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Troubleshooting and

Repairing LCD TVs

By John Preher
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or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of
this wor& and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties
of fitness for a particular purpose$ No warranty may be created or extended by sales or
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or general in!ormation on our other products and ser"ices or to obtain technical support#
please email our "ustomer "are -epartment contactus.preher/tech$com
This book is dedicated to my wife Lindsay , my daughter Alana and my son Kobin. With out
the support of my wonderful family this book would have never been possible.
would also like to dedicate this book to !estine "ong, Author and electronics technician.
Thank you for all your support and inspiration.

Li$uid %rystals....&
Li$uid %rystal 'isplays....()
The *ower +upply ,oard....(-
The nverter ,oard....22
The .ain ,oard....2&
The %ontroller/T0%on ,oard....#1
The L%' 'river ,oard....#-
The +tandby %ircuit....#&
The Li$uid %rystal 'isplay n 'epth....#2
Test 3$uipment....-)
+chematic 'iagrams....-4
5nderstanding and Testing 6esistors....-7
5nderstanding and Testing %apacitors....&#
5nderstanding and Testing nductors....2#
5nderstanding and Testing Transistors....22
5nderstanding and Testing 'iodes....7)
5nderstanding and Testing ,ridge 6ectifiers....()#
5nderstanding and Testing L3's....(()
5nderstanding and Testing +witching Transformers....((#
5nderstanding and Testing 8pto0solators....((2
5nderstanding and Testing 9oltage 6egulators....(2#
5nderstanding and Testing +witches....(2&
5nderstanding and Testing :uses and 9aristors....(24
+ome Testing Tips....(#(
5seful :ormulas....(#2
;ow To 'isassemble An L%' T9....(##
9oltage Test *oints....(#&
The Tap Test....(11
:ree<e +pray and ;air 'ryers....(1&
%onnection *roblems....(17
*+5 =*ower +upply 5nit> :ailures....(-2
nverter ,oard :ailures....(-4
.ain ,oard :ailures....(&#
?o 9ideo....(&7
?o Audio....(2(
8+'/.enu :ailure....(22
White +creen....(2#
6ainbow +creen....(2-
+creen :lashes Then T9 +huts 'own....(2&
?o ,ack light....(22
Lines n *icture....(24
%racked *anel....(27
L%' T9 6epair %ase ;istories....(4)
:urther 6eading....(7(
Websites and free download=L%' T9 'isplay :ailure +ymptoms and
*ossible %auses.>....(71
*art, Tool and Test 3$uipment 'istributors....(7-
Liquid Crystals
Li$uid crystals are a type of matter that posses properties between those of
standard li$uid and those that are more like solid crystal. Li$uid crystal
may flow like a li$uid but at the molecular level it is oriented in a way that
normally represents a solid crystal.
Li$uid crystals molecules are rod like and can be aligned when electricity
is applied to them.
Liquid Crystals
3ach sub0pi@el or cell of an L%' panel is made up of li$uid crystal
molecules suspended between two transparent electrodes and two
polari<ing filters. The a@is of polarity for the two filters are perpendicular
to each other, so without the li$uid crystals between them light passing
through one of the filters would be blocked by the ne@t.
Make up of an LCD panel
,efore an electrical current is applied the molecules are in a Arela@edB
state. When voltage is applied the molecules align themselves with the
electrodes. The electrodes are treated in a manner that causes the crystals
to align in a helical structure. This type is called Twisted ?ematic =T?> and
is one of the most common types in L%' T9s.
Twisted nematic =T?>
Twisted nematic displays contain li$uid crystal elements which twist and
untwist at varying degrees allowing light to pass through. When no
voltage is applied to a T? li$uid crystal cell, the light is polari<ed to pass
through the cell. n proportion to the voltage applied, the L% cells twist up
to 7) degrees changing the polari<ation and blocking the lightCs path. ,y
properly adDusting the level of the voltage almost any gray level or
transmission can be achieved.
8ther Types nclude,
In-plane switchin !I"#$
n0plane switching is an L%' technology which aligns the li$uid crystal
cells in a hori<ontal direction. n this method, the electrical field is applied
through each end of the crystal, but this re$uires two transistors for each
cell instead of the single transistor needed for a standard thin0film
transistor =T:T> display. This results in blocking more transmission area,
which re$uires a brighter back light, which usually consumes more power.
%d&anced frine field switchin !%''#$
Advanced fringe field switching is a similar technology to *+ or +0*+
offering superior performance and color, besides high luminosity.
Light passing through an L%' panels first polari<ing filter is rotated as it
passes through the li$uid crystal, allowing it to pass through the second
polari<ing filter.
When no voltage is applied to the molecules in the helical =T?> structure,
they will untwist so as to not rotate light passing through them from the
first filter, this will cause the second polari<ing filter to block this light.
Liquid Crystal Displays
A li$uid crystal display contains a light source/back lighting, a li$uid
crystal panel and circuits that drive the panel.
LCD Display
(ack lihtin
The light source is found at the very rear of the display and it contains a
group of thin %%:Ls or %old %athode :luorescent Lamps.


)arious CC'Ls
The light from the back light passes through a diffusion plate to make sure
that the light distribution across the display is uniform and then brightness
enhancement film. ?ote that some newer T9s use L3' back or side
lighting and do not have a large bulky back light and do not re$uire an
inverter board. ?e@t the light passes through the L%' panel which is
made up of millions of cells. As stated earlier the cells will control the flow
of light through the display to create full color images.
The LCD Panel
The L%' *anel %ontains .ultiple Layers. :irst a polari<ing filter followed
by the color filters, T:T sheet, Li$uid crystal and then a second polari<ing
filter =the order can be slightly different depending on manufacturer and
panel type>.
As we Dust said the L%' panel contains millions of cells = depending on the
screen si<e> and three cells make up a pi@el. 3ach cell is colored either red
green or blue. A complete pi@el is made up of one green, one red and one
blue cell. 3ach cell is controlled by a T:T or Thin :ilm Transistor that
provides accurate control of each cell and makes for a clear picture.
Close look at pi*els and cells !sub-pi*els$
The "ower #upply (oard
Typical LCD TV P$% &Power $upply %nit'
1"- %2s !se a switching type power supply also &nown as an S34S or Switch
3ode 4ower Supply$ %he power supply converts the mains #" supply into -"
5-irect "urrent6 voltages that can be used by the circuits within the 1"- %2$
#" 5#lternating "urrent6 at the mains voltage 5usually 110/1002 in !S#6 enters
the 4S! and first passes through over current protection5main fuse6, transient
voltage suppression5varistor6, 73' 57lectromagnetic 'nterference6 filtering, in rush
current limiting5N%" thermistor6 and 4," 54ower ,actor "orrection6 circuitry$
%hen the #" voltage is rectified by the bridge rectifier$ Note if #ctive 4," is used,
the active 4," circuit will be located after the bridge rectifier and before the
reservoir capacitor$
Passi"e PC Described
%he simplest way to control harmonic current is to use a filter, filters are designed
that pass current only at line fre(uency 580) or 0 9)6$ %his filter reduces the
harmonic current, which means that the non/linear device now loo&s li&e a linear
load$ #t this point the power factor can be brought to near unity516, using
capacitors or inductors as re(uired$ %his filter re(uires large value high current
inductors, which are bul&y and expensive$ 4assive 4," needs an inductor larger
than the inductor in an active 4,", but costs less$
(cti"e PC Described
#ctive power factor correction 5active 4,"6 uses a more complex electronic
circuit to control the amount of power drawn by a load in order to obtain a power
factor as close as possible to unity516$ !sually the active 4," circuit controls the
input current of the load so that the current waveform is proportional to the mains
voltage waveform 5a sine wave6$ %he purpose of ma&ing the power factor as close
to unity516 as possible is to ma&e the circuit that is power factor corrected appear
purely resistive$ 'n this case the voltage and current are in phase and the reactive
power consumption is )ero$ %his allows the most efficient delivery of electrical
power from the power company to the consumer$ Some types of active 4," are
:oost,:uc& and :uc&/boost$ #ctive power factor correction circuits can be single
stage or multistage$ 'n the case of a S34S, a boost converter is inserted between
the bridge rectifier and the primary side filter capacitor5reservoir capacitor6$ %he
boost converter attempts to maintain a constant -" bus voltage on its output while
drawing a current that is constantly in phase with and at the same fre(uency as the
line voltage$
%he #" voltage 's now ;ectified , output from the :ridge rectifier is a pulsed -"
voltage which is then <smoothed= by the reservoir capacitor also called the
primary side filter capacitor$
Now let>s tal& about the power 3?S,7%+s$ 'n 1"- %2s you will commonly find
two power 3?S,7%s in the typical half bridge topology$

Basic )al! Bridge Topology
%he 3?S,7% is the switch in the S34S, it is turned on by the power '" that
sends a s(uare wave signal to the gates of the power 3?S,7%s in the half bridge,
turning them on and off alternately at a high fre(uency$ *hen the first of the
power 3?S,7%s5@16 is turned on it allows current to flow through the primary
winding of the switching transformer to the center of the voltage divider formed
by "1 and "0 $ *hen this 3?S,7% switches off the second 3?S,7%5@06 is
switched on and the flow of current reverses, going from the center of the voltage
divider to ground through the second 3?S,7% and then the process repeats$ %his
action causes a changing magnetic flux to exist in the transformers core which
induces voltages across the secondary windings of the switching transformer,
which steps down the voltage in this case, to #" voltages which are then again
rectified by either ultra fast recovery or schott&y diodes, then filtered by secondary
side filter capacitors and inductors also called cho&es because they inhibit or
<cho&e= high fre(uency changes in current$ Now the rectified and filtered
secondary voltages may or may not then be further regulated by voltage regulator
'"s or regulation circuits found on other circuits or on the secondary side of the
4S!$ 4lease note that not all 1"- %2s will use the half bridge topology$ Some
will only have one power 3?S,7% or ,7% using a (uasi/resonant topology and
some will have the power '" and 3?S,7%+s integrated into a single pac&age$
3ost power supplies in 1"- %2s you encounter will be fairly similar and will all
be S34S, with a little studying you will see how different ones you encounter
wor& because they will be based on the same principles$
:ottom o! P$% showing $*D power +C,hal! bridge dri"er
P$% with acti"e PC
%he output of the 4S! is &ept stable by utili)ing feedbac&$ #t least one of the
secondary voltages must be monitored, this is done by a few circuits$ ,irst the
sampling circuit which is normally made up of a few resistors$ %he voltage from
the sampling circuit is then used as the reference for an adAustable shunt regulator
'", this is the error detection circuit which monitors the sampled voltage ta&en
from the sampling circuit and coltrols the current flow through the 17- of an
opto/isolator which has an output signal that is amplified and then ta&en to the
power '"s feedbac& pin so that the power '" can then alter the mar& to space ratio
of the s(uare wave signal to the 3?S,7%+s causing a regulation of the output
voltage increasing or decreasing the output or even shutting down the %2
depending on the signal received from the opto/isolator$ %his process is called
4ulse *idth 3odulation or 4*3$ %he power '" is sometimes referred to as the
4*354ulse *idth 3odulator6$ 'f the load on the power supply causes the
secondary voltages to drop then the power '" increases the 3?S,7%+s drive
signals duty cycle or you could say the ratio of mar&s to spaces increases$
*ar- to space ratio
Some 4S!s will use a different type of feed bac& implementing a secondary
winding on the primary side that is used for feedbac&, still the over all principle is
the same and the process is still 4*3$
Basic $*P$ Bloc- Diagram
%o go completely 'n depth into the wor&ings of the S34S is beyond the scope of
this boo&, but you should now have a good idea of how an S34S in an 1"- %2
' do suggest you read more on S34S and how to repair them because it will
definitely speed up your troubleshooting time$ *e will go over the S34S much
more in this boo& but ' would still li&e to recommend you read <%roubleshooting
and ;epairing Switch 3ode 4ower Supplies= :y Bestine Cong$
%his boo& is pac&ed with all you need to &now to completely understand how to
troubleshoot S34S (uic&ly$
The +n"erter Board
%he inverter board is responsible for stepping up and converting the low voltage
-" supplied by one of the outputs from the S34S into a high voltage, roughly
18002/18002 #" for stri&ing5start up6 and 8002/10002 #" to run the "",1
lamps that provide the bac& lighting for the 1"- panel$
,or many years designers have used a buc&+royer inverter topology to stri&e and
supply power to the "",1s$ %his topology is basically a combination of a step
down buc& regulator, a royer oscillator and a step up transformer$

