = h-yt = 0,185-0,10642 = 0,07858 .

:
y'c = yc-a' = 0,07858-0 = 0,07858 .
:
y = St/A = 0,00509/0,0412 = 0,12354 .

:
I = b (h-h'f) 3/12+b (h-h'f) ((h-h'f)/2-yt) 2+b'f h'f 3/12+b'f h'f (h-h'f/2-yt) 2 =
= 0,12 (0,185-0,05) 3/12+0,12 (0,185-0,05) ((0,185-0,05)/2-0,10642) 2+0,5 0,05 3/12+0,5
0,05 (0,185-0,05/2-0,10642) 2 = 0,000126122 4 .
:
Is = As (ho-yc) 2 = 0,000402 (0,157-0,07858) 2 = 0,000002472 4 ( (7.33); . 7.3.10
).
14) . 7.2.9
:
Ired = I +Is a+I's a =
= 0,000126122+0,000002472 23,33333+0 23,33333 = 0,000183802 4 ( (7.9); .
7.2.9 ).
:
Ared = A +As a+A's a =
= 0,0412+0,000402 23,33333+0 23,33333 = 0,05058 2 ( (7.10); . 7.2.9 ).
:
W = Ired/yt = 0,000183802/0,10642 = 0,00173 3 ( (7.7); . 7.2.9 ).
,
:
ex = W/Ared = 0,00173/0,05058 = 0,0342 ( (7.8); . 7.2.9 ).
15) . 7.2.8

:
Mcrc = Rbt, ser W = 1,55 0,00173 = 0,00268 ( (7.6); . 7.2.8 ).
16) . 6.2.9
. 6.2.4
101

Mult = 0,02511 > = Mcrc = 0,00268 (936,9403% ) .


17)
- .
:
ho = h-a = 0,185-0,028 = 0,157 .
:
ho = h-a = 0,185-0,028 = 0,157 .
:
ms = As/(b ho) 100 = 0,000402/(0,12 0,157) 100 = 2,13376 % .
ms > = 0,1 % (2133,76% ) - .

102

.
:
:
- M = 3,06 = 3,06 / 101,97162123 = 0,03001 ;
- Q = 2,55 = 2,55 / 101,97162123 = 0,02501 ;
:
-
l = 600 = 600 / 100 = 6 ;
:
- h = 18,5 = 18,5 / 100 = 0,185 ;
:

-
b = 12 = 12 / 100 = 0,12 ;
- hf = 5 = 5 / 100 = 0,05 ;
- bf = 50 = 50 / 100 = 0,5 ;
- h'f = 5 = 5 / 100 = 0,05 ;
- b'f = 12 = 12 / 100 = 0,12 ;
:
- S
a = 2,1 = 2,1 / 100 = 0,021 ;
:
( , 8 ; 10 .):
- As = 5,03 2 = 5,03 / 10000 = 0,0005 2;
:
1)
- B25.

. 5.1 Rbn = 18.5 .
103


. 5.1 Rbtn = 1.55 .
2)
- .
. 5.2 Rb = 14.5
.
- .
. 5.2 Rbt =
1.05 .

:
Rb, ser = Rbn = 18,5 ( (5.1); . 5.1.9 ).

:
Rbt, ser = Rbtn = 1,55 ( (5.2); . 5.1.9 ).
3)
- .
- .
, :
gb1 = 0,9 .
- .
,
:
gb3 = 1 .
,
-40 .:
,
:
gb4 = 1 .
- .
- 6 .
. 2.14 II-7-81 "
":
mkp = 1 .
mkp = 1:
104

Rb = gb1 gb3 gb4 Rb = 0,9 1 1 14,5 = 13,05 .


:
Rb = mkp gb1 gb3 gb4 Rb =
= 1 0,9 1 1 14,5 = 13,05 .

:
Rbt = gb1 Rbt = 0,9 1,05 = 0,945 .
:
Rbt = mkp gb1 Rbt = 1 0,9 1,05 = 0,945 .
4)
- A500.
:
Rs = 435 .
.. gb1 < 1 :
:
Rsc = 435 .
- .
:
Rs = mkp Rs = 1 435 = 435 .
:
Rsc = mkp Rsc = 1 435 = 435 .
5)
:
Es = 200000 .
6)
:
es, el = Rs/Es = 435/200000 = 0,00218 ( (6.12); . 6.2.7 ).
sb = Rb:
eb, ult = 0,0035 .
:
xR = 0,8/(1+es, el/eb, ult) =
= 0,8/(1+0,00218/0,0035) = 0,49296 ( (6.11); . 6.2.7 ).
7)
- .
8) ,
105

- .

, :
b'fk = (b'f-b )/2 = (0,12-0,12)/2 = 0 .
, :
b'f = b +2 b'fk = 0,12+2 0 = 0,12 .
9) . 6.2.9
.. Rs As = 435 0,0005 = 0,21881 > Rsc A's = 435 0,000402 = 0,17487 :
:
ho = h-a = 0,185-0,021 = 0,164 .
.. Rs As = 435 0,0005 = 0,21881 < = Rb b'f h'f+Rsc A's = 13,05 0,12 0,05+435
0,000402 = 0,25317 :
. (3.2-4) b = bf:
:
x = (Rs As-Rsc A's)/(Rb b'f ) =
= (435 0,0005-435 0,000402)/(13,05 0,12) = 0,02806 ( (6.18); . 6.2 ).
:
x = x/ho = 0,02806/0,164 = 0,1711 .
.. x > = 0 :
:
Mult = Rb b'f x (ho-0,5 x)+Rsc A's (ho-a') =
= 13,05 0,12 0,02806 (0,164-0,5 0,02806)+435 0,000402 (0,164-0,028) = 0,03037
( (6.14); . 6.2 ).
10) . 6.2.9
M = 0,03001 < = Mult = 0,03037 (98,80918% ) ( (6.13); . 6.2.9 ).
11)
. 5.4 Eb = 30000 .
.. gb1 < 1 :
- 40 - 75%.
106

. 5.5 fb, cr = 2.5 .


