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Doc 9674

AN/946

1984
[WGS-84)

Btopoe ^2002


, ,

,
(, ) ,
("", "" " ")
-
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12/02





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, , ,
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Doc 9674
AN/946

1984
(WGS-84)

2002



,
.
.

()


3 1989 13- 126-

3.2/1 (FANS/4),
- 1984 (WGS-84)


. 3.2/1 FANS/4
:

(AIP)
, , ,


WGS-84,
,
/.

,
WGS-84,
SARPS, WGS-84 :

". WGS-84

WGS-84
,
4 15,

WGS-84."

4. ;
11. ;

28 1994 9- 141-
28 15,
, WGS-84 .
4 11,
I II 14
1 1995 , 18
1994 13 1995 . 20 1997
17- 150- 29
15,
WGS-84. 4
I II 14
20 1998 21 1997 .
(SARPS), 11 I II 14,
( )
,
WGS-84.
4 15 SARPS

( )
.

14. .
I. .
II. ;
15. .

(),
.

,

.
:


999 University Street
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
57.

(Hi)

1. .

.. 1-1



1.2
1.3
1.4
1

5.

5-1

1.1

2. ,

2.1
2.2

2.3

2.4
2.5
2.6
2

1-1
1-2
1-2
1-3
1-4

2-1
2-1
2-1
2-2
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-5

3. WGS-84... 3-1
3.1 WGS-84
3.2 WGS-84
3.3 WGS-84
3

4.
WGS-84
4.1
4.2 1: ,

4.3 2:

4.4 3:
,
4

3-1
3-1
3-2
3-3

4-1
4-1

5.1
5-1
5.2
5-1
5.3
,
/
5-5
5.4
/
5-7
5.5

5-7
5.6

5-8
5.7 ... 5-8
5.8

5-8
5.

5-9

1.
2.

5-9
5-9
5-10

5.

5-13
5-14

5.

5-33

1.
2. /
3.

5-33
5-33
5-33

D 5. .... 5-35

4-1
6.

6-1

4-3
4-4
4-6

6.1 ,
6.2 (QA)
6

6-1
6-2
6-6

- 1984{WGS-84)

(vi)

7. ..
7.1
7.2
7.3 ,

7

7-1
7-1
7-1
7-2
7-7

.
(GPS)

-1
-7

-1
-8

.
(ITRS)

-1

D.

D-1
D
D-5
.

-1
-4

F.

F-1

G.

G-1

1.1

1.1.1 ,
,
1970-


(UAC)
,
,
, ,
.
,
.

1.1.4 , ;

.
1.1.5 , .

()
() ,

.
1800-
, , .


, , . ,
,
. , ,
,
, .

1.1.2 1970- SAVVAN


(Systeme Automatique de Verification en Vol des Aides a la
Navigation - ) ""

(DME)
, .

.
1.1.3

,

.



:
1 2,
(. . 1-1).
, ,
, , ,

1.1.6 , , ,
,
,
VOR NDB

, ,
DME.

,
.

1-1

1-2

-1984 (WGS-84)


,
,
(RNAV)
(RNP)
.

.
1.1.7
( )

, .
1960 (WGS-60), - 1966 (WGS-66), - 1972 (WGS-72)
- 1984 (WGS-84).

1.2
1.2.1 :
a) ;
b) ;
c) ;
d) - ( ).
.

.


1.2.2 . 1-2 ,
, .
(
),
WGS-72, .
WGS-72 ,


WGS-72. . 1-2 ,
,

WGS-72,
.

1.3

1.3.1

: , ,
,
. , .
(AIP),
, . ,
,

.
1.3.2 (
) .

. ,

(NAD), - (TD), -
(ED).
,


.
,
,

.
,
, ,
,
,
,
.
1.3.3 , ,
, , . (INS)
,
.

,
INS
. , ,
,

1.
, INS.
INS , ,
,
,
.
" "
,
,

INS
.
1.3.4 ,
(GNSS) ,
, ,
GNSS,
, WGS-84.
GNSS ,
,
,
. ,

, ,
, WGS-84, .

1.4
1.4.1
WGS-84 (.
).
WGS-84.
1.4.2 -

.
, , .
1.4.3 G ,

.

,
.
1.4.4
,

1-3
/,
.
,


WGS-84 .
1.4.5 ,



WGS-84.
a) (
) WGS-84
WGS-84.
b) WGS-84

.
1.4.6
,
(. 1-1).
1.4.7 WGS-84.
WGS-84
X, Y, Z , , h.

X, h ( ) WGS-84.
1.4.8 , GNSS,
WGS-84, ,
, "" () .

GNSS.
( , )
WGS-84.
WGS-84 .
1.4.9
,
(TLOF)
(FATO) . (.
.)

- 1984 (WGS-84)

1-4

1-1. ,
/

/RNAV

, FATO

//

FAF, FAP IAP

FIR

, CTZ

1.

1-5
1

100-3000
. 1-1.

. 1-2. (") (ALAT) (ALON)


WGS-72

2
,

) /.

2.1
2.1.1
.
,
.

(RNAV),

,
(INS), Omega, -/
(VOR/DME), (GNSS).
RNAV
,

,
, (
GNSS) .