Buc- Royer circuit simpli!ied
%he buc& regulator is made up of a power transistor, buc& cho&e, buc& diode, buc&
coil, power inductor, a 4*3 or inverter '" and a capacitor$
$impli!ied Buc- Con"erter
%he royer oscillator consists of two transistors, capacitor, 92% 59igh 2oltage
%ransformer6 and a capacitor in series with the lamp called the ballast capacitor$
%he buc& royer inverter supplies a high voltage #" to drive the "",1 lamps$
' don>t thin& you will come across to many 1"- %2s with the :uc&+;oyer style
inverter circuit but it is still good to understand how different circuits wor& as you
will see similar circuits employed in different parts of the %2 and other electronics
devices you decide to repair$ %he maAority of inverter circuits you will encounter
in 1"- %2s will implement a different type of inverter circuit such as the direct
drive topology$
Direct dri"e topology
%he direct drive inverter uses a simple topology that optimi)es performance, has a
reduced cost and lowers component count by eliminating the buc& cho&e, buc&
diode, resonant capacitors and transistors found in a :uc&+;oyer oscillator$ %he
direct drive topology uses an inverter '"54*36 to drive a pair of 3?S,7%s
connected to a 92% primary winding, switching the 3?S,7%s on and off at
separate times, allowing current to flow through the primary windings center tap
and bac& and forth through the primary winding and one of the 3?S,7%s to
ground$ %he type of direct drive inverter we Aust discussed may also be referred to
as a push pull circuit$
#nother common type of inverter you will see is the full bridge inverter$

ull bridge topology
%he full bridge inverter is li&e the direct drive inverter ' showed you earlier only
the center tapped primary is no longer re(uired$ %he 3?S,7%s are in a classical
9/:ridge topology that is used to reverse the current flow through the primary
winding of the high voltage transformer$ Cou will commonly find this type of
inverter in today>s 1"- %2s$ Note that some %2s you will encounter will have the
4S! and the inverter integrated into one board$ Cou may also encounter some
other inverter topologies li&e the half bridge inverter$
The *ain Board
#s the Name implies the main board has many functions within the 1"- %2$
Cou may also hear this board referred to as the #+- board, logic board, digital
board and also the scaler board$ %he purpose of the main board is to ta&e the input
video and audio signals convert the analogue video signal into a digital signal that
the controller board can send to the driver '"s which then the %,%s in the panel
and control the picture$ %he audio is ta&en to the audio processor than an audio
amplifier which then drives the spea&ers$ Sometimes all of the video and audio
inputs will be found on the main board and sometimes they will be found on a
separate board called the Aac& pac&, which connects to the main board via a ribbon
cable or ,," 5,lat ,lexible "able6$ %his board may also house the audio processor
and audio amplifier '"s and corresponding circuits$

LCD TV /ac- pac-,+nput or signal board
Next we will discuss important components found on the main board$
VP%&Video Processing %nit'
%he video processing unit is a highly integrated circuit that includes a
"4!5"entral 4rocessing !nit6, 9-59igh -ef$6+S-5Standard -ef$6 video and audio
decoder, N%S" video decoder,?S-5?n Screen -isplay6comb filter a video scaler
and de/interlacer$ %o fully explain the 24! is beyond the scope of this boo& and '
suggest you do further studying if you want o understand the 24! better$ %he
main thing for you to understand is it converts video information into digital
signals that can be sent by the 12-S '" to the controller+%/"on board$
VP% on LCD TV main board
*C%&*icro Controller %nit'
# micro controller is a small computer made up in a single integrated circuit
consisting of a fairly simple "4!5"entral 4rocessing !nit6 along with support
functions li&e crystal oscillator, timers, watchdog timer, serial and analog '+? etc$
4rogram memory li&e N?; flash or ?%4 ;?3 can be included on chip as well as
small amounts of ;#3$ %he 3"! carries out small dedicated tas&s within the
1"- %2$
*C% on LCD TV main board
00PR1*&0lectronically 0rasable Programmable Read 1nly *emory'
774;?3s are a type of non/volatile memory used in electronic devices$ Bust as
the name implies an 774;?3 can be erased and programmed with electrical
signals$ 774;?3s are used to store information such as user adAustable settings
and preferences among other things$ *hen you ma&e for instance a brightness
adAustment the 3"! may store this information in an external 774;?3$
00PR1*$ on LCD TV main board
Voltage Regulator +Cs
2oltage regulator '"s provide a constant stable voltage for the '"s and other
circuits found on the main board$
lash *emory
,lash memory is non/volatile and it is a specific type of 774;?3 that is erased
and programmed in large bloc&s$ ,lash memory costs much less than byte/
programmable memory 774;?3 and so is dominant wherever a large amount of
non/volatile memory is needed$ %he 1"- %2 software is usually stored on flash
memory and this software can sometimes be upgraded through a !S: port or
memory card reader on your %2$
(udio Processor
%he audio processor receives digital and analogue audio signals input to the %2
and converts them into a signal that can be used by the audio amplifier to drive the
spea&ers and also to decode and send audio to peripheral devices$
(udio (mpli!ier
%he audio amplifier as the name implies is responsible for receiving the signal
from the output of the audio processor which is small in amplitude and using it to
drive a signal with larger amplitude but the same modulations through the %2
LVD$&Low Voltage Di!!erential $ignaling'+C
%he 12-S '" uses low voltage differential signaling to send the video signal from
the main board to the %/"on+1"- controller board $ 12-S is a differential
signaling system, meaning that it transmits two different voltages that are
compared at the receiving end$ 12-S uses this difference in voltage to encode the
video signal$
%he function of the crystal is in combination with other components to create an
electrical signal with a very precise fre(uency$ %his fre(uency is used to provide a
stable cloc& signal for an '"$ %he most common type you will see in the 1"- %2
is the (uart) crystal oscillator$
#gain remember that not all 1"- %2S are the same$ 'n this boo& ' am giving you
examples of what is commonly seen in 1"- %2s on the mar&et today$ Cou will
find that some %2s will incorporate different technologies on their main boards$ 't
is up to you to do further studying as needed li&e reading the service manual and
going over the schematics for the %2 you are wor&ing on if possible, but always
be learning about electronics and electronics circuits so can (uic&ly identify them
when you see them and troubleshoot them (uic&ly as you &now how they operate$
The LCD Controller Board
%he 1"- "ontroller or %/"on 4": receives the 12-S signal from the 3ain
:oard which it processes into %,% -rive Signals and then through the
driver board controls the 1"- 4anel driver '"s$?n the %/con 4": you will find
-ynamic ;am '"Fs which are 9igh Speed Storage -evices used to store data until
it is time to be addressed$102 is usually supplied to the %/con :oard through the
cable from the main board to the %/con board$ %his voltage is easily measured at
the picofuse on the %/con board$
LCD controller board
The LCD Dri"er Board
%he 1"- driver board is directly bonded to the 1"- panel by flexible printed
circuit5,4"6$ %he driver board directs the signal from the 1"- controller to the
driver '"s which are mounted directly to the ,4" that bonds the driver board to
the 1"- panel and on ,4" down the side of the panel$ %he mounting of the driver
'" on the ,4" is often referred to as "?,5"hip ?n ,ilm6 or %"45%ape "arrier
4ac&age6$ Sometimes you will see different configurations li&e the %/"on+1"-
controller board and driver board can be integrated into one board$
The $tandby Circuit
%he standby circuit is used to supply power to the 3"! and other components in
the 1"- %2 when the %2 is off, this is why it is called standby mode$ ;eally the
%2 is not off completely unless it is unplugged$ %his is how you are able to turn
the %2 on when the %2 is in standby mode$ *hen you push the power button on
the remote control or on the &eyboard located on the %2 a signal is sent to the
3"! that tells the 3"! to send an <on= or <start up= signal to the power '" so it
will start driving the power 3?S,7%s which causes the %2 to turn on$ %he
standby circuit is found on the S34S board and is easily located by it>s small
switching transformer$ %he usual standby voltage is 82 -"$ %he standby power
supply is an S34S usually with the 4*3 and 3?S,7% integrated into a single
standby power '", small switching transformer, secondary diode, filter capacitors,
feedbac& circuit etc$ 't is a fully functional S34S only really small, an S34S
within an S34S$
"lic& on the lin& below to see a repair ' did on an 1"- %2 with a standby circuit failureG
The Li2uid Crystal Display +n Depth
#s we stated before the 1i(uid "rystal -isplay contains many layers$ # bac& light,
polari)ing filters, color filters, %,% layer and li(uid crystal$ %he very bac& of the
panel is a bac& light which contains multiple "",1 lamps$ Some newer %2s use
17-s for bac& lighting or edge lighting with a light guide, allowing light to evenly
illuminate the entire picture even though the light source is around the edge and
not directly behind$ %he light passes through the actual 1"- panel that contains all
the tiny red, green and blue cells that ma&e up the pixels allowing the picture the
display produces to be illuminated and seen$
Panel Types
Passi"e *atri3/
4assive matrix panels use a simple grid to address a particular pixel in the display$
#s the number of pixels and the corresponding columns and rows of the grid
increase this type of display becomes infeasible$ Slow response times and bad
contrast are typical with this type of display$
(cti"e *atri3-
3odern 1"- %2s use the active matrix structure$ %he matrix is made up with %,%
5%hin ,ilm %ransistors6$ 7ach cell within a pixel has its own dedicated transistor$
%his allows each cell to be activated individually$
#ctive matrix addressed displays are brighter, sharper and generally have better
response times not to mention producing better images than passive matrix
addressed displays of the same si)e$
Response Time
;esponse time is the amount of time it ta&es for a li(uid crystal cell to change
from activated or white to inactive or blac& and then return to white$ :asically it
refers to the speed of the li(uid crystal cells and how fast they can change from
one state to another and so how fast the images can be refreshed on the screen$ %he
faster the response time the better$ %his reduces the effect of trailing or ghosting
that can be caused by slow response times$ %ypical response times are from Ems/
Contrast Ratio
"ontrast ratio is the ratio of the %2s brightest white it can display in comparison to
it>s dar&est blac&$
Viewing (ngle
the viewing angle of the %2 is literally the angle at which it is best viewed from$
!sually the hori)ontal and vertical viewing angles will be listed in the users
manual$ 'deally a %2 would have a viewing angle of 180 degrees both hori)ontally
and vertically, which would mean it could be viewed even if you were standing at
the very side or loo&ing at it from the very top or bottom$ 3odern 1"- %2s have
a wide viewing angle, usually around 170 degrees hori)ontally , vertical viewing
angle can vary$ *hen a %2 has a small viewing angle you will notice the picture
fade and the colors distort as you move up and down or side to side relative to the
%he resolution of an 1"- %2 is the number of distinct pixels it can display$ 't is
simply the physical number of columns and rows of pixels creating the display$
1"- %2s commonly display the following resolutions$
S-%25Standard -efinition %26G E80i
7-%257nhanced -efinition %26G E80p5700 x E806
9-%259igh -efinition %26G 700p51080 x 7006
9-%2G 1080i 51900 x 10806
9-%2G 1080p 51900 x 10806
%he i stands for interlaced scan$ %his means for each frame you have two <fields=
during the first field the display is scanned for part of frame and then s&ips a piece
of that same frame then scans another piece until the end of that field , then the
process repeats filling in the parts that were missed in the first field scan$ %he two
fields together ma&e up one frame$
%he p stands for progressive scan$ %his is when the scan starts at the top of the
panel and drives every necessary cell all the way down the screen completing an
entire frame in one sweep as appose to two$