, :
Eb, t = Eb/(1+fb, cr) = 30000/(1+2,5) = 8571,42857 ( (5.3); . 5.1.13 ).
12)
:
Es = 200000 .
13)

:
a = Es/Eb = 200000/8571,429 = 23,33333 .
- .
:
A's = 0 2 .
S' :
a' = 0 .
h'o = h-a' = 0,185-0 = 0,185 .
- .
:
A = b (h-hf)+bf hf = 0,12 (0,185-0,05)+0,5 0,05 = 0,0412 2 .
:
Ared = A +(As+A's) (a-1) =
= 0,0412+(0,0005+0) (23,33333-1) = 0,05243 2 .
:
St = b h 2/2+(bf-b ) hf 2/2 =
= 0,12 0,185 2/2+(0,5-0,12) 0,05 2/2 = 0,00253 3 .
:
Sst = As a = 0,0005 0,021 = 0,000010563 3 .
:
S'st = A's h'o = 0 0,185 = 0 3 .

:
St, red = St+Sst (a-1)+S'st (a-1) =
= 0,00253+0,000010563 (23,33333-1)+0 (23,33333-1) = 0,00277 3 .
:
Sc = b (h-hf) 2/2+bf hf (h-hf/2) =
107

= 0,12 (0,185-0,05) 2/2+0,5 0,05 (0,185-0,05/2) = 0,00509 3 .


:
Ssc = As ho = 0,0005 0,164 = 0,000082492 3 .
:
S'sc = A's a' = 0 0 = 0 3 .
:
Sc, red = Sc+Ssc (a-1)+S'sc (a-1) =
= 0,00509+0,000082492 (23,33333-1)+0 (23,33333-1) = 0,00693 3 .

:
yc = Sc, red/Ared = 0,00693/0,05243 = 0,13218 .

:
yt = h-yc = 0,185-0,13218 = 0,05282 .

:
y'c = yc-a' = 0,13218-0 = 0,13218 .
:
y = Sc/A = 0,00509/0,0412 = 0,12354 .

:
I = b (h-hf) 3/12+b (h-hf) ((h-hf)/2-yc) 2+bf hf 3/12+bf hf (h-hf/2-yc) 2 =
= 0,12 (0,185-0,05) 3/12+0,12 (0,185-0,05) ((0,185-0,05)/2-0,13218) 2+0,5 0,05 3/12+0,5
0,05 (0,185-0,05/2-0,13218) 2 = 0,000116934 4 .
:
Is = As (ho-yc) 2 = 0,0005 (0,164-0,13218) 2 = 0,000000509 4 ( (7.33); . 7.3.10 ).
14) . 7.2.9
:
Ired = I +Is a+I's a =
= 0,000116934+0,000000509 23,33333+0 23,33333 = 0,000128811 4 ( (7.9); .
7.2.9 ).
:
Ared = A +As a+A's a =
= 0,0412+0,0005 23,33333+0 23,33333 = 0,05294 2 ( (7.10); . 7.2.9 ).
:
108

W = Ired/yt = 0,000128811/0,05282 = 0,00244 3 ( (7.7); . 7.2.9 ).


,
:
ex = W/Ared = 0,00244/0,05294 = 0,04609 ( (7.8); . 7.2.9 ).
15) . 7.2.8

:
Mcrc = Rbt, ser W = 1,55 0,00244 = 0,00378 ( (7.6); . 7.2.8 ).
16) . 6.2.9
. 6.2.4
Mult = 0,03037 > = Mcrc = 0,00378 (803,43915% ) .
17)
- .
:
ho = h-a = 0,185-0,021 = 0,164 .
:
ho = h-a = 0,185-0,021 = 0,164 .
:
ms = As/(b ho) 100 = 0,0005/(0,12 0,164) 100 = 2,55589 % .
ms > = 0,1 % (2555,89% ) - .

109


-
:
:
- ,
gb1 = 0,9 ;
- . 2.14 II-7-81 "
" mkp = 1 ;
:
- Q = 0 = 0 / 101,97162123 = 0 ;
:
-
l = 600 = 600 / 100 = 6 ;
:
- 1/[f/L] kf = 0,03 ;
:
- h = 18,5 = 18,5 / 100 = 0,185 ;
:

-
b = 12 = 12 / 100 = 0,12 ;
- hf = 5 = 5 / 100 = 0,05 ;
- bf = 50 = 50 / 100 = 0,5 ;
- h'f = 5 = 5 / 100 = 0,05 ;
- b'f = 50 = 50 / 100 = 0,5 ;
:
- S
a = 1,5 = 1,5 / 100 = 0,015 ;
:
110

( , 16 ; 2 .):
- As = 4,02 2 = 4,02 / 10000 = 0,000402 2;
:
- -

ql, n = 0,68 / = 0,68 / 101,97162123 = 0,00667 /;


- -
qn = 0,68 / = 0,68 / 101,97162123 = 0,00667 /;
:

- B25.

. 5.1 Rbn = 18.5 .