2.2.2 ,
.
: ,
(. 2-1 - 2-5).
a) .
,
, ,
, .
, ,
, , ,
, .
b) .
,

.
, /
, ,
/,
.
,

, ,
,
.

2.1.2
, ,
, ,
.

(RNP 1)
() ,
, ,
,
,
RNP.

2.2

c) .
,
-
.

2.2.1 , 1-1:
) /

2-1

2-2

1984 (WGS-84)

(F1R),
, ,
.


:
a)
b) .

2.3




().

,

,
, , . , ,
.
a) . ,
/ () .
b) SID, STAR, .
,
,
, ,
.
c) /. ,
, ,
, /
. ., /.
d)
. ,
,
.

2.4.2 , ,
, , , .
, ,
,
, , . .
2.4.3
, ,
.

.
,

, , ,
. 2-1-2-5

, 11,
I II 14. ,

,
6.
.
.
. ,
,
,
.
2.4.4
95%- (. 2-6).
,
. ,

, , - , :
= 1 - (-2/2).

2.4
2.4.1
, ,

2.4.5
,
,

2,448 S,

()
50%
1,1774 . ,
95% ,
2,079 . 2-6

2. ,
, ,
.
2.4.6 RNP (. 2-7)


.
RNP

,


, RNP

.

2.5

.
, .
2.5.1
,
,
.
,
; ,
.
, 2-1 - 2-5.
. , .
.


, .
2.5.2 "" "
"
.

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(, 54 3' 15"
1 .) , , ,
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, .

2-3

2.6
( ).
,


.

2.6.1

2.6.1.1
,
, ,

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.
.
2.6.1.2 , ,
,
, . , , 1 1(8, ,

100 000 000 .

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,
.
2.6.1.3
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.

2.6.2

2.6.2.1
.

,
,
.
:

2-4

-1984 (WGS-84)
a) . ,


,
b) . ,


.
c) . ,


.

2.6.2.2 :

,
.
5

b) : 1 1( ,
,
,

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.


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,


, .
3

) : 1 Iff*.
,
.

,

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,

c) : 1 10~ .
,
.
FIR.
. 2-1 - 2-5.

2-5

2. ,
2

2-1.

( )

2 (1 . ),

1 13,

, R, D (
CTA/CTZ)

2 (1 . ),

1 10~3,

, R, D (
CTA/CTZ)

100,

1 10~5,

CTA/CTZ

100,

1 1(5,

100,

1 15,

100,

1 10~3,

30,

1 13,

NAVAID,
/

1/10

1 10 ,

3 ,

1/10

1/1
( )

1 10~5,

1/10

1/10
( )

1 10~5,

3 ,

1/10

1 10~5,

1 ,

1/100

1 ~8,

(
1 ,

)

1/100

1 ,

1/100

0,5,

1/100

1/100

1 x 1 0 ,

0,5,

1/100

1/100

1 15,

//
INS

0,5,

1/100

1/100

1 10~ ,

TLOF
FATO ()

1,

1/100

1 ~8,

NAVAID ,
, STAR/SID

/

/,

1 1(8,

1/100

1 ~8,

1984 (WGS-84)

2-6

2-2.
(/ / )

/ /

0,5 1 ,

1 1

1 1

1 ~5,

WGS-84
/

0,5 1 ,

1 1

1 1

1 10~5,

FATO ( 0,5 1 ,
)

1 1

1 1

1 10~5,

WGS-84
FATO, TLOF
( )

0,5 1 ,

1 1

1 1

1 10~5,

FATO (
)

0,25 1 ,

0,5 1

0,5 1

WGS-84
FATO, TLOF
( )

0,25 1 ,

0,5 1

/
(/)

PANS-OPS
(Doc 8 168)

PANS-OPS
(Doc 8168)


( )

0,5 1 ,

0,5 1

0,5 1

1 1 ,

1 1

1 1

1 10~5,

1 1 ,

1 1

1 1

1 10~5,

(10 ),

()

3 (10 )

1 10~3,

/
(DME/P)

3 (10 ),

3 (10 )

1 10~5,


(DME)

3 (100 ),

30 (100 )

30 (100 )

1 10~5,

PANS-OPS
(Doc 8168)

PANS-OPS
(Doc 8 168)

1 10~5,

50 100 ,

1 10"*,

0,5 1

1 10~8,

1 10~5,

1 10~8,

50 100 50 100

1 10~3,

2-7

2. ,
2-3.


( )

-NAVAID ,

1,

1 10~ ,

NDB
NAVAID

1,

1 1 ,

1,

1 xl " ,



ILS

1,


MLS

1,

1 10~5,
1 10~5,

2-4. ()

1/10,

1 10~3,

1/10,

1/10

1/10

1 10~3,

1/10,

1 1 0'3,

1/100,

1/100

1/10

1 10~5,

ILS

1/100,

1/100,

1 10~ ,

MLS

1/100,

1/100,

1 10~5,

FATO

1/100,

1/100,

1 10~3,

2-8

- 1984 (WGS-84)
2-5.


(//)

1/10
1/10 . ,

1/10
1/10 .

1
1 .