1et>s discuss some tools that are necessary for repairing 1"- %2s and some that
will ma&e repairing 1"- %2s much easier and reduce your troubleshooting time$
Long 4ose Pliers
1ong nose pliers come are great for all sorts of things including helping to remove
and place+mount components in places that our fingers can>t fit$
Diagonal Cutters
-iagonal cutters really come in handy$ Iood for cutting of a strip of solder wic&
and always being used to clip off components leads after soldering them in place$

4ut Dri"er
$crew Dri"ers
%wee)ers come in handy, especially when you are removing or replacing S3-
$oldering 6it
Cou will want to put together a soldering &it that includes such things as solder,
solder wic&, solder tip tinner+cleaner, heat sin& compound, a solder suc&er some
dental pic&s and a 7solder aid &it=$
1ptical Visor .ith Light
#n optical visor is something ' Aust could not do without, ' use them to find bad
solder connections on 4":s and ' basically wear them the whole time ' am
wor&ing, when soldering and to loo& at part values for instance on S3-
components, it would be very difficult to wor& with out these and it is important
that they have a light so you can &eep your hands free for things li&e a soldering
iron and solder etc$ *ithout proper lighting and magnification it would not be
possible to even see a lot of the connection problems ' have found while ' was
wearing them$
03ample o! solder crac-s that you might not see without a light and magni!ier
Variable temperature soldering station with L0D display
# good variable temperature soldering station is an essential if you plan on doing
component level repairs on 1"- %2s$ ' recommend spending the money to get a
nice station with variable temperature li&e the one in the above photo$ 't will
surely pay for itself in Aust a few repairs$
$older Tip Cleaner
$*D rewor- station
#n S3- rewor& station is not a must for doing 1"- %2 repair, but if you decide
to ta&e on lot>s of S3- level repair within the 1"- %2 this will surely ma&e your
life much easier$
Chip 8uic- $*D remo"al -it
"hip @uic& is one of my favorite products$ %his is what ' choose to use over an
S3- rewor& station for the amount of S3- wor& ' find myself doing$ ' have even
removed and replaced tsop 5thin small/outline pac&age6 flash '"s with 80 pins
with this stuff and other products form their website, it is ama)ing$
Complete 0lectronics Tool 6it
#ll the tools listed are Aust some of the most important tools needed, but '
personally feel the more tools the better and ' am &nown for carrying a large
amount with me most of the time$ Cou may want to thin& about purchasing one of
the complete electronics tool &its li&e in the photo above$ Cou can purchase these
&its from various electronics distributors online$
Test 02uipment
D**&Digital *ultimeter'-
-33s in general have less effect on the circuit being tested than an analogue
meter and few circuits are effected by having this type of meter connected to them$
3ost -33s have a constant input resistance of 103 ohms or more$
Digital *ultimeter
%he -33 is probably the piece of test e(uipment you will find yourself using
most as it has so many features$ 3any -33s include settings for resistance, -"
and #" voltage, fre(uency and duty cycle, -" and #" current, capacitance,
continuity, transistor h,7, temperature, diode testing and more$ 4urchasing a
(uality -33 is definitely a wise investment$
(nalogue *eter-
%he analogue meter is also a very useful tool for the electronics technician$ %he
voltages used for testing by most analogue meters are larger than with a -33 and
so they can be used to chec& for certain component failures that the low voltages
used with most -33s cannot$
(nalogue *eter
#nalogue meters are great for testing 3?S,7%s, :B%s5:ipolar Bunction
%ransistors6, opto/isolators, capacitors, 17-s and other components as well$
#nalogue meters are very reasonably priced and you can find a pretty nice one
online for under JD0 !S-$
The 0$R *eter-
%he 7S; meter is an important tool for the electronics technician or hobbyist$
7lectrolytic capacitors that have increases in 7S; are often the reason electronic
devices fail$ :ad electrolytic filter capacitors in the S34S can cause all sorts of
problems in 1"- %2s including no or dim display, flic&ering display, no power no
audio etc$ %here is also a lot of electrolytic capacitors on the main board which can
also cause many problems li&e loss of ?S-, artifacts+glitches in the picture no
video etc$ when the capacitors fail$
7S; stands for 7(uivalent Series ;esistance and is and effective resistance that is
used to describe the resistive aspect of the impedance of certain electrical
components$ %he theoretical treatment of capacitors assumes they are perfect
components contributing only capacitance to a circuit, but all physical devices are
constructed of material with some resistance to electricity$ %his means a capacitor
has a resistance as well as a capacitance$ "apacitors also exhibit reactance which
we will not discuss$
3ost electrolytic capacitors have a low 7S; to begin with, depending on a
specific capacitor and the average 7S; can usually be found on the spec$ sheet for
a certain capacitor if you can find one$ 3ost li&ely you will refer to the chart of
common 7S; values that will come with your 7S; meter or you can also find
them listed on the internet$ Normally with a bad electrolytic capacitor the 7S; is
(uite higher than the typical value listed for a new capacitor$ # capacitor 7S; rises
over time as they are exposed to and or dissipate heat, because they contain a
li(uid electrolyte when
they get hot the li(uid expands and is vented out of the capacitor and also the
electrolyte can brea& down and go through chemical changes over time and
exposure to heat also causing the 7S; to increase$
%he 7S; meter is so valuable because it allows you to (uic&ly chec& the many
electrolytic capacitors found in 1"- %2s and other electronic devices and very
often you can test them in circuit all though if you ever doubt the reading it never
hurts to test the capacitors out of circuit and this is a good practice with all
components or at least to unsolder and lift one of the components leads from the
The Ring Tester-
%he ring tester is an inexpensive and effective way to test any high @5(uality
factor6 inductive component$ 'n 1"- %2 repair the ring tester is very useful for
testing switching transformers in the S34S and 92 transformers on the inverter
%he components in many circuit li&e the S34S and inverter board contain low
loss5high @6 resonant circuits$ %he ring test got its name from the fact that when a
very fast pulse of current is applied to a high @ component the tuned nature of the
component will produce a decaying #" voltage of several cycles or more$ %he
more rings the higher the @$ 1ittle or no rings indicates low @ and a possible
The 1scilloscope-
%he oscilloscope or <scope= is a piece of electronic test e(uipment that is used to
view signal voltages and fre(uencies, usually as a two dimensional graph$ 't is
driven by an input signal that has the effect of producing a recogni)able pattern
on the screen that describes certain aspects of the signal$ ?scilloscopes are very
useful tools and can help to (uic&ly locate problems within electronics devices$
' assume that many of the readers do not own an oscilloscope or have access to
one$ ,ortunately this boo& will be repairing 1"- %2s with mostly a -33 ,
analogue meter, 7S; meter, ring tester and other tools$ ' repair lots of %2s and
have for years Aust with mostly those meters ' Aust mentioned, although sometimes
' will need a scope for those difficult %2s and in that case, except for a few
obvious critical waveforms, li&e the 4*3 output from the power and inverter '"s
and chec&ing for ripple on the secondary outputs in the S34S a schematic would
be needed to &now where and what waveforms to loo& for in the particular model
of 1"- %2 you are testing$
%o learn more about the oscilloscope and how to use one clic& on the lin& below$
%he analogue oscilloscope
Digital Capacitance *eter-
# digital capacitance meter with a large range is a good tool for testing capacitors
capacitance value$
Lea- $ee-er-
%his is a great tool for hunting down difficult to find shorted components
especially circuits with lot>s of S3- components$ Simply touch 1ea&See&er>s
gold/plated probe on any solder pad along the suspicious trace and 1ea&See&er
automatically calibrates itself to the resistance of the defect, within a 0E milli/ohm
KwindowK$ :ecause the test voltage is a current/limited eight volts, it will power
through good diodes to activate shorted components beyond$ %ouch a pad in one
direction or the other and 1ea&See&er beeps higher or lower and lights the 17-
distance scale to indicate that you>re getting closer or further from the defect$ %he
0E milli/ohm window allows about 0 to D inches of 4": trace to be chec&ed, then
automatically re/calibrates itself to a new window as you get closer to the short$
:ecause 1ea&See&er has a range of )ero to 180 ohms, it can locate not Aust
shorted, but lea&y parts as well$ #nd unli&e your -23, 1ea&See&er>s uni(ue
Kfloating referenceK circuitry doesn>t give up resolution at these higher lea&age
values$ ?nce you>re in the general area of the defect, switch from the #!%? to the
1?"L position, 9igh -efinition mode$ %his loc&s the KwindowK and increases
resolution to 0$1 milli/ohm, so you can pinpoint the location of the defect within a
(uarter of an inch, even on multilayer boards with a power plane instead of
individual traces$ %he currently available 1ea&See&er 80: 9- has indicators for
Kstandard resolutionK #!%? and Khigh definitionK 1?"L$
%he solder pad where the beep is highest is the location of the defect$
$mart Twee5ers-
Smart %wee)ers is an 1";5'nductance,"apacitance,;esistance6 meter in a set of
twee)ers$ Smart %wee)ers features a uni(ue patented mechanical and electronic
design that integrates a highly accurate digital multimeter with a built/in high
precision S3- probes and a display$ %his light weight device can be easily held
by one hand$ 't is designed for component evaluation on a 4": or a production
line, component testing and sorting of S3- components$ Smart %wee)ers
dramatically reduces time necessary to troubleshoot or debug a complex 4":
significantly simplifying process of locating a faulty component$
$ome Precautions-
:e careful with your test e(uipment, don>t store meters in extreme conditions5e$g$
7xtreme hot or cold storage6$ -on>t slam or seriously vibrate the meter, especially
analogue meters which have delicate parts inside$
;ead the manuals that come with your different meters$
#void ma&ing measurements that exceed the ma&ers recommendation in any
particular setting$
#void accidentally attempting to ma&e voltage or current measurements with the
meter switched to the resistance setting$
$chematic Diagrams
Schematic diagrams can really ma&e troubleshooting 1"- %2s much easier and
can often be found online in service manuals available for download$ 3any times
though, the service manuals will not have that much info and have only partial or
no schematics at all$ %his is why it is so important to further your electronics
&nowledge and to be constantly studying$ %he more you &now about electronics
and common circuits, the easier it will be for you to recogni)e the circuits in the
%2 you are wor&ing on and to (uic&ly see how they wor& and have a good idea of
where to start troubleshooting the %2 regardless of whether or not you have a
schematic diagram$ 'f you have a strong understanding of electronics you will be
able to analy)e, troubleshoot and repair any circuit$ 't still never hurts to see what
information you can find as the internet has made so much available to the
technician and hobbyist repairer that was not available to us in the past so easily$
9ere is a lin& to the best source of great schematics for 1"- %2s, much better
than what is found in most service manuals$ S#3S %echnical 4ublishing$
%nderstanding and Testing Resistors
Resistors +n (n LCD TV Power $upply
# resistor opposes the flow of electrical current$ ;esistance is measured in ohms$
%he two main characteristics of a resistor are it>s resistance value in ohms and it>s
power rating in watts$ Never replace a resistor with a lower power rating than the
one removed from the circuit, it is ?L to use one with a larger rating but never
lower$ ;esistor resistance values add normally when connected in series, but add
in reciprocal when connected in parallel$
;esistor Schematic Symbols
Reading Resistors-
;esistors are mar&ed with colored bands to indicate the resistance value$ ;eading
from left to right, the first band is the first digit of the resistance value the second
band is the second digit of the resistance value$ %he third band is the the multiplier
and determines how many )eros follow the first two digits, the fourth band is
another important value and that is the tolerance$
%he tolerance is the percent plus or minus that the value of resistance can vary
from the value calculated from the color bands$ 7xample, a resistor with bands
from left to right of red, brown, yellow and gold would be 010,000 ohms or 010&
ohms with a tolerance of 8H$ Sometimes you will see resistors with five bands, in
this case the first three bands are digits, the fourth band is the multiplier and the
fifth band is the tolerance band$ Some resistors li&e S3- ones for instance will
use numbers instead of bands but the idea is the same$ ,or an S3- resistor with D
numbers the first number is the first digit of the resistance value the second
number is the second digit and the third number is the multiplier$ So an S3-
resistor mar&ed 10D, would have a value of 10& ohm$ #n ; may be seen in the
value for instance E;7, the ; represents a decimal and in this case the value would
be E$7 ohms$
Testing Resistors-
%esting resistors can be done with your -33 or analogue meter$ -etermine the
value the resistor is supposed to be by using the color bands or numeric code$ 'f
the resistor is burnt or discolored so that you can not read the bands you will need
the schematic diagram for the %2 you are wor&ing on or you will have to use the
techni(ues described in the boo&, <,ind :urnt ;esistor 2alue= to determine the
resistors value through a systematic process$
?nce you &now the value of the resistor you want to test is supposed to be you can
simply set your -33 or analogue meter to the proper resistance range and
measure the actual value of the resistor$ Cou should get a resistance measurement
with in the tolerance of the given resistor, most bad resistors will have increased
in value or gone open reading ?$1$+ infinite resistance$ "harred and burnt resistors
are obviously bad and need replacement$ #lways remove resistors from circuit
before testing, as surrounding components may cause erroneous readings$ *attage
is not always listed on resistors and is determined by the physical si)e$
Testing Resistor 1n LCD *ain Board
*eter Reading 9:;.< ohms the resistor stated 99= ohms on the side and at >?
tolerance so this as a good resistor
%nderstanding and Testing Capacitors
Capacitors +n LCD Power $upply
# capacitor is a passive electronic component that stores electric charge$ #
capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a dielectric5insulator6$ *hen a
voltage is present across the conductors an electric field is developed within the
dielectric which stores energy$ %he effect is greatest between wide, flat, parallel
conductors that are very slightly separated by dielectric$
Capacitor $chematic $ymbols
"apacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for coupling5bloc&ing the flow of
-" while allowing #" to pass6, decoupling5also called bypassing, passes -"
while bypassing #"6, filtering interference, Smoothing the output from a bridge
rectifier5often called a reservoir capacitor6, filtering ripple on the output of S34S
power supplies, in timing and resonant circuits and many other purposes$
"apacitor capacitance values add normally when connected in parallel, but add in
reciprocal when connected in series$ Some important characteristics are the
capacitance value5often in micro/farads6 and the wor&ing voltage5the max voltage
that can be applied across the capacitor6$ Never replace a capacitor with a wor&ing
voltage lower than the wor&ing voltage of the capacitor being replaced$ -ischarge
capacitors and observe polarity when testing$
Testing Capacitors# method one-
!se your analogue meter set to the x1 ohm range and connect the test leads to the
capacitor$ %he meters needle should &ic& up and then return to infinity if it does
not flic& or respond reverse the test leads, if it still does not flic& try again with
your analogue meter set to x10 ohm, x100 ohm, x1& ohm and then x10& ohm
range until you get a response if the meter needle does not flic& when the test leads
are applied to the capacitor in any setting than the capacitor is considered open$ 'f
the needle flic&s up and stays at )ero ohms the capacitor is considered shorted,
also if it stays to any other value other than infinity after flic&ing it is lea&y$ %his
method of testing is fairly old and not the best method$ Bust because a capacitor
can charges does not mean it is a good capacitor$ Cou can also use your -33 set
to the resistance setting to do this test, it should show some reading and then
gradually increase until the value reaches ?$1$5?ver 1imit6, and if you reverse the
test leads it should do the same again$ %his test will not wor& on small capacitors
10n, or lower$
*ethod Two-
%he second method for testing capacitors is to use a capacitance meter or the
capacitance setting on your -33, if it has one$ :y placing the test leads of the
meter to the leads of the capacitor the meter will display the measured value$
%he value of measured capacitance should be what is mar&ed on the capacitor5plus
or minus an amount indicated by the tolerance value6$ 3ost electrolytic capacitors
in 1"- %2s have a tolerance of 00H$ 7lectrolytic capacitors will have the value
of capacitance mar&ed on the side in micro/farads5u,6 along with the wor&ing
voltage, tolerance and max operating temperature5typically 88 or 108 degrees
"elsius6$ 3ost non/electrolytic capacitors will have their value in a numerical
code mar&ed on the side$
Bust li&e resistors, the first two numbers are the first two digits of the value and the
third is the multiplier$ %he value will be in pico/farads$ %hese three numbers are
followed by a letter which denotes the tolerance value5the amount that the actual
value of capacitance may very from the value stated on the capacitor6$ :oth
methods one and two are great for testing non/electrolytic capacitors li&e ceramic
disc, ceramic chip and polyester film type$
*ethod Three-
%his method involves the use of an 7S; meter$
0$R *eter
7lectrolytic capacitors are the most common capacitors to fail in electronic devices
and one of the most common components you will find failed in 1"- %2s in
7lectrolytic capacitors may test fine with methods one and two but can have an
increased 7S; which is causing a failure that would be missed by the first two
testing methods$ 'n this case you need the 7S; meter to find the bad capacitors$ %o
use the 7S; meter simply place the test leads to the leads of an electrolytic
capacitor and compare the reading5in ohms6 to the one on a chart of typical 7S;
values for electrolytic capacitors that should come with your 7S; meter$ 3ost
7S; meters will have an 7S; value chart right on the meter itself$

