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# Friction Friction

AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
110
Friction Friction
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
111
Equilibrium with friction Equilibriumwithfriction
Frictionforcealwaysagainstmotionorimpendingmotion y g p g
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
112
Angle of friction Angleoffriction
N=Wcos
N
F = N
N Wcos
When
s
N>=Wsin
theobjectremainsinposition

AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
113
F
max
=
s
N
tan<
s

## Body on a slope Bodyonaslope

Beforeimpendingmotion
Atimpendingmotion
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
114
Downward motion Downwardmotion
=0 25;
d
=0 2
W=300N

s
0.25;
d
0.2
Atimpendingdownwardmotion
W
y
=4300/5=240N
3
y

s
W
y
=0.25240=60N
W
x
= 3300/5=180N>
s
W
y
Th t P h ll b t t
W
W
y
N
F = N
4
ThusasupportPshallbenecessarytostop
downwardmotion;P=18060=120N
W
x
P
F
max
=
s
N
Tostopabodythatismovingdownthe
slope

d
W
y
=0.2240=48N
W
x
= 3300/5=180N
Thus P necessary to stop downward
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
115
ThusPnecessarytostopdownward
motion;P=18048=132N
Upward motion Upwardmotion
300N
=0 25;
d
=0 2
3
W
W
y

s
0.25;
d
0.2
Atimpendingupwardmotion
W
y
=4300/5=240N
N
4
P
W
x
y

s
W
y
=0.25240=60N
P=W
x
+
s
W
y
=180+60=240N
Th t i iti t d ti P 240N
F
max
=
s
N
Thustoinitiateupwardmotion;P=240N
To sustain upward motion Tosustainupwardmotion

d
W
y
=0.2240=48N
W
x
= 3300/5=180N
Thebodywillremainin
positionfor
120<P<240N
Thus,tosustainupwardmotion;
P=180+48=228N
120<P<240N
Thus,frictionbehaves
likeinertia
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
116
Wheels impending downward motion Wheels impendingdownwardmotion
100N
100N
n
2
A
A
100N
3
4
3
N
2
n
1
N
2
B
4
P
3
4
N
1
M
A
=0n
1
=n
2
2
100N
n
2 M
B
=0n
3
=n
2
V=0N
1
80+n
2
=0
H=0N
2
60+n
1
=0
N > N
n
3
B
V=0N
3
80n
2
=0
H=0P60N
2
+n
3
=0
P
N
1
>N
2
Atimpendingmotion
n
2
=N
2
=0.2N
2
3
4
N
3
Atimpendingmotion
n
2
=N
2
=0.2N
2
=10N
P
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
117
2

2 2
N
1
=70N;N
2
=50N
4
N
3
2

2 2
N
3
=90N;P=100N
Wheels impending upward motion Wheels impendingupwardmotion
100N
100N
n
2
A
A
100N
3
3
N
2
n
1
N
2
B
4
P
3
4
N
1
M
A
=0n
1
=n
2
2
100N
n
2 M
B
=0n
3
=n
2
V=0N
1
80n
2
=0
H=0N
2
60n
1
=0
N > N
n
3
B
V=0N
3
80+n
2
=0
H=0P60N
2
n
3
=0
P
N
1
>N
2
Atimpendingmotion
n
2
=N
2
=0.2N
2
3
4
N
3
Atimpendingmotion
n
2
=N
2
=0.2N
2
=15N
P
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
118
2

2 2
N
1
=95N;N
2
=75N
4
N
3
2

2 2
N
3
=65N;P=150N
Raisingobjects
W
Wh h b d i f i i l
P
Whenthebodyisfrictionless
butthewedgeshavefriction:
WW

N
n
max
=
s
N
tan
max=

s

Thesystemisself
locking when tan<
s
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
119
lockingwhentan<
s
Raisingobjects
m
m
P
d
=
1
0
m
pitch=2mm
doubleacting
W
a=300mm
g
F W F
Q
P
R
m
m
P
Wh th b d i f i ti l
Q
R

10 mm
4
Q
P
R
+
To tighten the grip
Whenthebodyisfrictionless
butthewedgeshavefriction:
W
Q

Totightenthegrip
(increaseP)
N

n = N

Thesystemisself
lockingwhentan<
s
Q P t (+)
Q
P
R
Toloosenthe
i ( l k)
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
120
N
n
max
=
s
N
tan
max=

s

Q=Ptan(+)
F=5Q/300
grip(unlock)
Flatbeltonapulley
Torquetransferbypurefriction
Torquetransferbybearingand
friction
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
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friction
Frictionpulley

sN

T
T+T
N
T
1
T
2
T >T

T
2
>T
1
F
x
=0(T+T)Cos(/2)TCos(/2)
s
N=0
F 0 N (T T)Si (/2) TSi (/2) 0 F
y
=0N(T+T)Sin(/2)TSin(/2)=0
N=(T+T)Sin (/2)+TSin(/2) N=(T+T)Sin(/2)+TSin(/2)
(T+T)Cos(/2)TCos(/2)
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
122

s
[(T+T)Sin(/2)+TSin(/2)]=0
Friction pulley Frictionpulley
/ / / / (T+T)Cos(/2)TCos(/2)
s
[(T+T)Sin(/2)+TSin(/2)]=0
TCos (/2) [(2T+T)Sin (/2)]=0 TCos (/2)
s
[(2T+T)Sin(/2)]=0
2
[ ] 0
2 2
s
Sin
T T
Cos T

+ =

2 2
2
Sin
T

T
1
T
2
2
0; 1; 0; 1
2 2
2
Sin
T
Cos

2
1
0
T
s s
T
dT
d
T

= =

T
2
s
dT
T
d
dT

=
1
2 1
ln ln
s
T
T T
T
=
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
123
s
dT
d
T
=
2
1
s
T
e
T

=
Capstan anchor Capstananchor
=6;T
2
=100kN;
s
=0.3;T
1
=?
2
s
T
e
T

=
1
1.8
2
T
T
e
T

=
1
1
0.35
T
T N =
1N
10N
1N
1N
10N
100N
1N
2N
1N
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
124
1N
2N
4N
Pulley impending motion Pulleyimpendingmotion
D d ti
=0.2
Downwardmotion
=0.2
Upwardmotion
=
T<100kN
100/T=e
0.2
0.2
T>100kN
T/100=e
0.2
T
/
T=100/e
0.2
T=53 24kN
T/100=e
0.2
T=100e
0.2
T 187 45kN
T T=53.24kN
T=187.45kN
100kN
Theweightwillremaininpositionfor53.24<T<187.45
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
125
Summing up Summingup
F i ti i di ti Frictionopposesimpendingmotion
Frictioncoefficientcanbedeterminedfromtheangleof
friction friction
Interfacesarecharacterizedbyfrictioncoefficients
Frictionalcoefficientforstaticinterfacesishigherthan g
thatindynamicinterfaces
Frictionforceatimpendingmotioniscoefficientof
friction times normal reaction frictiontimesnormalreaction
Anobjectonaslopingsurfacewillremainstaticifthe
appliedforceishigherthantheforcerequiredfor pp g q
impendingdownwardmotionbutlowerthanthatfor
impendingupwardmotion
AbhijitMukherjee,ThaparUniversity,Patiala
126