. 5.1 Rbtn = 1.55 .

- .


:
Rb, ser = Rbn = 18,5 ( (5.1); . 5.1.9 ).

:
Rbt, ser = Rbtn = 1,55 ( (5.2); . 5.1.9 ).

:
Es = 200000 .
-

- .
, :
S = 0,077 .
:
M = 9 qn l 2/128 = 9 0,00667 6 2/128 = 0,01688 .
:
111

Ml = 9 ql, n l 2/128 = 9 0,00667 6 2/128 = 0,01688 .



I.
. 5.4 Eb = 30000 .
- .


:
a = Es/Eb = 200000/30000 = 6,66667 .
- .
:
A's = 0 2 .
S' :
a' = 0 .
h'o = h-a' = 0,185-0 = 0,185 .
- .
:
A = b (h-h'f)+b'f h'f =
= 0,12 (0,185-0,05)+0,5 0,05 = 0,0412 2 .
:
Ared = A +(As+A's) (a-1) =
= 0,0412+(0,000402+0) (6,66667-1) = 0,04348 2 .
:
St = b (h-h'f) 2/2+b'f h'f (h-h'f/2) =
= 0,12 (0,185-0,05) 2/2+0,5 0,05 (0,185-0,05/2) = 0,00509 3 .
:
Sst = As a = 0,000402 0,015 = 0,00000603 3 .
:
S'st = A's h'o = 0 0,185 = 0 3 .

:
St, red = St+Sst (a-1)+S'st (a-1) =
= 0,00509+0,00000603 (6,66667-1)+0 (6,66667-1) = 0,00512 3 .

:
112

yt = St, red/Ared = 0,00512/0,04348 = 0,11776 .



:
yc = h-yt = 0,185-0,11776 = 0,06724 .

:
y'c = yc-a' = 0,06724-0 = 0,06724 .
:
y = St/A = 0,00509/0,0412 = 0,12354 .

:
I = b (h-h'f) 3/12+b (h-h'f) ((h-h'f)/2-yt) 2+b'f h'f 3/12+b'f h'f (h-h'f/2-yt) 2 =
= 0,12 (0,185-0,05) 3/12+0,12 (0,185-0,05) ((0,185-0,05)/2-0,11776) 2+0,5 0,05 3/12+0,5
0,05 (0,185-0,05/2-0,11776) 2 = 0,00011534 4 .
:
Is = As (ho-yc) 2 = 0,000402 (0,17-0,06724) 2 = 0,000004245 4 ( (7.33); . 7.3.10 ).
:
Ired = I +Is a+I's a =
= 0,00011534+0,000004245 6,66667+0 6,66667 = 0,00014364 4 ( (7.9); . 7.2.9 ).
:
Ared = A +As a+A's a =
= 0,0412+0,000402 6,66667+0 6,66667 = 0,04388 2 ( (7.10); . 7.2.9 ).
:
W = Ired/yt = 0,00014364/0,11776 = 0,00122 3 ( (7.7); . 7.2.9 ).
,
:
ex = W/Ared = 0,00122/0,04388 = 0,0278 ( (7.8); . 7.2.9 ).

:
Mcrc = Rbt, ser W = 1,55 0,00122 = 0,00189 ( (7.6); . 7.2.8 ).
.. M = 0,01688 > Mcrc = 0,00189 :
.
.. gb1 < 1; (1/r)1 (1/r)2 -
.

113

II.

:
Ml = M = 0,01688 .

:
M = Ml = 0,01688 .


ys (7.22) . 7.2.15.
ys
- .

:
eb1, red = 0,0015 .

:
Rb, ser = Rbn = 18,5 .
:
Eb, red = Rb, ser/eb1, red = 18,5/0,0015 = 12333,33333 ( (7.16); . 7.2.13 ).
:
as1 = Es/Eb, red = 200000/12333,33 = 16,21622 ( (7.15); . 7.2.13 ).
as2 = as1
yc = xm - ,
. 7.3.12.
:
as2 = as1 = 16,21622 .

(7.45).
xM .

:
ho = h-a = 0,185-0,015 = 0,17 .
ms = As/(b ho) = 0,000402/(0,12 0,17) = 0,01971 .
m's = A's/(b ho) = 0/(0,12 0,17) = 0 .
114

:
A'f = (b'f-b ) h'f = (0,5-0,12) 0,05 = 0,019 2 .
m'f = A'f/(b ho) = 0,019/(0,12 0,17) = 0,93137 .
:
xm = ho (; (ms as2+m's as1+m'f) 2+2 (ms as2+m's as1 a'/ho+m'f h'f/(2 ho)) -(ms as2+m's
as1+m'f)) =
= 0,17 (; (0,01971 16,21622+0 16,21622+0,93137) 2+2 (0,01971 16,21622+0 16,21622
0/0,17+0,93137 0,05/(2 0,17)) -(0,01971 16,21622+0 16,21622+0,93137)) = 0,05495 .
:
xM = xm = 0,05495 .
xm > = 0 - .
xm = 0,05495 < = h = 0,185 (29,7027% ) -
.

:
ycm = xm = 0,05495 .

:
yc = xm = 0,05495 .
:
Is = As (ho-yc) 2 = 0,000402 (0,17-0,05495) 2 = 0,000005321 4 ( (7.33); . 7.3.10 ).