Cou can usually chec& electrolytic capacitors in circuit 5unless testing capacitors in
parallel6, but ' still recommend pulling them out of circuit or at least de/soldering
and lifting one lead of the capacitor before testing$
%sing 0$R meter to test $*D electrolytic capacitors on the main board
Chec-ing 0$R 1! $econdary ilter Capacitor 1n Power $upply Board
%o sum things up the first two methods are great for testing non/electrolytic
capacitors li&e ceramic disc, ceramic chip and polyester film capacitors, or the first
method for testing electrolytic capacitors to see if they are open , lea&y or shorted$
#lso it doesn>t hurt to ma&e sure the capacitance of electrolytic capacitors is within
tolerance$ %he third method, using the 7S; meter is the best way to test
electrolytic capacitors and these are the most common capacitors to fail in
electronic circuits, typically because of increased 7S;$ ;arely an electrolytic
capacitor will cause circuit failure because of lowered capacitance value and the
7S; will be within tolerance, but it does happen$
@ou can tell this electrolytic capacitor is bad /ust by loo-ing at it# always
replace any pu!!y or "ented electrolytic capacitors# no need to e"en test them
e3cept !or curiosity.
*ore ob"iously bad electrolytic capacitors
$ymbol or 0$R
Testing Ceramic Capacitors-
Ceramic Capacitors
$*D Ceramic Chip Capacitors
!se method one and two described earlier to test these types of capacitors$
Testing Ceramic Chip Capacitor 1n *ain Board .ith Capacitance $etting
1! D**
*eter Reading in n&nano!arads' =.=>9 nano!arads or >9 pico!arads

%o test the high voltage capacitors li&e the resin coated ceramic capacitors found
on the secondary side of some inverters, you will have to use an insulation tester
as the low voltage output from your -33 or analogue meter is not enough to test
this type of capacitor for lea&age or dielectric brea&down$ %hese capacitors will
often have physical damage that you can see li&e a crac& in the resin coating,
discoloration or burn$
>p A6V Ceramic Capacitors on $econdary $ide 1! (n LCD TV +n"erter
(n +nsulation Tester
%nderstanding and Testing +nductors
+nductors +n $econdary $ide 1! P$%
#n inductor also called a reactor, coil or cho&e is a component that exhibits
reactance resisting changes in current flow and can store energy in a magnetic
field when an electric current pulses through it$ Since inductors resist changes in
current flow, they attenuate or <cho&e= high fre(uency #" signals ma&ing them
very useful in filters$
Schematic Symbols ,or 'nductors