1 10~ ,

1/10
1/10 . ,

1/10
1/10 .

2/10
1/10 .

1 ~ ,

1/100
1/100 . ,

1/100
1/100 .

1
1 .

1 10~ ,

1/100
1/100 . ,

1/100
1/100 .

2/10
1/10 .

1 10~5,

FATO, TLOF

1 1 ,

1 1

1 ( AD)
0,5 ( )

1 10~8,

1 1 ,

1 1

0,5 ( )

1 10~8,

1 1 ,

1 1

1 ( AD)
0,5 ( )

1 10~8,


ILS FATO

3 1 0 ,

3 (10 )

1 10~3,


ILS

3 10 ,

3 (10 )

1 10~3,

ILS

3 10 ,

3 (10 )

2/10
(1/10 . )

1 10~5,


DME ILS

3 1 0 ,

(10 )

1 10~5,


MLS FATO

3 10 ,

3 (10 )

1 10~ ,


MLS

3 1 0 ,

3 (10 )

1 10~3,


DME/P MLS

3 10 ,

3 (10 )

1 10~5,

//

2. ,

2-9

2-6.

99,7%

98,9%

97,1%

95,0%

86,0%

78,8%

68,0%

39,3%

19,9%

50,0% (0,67 )

50,0% (1,18 )

50,0% (1,54 )

2-7. RNP

95%-

RNP I

RNP 4

RNP 12,6

1,85
7,4
23,3
(1,. ) (4,0 . ) (12,6 . )

RNP 20

37
(20,0 . )

3
WGS-84

3.1
WGS-84

, . 3-1 ,
,
-.

3.1.1 -
1984 (WGS-84)
(CTS),
(NSWC 9Z-2) (NNSS) (
TRANSIT) ,
,
,
(BIH).

3.1.4 (EGFM),
= =180. EGFM
WGS-84 = - 180

WGS-84, WGS-84
1 x 1 WGS-84
. ( = = 180)

.
EGFM WGS-84 - = 41
(,
GPS),
.

3.1.2 WGS-84 .
a) - .
b) Z -
() ,
BIH ,
BIH.
c) X - WGS-84 ,

, BIH ,
BIH.

3.2
WGS-84
3.2.1
WGS-84 X, Y, Z
GPS (. . 3-2).

d) Y -

(ECEF);
90
.

3.2.2
GPS

TRANSIT.

. TRANSIT
WGS-84 .

,
.

. . 3-1
WGS-84,
X, Y Z
WGS-84.
3.1.3 WGS-84
,

3-1

- 1984 (WGS-84)

3-2
3.3
WGS-84

,
.

3.3.1 , (1 ),
WGS-84,
WGS-84
GPS,

,
, X
ft, :

3.3.3
WGS-84
, WGS-84
GPS. , ,
GPS,

, ,
,
.

a) : = < = 1 (1);
b) : ah = 1 ... 2 (1).
3.3.2
, ,
WGS-84 .


GPS, .
WGS-84
WGS-84

3.3.4 WGS-84,
1 ,
. , , ,

III.
III
0,6 , 6 ,
WGS-84
,
, , (ITRF).

3-1. WGS-84

WGS-84

6 378 137

7,2921 15 1(5 /"1

GM

398 600,5 3/~2

2]0

-484,16685 10~

1/298,257223563

( )

( Ci.o)

3. WGS-84

3-3

BIH (1984,0)
-WGS-84

noBIH
(1984,0)

Y,WGS-84

X,WGS-84

. 3-1. WGS-84

-."
.

. 3-2. WGS-84

4
WGS-84


.

WGS-84 . 4.3 ( 2).

4.1

WGS-84.
,

WGS-84
. ,
, :

4.2 !:
,

, , WGS-84 .
,
, .


, . 4.2 ( 1).
, . 4.4
( 3).

4.2.1


,

WGS-84
,
. ,



.
,
:

4.2.1.1
, ,

WGS-84, :

a)
;

WGS-84


(. . 4.2.2).
, DATUM.

. DATUM WGS-84.

b)
;

c) .


, ,
,

4-1


GPS
( )
WGS-84.

- 1984 (WGS-84)

4-2

WGS-84,
.


. WGS-84,

(
),
GPS
.


.
. GPS
.
D.
4.2.1.2 ,

WGS-84 GPS
.

:

.
,
.
4.2.2

4.2.2.1
WGS-84. :
a) X, Y, Z , /
.

, "k, h ;
b) , X,
;

c)

. (
).

: ( = = EZ = 0) (ji = 1)
WGS-84.
4.2.1.3 , . 4.2.1.1. GPS
( )
WGS-84

WGS-84
.
WGS-84. ,
, WGS-84 ,
. ITRF-, .

ITRF- ,
, -

.
D, -
-1.
4.2.2.2
4.2.2.2.1 -
.

. ,
,
. ,
.
4.2.2.2.2
:
)
, ,
, 50 .
, ,

4-3

4. WGS-84

;
) ,
, .


:
a) ;
b) GPS;
c) .

4.2.2.3 ,
4.3.2 () ()

4.2.2.3.1 ,

WGS-84. -

- ,
,

.

4.3.2.1 , ( )
()
() ,
.