.. xm = 0,05495 > h'f = 0,05 :
Ib = b xm 3/3+(b'f-b ) h'f 3/12 (1+12 (xm/h'f-0,5) 2) =
= 0,12 0,05495 3/3+(0,5-0,12) 0,05 3/12 (1+12 (0,05495/0,05-0,5) 2) = 0,000027638 4 .
:
Ab = b xm+(b'f-b ) h'f =
= 0,12 0,05495+(0,5-0,12) 0,05 = 0,02559 2 .
:
Ired = Ib+Is as2+I's as1 =
= 0,000027638+0,000005321 16,21622+0 16,21622 = 0,000113925 4 ( (7.39); .
7.3.11 ).
:
Ared = Ab+As as2+A's as1 = 0,02559+0,000402 16,21622+0 16,21622 = 0,03211 2 .
:
115

ss = (M (ho-yc)/Ired) as1 =
= (0,01688 (0,17-0,05495)/0,000113925) 16,21622 = 276,43285 ( (7.14); .
7.2.13 ).
ss, crc M = Mcrc.

:
ss, crc = (Mcrc (ho-yc)/Ired) as1 =
= (0,00189 (0,17-0,05495)/0,000113925) 16,21622 = 30,95131 ( (7.14); .
7.2.15 ).
,

:
ys = 1-0,8 ss, crc/ss = 1-0,8 30,95131/276,4329 = 0,91043 ( (7.22); . 7.2.15 ).
(5.9)
.

- 40 - 75%.
. 5.6 eb1, red =
0.0028 .
:
Eb, red = Rb, ser/eb1, red = 18,5/0,0028 = 6607,14286 ( (5.9); . 5.1.19 ).
:
as1 = Es/Eb, red = 200000/6607,143 = 30,27027 ( (7.48); . 7.3.11 ).
:
Es, red = Es/ys = 200000/0,91043 = 219676,41664 ( (7.50); . 7.3.11 ).
:
as2 = Es, red/Eb, red = 219676,4/6607,143 = 33,24832 ( (7.49); . 7.3.11 ).
:
Eb1 = Eb, red = 6607,143 .


:
ho = h-a = 0,185-0,015 = 0,17 .
ms = As/(b ho) = 0,000402/(0,12 0,17) = 0,01971 .
m's = A's/(b ho) = 0/(0,12 0,17) = 0 .
:
116

A'f = (b'f-b ) h'f = (0,5-0,12) 0,05 = 0,019 2 .


m'f = A'f/(b ho) = 0,019/(0,12 0,17) = 0,93137 .
:
xm = ho (; (ms as2+m's as1+m'f) 2+2 (ms as2+m's as1 a'/ho+m'f h'f/(2 ho)) -(ms as2+m's
as1+m'f)) =
= 0,17 (; (0,01971 33,24832+0 30,27027+0,93137) 2+2 (0,01971 33,24832+0 30,27027
0/0,17+0,93137 0,05/(2 0,17)) -(0,01971 33,24832+0 30,27027+0,93137)) = 0,07458 .

:
ycm = xm = 0,07458 .

:
yc = xm = 0,07458 .

.. xm = 0,07458 > h'f = 0,05 :
Ib = b xm 3/3+(b'f-b ) h'f 3/12 (1+12 (xm/h'f-0,5) 2) =
= 0,12 0,07458 3/3+(0,5-0,12) 0,05 3/12 (1+12 (0,07458/0,05-0,5) 2) = 0,000067257 4 .
:
Ab = b xm+(b'f-b ) h'f =
= 0,12 0,07458+(0,5-0,12) 0,05 = 0,02795 2 .
:
Is = As (ho-yc) 2 = 0,000402 (0,17-0,07458) 2 = 0,00000366 4 ( (7.33); . 7.3.10 ).
:
Ired = Ib+Is as2+I's as1 =
= 0,000067257+0,00000366 33,24832+0 30,27027 = 0,000188946 4 ( (7.39); .
7.3.11 ).
:
Ared = Ab+As as2+A's as1 = 0,02795+0,000402 33,24832+0 30,27027 = 0,04132 2 .
:
D = Eb1 Ired = 6607,143 0,000188946 = 1,24839 2 ( (7.31); . 7.3.11 ).
:
(1/r)3 = M/D = 0,01688/1,24839 = 0,01352 (-1) ( (7.30); . 7.3.8 ).
III.
.. (1/r)1 = (1/r)2.
(1/r) = (1/r)1-(1/r)2+(1/r)3 = (1/r)3
117

:
f = S l 2 (1/r) = 0,077 6 2 0,01352 = 0,03748 ( (7.27); . 7.3.6 ).
f = 0,03748 < = (1/kf) l = (1/0,03) 6 = 200 (0,01874% ) .
1/150
1/75 :
f = 0,03748 < = l/150 = 6/150 = 0,04 (93,7% ) -
.

- .
- .
:
ho = h-a = 0,185-0,015 = 0,17 .
:
ho = h-a = 0,185-0,015 = 0,17 .
:
ms = As/(b ho) 100 = 0,000402/(0,12 0,17) 100 = 1,97059 % .
ms > = 0,1 % (1970,59% ) - .

118


:
:
- M = 0,01 = 0,01 / 101,97162123 = 0,000098067 ;
- N = 0 = 0 / 101,97162123 = 0 ;
- Q = 0 = 0 / 101,97162123 = 0 ;
:
- Asw = 0 2 = 0 / 10000 = 0 2;
:

- h = 5 = 5 / 100 = 0,05 ;
- b = 100 = 100 / 100 = 1 ;
:
- S
a = 2,5 = 2,5 / 100 = 0,025 ;
- S'
a' = 2,5 = 2,5 / 100 = 0,025 ;
:
- sw = 0 = 0 / 100 = 0 ;
:
( , 5 ; 5 .):
- As = 0,98 2 = 0,98 / 10000 = 0,000098 2;
:
- A's = 0 2 = 0 / 10000 = 0 2;
:
1)
- B25.