Testing +nductors-
%esting inductors is fairly simple$ :asically an inductor is a wire coil wrapped
around a core5 some have no core called an air core6 often made of ferrite$
!se your analogue meter set at x1 ohm or your -33 set to resistance setting and
place test leads onto the leads of the inductor$ Cou should get a resistance reading,
often very very low ohms your -33 may even show 0 ohms$ 'f you get an
infinite or ?$1$ resistance reading the inductor is considered open and should be
Testing +nductor +n LCD TV Power $upply
'f the coil is not open you can also use the inductance setting of your -33 or an
inductance meter if you have one or the other and chec& that the inductance is
within tolerance of the value mar&ed on the inductor$
+nductor Color Code
,or high @5(uality factor6 low loss coils li&e the primary winding of the S34S
switching transformer you should use a ring tester to chec& for shorts between
turns in the winding$
4lace the test leads of the ring tester onto the leads of the inductor and chec& the
amount of 17-s that light up to indicate the <rings= for the coil you are testing,
the more 17-s the better$ 3ost 9igh @ coils will light up at least one green 17-$
Cou should see what &ind of reading you get from various &nown good inductors,
so you &now what &inds of readings you should be loo&ing for when testing
inductors in 1"- %2s$
!nderstanding and %esting %ransistors
# transistor is a semiconductor electronic component used to amplify or switch
electronic signals$ # transistor is made of doped semiconductor material Aunctions,
with three terminals for connection to an external circuit$ # voltage or current
applied to one pair of the transistor>s terminals changes the current flowing
through another pair of terminals5one terminal being common to both pairs6$

:ipolar Bunction %ransistors5:B%s6 are made from three sections of semiconductor
material, alternating p type and n type resulting in two pn Aunctions, one pn
Aunction existing between the emitter and the base the other existing between the
collector and the base$ :B%s are classified as npn or pnp depending on the
arrangement of there n and p type material$
$chematic $ymbol
Testing BJTs-
,irst determine whether you will be testing an npn or pnp transistor and which
pins are the base, emitter and collector by loo&ing the transistors part number up
online or loo&ing in the 1"- %2 schematic diagram, if you can not find this
information, use the method found in this boo& <%esting 7lectronic "omponents=
to determine the information stated above$
?nce you have determined the type 5npn or pnp6 of :B% you will be testing and
which leads are the base, emitter and collector you are ready to test$ Set your
-33 to the diode test setting$ ,or npn type :B% place the blac& test lead on the
base pin and the red test lead on the emitter pin and then with the blac& test lead
still on the base pin put the red test lead on the collector pin, both readings should
be ?$1$5?ver 1imit6$ Next place the red test lead on the base pin and the blac& test
lead on the emitter pin and then with the red test lead still on the base pin place the
blac& test lead to the collector pin$ Cou should get about a 0$E2/0$72 voltage drop
for both readings$ Now switch the -33 to the resistance setting, place the blac&
test lead on the collector pin and the red test lead on the emitter pin, you should
get an ?$1$ reading and if you reverse the test leads so that the blac& test lead is on
the emitter pin and the red test lead is on the collector pin, you should again get an
?$1$ reading$ Cou can also Aust leave the meter in the diode test setting when
chec&ing between collector and emitter, you should still get an ?$1$ reading in
both directions, getting a low voltage drop reading across the emitter and collector
in either direction indicates a short or lea&age5noteG some :B% have a damper
diode in parallel with the emitter and collector causing a normal 0$E2/0$72 voltage
drop in one direction between emitter and collector6$ Ietting a small voltage drop
reading in both directions between base and emitter indicates a shorted Aunction,
also if you get a small voltage drop reading in both directions between base and
collector this is also considered a shorted Aunction$ Ietting any resistance or
voltage drop5depending on test method6 reading between collector and emitter
indicates a short or lea&age between collector and emitter$ # transistor can have
one or both Aunctions shorted when they fail and typically will be shorted between
collector and emitter$ #n ?$1$ reading in both directions between base and emitter
indicates an open Aunction as does an ?$1$ ;eading in both directions between
base and collector$
,or pnp type :B%s you will perform the same test only it will be done with the
polarity of the test leads reversed for each step$
$tep : Testing an 4P4 BJT .ith D**
$tep 9 Testing 4P4 BJT .ith D** &$imply Repeat : B 9 .ith Test Leads
+n Re"erse Polarity or $teps A (nd C'
$tep : Testing an P4P BJT .ith D**
$tep 9 Testing P4P BJT .ith D** &$imply Repeat : B 9 .ith Test Leads
+n Re"erse Polarity or $teps A (nd C'
Cou can also use your analogue meter to test :B%s$ Set your meter to the x1 ohm
range and perform the test in the same manner as with the -33 only instead of a
voltage drop reading you will be loo&ing at a resistance reading5on the lower
portion of many analogue meters indicators you can also read the voltage drop of
the Aunctions6 and the test leads in the resistance setting are reversed in comparison
to a -33 the blac& test lead is positive and the red test lead is negative, but the
idea is the same between the base pin and emitter pin you should have a low
resistance reading in one direction and an infinite resistance reading in the other
direction readings between the base pin and collector pin will be the same$ Cou
should get infinite reading in both directions between collector and emitter in the
x1 ohm range$
Testing P4P BJT with (nalogue meter
Testing P4P BJT with (nalogue meter
Some -33 have a transistor test mode for chec&ing h,75beta or gain6$ Cou can
use this setting to test if a :B%s h,7 is within tolerance$
D** h0 $etting
Power *1$0T$ +4 LCD P$%
%he 3?S,7% or 3etal ?xide Semiconductor ,ield 7ffect %ransistor is a
component similar to the :B% in the fact that it can amplify or switch electronic
signals$ %he :B% relies on ma&ing a reverse biased Aunction conduct by applying
an electronic signal to the other Aunction$ %he 3?S,7% or ,7%5,ield 7ffect
%ransistor6 is entirely different$ 'n a 3?S,7% a strip of semiconductor material
either n or p doped between the source and drain is made either more or less
conductive by the presence of an electric charge between the gate and source$
%he 3?S,7% has three terminals or leads, the gate, source and drain$ :oth n
channel and p channel devices are used in 1"- %2s$
Special care must be ta&en57S- :racelet etc$6 when handling small signal
3?S,7%s, because the gate is completely insulated from the source and drain by
a very thin film of silicon dioxide$ %he insulation brea&s down at roughly 00/1002
depending upon the thic&ness of the silicon dioxide film$
*1$0T +Cs on the in"erter board$
*1$0T $chematic $ymbol