4.2.2.3.2

,
.
,

, , , 0,5 0,3".

b) ,
,
.

4.2.2.3.3 ( ) . . 4-1
,

.
4.2.2.3.4
,
.

,
, ,
, .
, ,
, 0,1 , WGS-84
1 .

.

4.3 !:

4.3.1

4.3.1.1 ,
,

a) GPS.

c) ,
,
GPS, .
.
GPS (

WGS-84),
,
WGS-84.
4.3.3

4.3.3.1 . 4-2 ,
WGS-84
.
4.3.3.2
(, , ,
)
.


. ,
.
.
. , , .

4-4

- 1984 (WGS-84)
4.3.4


GPS

4.3.4.1 ,
,
, . .,

GPS.
,
,
,
, ,


WGS-84.
4.3.4.2 GPS
.
,
,
GPS / .
, - . ,

,
.
.
.
GPS (, , . .),
,
-2.

4.3.5

4.3.5.1 WGS-84 . 4-3.


. WGS-84

GPS.
,


,
. , , ,
.
4.3.5.2 .

.

GPS , ,

,
4.3.5.3 ,
,
.
.
. ,

4.4 3:
,

. WGS-84
,
, ,
.

4.4.1

4.4.1.1 , ,
,
,
,
.
,
- ,
,
,
.

. ,

,

" " .
4.4.1.2 ,
,
. ,


, () . ,
,
.
-

4-5

4. WGS-84
(,
),
,
.
,

,
, 30
. .

4.4.2

4.4.2.1 ,
, WGS-84 :
,
-
?

,

, 2,
.

,
,
-
.

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0

0
0
0
0
0

1
1

0
= 0 ( )

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

0
0
0
0

0
0

1
1

. 7-3. CRC GP



(GPS)

1.

4 .

"" .


(GPS), ,

(NAVSTAR), ,

. ,
1973
1994 ,

( ),
.

3.
GPS
3.1
,
( ) .

,
(LAN).

2.

:
a)

, ,
.


.
(OCS), ,
.
: ,

(MCS),
.

3.2 ,
, ,
. ,
" ", : .
,
GPS,
L-, 10,23 .
154 120
, L2,
:

b) ,
15, .

20 200

12 . 21
( 3 ) 55,

L1 = 1575,42 (19 )
L2 = 1227,60 (24 )
3.3
, .
,

-1

-2

-1984 (WGS-84)


, (PRN) ,
.
/- ( / ),
(SPS), . /-,
293,1 , L1 L2.
3.4 - - ( ),
(PPS),

. -, 29,31 ,
L1 L2.

4.
GPS
4.1 PRN-,
, :
a) ,

.

.
5.3
,
, , .
,
, .

.

,
. (
) .

6.

6.1 GPS
.

b) ,
c) ,
(S/A)
d)
e) .
4.2 , 1500 ,
30 50 /.
5 . 6
10 30 .

5.

5.1 . -1 ,
.
, , ,
,
, .
(

.
5.2 ( ) -

6.2


("")
,

(""-).

.
,
-
, , ,

, . S/A
" II"
1990
.
6.3
,
(""). .

. (GPS)

6.4 GPS
"" -
(Y-)
- ,
.
, ,
GPS,
,
.
-

(), .

GPS, .

-3

7.5 ,
GLONASS
, GPS, , , ,
S/A, GLONASS .

8. GPS


:
a) - ;
b) - ;
c) - S/A;
d) - ;

7.

GPS

e) - ;
f) - ;

7.1 . -2 ,

g) ( , ).

7.2
( )
.

9.
GPS

7.3 :
(xl (x2 (x3 (x4 -

)? + (yl x)2 + (y2 x)2 + (y3 x)2 + (y4 -

)2 + (zl )2 + (z2 )2 + (z3 )2 + (z4 -

z)2 + dT = (PR1)2;
z)2 + dT = (PR2)2;
z)2 + dT = (PR3)2;
z)2 + dT = (PR4)2.

(A-l)
(A-2)
(A-3)
(A-4)


GPS

7.4 /- ,
100 (2d . .) S/A 40 (2d . .)
S/A.
- -
- .

,
( ) .

9.1
"" .

WGS-84

GPS.

, , ,
100 .
(
)
GPS.

.
9.2 -1

(PDOP = 3). PDOP - , : , .

- 1984 (WGS-84)

-4

-1.

/-



(PDOP = 3)

0,2-5
0,2-2

0,6-15
0,6-6

-2. GPS

(
)
(> 100 )

0,1 ...+lxlO"

(5-30 )

(< 10 )

(5 + 1

( )

(5 + 1 10"*)

(stop-and-go)

( )

(5 +1 10" )

(1-5 1 10" )

10.
GPS
10.1
:
a)
, .

( 10 000 . ).

, .
b)
, .
, . , : ,
, , ,

.
-2.
GPS

10.2 -2
GPS .


GPS
10.3 1994

GPS (DGPS).

-
, -
.
10.4 . -3

GPS, . .:

-5

. (GPS)
a) () ;
b) GPS
/ ;
c)
;
d)
.


0,6-2 .


11.5
. ,
.
) :

11.