. 5.1 Rbn = 18.5 .

. 5.1 Rbtn = 1.55 .
119

2)
- .
. 5.2 Rb = 14.5
.
- .
. 5.2 Rbt =
1.05 .

:
Rb, ser = Rbn = 18,5 ( (5.1); . 5.1.9 ).

:
Rbt, ser = Rbtn = 1,55 ( (5.2); . 5.1.9 ).
3) . 6.2
- .
- .
4)
- .
- .
, :
gb1 = 0,9 .
- .
,
:
gb3 = 1 .
,
-40 .:
,
:
gb4 = 1 .
- .
- 6 .
. 2.14 II-7-81 "
":
120

mkp = 1 .
mkp = 1:
Rb = gb1 gb3 gb4 Rb = 0,9 1 1 14,5 = 13,05 .
:
Rb = mkp gb1 gb3 gb4 Rb = 1 0,9 1 1 14,5 = 13,05 .

:
Rbt = gb1 Rbt = 0,9 1,05 = 0,945 .
:
Rbt = mkp gb1 Rbt = 1 0,9 1,05 = 0,945 .
5)
- B500.
:
Rs = 415 .
.. gb1 < 1 :
:
Rsc = 415 .
- .
- B500.
:
Rsw = 300 .
:
Rs = mkp Rs = 1 415 = 415 .
:
Rsc = mkp Rsc = 1 415 = 415 .
6)
:
Es = 200000 .
7)
:
es, el = Rs/Es = 415/200000 = 0,00208 ( (6.12); . 6.2.7 ).
sb = Rb:
eb, ult = 0,0035 .
:
121

xR = 0,8/(1+es, el/eb, ult) =


= 0,8/(1+0,00208/0,0035) = 0,50179 ( (6.11); . 6.2.7 ).
8)
- .
.. Rs As = 415 0,000098 = 0,04067 > Rsc A's = 415 0 = 0 :
:
x = (Rs As-Rsc A's)/(Rb b) =
= (415 0,000098-415 0)/(13,05 1) = 0,00312 ( (6.15); . 6.2 ).
:
ho = h-a = 0,05-0,025 = 0,025 .
:
x = x/ho = 0,00312/0,025 = 0,1248 .
.. x = 0,1248 < = xR = 0,50179; x > 0 :
:
Mult = Rb b x (ho-0,5 x)+Rsc A's (ho-a') =
= 13,05 1 0,00312 (0,025-0,5 0,00312)+415 0 (0,025-0,025) = 0,00095 (
(6.14); . 6.2.10 ).
9) . 6.2.9
M = 0,000098067 < = Mult = 0,00095 (10,32279% )
- ( (6.13); . 6.2.9 ).
10)
. 5.4 Eb = 30000 .
.. gb1 < 1 :
- 40 - 75%.
. 5.5 fb, cr = 2.5 .
, :
Eb, t = Eb/(1+fb, cr) = 30000/(1+2,5) = 8571,42857 ( (5.3); . 5.1.13 ).
11)
:
Es = 200000 .
12)

:
a = Es/Eb = 200000/8571,429 = 23,33333 .
122

- .
h'o = h-a' = 0,05-0,025 = 0,025 .
:
A = b h = 1 0,05 = 0,05 2 .
:
Ared = A +(As+A's) (a-1) = 0,05+(0,000098+0) (23,33333-1) = 0,05219 2 .
:
St = b h 2/2 = 1 0,05 2/2 = 0,00125 3 .
:
Sst = As a = 0,000098 0,025 = 0,00000245 3 .
:
S'st = A's h'o = 0 0,025 = 0 3 .

:
St, red = St+Sst (a-1)+S'st (a-1) =
= 0,00125+0,00000245 (23,33333-1)+0 (23,33333-1) = 0,0013 3 .

:
yt = St, red/Ared = 0,0013/0,05219 = 0,02491 .

:
yc = h-yt = 0,05-0,02491 = 0,02509 .

:
y'c = yc-a = 0,02509-0,025 = 0,00009 .

:
I = b h 3/12+A (h/2-yt) 2 =
= 1 0,05 3/12+0,05 (0,05/2-0,02491) 2 = 0,000010417 4 .
:
Is = As (ho-yc) 2 = 0,000098 (0,025-0,02509) 2 = 7,938E-13 4 ( (7.33); . 7.3.10 ).
13) . 7.2.9
:
123

Ired = I +Is a+I's a =


= 0,000010417+7,938E-13 23,33333+0 23,33333 = 0,000010417 4
( (7.9); . 7.2.9 ).
:
Ared = A +As a+A's a =
= 0,05+0,000098 23,33333+0 23,33333 = 0,05229 2 ( (7.10); . 7.2.9 ).
:
W = Ired/yt = 0,000010417/0,02491 = 0,000418185 3 ( (7.7); . 7.2.9 ).
,
:
ex = W/Ared = 0,000418185/0,05229 = 0,008 ( (7.8); . 7.2.9 ).
14) . 7.2.8

:
Mcrc = Rbt, ser W = 1,55 0,000418185 = 0,00065 ( (7.6); . 7.2.8 ).
15) . 6.2.9
. 6.2.4
Mult = 0,00095 > = Mcrc = 0,00065 (146,15385% )
- .
16)