Testing *1$0Ts-
?nce you have loo&ed up the part number of the 3?S,7% you want to test online
and ac(uired a data/sheet, found the info in a parts reference manual or loo&ed at
the schematic diagram for the %2 you are wor&ing on and &now the pin
configuration, set your analogue meter to the x10& range to chec& the 3?S,7%$
1et>s say you are testing an n channel 3?S,7%, put the blac& test lead on the
drain pin then touch the gate pin with the red test lead$ %his will discharge the
3?S,7%s internal capacitance$ Next place the red test lead to the source pin while
still holding the blac& test lead to the drain pin$ Now ta&e a finger, while still
holding the test leads in place, red on source and blac& on drain and use that finger
to touch the gate and drain pin at the same time, the analogue meters needle should
move from infinity to around the center position of the meters indicator$ %a&ing the
red test lead off the source pin and placing it bac& on the source pin the needle
should still go bac& to the middle of the meters indicator$ %o discharge the
3?S,7% lift the red test lead from the source pin and touch it to the gate pin, this
will discharge the internal capacitance again and if you again place the red test
lead on the source pin and the blac& test lead to the drain pin, the needle on the
indicator should not move and give an infinite ohms reading$ %esting a p channel
3?S,7% is the same as for an n channel 3?S,7% only you will reverse the
polarity of the test leads for each test$
$tep : Testing 4 Channel *1$0T
$tep 9 Testing 4 Channel *1$0T
$tep A Testing 4 Channel *1$0T
Special testing devices are available Aust for testing 3?S,7% transistors$
(lternati"e *1$0T Test *ethods-
D0-*1$0T &Depletion,0nhancement Type#' %est !sing an ohmmeter set to
the x 100 ohm scale, measure the resistance between the 3?S,7% drain and the
source, then reverse the ohmmeter leads and ta&e another reading$ %he readings
should be e(ual, regardless of meter lead polarity$ "onnect the positive lead of the
ohmmeter to the gate$ !sing the negative lead, measure the resistance between the
gate and the drain and between the gate and the source$ :oth readings should show
infinity$ -isconnect the positive lead from the gate and connect the negative lead
to the gate$ !sing the positive lead, measure the resistance between the gate and
the drainM then measure it between the gate and the source$ :oth readings should
show infinity$ 'f the 3?S,7% has a substrate connection, -isconnect the negative
lead from the gate and connect it to the substrate$ !sing the positive lead, measure
the resistance between the substrate and the drain and between the substrate and
the source$ :oth of these readings should indicate infinity$ -isconnect the negative
lead from the substrate and connect the positive lead to the substrate$ !sing the
negative lead, measure the resistance between the substrate and the drain and
between the substrate and the source$ :oth readings should indicate a low
resistance 5about 1,000 ohms6$
0-*1$0T &0nhancement Type# The most common type you will encounter'
%est !sing an ohmmeter set to the x 100 ohm scale, measure the resistance
between the drain and the source, then reverse the leads and ta&e another reading
between the drain and the source$ :oth readings should show infinity, regardless
of meter lead polarity$ "onnect the positive lead of the ohmmeter to the gate$
!sing the negative lead, measure the resistance between the gate and the drain and
then between the gate and the source$ :oth readings should indicate infinity$
-isconnect the positive lead from the gate and connect the negative lead to the
gate$ !sing the positive lead, measure the resistance between the gate and the
drain and then between the gate and the source$ :oth readings should indicate
infinity$ 'f the 3?S,7% has a substrate connection, -isconnect the negative lead
from the gate and connect it to the substrate$ !sing the positive lead, measure the
resistance between the substrate and the drain and between the substrate and the
source$ :oth of these readings should indicate infinity$ -isconnect the negative
lead from the substrate and connect the positive lead to the substrate$ !sing the
negative lead, measure the resistance between the substrate and the drain and
between the substrate and the source$ :oth readings should indicate a low
resistance 5about 1,000 ohms6$ 3ost 3?S,7%s will fail by shorting from drain to
source and sometimes they will also have a short between gate and source or
between gate and drain or both$
Cou should always try and find a data sheet for the 3?S,7% you are testing
because you will find some 3?S,7%s will have different characteristics that will
ma&e the test readings slightly different$ ,or instance the 411NL80N has a diode
between source and drain, so that when testing you will get a reading in one
direction between source and drain in x100 ohm setting and this is normal$
#lways try to use exact replacements when replacing a bad :B% or 3?S,7%$ 'f
you must use a substitute always replace with the same type5N4N, 4N4, N
channel, enhancement mode etc$$6:B% and with the same or higher '"5continuous
collector current6 and the same or higher 2"7?5max voltage as measured between
collector and emitter when base is open that the transistor can handle without
brea&ing down6$ %ry to match the gain as close as possible$ ,or 3?S,7%S replace
with the same or higher :2-SS 5drain to source brea&down voltage6 and the same
or higher '-5continuous drain current6$ #lso if you substitute a transistor used in a
half bridge that uses two identical transistors replace both the transistors in the half
bridge so that both of the transistors are the same, don>t Aust replace the bad one in
this case$
%nderstanding and Testing Diodes
Diodes +n LCD TV $tandby Circuit
# diode is an electronic component that allows electric current to flow in only one
direction$ %he word diode is usually associated with the semiconductor diode
which is the most common diode in use at the time ' am writing this$ %he
semiconductor diode is made up of a pn Aunction$
Recti!ier Diode $hown 4e3t To $chematic $ymbol
$chematic $ymbols or Di!!erent Types 1! Diodes
Testing The Diode-
!sing your -33 set to the diode test mode, place the blac& test lead on the
cathode5mar&ed with a band6 lead of the diode and the red test lead on the anode$
Cou should get a voltage drop reading of between 0$E82/0$72$ ;everse the test
leads so that the red test lead is on the cathode and the blac& test lead is on the
anode and you should get an ?$1$ ;eading$
'f you get a low reading in both directions the diode is considered shorted and if
you get an ?$1$ reading in both forward and reverse bias directions the diode is
considered open, in both cases the diode must be replaced$ 3ost commonly diodes
will be shorted$
*hen replacing diodes try to use exact replacements$ 'f an exact replacement is
not possible you can use a substitute with the same or higher 4'25pea& inverse
voltage6, this is the max amount of instantaneous reverse bias voltage that the
diode can withstand without brea&ing down5avalanche effect6 listed on data sheets
as 2;;3 5maximum repetitive reverse voltage6 and the same or higher average
forward current, this is the maximum amount of current the diode can withstand
when forward biased listed on data sheets as ',5#26$
$tep : Testing Diode .ith D**
$tep 9 Testing Diode .ith D**
Testing Diodes .ith analogue *eter-
!sing your analogue meter set to the x1 ohm range place the red test lead on the
cathode and the blac& test lead on the anode, you should get a low resistance
reading and reversing the test leads you should get a reading of infinity$ ?n the
lower portion of the indicator of many analogue meters there is also a scale for
reading the diode Aunction voltage drop$
Now set the meter to x10& ohm range and repeat the same test, you should get the
same results$ *hen you have the red probe on the anode and the blac& probe on
the cathode in the x10& ohm range getting any reading means the diode is lea&y
and must be replaced$
$tep : Testing Diode .ith (nalogue *eter $et To 3: ohm Range
$tep 9 Testing Diode .ith (nalogue *eter $et To 3: ohm Range
$tep : Testing Diode .ith (nalogue *eter $et To 3:=- ohm Range
$tep 9 Testing Diode .ith (nalogue *eter $et To 3:=- ohm Range
$chott-y Diodes-
$chott-y Diodes +n LCD TV $*P$
Schott&y diodes also &nown as hot carrier diodes are semiconductor diodes with a
lower forward voltage drop than a standard diode and a very fast switching action$
*hen a current flows through a diode there is a voltage drop which as stated
earlier is about 0$E82/0$72 for normal diodes, but a schott&y diodes voltage drop
is between 0$182 and 0$E82, the lower voltage drop means higher circuit
efficiency$ %he most important feature of the schott&y compared with the normal
pn diode is reverse recovery time, the time it ta&e to switch from conducting to
nonconducting and nonconducting to conducting$ Schott&y diodes can loo& very
similar to normal diodes in design$ ?ften they come in a dual pac&age with the
two diodes cathodes being common$
Dual Pac-age $chott-y
Testing $chott-y Diodes-
?nce you &now the diode you are going to test is a schott&y than you need to use
your analogue meter and set it to the x10& ohm range$ %esting is similar to the
normal diode only you will get a reading in both directions$ %his is a normal
characteristic of a schott&y diode$ %he reading should be almost full scale
deflection5low resistance6with the red test lead on the cathode and the blac& test
lead on the anode, then with the blac& test lead on the cathode and the red test lead
on the anode you will get a small lea&age reading 5large resistance6$ 'f you get two
almost full scale deflection readings5low resistance6 the schott&y diode is shorted
and needs to be replaced, if the resistance reading is infinite in both directions the
schott&y diode is open and must be replaced$ %esting the schott&y in the x1 ohm
range will be Aust li&e testing a normal diode, also note that not all schott&y diodes
will give a reading in both directions when set to x10& but Aust be aware that this
&ind of diode when normal can have a reading in both directions when measuring
in the x10& setting unli&e a normal diode$
$tep : Testing $chott-y Diode +n 3: ohm $etting
$tep 9 Testing $chott-y Diode +n 3: ohm $etting
$tep A Testing $chott-y Diode +n 3: ohm $etting
$tep C Testing $chott-y Diode +n 3: ohm $etting
Cou can also test schott&y diodes with the diode test mode of your -33 Aust li&e
we did with the standard diode earlier$ 7xpect lower Aunction voltage drops when
testing schott&y diodes with the diode test mode of your -33 compared to those
of the standard diode$
#lways find an exact replacement for the schott&y and ultra fast recovery diodes
used for rectifying the secondary voltages in the 4S!$ *hen substitution is
necessary you must follow the voltage and current replacement guidelines
discussed earlier for standard diodes but also you must ma&e sure the replacement
has the same or faster trr5maximum reverse recovery time6, this only applies to
ultra fast recovery diodes as schott&y diodes data sheets won>t list trr but a schott&y
diode is a high speed diode so always use a schott&y diode to replace another
schott&y diode$
Dener Diodes-
Dener Diodes +n LCD TV $*P$ $econdary side
# )ener diode is a diode that not only permits current flow in the forward bias
direction but also in the reverse bias direction when the voltage applied is greater
than the brea&down voltage called the )ener voltage5also called the avalanche
voltage6$ # )ener diode exhibits very similar properties to that of a normal diode
except it is specially designed to have a low reverse brea&down voltage or )ener
voltage$ %his is done by heavily doping the pn Aunction of the diode$ -oping is the
process of introducing specific amounts of impurities to the semiconductor
material for the purpose of changing it>s conductivity$ %he brea&down voltage of
)ener diodes can be controlled (uite accurately through the process of doping$
"ommon brea&down voltages range from around 1$02 to 0002$ Nener diodes are
normally used as a voltage reference or as shunt regulators for voltage regulation
in smaller circuits because of their ability to maintain a fairly constant voltage
drop with a varying current$
Testing Dener Diodes-
%esting )ener diodes is best done with a )ener diode tester$
Dener Diode Tester
#lthough another process that can be used is found in this boo& <%esting
7lectronics "omponents=
#nother method for testing )ener diodes involves the use of a variable -" power
supply and an ammeter$
"onnect the )ener diode you want to test in series with a resistor to limit current
flow through the testing circuit5the value of the resistor will depend on the )ener
diode and how much current it is rated for6$ %hen connect the ammeter of proper
si)e or the current setting of your -33 set to the proper range in series with the
)ener diode and resistor$ "onnect the cathode end of the diode to the positive
terminal of the variable -" power supply and the free anode to the negative
terminal of the -" power supply$ %urn on the variable -" power supply and
slowly increase the voltage$ No current should flow through the circuit as
indicated by the ammeter until the voltage is raised to the brea&down5actually a
reverse or avalanche brea&down6 voltage of the )ener diode under test$
03ample Dener Diode Test Circuit
*hen replacing )ener diodes always try to use an exact replacement but when
necessary use a substitute with the exact same 2N5)ener voltage6 and the same or
higher 'N35maximum )ener current6$