- ;

11.1
:

-
;

a) ;
b) ,
;

-
;

-
.

c) .
) :

11.2 (

)
.

- : ;
- , ;
- .

11.3
,
,
.

3 6 .
,

11.4 ,
,

,
. ,
, .

, .

11.6 1-5 .

12. GPS
. -4 ,
GPS
( ) DGPS ( ).

13.

GPS
13.1 .

1984 (WGS-84)

-6
a) :

-
;
- ;


,
;

,
,
- .

- .
b) :
- ( )

13.2 DGPS
.
.

-7

(GPS)

JIJUlJUinnnrL

r v v v v v v v v v v v ' ( 0
)

/wvwwx


( ,

)

\\7

\/

120
360 + 120

\7

.
> (
)

45
360 (+3) + 45

. -1.

. -2. GPS

-8

-1984 (WGS-84)

. -3.
GPS

-9

(GPS)

&^

&

GPS

SPS ( /)
~<I

I
I
5%

<>

I
I

50%

95%

SPS( S/A
(~)
kj

SPS -
,
PPS -
,
S/A -

\J

'
DGPS -

DGPS -

DGPS-

() .

>

(+1 - )
2

10

20

50

. -4. GPS

10

20

50

100

08/95.

1.5

. ( ?)

1.
" ,
,

."
1.1 .
(1880),
.

2.

a) .

2.1 , ,
.
,
-

.

b)
( , ,
. .).

1.2 ,
(1978).

2.2
, , .
("", 800 . . .)( ( 580500 . . .) , (384322 . . .) , , -
.

c) .
.
1.3
.

2.3
(276-195 . . .), ,
,
2% (
. -1).


?
1.4
. ,
,

( ),
, , .

2.4
( ):

.


. R = /.

-1

-2

~ 1984 (WGS-84)

2.5 .
, , -1.


2.6 XVII ,
,
,
.
,
, , ,

.

,

,
. ,
.
2.7 f=(a- ,
- , a b - .
2.8 XIX ,
(. -2).



().
2.9 -1 . ,
( )

().



( , , ),


2.10 (1802), (1828), (1837)
,
.

, ,
( , . . -3).

, / , ,
.
2.11 (1873),
(1880, 1884) ,
.
2.12
.



GPS
.

,

.
.

2.13
, : ,
(
)
() . .

. (
)
.

3.
-

, -1984
(WGS-84),
WGS-84
(WGS-84).
.
,
(MSL)
.

3.1
.
a) N ,
N- .
b) ,
()
.

-3

3.2 : ,
( )
(), .


: .
,
, () /.


f=(a-b)/a.
3.3
,
,
.
,
" "
()
(,
, ""). .

( )
(X, Y, Z)

3.4
(X, Y, Z),
"S" (, . . ,
(. . -4)). Z
( ).
3.5 , Z, X-Y. X-Z
,

,
(BIH) ("" ). Y , .
" " ,

.
Z ( ),
.


3.6 . -5,

(

100 ).

.
3.7
.

3.8 :
a) . .
b) () . ,

(X, Y)
.
c) () X. ,

( X) , .


3.9
(
)
X
h . h

(. -6).
3.10
, X, h . Q

( )
.
h (a,f).
3.11 , -,

,
.
3.12
- ,
-.
(
/), :
. ,

.
3.13 ,

, ,
,

-4

1984 (WGS-84)

-1. -
( WGS-84 )

(),
()

AfxlO"4

, 1830.

6377563,396;
573,604

299,3249646;
1960023

AN

6378160;
-23

298,25;
-0,0001204237

, 1841 .
, , ,

BR

6377397,155;
739,845

299,1528128;
0,1003748283

BN

6377483,865;
653,135

299,1528128;
0,1003748283

, 1866

6378206,4;
-69,4

294,9786982;
-0,3726463909

, 18 80 *

CD

6378249,145;
-112,145

293,465;
-0,547507137

.
( )

6377298,556;
838,444

300,8017;
0,2836136834

, 1830.

6377276,345;
860,655

300,8017;
0,2836136834

, 1956 .**

6377301,243;
835,757

300,8017;
0,2836136834

. , 1948

6377304,063;
832,937

300,8017;
0,283616834

. , 1969 .**

ED

6377295,664;
841,336

300,8017;
0,2836136834

, 1980 .

RF

6378137;
0

298,257222101;
-1,6193 10~7

, 1906 .

6378200;

298,3;

-63

0,004807957

6378270;
-133

297;
-0,14192702

6378388;
-251

297;
-0,14192702

, 1960 .

(), 1 924 .

, 1940 .

6378245;
-108

298,3;
0,004807957

, 1 960 .

FA

6378155;
-18

298,3;
0,004807957

, 1960 .

SA

6378160;
-23

298,25,
-0,000812042

WGS-72

WD

6378135;
2

298,26;
0,000312108

WGS-84

WE

6378137;
0

298,257223563;
0

*
**

NIMA.
.

-5

.
,
. (
) . ,
GM
2 0 (
).

, ,

,
.
3.14 -1 / ,
,
WGS-84
/ .

4.