:
fb1 = 0,3 .
:
ho = h-a = 0,05-0,025 = 0,025 .
Q = 0 < = fb1 Rb b ho = 0,3 13,05 1 0,025 = 0,09788 (0%
) - ( (6.65); . 6.2.33 ).
17)

:
ho = h-a = 0,05-0,025 = 0,025 .
:
fb2 = 1,5 .
- , 52-101.
124

-
:
:
- M = 2,84 = 2,84 / 101,97162123 = 0,02785 ;
- N = 68,1 = 68,1 / 101,97162123 = 0,66783 ;
-
Ml = 0 = 0 / 101,97162123 = 0 ;
-
Nl = 0 = 0 / 101,97162123 = 0 ;
:
-
l = 340 = 340 / 100 = 3,4 ;
:

- h = 50 = 50 / 100 = 0,5 ;
- b = 20 = 20 / 100 = 0,2 ;
:
- S
a = 2,6 = 2,6 / 100 = 0,026 ;
- S'
a' = 2,6 = 2,6 / 100 = 0,026 ;
:
( , 12 ; 3 .):
- As = 3,4 2 = 3,4 / 10000 = 0,00034 2;
:
( , 12 ; 3 .):
- A's = 3,4 2 = 3,4 / 10000 = 0,00034 2;

:
1)
- B25.
125


. 5.1 Rbn = 18.5 .

. 5.1 Rbtn = 1.55 .
2)
- .
. 5.2 Rb = 14.5
.
- .
. 5.2 Rbt =
1.05 .

:
Rb, ser = Rbn = 18,5 ( (5.1); . 5.1.9 ).

:
Rbt, ser = Rbtn = 1,55 ( (5.2); . 5.1.9 ).
3)
. 5.4 Eb = 30000 .
.. gb1 < 1 :
- 75%.
. 5.5 fb, cr = 1.8 .
, :
Eb, t = Eb/(1+fb, cr) = 30000/(1+1,8) = 10714,28571 ( (5.3); . 5.1.13 ).
4)
- .
- .
, :
gb1 = 1 .
- .
,
:
gb3 = 0,9 .
,
-40 .:
126

,
:
gb4 = 1 .
- .
- 6 .
. 2.14 II-7-81 "
":
mkp = 1 .
mkp = 1:
Rb = gb1 gb3 gb4 Rb = 1 0,9 1 14,5 = 13,05 .
:
Rb = mkp gb1 gb3 gb4 Rb =
= 1 1 0,9 1 14,5 = 13,05 .

:
Rbt = gb1 Rbt = 1 1,05 = 1,05 .
:
Rbt = mkp gb1 Rbt = 1 1 1,05 = 1,05 .
5)
- A500.
:
Rs = 435 .
.. gb1 > = 1 :
:
Rsc = 400 .
- .
:
Rs = mkp Rs = 1 435 = 435 .
:
Rsc = mkp Rsc = 1 400 = 400 .
6)
:
Es = 200000 .
7)
:
127

ea = max(l/600 ; h/30 ; 0,01) = max(3,4/600;0,5/30;0,01) = 0,01667 .


- .


, , .
:
eo = M/N = 0,02785/0,66783 = 0,0417 .
eo = 0,0417 > = ea = 0,01667 (250,14997% ) -
.
8) -
- .

:
lo = 0,5 l = 0,5 3,4 = 1,7 .
9)


:
de = eo/h = 0,0417/0,5 = 0,0834 .
.. de < 0,15 :
:
de = 0,15 .
- .
:
a = Es/Eb = 200000/10714,29 = 18,66666 .
:
ho = h-a = 0,5-0,026 = 0,474 .
h'o = ho = 0,474 .

:
yc = h/2 = 0,5/2 = 0,25 .

:
yt = yc = 0,25 .
- .
128


:
I = b h 3/12 = 0,2 0,5 3/12 = 0,00208 4 .

:
Is = As (yt-a) 2+A's (yc-a') 2 =
= 0,00034 (0,25-0,026) 2+0,00034 (0,25-0,026) 2 = 0,00003412 4 .
As :
M1 = M+N (yt-a) = 0,02785+0,66783 (0,25-0,026) = 0,17744 .
As :
Ml1 = Ml+Nl (yt-a) = 0+0 (0,25-0,026) = 0 .
, :
fl = 1+Ml1/M1 = 1+0/0,17744 = 1 .
kb = 0,15/(fl (0,3+de)) = 0,15/(1 (0,3+0,15)) = 0,33333 .
ks = 0,7 .
:
D = kb Eb I +ks Es Is =
= 0,33333 30000 0,00208+0,7 200000 0,00003412 = 25,57659 2 ( (6.25);
. 6.2.16 ).
:
Ncr = p 2 D/lo 2 = 3,14159 2 25,57659/1,7 2 = 87,34631 ( (6.24); . 6.2.16 ).
N = 0,66783 < Ncr = 87,34631 (0,76458% ) -
.
, :
h = 1/(1-N /Ncr) = 1/(1-0,66783/87,34631) = 1,0077 ( (6.23); . 6.2.16 ).
10)
:
es, el = Rs/Es = 435/200000 = 0,00218 ( (6.12); . 6.2.7 ).
sb = Rb:
eb, ult = 0,0035 .
:
xR = 0,8/(1+es, el/eb, ult) =
= 0,8/(1+0,00218/0,0035) = 0,49296 ( (6.11); . 6.2.7 ).
11) -
:
129

ho = h-a = 0,5-0,026 = 0,474 .