%nderstanding and Testing Bridge Recti!iers
Bridge Recti!ier +n LCD TV P$%
%he purpose of the bridge rectifier is to convert #" voltage into -" voltage$
$ymbol or Bridge Recti!ier
# bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four diodes in a bridge configuration and
commonly comes in one integrated pac&age containing all four diodes$ # diode
bridge or a bridge rectifier give full wave rectification$
Bridge Recti!ier +C
Testing Bridge Recti!iers-
!sing your analogue meter set to x10& ohms range place the test leads to the
negative and the first #" pin and then reverse the test leads, you should show a
low resistance in one direction and infinite reading in the other direction$ Next do
the same test with the negative pin and the second #" pin the results should be the
same$ Now do the same tests only with the positive pin and both the #" pins, the
results should again be the same$ 'f you find low resistance readings in both
directions on any of these tests then the bridge rectifier must be replaced as one or
more of the internal diodes is shorted, also if you get an infinite reading in both
directions the bridge rectifier must be replaced as one or more of the diodes is
open$ 'f instead of a bridge rectifier in integrated pac&age you find four individual
diodes in a bridge configuration, test each diode individually and if even one diode
is faulty replace all four$
$tep : Testing Bridge Recti!ier +C
$tep 9 Testing Bridge Recti!ier +C
$tep A Testing Bridge Recti!ier +C
$tep C Testing Bridge Recti!ier +C
$tep > Testing Bridge Recti!ier +C
$tep < Testing Bridge Recti!ier +C
$tep E Testing Bridge Recti!ier +C
$tep ; Testing Bridge Recti!ier +C
%he bridge rectifier can also be tested with the diode test mode of the -33 of
course$ -o the test in the same way testing each of the four diodes that are inside
the bridge rectifier '" only instead of resistance you will be loo&ing at the diode
Aunction voltage drops$
!se exact replacements for bridge rectifiers when possible but if necessary to use a
substitute then find one with the same or higher 2;;3 5maximum repetitive
reverse voltage6, the same or higher ',5#265average forward current6 and the same
or higher 2;3S5maximum ;3S5root mean s(uare6 bridge input voltage6$
%nderstanding and Testing L0Ds
L0Ds 1n LCD TV $tatus Board
#n 17- or 1ight 7mitting -iode is a semiconductor component source of light$
17-s are used as indicator lights in 1"- %2s$ %he 17- is based on the
technology of the semiconductor diode, when an 17- is forward biased 5turned
on6 electrons recombine with holes inside the component creating an effect called
%p close Picture o! $*D L0Ds
$chematic $ymbol +n Comparison .ith Physical L0D
Testing L0Ds-
%esting an 17- is very simple, it will emit light when forward biased and will not
emit light when reverse biased$ 'f an 17- does not light when forward biased then
it has gone open circuit and must be replaced$ %o test, set your analogue meter to
x1 ohm range$ 4lace the red test lead on the cathode pin this side is indicated by a
flat spot on the plastic pac&age or a line on S3- pac&ages, the anode side will not
have the flat spot$ *hile the red test lead is on the cathode touch the blac& probe
to the anode pin and the 17- should light, remove lead (uic&ly after 17- lights
so as not to damage it$
Testing $*D L0D 1n LCD TV L0D,$tatus Board
'f you reverse the test leads the diode will not light$ 'f the diode does not light in
either direction and also gives a low resistance reading in both directions than the
diode is considered shorted$ Cou can also chec& 17-s with the diode test setting
of your -33$ Cou should get a voltage drop of around 1$782 in the forward bias
direction and ?$1$ in reverse bias direction$ # reading of ?$1$ in both directions
means the 17- is open and a low voltage drop in both directions5typically 0$0026
means the 17- is shorted$
%nderstanding and Testing $witching
$witching Trans!ormer +n LCD TV P$%
Basic Trans!ormer $chematic $ymbol
Switching transformers also called S34S or power transformers are found in the
S34S of 1"- %2s$ # switching transformer does not actually switch anything
itself it is merely a transformer that is designed specifically for use in a switching
power converter or S34S and designed for the high fre(uency switching510s to
100s of &ilohert)6 in S34S type power supplies$ %hey are smaller and lighter than
the typical transformer found in a linear power supply and also use a ferrite core
instead of laminated iron$ %he function of the switching transformer is to convert a
voltage applied across it>s primary winding into a lower or higher voltage across
it>s secondary windings depending on the amount of turns in the primary and
secondary windings of the switching transformer5the turns ratio6$ Switching
transformers are robust components and rarely brea&down, and when they do it
will normally cause components in the primary side of the switching transformers
circuits that drive it>s primary winding to blow+fail as well and most li&ely open
the main fuse$ %he most common failure is a shorted primary winding$ %he
switching transformer secondary windings seldom have issues in the 1"- %2
S34S due to the fact that voltage is stepped down so the secondary windings have
very few turns and a low voltage across them$ %he primary winding however has
many turns and a larger voltage across it$ %o test the primary winding of the
switching transformer use a ring tester$ 1ocate the primary winding
4lace the test leads of the ring tester to the two pins of the primary winding$ 3ost
switching transformers will light up four to eight 17-s, of course if you can,
chec& your reading against that of &nown good switching transformer that is the
same exactly as the suspected one under test$ ?ften this is not possible, so if you
only light up one to two or no 17-s it is most li&ely that the switching transformer
primary has shorted windings and needs to be replaced$ 'f the switching
transformer tests bad always remove it from the circuit board and test again to be
sure$ 'f it tests good out of circuit suspect other failed components in the S34S
perhaps a shorted secondary side schott&y or ultra fast recovery diode$ 'f a
switching transformer is found to be bad you may have trouble finding an exact
replacement and you may have to find a company or person online that will
rewind it for you or you can attempt to rewind it yourself with instructions found
online, but be warned this is not an easy tas&$ Cou can also chec& switching
transformers for an open primary winding although it is not a common failure$ Set
your -33 to the ohms setting or your analogue meter to x1 ohm range$ "hec& for
a low ohms reading across the primary winding$ 'f the reading is ?$1$ or infinity
than the winding is considered open and the transformer must be replaced or
rewound$ Cou can also chec& the secondary windings to ma&e sure they are not
open the same way you chec& the primary and if you have another of the same
switching transformer to compare with you can ring the secondary windings as
well although because they have less windings they will not light up as many
17-s, even only one 17- or none and this is normal$ 'f you get no rings on the
secondary windings you can also chec& them with an 7S; meter and compare
with another of the same transformer, because the windings have a certain
inductive reactance at the 7S; meters test fre(uency5typically 100&9)6 and a
resistance that together ma&e up a complex impedance, the windings will give a
reading on the 7S; meter, typically a high reading li&e E8 ohms or beyond the
range of the meter$ 'f you read )ero ohms on the 7S; meter this would be a sign
of shorted secondary windings$ Cou can also measure the resistance5many
secondary windings will read 0 ohms using the resistance setting of your meter use
your 7S; meter to measure the impedance in this case6 or inductance values of the
secondary windings and compare the results to a good transformer that is the same
as the one in (uestion$ #nother test is to set your analogue meter to the x10& ohms
range and place one test lead on a pin of the primary side and the other lead touch
to the pins on the secondary side$ Cou should get an infinite or ?$1$ reading
between the primary and secondary windings$
Chec-ing or 1pen Primary .inding +n $*P$ $witching Trans!ormer
%nderstanding and Testing 1pto-+solators
1pto-isolators +n LCD TV $*P$
#n opto/isolator also called an opto/coupler or photo/coupler is a component that
allows a signal to pass from one circuit to another but allows the two circuits to
remain electrically isolated$ %he most common opto/isolator which comes in '"
pac&age consists of an 17- which shines onto the base of a photo/transistor
5usually an npn transistor6 and allows current to flow from collector to emitter
until the 17- is turned off$ *hen a signal is applied to the 17- it then shines light
that is varied in brightness with the same amplitude as the input signal, this light
lands upon the photo/transistor 5the resistance of the collector+emitter Aunction
now changes with the varying light6 which passes the signal onto the next circuit$
Testing 1pto-+solators-
!sing your analogue meter set to the x1 ohm range test the 17- side of the opto/
isolator$ *hich will be found be loo&ing up the part number online or referring to
the 1"- %2s schematic$ # common opto/isolator found in 1"- %2s is the 817
type for instance the 4"817$
*ultiple Pac-age Types
4lacing the test leads on both pins of the 17- side of the opto/isolator and then
reversing them you should get a low resistance reading in one direction and
infinite reading in the other$ 'f you get a low resistance reading in both directions
the 17- side is shorted and the opto/isolator needs to be replaced$ 'f you get an
infinite reading in both directions, the 17- side is open and again the opto/isolator
must be replaced$
Next you must test the transistor side of the opto/isolator$ Some opto/isolators will
have six pins in which case the three pins that correspond to the transistor side of
the '" will be base, emitter and collector and on the 17- side the three pins will
be the anode, cathode and one pin with no connection$ 'f you have a six pin opto/
isolator, testing will be the same as for a four pin, Aust remember to chec& the pin
configuration$ 'f you have a four pin opto/isolator which ' find is most common in
1"- %2s, then set your analogue meter to the x10& ohm range and place the test
leads on the two pins of the transistor side which will be the emitter and collector
and then reverse the test leads$ Cou should get a high resistance 5typically around
800& ohms6 reading with the test leads in one direction and an infinite reading in
the other direction$
$i3 Pin 1pto-isolator
'f you get a high resistance reading or low resistance reading in both directions the
opto/isolator must be replaced$ Now set the meter to x1 ohm range and place the
test leads on the emitter and collector in both directions again, now you should get
only an infinite reading in both directions, otherwise the opto/isolator must be
$tep : testing L0D side
$tep 9 testing L0D side
$tep A testing transistor side
$tep C testing transistor side
9ere is a free download with more techni(ues for testing opto/isolators including
instructions and a parts list for an opto/isolator test circuit$
%nderstanding and Testing Voltage Regulators
Voltage Regulator +Cs on LCD TV *ain Board
# voltage regulator is an electronic circuit designed to automatically maintain a
constant output voltage regardless of fluctuations in input voltage or current draw
from the load5to an extent6$
Testing Voltage Regulator +C-
%o test the voltage regulator '" you must chec& it in circuit with the %2 plugged in
and the 1"- %2 turned on$ 4ower the %2 on and set your -33 or analogue
meter to the proper -" voltage setting$ 4lace your blac& test lead to cold ground
and carefully place your red test lead to the output pin of the regulator, usually pin
three on many voltage regulators, li&e the 137808$ ;emember to always loo& up
your part numbers for the part you are testing if needed so you can be sure to test it
Typical L*E;=> Pac-age
Now you should expect the output voltage to be within tolerance of the regulators
specified voltage$ So for an 137808 you should expect about 8$12/8$92 -", if
you measure a low voltage li&e say 12 you should turn the %2 off and unplug it
then lift the output pin of the regulator from the circuit$ %hen power the %2 on
again and retest chec&ing the voltage right on the lifted pin, 'f the voltage is bac&
to around 82 again instead of 12 then the '" is most li&ely good and you should
suspect shorted components in the circuit after the regulator that are pulling down
the voltage$ 'f the voltage is still low then the regulator is most li&ely bad and
needs to be replaced5granted the input voltage is good6$ 'f you measure ?2 or low
voltage on the output you should chec& the voltage on the input of the voltage
regulator and ma&e sure it is at least the expected regulation voltage plus the
regulators <drop out= voltage$ %he drop out voltage is the voltage that the input
must be above the regulation voltage for the given regulator, to maintain a
regulated output$ ,or instance if a 137808 had a drop out voltage of 02 then it
would re(uire at least a 72 input to maintain a 82 regulated output$ 'f the input
voltage is low suspect bad components in the circuit supplying input voltage to
the regulator$
Chec-ing +nput Voltage to Regulator
Chec-ing 1utput Voltage rom Regulator
%nderstanding and Testing $witches
Typical Tactile $witch ound +n LCD TVs
# switch is an electronic component which can brea& a circuit or divert current
from one part of a circuit to another part$ %he most common type of switch you
will see in 1"- %2s is the tactile switch or <tact switch=$ %he common
configuration is single pole single throw, normally open or <push to ma&e=
momentary contact$
$witch $chematic $ymbols
Testing Tactile $witches-
%esting tactile switches and any switch in general is very simple$ Set your -33
to the resistance or continuity setting or your analogue meter to the x1 ohm range
and place the test leads on to pins on opposite sides of the switch5polarity does not
matter6$ Cou should get a reading of infinity$ Now while still &eeping the test leads
on the pins, depress the button and the meter indicator should give a low resistance
reading and when you release the button the indicator should return to ?$1$ or
infinity$ 4lease note this is only for testing single pole single throw, normally open
or <push to ma&e= momentary contact switches, but ' thin& you can see how easy
it would be to test any switch with the resistance setting of your meter$
%nderstanding and Testing uses and Varistors
use +n LCD P$%
Pico,4ano uses 1n LCD TV +n"erter Board
# fuse is an electronic component that is used as a sacrificial device for over
current protection$ 't contains a wire or strip that melts when too much current
flows though it, which interrupts the circuit that it is connected to$ # fuse is
destroyed by excessive current so that further damage or inAury is prevented from
overheating or fire$ #lways replace a fuse with the exact same value, type and
rating as the one removed from the circuit$
$chematic $ymbol or use
Testing uses-
Set your -33 to the resistance or continuity setting or your analogue meter to x1
ohm range$ 4lace the test leads the terminal caps or leads of the fuse5polarity does
not matter6, you should get a very, very low resistance reading of )ero or very
close to )ero ohms$ %his is the characteristic of a good fuse$ # bad fuse will give a
high, ?$1$ or infinite resistance reading$ Cou can visually inspect glass fuses and
see when they have blown5blac&ened glass6, or the metal strip has Aust slightly
opened but if a fuse loo&s good you must still test it because you can see when a
fuse is bad but you cannot see that it is good, meaning Aust because it loo&s good
does not mean that it will not test bad$
Testing ( use
Testing ( Pico,4ano use
%he name 2aristor is a portmanteau5blend of two or more words6 of variable resistor5this is misleading
as varistors are (uite different from a variable resistor6$ 2aristors have non/ohmic current/voltage
characteristics, at low currents and voltages a varistor exhibits a high resistance but at higher voltages
and currents the resistance drops dramatically$ 2aristors are often used to protect circuits against
transient voltages by placing them into a circuit in such a way that when triggered, they will shunt the
current created by the high voltage away from the rest of the circuit preventing damage$ 'n an 1"- %2
power supply you will find them right after the main fuse connected across the hot and neutral$ %he
most common type of varistor is the metal oxide varistor or 3?2$ # shorted varistor will cause the
main fuse to open$
%esting 2aristors/
:.inspect varistor for obvious external damage5burns and crac&s etc$$6
9.Set multimeter to resistance setting and measure the resistance of the varistor by placing the red test
lead to one terminal of the varistor and the blac& to the other terminal5polarity does not matter6$
A.;everse multimeter test leads$
C.;esistance readings should be infinite ohms or ?$1$5over limit6 in both directions$
$ome Testing Tips
/#lways test components with a meter that is &nown to be good, with fresh
batteries installed$
/' suggest removing components from the circuit before testing$ ?ften surrounding
components in the circuit cause erroneous readings to occur$ #t least lift+remove
one lead from the circuit for most components$
/1earn how to test all electronic components and practice testing them so you can
feel confident in yourself when testing components$ #gain ' highly recommend the
boo& <%esting 7lectronic "omponents= , as ' was not able to completely go over
all the components found in electronic circuits and how to test them$
/1earn how to use your test e(uipment$ ;ead the manuals and understand all the
functions and settings$ Cour test e(uipment is your best friend when repairing
1"- %2s$ %he better you &now how to use your test e(uipment the faster and
easier it will be to apply them to testing circuits and you may even develop some
new testing methods yourself$
%se!ul ormulas
%hese are Aust examples of the basic and most commonly used formulas in
electronics$ Cou should &now %hese by heart$ %here are many more that you
should study and learn as well if you plan to further your understanding of
electronics$ %hese formulas are to be used for -" circuits or resonant #"53eaning
voltage and current are in phase and that the circuit 'mpedance is e(ual to the
circuit resistance6 circuit calculations$
)ow To Disassemble (n LCD TV
,irst start by laying a thic& soft blan&et out on a table large enough to lay the face
of the 1"- %2 on$
Lay The LCD TV 1n +ts ace
Next remove all the screws from the stand and remove the stand$ Next remove all
the screws from the bac& of the %2, it help to have a cup to &eep all the screws in$
;emove the bac& and set it aside$ Now you will have full access to the
4":s54rinted "ircuit :oard6$ %o remove a 4": for component testing or for
replacement, simply disconnect any cables going to the board from their
connectors$ 1abel them if necessary$
03posed PCBs
Next remove all the screws that hold the 4": to the %2$ %he board should now
come loose$ Cou may now test or replace components on the board you
removed5remember if you remove the 4S! the first thing you need to do is to
discharge the reservoir or primary side filter capacitor6$
Voltage Test Points
:e careful when ta&ing voltage measurements$ ;emember when ta&ing
measurements on the primary+hot side of the S34S use the corresponding primary
side ground5hot ground6 and when ta&ing measurements on the secondary+cold
side use the secondary5cold ground6$