4.1 , , ,
100 .
.
4.2
:

a) . (X, Y, Z).
b) .
, .
4.3
. -
(
). -
,
(
).
,

.
) GRS:
: ;
-

Z:
;

X: ,
Z;

Y: .

b) GRS:
-

"".

c) :
-

,


/ .

4.4 ,
( ).
,
,
.
, Z
, X

Z. Y X Z
( ).
4.5
,

.
. " "
,
".
4.6
.
4.7

(, AY, AZ);
(, , ) ().

.
4.8 , ,
( ).

-.
,
.


. ,
.

-6

-1984 (WGS-84)

4.9 : = +
.

a) WGS-84 :

b) WGS-84 :
h .

5.
5.1 - ,
, 1,
, 2. .

6.3 -
. ,
( ,
). , ,
, ,

(" ") .

5.2 :
-

- , AY, AZ;

: , EY, EZ,


Af

()

.

.

6.

""?
6.1 , ""
: " ?".
,
.
,
.
,
.

,
( )
.


6.2
GPS :



6.4 ,
(. -7). ,
.
.
6.5
" ",
.
,
, ,
. .,
2 ("
"). , ,
, ,
,
.
6.6
.
:

= h-N,
N .



6.7 WGS-84
X, Y, Z , X, h.
h () WGS-84.
6.8 ( )
.
.

.
,
.
,
, 3 !

. ,

-7
( , )

< 20 .
6.9 -2
.

-2.


()

:
.

-68
-98

-87


:
NGVD 29
NAVD 88
NAVD 88,

-26
-72
_

-8

-1984 (Wffi
F JJOF.AB JIFHffTO

. -1. ,

. -2.

-9


(. . )


) ,

. -3.

(X, Y, Z)


(X, Y, Z)


. -4.
(X, Y, Z)

-10

. -5.

-11

(, A,, h; a,f)
P(X,Y,Z)

Q ( X Q , Y Q , ZQ)
. -6.

(MSL)
( )

. -7.



(ITRS)

3.
.
,
,
,
. 10 .
1988 IERS
, IERS (IRP),
IERS (IRM).

1.


(SLR) (VLBI).
1 3
5000 . ,
70 SLR- 81 VLBI-
.
1987
(1ERS),

SLR- VLBI-
X, Y, Z,

SLR- VLBI-.

4.

, IRP
, .
ITRF
ITRF97; , ITRF-
1997,0.

2. SLR

,
(ITRS). ITRS IERS, ITRS
(ITRF).

-1

1.

0 8000 ,
,
( 15 8000 ). ,
,
()
(0 ),
.

1.1 :
:
( ,,
),
/).

2.
2.1 , A,, h,
.

X, Y, Z,
2.

: ,
h, WGS-84.
. D-1.
1.2 :

2.2 1. X, Y, Z .

a) ,
b)
c) .

1.3
WGS-84, ,
,
.

X = (v + h) cos cos h;
Y=(v + h) cos sin X;

.
h
, : h H + N, , N - () .
,
( ). ()
(
).

v - -

- 2 8 2 )" 2 '

- ;
- (2 =/(2-/)),
/- .

1.4
() ,
. -

. - -1.

D-1

- 1984 (WGS-84)

D-2

2.3 2.
,
, ,
.

"X"

"

=
IKS 84

Meciitii

+ez -er

""

-ez

-f

~8 X

LL
*

"

.
WGS-84 D-1.

I = /2,

= (w/af,

= [(l = )

AZ

2.4 .
WGS-84
WGS-84.
,

, h < .
(, "k, /OwGS-84 < (X,

2.6 (X, Y, Z) ,
,
,
(, X, h)
, 43 :

1')/2 - sin(/77 - /?)

Y, Z)wGS-84'>

-arctg [z,/((l-e2M)];
A - 2arc tg [(if - x)/y]\
= arctg-p

2.5
J. Zhu. Exact Conversion of
Earth-Centered
Earth-Fixed
Coordinates for
Geodetic
Coordinates, Journal of Guidance,
Control and Dynamics, Vol. 16, No. 2, March-April 1993,

-
);

. - (
);
h ~ ;
- ( = 6 378,137
WGS-84);
- (2 = 0,00669437999
WGS-84);
b - (b = a^Jl-e2).

3.
( 89 )
3.1
WGS-84
(. ),
() :
\8-84 = + ',
^WGS-84 ''

"= { - sin cos X - sin sin X + AZ cos +


f (ve2 sin cos ) / + /[ (alb) +
+ v (b/a)] sin cos } [( + h) sin I"]"1;
= [- sin X + cos I] [(v + h) cos sin I"]'1;

/z = cos cos X + cos sin X + 7 sin - (/v) + /(/) v sin2 ;

D-3

D.

, , Aft -
WGS-84.

("), ();
, A, h

- ( ),
= + N ( -
, N - );


WGS-84.
. ,

WGS-84
,

,
Department of Defense World Geodetic System 1984, Its
Definition and Relationships with Local Geodetic Systems,
National Imagery and Mapping Agency, NIMA TR8350.2".

- ;

- ;

a, b

- , = l - f ) ;

&k = B0 + B,U + B2V + B3U2 + B4UV + BjV2 + K + By

- ;

Aft = C0 + C,U + C2V + C3U2 + C4UV + CsV2 + K+ Ct/V;

, , AZ- ;
, /

-
WGS-84 (WGS-84 );

- (2 =/(2 -_/)).