N S:
e = eo h+(ho-a')/2 = 0,0417 1,0077+(0,474-0,026)/2 = 0,26602 .
:
x = (N +Rs As-Rsc A's)/(Rb b) =
= (0,66783+435 0,00034-400 0,00034)/(13,05 0,2) = 0,26043 ( (6.21); . 6.2.15
).
:
x = x/ho = 0,26043/0,474 = 0,54943 .
.. x = 0,54943 > xR = 0,49296 :
:
x = (N +Rs As (1+xR)/(1-xR)-Rsc A's)/(Rb b+2 Rs As/(ho (1-xR))) =
= (0,66783+435 0,00034 (1+0,49296)/(1-0,49296)-400 0,00034)/(13,05 0,2+2 435
0,00034/(0,474 (1-0,49296))) = 0,25185 ( (6.22); . 6.2.15 ).
:
Nult = (Rb b x (ho-0,5 x)+Rsc A's (ho-a'))/e =
= (13,05 0,2 0,25185 (0,474-0,5 0,25185)+400 0,00034 (0,474-0,026))/0,26602 =
1,08912 .
N e = 0,66783 0,26602 = 0,17766 < = Rb b x (ho-0,5 x)+Rsc A's (ho-a') = 13,05 0,2
0,25185 (0,474-0,5 0,25185)+400 0,00034 (0,474-0,026) = 0,28973 (61,31833%
) - ( (6.20); . 6.2.15 ).
12)
- -.
- .
:
ho = h-a = 0,5-0,026 = 0,474 .
:
ms = (As+A's)/(b ho) 100 = (0,00034+0,00034)/(0,2 0,474) 100 = 0,7173 % .
13) -
:
lo = 0,5 l = 0,5 3,4 = 1,7 .
14) . 8.3.4
.. lo/h = 1,7/0,5 = 3,4 < 5 :
ms > = 0,1 % (717,3% ) - .

130


52-01-2003 ()

7,4

Z
400

400

200200

400

b = 800

800

h = 400
a1 = 20
a2 = 20

A500

A500

131

11.

()

7,4

S1 - 7 25

S2 - 7 16

Z
408,

100

:
: B25
2,5 /3

1

b1 0,9
b1 1



:
0,4
0,3

132

12. 1 -

1, = 7,4
2,6

1
e : 1,1
: 1
7,4

2,6

-9,62

-11,864 *

5,932 *

9,62

133

Mmax

-11,864 *

-9,62

5,932 *

9,62

Mmin

-11,864 *

-9,62

5,932 *

9,62

134

Qmax

-9,62

-11,864 *

5,932 *

9,62

Qmin

-9,62

-11,864 *

5,932 *

9,62

135

Mmax

-10,786 *

-8,745

5,393 *

8,745

Mmin

-10,786 *

-8,745

5,393 *

8,745

136

Qmax

-8,745

-10,786 *

5,393 *

8,745

Qmin

-8,745

-10,786 *

5,393 *

8,745

137

13. .

1 1 2 2

-11,864

9,62

9,62

-11,864

-11,864

9,62

9,62

-11,864

-11,864

9,62

9,62

-11,864

-11,864

9,62

9,62

-11,864

Mmax

Mmin

Qmax

Qmin

14.

0,546

.. 6.2.25, 6.2.31


0,123

.. 6.2.21-6.2.31

0,049

.. 6.2.21-6.2.31

0,691

0,922

0,082

.. 7.2.3, 7.2.4,

()

7.2.12

.. 7.2.3, 7.2.4,

()

7.2.12

. 6.2.33, . 3.52

0,045

. 6.2.34, .

3.52,3.71

138

-12,825

50,368
7,4

139


52-01-2003 ()
n = 1

4,9

160

320

160

80 80

b = 160
160

h = 320
a1 = 20
a2 = 20

A500

A500

140

15.

()

4,9

S1 - 212

S2 - 212

Z
408,

150

:
: B25
2,5 /3

b1
b1

0,9



:
0,4
0,3

141

16. 1 -

1, = 4,9
0,75

1 -
e : 1,1
: 1
4,9

0,75

-1,837

-1,501 *

0,75 *

1,837

142

Mmax

-1,501 *

-1,837

0,75 *

1,837

Mmin

-1,501 *

-1,837

0,75 *

1,837

143

Qmax

-1,837

-1,501 *

0,75 *

1,837

Qmin

-1,837

-1,501 *

0,75 *

1,837

144

Mmax

-1,364 *

-1,67

0,682 *

1,67

Mmin

-1,364 *

-1,67

0,682 *

1,67

145

Qmax

-1,67

-1,364 *

0,682 *

1,67

Qmin

-1,67

-1,364 *

0,682 *

1,67

146

17. .

1 1

2 2

-1,501

1,837

1,837

-1,501

-1,501

1,837

1,837

-1,501

-1,501

1,837

1,837

-1,501

-1,501

1,837

1,837

-1,501

Mmax

Mmin

Qmax

Qmin

18. .

1 1

0,544

.. 6.2.25, 6.2.31


0,163

.. 6.2.21-6.2.31

0,049

.. 6.2.21-6.2.31

0,698

0,93

0,098

.. 7.2.3, 7.2.4,

()

7.2.12

.. 7.2.3, 7.2.4,

()

7.2.12

. 6.2.33, . 3.52

147

0,019

. 6.2.34, .

3.52,3.71

-1,609

1,609
4,9

148

11

11

10

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

12

+14,880

+14,880

+12,960
+11,850

+11,850

+10,000

+8,250
+7,900

+7,590

+6,400

+4,650
+4,300

+3,990

+2,800

+3,700
+2,580

+2,180

+0,880

+0,700
+0,000

+0,000
-0,470
.