= + A,U + A2V + A3U2 + A4UV + AjV 5 + + A

, BO, C0
Ai (i - 1... 9) B, (i - 1... 9) C, (/ = 1... 9) U k ( - ) V = k ( - Am) k
, ,

. - -1,
D-1.

;
;
;
;
;
;
, ;

( ).

4.2 .

4.

4.1 ,

, AY, AZ,

5.
D-1
.

-1984 (WGS-84)

D-4

D-1.
()

(")

AZ

AY

EZ

jt
()

WGS-84

0,0

WGS72

0,0

4,5

0,0

0,0

-0,554

0,22

ED50

-87,0

-98,0

0121,0

ED79

-86,0

-98,0

-119,0

ED87

-82,5

-91,7

-117,7

0,1338

-0,0625

-0,047

0,045

NS

595,6

87,3

473,3

4,7994

0,0671

5,7850

2,555 ED 87

50

-55,0

49,0

-158,0

1873

649,0

9,0

376,0

-1903

660,1

13,1

369,2

0,8048

0,5777

0,9522

5,660

GI 1934

662,0

18,0

734,0

-168,0

-60,0

320,0

-168,0

-60,0

320,0

587,0

16,0

393,0

GGRS 87

199,6

-75,1

55

-73,0

46,0

-86,0

65

506,0

-122,0

611,0

1940

-133,0

-50,0

97,0

-267,0

75,0

25,0

ED 50

1921

719,0

47,0

640,0

ED 50

OSGB 36

375,0

-111,0

431,0

DLX

504,1

-220,9

563,0

-0,554

0,220 WGS-72

1973

-227,0

97,5

35,4

-0,554

0,220 WGS-72

RNB72

-104,0

80,0

-75,0

424,3

-80,5

613,1

-8,0

160,0

176,0

0,0

0,0

RT90

NAD 27
NAD 83

0,0

-246,3

ED 50
0,0202

0,0034

0,0135

-0,015

ED 50

44828,40

ED 50
4,3965

-1,9866

5,1846

1 1 " 31 :
]" = 6400000, 141593/(180 3600") = 31, 03;
[1 = 1852 ( 1" = 30,48)].
2

8414,03

1 = 10 , 1 6,4 .

0,0

. D-l.

D-5

1.


() ,
+0,3 /Vs ().
,

,
,


, 50 .
,
.

. - .


1.1 WGS-84 ()
WGS-84 (ITRE) (
).

1.5 , ( ),
" "
( ,
).

1.2 :
a) (
0,01 (0,1"). 1
, 1/400
).
;

b) (EDM). 1 .
.

1.6
,

1000 (, EDM-,

). , ,
.


1.3
EDM-,
() .

,
/
.
(
),
.

1.7

, ,
.
,
, .

, - ,

.



,
,
. , -


1.4 . -1
, -

-1

-2

- 1984 (WGS-84)

,
,
, 5 .
,

,
, .

GPS .

1.8

(
).
1.9

= A W = - J g dh (
g dh,

),
. ,
.
1.10 (,
50 50 )
<0,1 .
,
( = = ).

2.

2.1 . .
,
,
, .
2.2 . WGS-84

(
WGS-84).


2.3
()
. . ,
,
, (.
. -2).
2.4 ,

.


2.5 ( )
( , . . -3)
(
WGS-84 WGS-84, GPS). ,
, .


2.6 , 60-80%

,
,

;
GPS (DGPS)

).
GPS,
.
, ,

()
GPS.
2.7 . -4
,
DGPS.


2.8 - :

-3

.
a)
.
b) WGS-84
GPS.
c) , , ,

.
d)
.


50 .
e)

(,
" ").
f)

.
g) ,
, (
GPS ).

/
2.9 :
a)
;
b) , ,
,
(,
).
2.10 :
a)
,

;
b)

;
c) ,

;
d)

.

-4

1,96

_
_ __j, _
_ __. j. _ ,

1,12

. -1.

. -2. ,

1984jyfGS-84)

. -3.


*^

. -4. DGPS

-5

1.

, . -,
-

,
.

, ,

.


,

(CAD), , ,
(GIS).


,
, 1:1000 1:10 000
.

3.
3.1
.

-
.

(,
).
, , ,

(EDM) ,
.

2.

2.1 ft /2,
( ) , , X,
Y.

3.2 ,
(, ).

.


.

=/,();
=/2().
2.2 /! /2 ,
.
X Y.
,
.

3.3
:
a) ,
b)

. ,

, , - ,

. :
- , .

c) .
3.4 ,
, .
, ,
( ) ,
.
.

2.3
. -

F-1

F-2

- 1984 (WGS-84)
4.

4.1
.
.

. X ()
, Y
() .
,
0.
X ~ Rlu(stc 9 + tg 6);
Y=

4.2 ,
axb=l(aub- ).

(tg 6 ctg(A - ) - ));


1

9 = sin" (cos sin(A - ));


R= Fo >/vp,

4.3
, = .

0 - ,
;
F0


4.4 :
a)
;
b) - ,


;
c)
( );
d)
(,
).


5.2 () ,
.
:
X () ""
, Y () 90
.
=

y=

-2R cos cos ( -

1 + sin
2R cos

R - , R =


5.3 -
.
X () , Y
() .

= L
5.1
.
, .
.
. ,

cos

& ~ )
1 + sin

- .

4.5

( ).

5.

-
(F0 = 0 ).

2R

sin cos 0 - sin cos(A-Ao)


1 + sin sin + 8 cos(A-Ao)

cos sin (.-)


1 + sin sin 0 + 5 cos 0 cos(A-Ao)'

0, - .

F.

F-3

6.

5.4 ,

. : X ()
, Y () .

.
, .
6.1

X = 0 - cos 0;

X=-rcosQ;
6 = (k - Xo)sin 0;

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= -..
- ;
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( (45-0.5)
[tg(45-0,500)
2(1

0, - ,
.

- ;
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| i-i L, I

| 05-5 810 COS(A,~

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R
sin

= 2 f 1 +e l [" 08 sin(A.-X 0 )Yl + e sin/


V
\l-ej
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sin h = sin sin 00 + cos cos 0 cos(A, - A^);
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.
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6.3

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no - ^j^f?J* JJl

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6.5.1
.

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=(1 + +^^ 4
4
4

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, - ,
.

6.4

X = 0 - cos 6;

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s

8,

= si

1 1- 8
.

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2

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v=

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7. -

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:

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= 500 000 .
,
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:
= 1324' 36,01";

= 5231' 11,65".


. = 12 :
= 4595696,00 ; N = 5821529,20

a) ,
84 N 80 S.
b) -
1924 ,
- .
c) 6 .
180,

60,
180.
,
: 1 - 177; 2 - 171; 3 -168
. .
d)
.

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5.

no -1984 (WGS-84)
, (
) ?

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TACAN

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[]

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6.

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G-5


10.


, ISO 9000 ?
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?
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NDB .

i)

ii)

iii)

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[]

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( )?

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[ ]

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[ ]

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v) , .

I
vii)

[ ]

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viii) VOR, TACAN VORTAC ()


, .
.

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ix)

(, VOR/DME),
?

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/
/

...

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/





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[]
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[]
2

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7

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[]
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?
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f 1
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- (, ISO 9000)?
[]

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f I
3

, ?
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[]
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?
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?
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/





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[]
<1
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[]
2

[]
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9

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10

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>10

[]
5

[]
6

[]
7

[]
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9

[]
10

[]
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/
?
[ ]

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[J
5

/?

[]
<1
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[]
1

:
?
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G-14
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[]

[]

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?
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[]

/?
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[]

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/ ?
[
[
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[
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[
[

34.

]
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]
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I
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^ . ( ,
, .)

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G-15


35.

/?

[ ]
0
36.

[]
3

[J
4

[]
5

[]
6

[J
7

[]
8

[]
9

[]
10

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[]
1

[]
2

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3

[]
4

[]
5

[]
6

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7

[]
8

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9

[]
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[]
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[]
7

[]
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9

[]
10

[]
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[ ]
0
38.

[]
2

/ ?

[ ]
0
37.

[]
1

[]
1

[J
2

[]
3

[ ] <10

[ ] <3

[ ] <1

[ ] <0,1

Ashkenazi, V., S.A. Crane, WJ. Preis, J. Williams, The 1980 Readjustment of the Triangulation of the United Kingdom and Republic
of Ireland - OS(SN)80. Ordnance Survey Professional Papers, New Series, No. 31, 1984.
Ashkenazi, V., T. Moore, C. Hill, Datum: A Report and Software Package for the Transformation and Projection of Coordinates.
United Kingdom: Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy, University of Nottingham (UK), revised December 93,
EEC Report 237,12/1990.
Helmert, F. R. Die mathematischen undphysikalischen Theorien derHoheren Geoddsie. Leipzig: B.C. Teubner 1880.
Hofmann-Wellenhof, ., H. Lichtenegger, H. J. Collins. Global Positioning System. New York: Springer-Verlag Wien, 1993.
Kahmen, H., W. Faig. Surveying. Berlin, New York: Walter de Grayter, 1988.
Kraus, K., P. Waldhausl. Photogrammetrie. Band 1. Grandlagen und Standardverfahren. Ferd. Bonn: Diimmlers Verlag, 1994.
Maling, D. H. Coordinate Systems and Map Projections. Pergamon Press, 1992.
Torge, W. Geodesy. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1991.
Vanicek, P. and E. Krakiwsky. Geodesy: The Concepts. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North Holland Publishing Company, 1982.
Zhu, J., Exact Conversion of Earth-Centred Earth-Fixed Coordinates to Geodetic Coordinates. Journal of Guidance, Control, and
Dynamics. Vol. 16, No. 2, March-April 1993.
National Imagery and Mapping Agency, Department of Defense World Geodetic System 1984, Its Definition and Relationships with
Local Geodetic Systems. NIMA TR8350.2.
National Geodetic Survey. Geodetic Glossary (1986).

- -


,
.
,
,
" "
"
".


54, 37 90

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.
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.


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