-0,770
.

5700

3120

3180

6000

2700

5700

3300

3900

4850

2050

40500

1-15
+14,880

+11,850

+11,850

+10,000

+7,900

+6,400

+4,650
+4,300

+3,990

+2,800

+3,700
+2,580

+0,700

+0,880

+0,000

+0,000
-0,470
.

-0,770
.

2700

3300

1980

2820

1550

1150

4850

6000

4850

1150

4370

1980

3300

2700

42700

10

11

12

13

14

15

+14,880
+14,320
+13,700
+12,960

4700

2900

+11,850

+10,800
+10,000

3320

+9,000
+7,900

+8,250
+7,590

3390

700

+7,200

+6,400

3320

+5,400
+4,300

+4,650
+3,990

2790

700

+3,600

+2,800

+3,100

+2,400

-0,270

+0,700

-0,770

1980

2820

1550

1150

1950

2050
3300

4850

-2,400

6000

4850

1150

4370

1980

3300

2700

42700

10

11

12

13

14

15

+14,880
+14,290
+13,700

+11,850

2900

+11,850

+10,000
+10,520

3320

+9,000
+7,900

+8,250
+7,590

700

+7,200

+6,400
+6,920

3320

+5,400
+4,300

700

+3,600

+3,600

+2,800

3320

+0,700
+0,000

700

+0,000

+0,000

2100

+3,320

+1,800

+0,000

-0,770

-0,770
.

1950

2050

5700

3120

3180

2700

6000

5700
40500

3300

3900

4850

2050

+0,880
0,000
-0,470
.

-0,020

2700

+2,580

+2,180

2100

+0,000

2190

+0,000

700

+0,000

+2,800

2270

3320

2100

+0,700

+2,930

+3,700

3910

1010

1210

1210

975

710 195

1310

250

1040

1510

1685

2110

1670

2110

1670

1510

1670

2110

1670

2110

1670

1510

640

1210

6465

1370

-0,770

-0,620

-0,020

172

150

159

7.50

171

775

0,000

143

1510

0,000

8.33

1510

-0,600

10.60

160

152

3.23

3.30

4.64

175

32.02

142

136

4.43

165

65.00

2.30

17.50

8.42
2.01

134

7.20

12.36

730

1540

176

1510

133

0,000

0,000

53.55

178

7.50

177

8.22

4.33

1810

770

1510

870

-0,020

1070

4.85

19.05

1510

690

1
955

131

3.48

4.10

2110

2110

132
112

119

19.73

123

130

129

3.13

770

770

5700

116

19.73

3.05

55.10

122

40500

117

124

121

13.43

102

52.18

157

10.82

103

27.08

158

32.02

104

5.54

159

7.27

105

10.34

160

4.64

106

16.98

161

2.35

107

5.11

162

5.88

108

4.32

163

9.24

109

13.86

164

1.81

110

6.08

165

17.50

166

4.98

111

50.10

167

5.31

112

55.10

168

8.22

113

22.93

169

4.33

114

7.08

170

4.33

115

13.78

171

10.60

116

19.73

172

8.70

117

7.30

173

7.60

174

3.23

175

2.30

118

50.10

119

55.10

120

22.93

176

4.85

121

7.08

177

19.05

122

13.78

178

7.50

123

19.73

124

7.30

125

14.47

1810

7.30

7.08

880

7.30

7.08

126

4.57

127

4.21

128

58.46

129

3.13

130

3.05

131

3.48

132

4.10

133

53.55

134

12.36

135

7.20

136

4.43

137

6.69

138

11.92

139

8.33

140

8.80

141

4.85

142

19.05

143

65.00

144

10.30

145

6.57

146

2.01

147

2.01

148

6.57

149

10.30

150

7.50

151

8.13

152

8.42

153

4.79

154

7.03

155

5.54

118

113

1810

111

880

6000

114

120

50.10

50.10

22.93

350

1195

22.93

1195

1070

2110

770

2110

1550

2410

127

750

750

2410

126

125

2070

2700

156

13.78
2110

58.46

2110

13.78

510

4.57

770

2110

1070

1060

0,000

107

109

108

1510

110

-0,600

1510

3180

120 850

-0,600

-0,770 -0,620

2110

1150

620

14.47

1550

-0,020

0,000
4.21

1150

105

6.08

4.32

106

5.11

16.98

900

13.86

104
4400

1810

3120

103

27.08

10.34

1810

1810

9120

1160

5.54

1810

1810

770

102

770

5700

101

53.42

1070

52.18

1070

1510

1810

770

1810

2295

2110

2295

1810

770

1810

1510

2
2700

3300

1980

2820

1550

1150

4850

6000

4850

1150

4370

1980

3300

2700

42700

53.42

910

128

910

115

5%

1810

1810

3660

55.10

101

169

945

5.31

9.24

1040

550
450

1810

168

167

163

13.43

5.54

10.30

1070

940

2.35

155

7.03
10.30

3105

3300

161

148

6.57

6.57

154

19.05

8.80

4.33

4.98

840

145

170

166

1.81

156

4.79

149

164

5.88

180

1510

144

135

162

153

147

146

0,000

1415

2.01

1440

1680

8790

11.92

140

3900

174

10.82

139

780

4850

8.13

-0,020

173

158

157

151

4.85

6.69

8.70

7.27

141

138

137

4.30

1310

2050

-0,770

10

11

12

13

14

15

1119.73

-2

-1

-1