Bridge Recti!ier-
4lug the 1"- %2 in and locate the #" pins of the bridge rectifier mar&ed by a
wavy line5this is the #" symbol6$ Set your -33 or analogue meter to the proper
#" voltage setting$ Now place your test leads against the #" pins of the bridge
rectifier$ 9old them tightly and carefully in position be sure not to slip and short
anything with your test leads$
Placing Test Leads on (C Pins 1! Bridge Recti!ier
Cou should get a reading of around 110/100 volts #"5!S#, in some other
countries the voltage may be different find out the mains in your country and this
is what you should expect6 'f you get )ero volts then chec& in the circuits before
the bridge rectifier, could be bad components in the 73' circuit li&e an open
common mode cho&e, open thermistor, blown main fuse, bad #" cord, electrical
receptacle has no power, bad components in passive 4," circuit if the %2 uses this
type of 4,", bad solder connection in circuits before or at bridge rectifier etc$
Reser"oir Capacitor,Primary ilter Capacitor-
?nce we have confirmed that the bridge rectifier is receiving an #" input at the
proper voltage we can now expect to find a -" voltage at the pins of the
reservoir+primary filter capacitor$ 3a&e sure the %2 is plugged in$ Now set your
-33 or analogue meter to the proper -" voltage setting place your blac& test
lead to the negative pin of the reservoir capacitor, next place the red test lead on
the positive pin of the reservoir capacitor$ :e extremely careful not to accidentally
slip and short the pins of the capacitor together$
Testing Voltage (t The Reser"oir,Primary ilter Capacitor
Cou should get a reading of around 180/102 -"5!S#, 'f active 4," is used
expect around D80/E0026$
'f you get the right reading then move on to the next voltage test$ 'f you get )ero or
very low voltage chec& the corresponding circuit components, loo& for bad solder
connections, crac&s in the copper traces, chec& the components in the active 4,"
circuit53?S,7%, diode, 4," controller '"6 remove and test the bridge rectifier
Power +C-
,irst you must loo& up the part number of the power '" you will be testing the
positive supply voltage pin of$ ?nce you locate the positive supply voltage pin of
your power '", set your -33 or analogue meter to the proper -" voltage range$
4lace the red test lead to the positive voltage supply52cc6 pin and the blac& test
lead to hot ground5reservoir capacitor negative pin6$ ;emember the %2 needs to
be plugged in$ Cou should get a reading that corresponds to the proper voltage for
the power '" normally between 1/002 -"$ 'f you get the correct reading you can
assume all components up to this point must be good5bridge rectifier, fuse, 73'
,ilter circuitry, start up circuit, etc$6$ 'f you can>t find the necessary information for
you '" you can always s&ip to the next voltage test$ 'f the reading is low or )ero
volts the most common reason is that the start up circuit resistor+s have changed
value or opened$ %o find the start up circuit resistor+s, trace bac& from the positive
voltage supply pin to the large value resistor+s that bring the
$*D Type Power +C,)al! Bridge Dri"er
Power +C (nd *1$0T +n ( $ingle Pac-age
Testing Positi"e $upply Voltage Pin 1! Power +C
voltage from the positive pin of reservoir capacitor to the 2cc pin of the power '"
so that it can get power before the S34S is on$ ?nce the %2 is on a secondary
winding on the S34S switching transformer in the primary side of the 4S!
supplies voltage to the power '", this winding and a few other components li&e a
resistor, a diode that rectifies the output from the secondary winding and a filter
capacitor ma&e up the <run -"= circuit$ Some start up circuits will grab voltage
directly from the #" line and not the reservoir capacitors positive pin in which
case you will also find a rectifier diode and filter capacitor in the start up circuit
that should also be chec&ed$
Testing $econdary 1utput Voltages-
%his is a very simple test for sure$ 4lace your red test lead from you -33 or
analogue meter on the cathode side of the secondary output diode you want to
chec& and place your blac& test lead cold ground$ 3a&e sure your meter is set to
the proper -" voltage setting5 most 1"- %2s have secondary voltages of 82,
102 and 0E2 but their can be more or different ones, if possible refer to the
service manual of the %2 you are testing6$ %urn power on to %2$ Cou should
receive a -" voltage that corresponds to the voltage you expect at that diode$ Cou
may have to loo& at a schematic$ 'f you get a good reading on all secondary
diodes, then you can assume that all the components on the primary side are
wor&ing properly and chec&ing components in the primary side of the S34S
would Aust waste your time most
Chec-ing $econdary Voltage
li&ely$ 't obvious if the bridge rectifier, power '", power 3?S,7% and etc$ were
bad we would not get any of our secondary voltages$ Cou can also chec&
secondary voltages on the output cable connectors of the 4S! which are often
*ain Board Voltages-
'f all of your voltage were good in the previous test next you should chec& that
voltage is coming to the main board$ 'f it is low or not present you &now it must be
something between the main board and the S34S after the secondary diode,
perhaps a bad filter capacitor, shorted components or maybe even a bad ribbon
cable or bad solder connections etc$ 'f the voltage is present to the main board then
you can next chec& the voltage at the output of the voltage regulators that will be
found on the main board typically 82 and D$D25and others, it depends on the %26
linear regulators$ 'f the outputs are correct you can them move on to test the
4ositive supply voltage at each of the '"s on the main board$ Cou may need a
schematic or service manual which can usually be found online, to get the pin
layout and 2cc voltage for each '"$
Chec-ing or Voltage To *ain Board
Chec-ing Vcc Voltage 1 LVD$ +C
5Note this board is removed from the %2, but obviously when doing voltage tests
boards must be in the %2 and completely connected properly6
Chec-ing Positi"e $upply Voltage Pin 1! ( 4(4D *emory +C
54lease use a very fine test lead when chec&ing 2cc+2dd of S3- '"s as the pins are very close
T-con Board Voltage-
*ith your -33 set to the proper voltage setting, place your blac& test lead to
cold ground and you red test lead to the the lead of the pico+nano fuse closest to
the cable that brings the voltage to the board, then chec& with the red test lead to
the pico+nano fuses other lead5terminal caps if S3-6$ Cou should get about 102
-" for both reading$ 'f you only get one reading5on the side closest to the
connector6 %he fuse has most li&ely gone open, try replacing it$ 'f you get no
reading on either lead, trace bac& and chec& all the components in the circuit that
supplies the voltage to the %/con board$
The Tap Test
%his is an old test that is crude and simple, but it does wor&$ !se this test to isolate
connection problems or intermittent failures caused by bad solder connections etc$
!sing the bac& of your screwdriver or some slightly heavy non conductive tool,
lightly tap around on the circuits careful to not damage any components or bend
leads and cause shorts$ %he idea is to find the most sensitive part of the circuit that
responds to your tapping causing the %2 to go in and out of failure$ *hen you find
this sensitive area or maybe the only area where you get a reaction, inspect all the
components for any damage and then loo& over all the solder connections
carefully with a magnifier and light or a lit opti/visor$ 1oo& for cold solder Aoints,
ring crac&s or any solder Aoints that are (uestionable$ 3ar& every bad or
(uestionable solder connection you see with a mar&er$ #fter you are done mar&ing
every solder connection go bac& with your soldering iron and some (uality solder
and re/solder all the mar&ed connections$
Ring Crac-
Cold $older Joints (nd $ome Ring Crac-s
Cou may also find that the connections are all good, but when you tap right on a
component the %2 fails$ Cou should directly replace the component if possible$
ree5e $pray and )air Dryers
%his is another test which will help you isolate a problem to a single area of the
1"- %2$ Cou may run into %2s that will not run properly until sometime after the
%2 has been turned on and warmed up$ Cou may also come across 1"- %2s that
runs fine until some time after being turned on and then after warming up has a
failure, maybe shutting down, distorted video, distorted audio etc$ 'n the case that
you have a %2 that has a failure from start up which goes away after warming up
you can try the hair dryer method$ 1et the %2 set set for awhile so it is cool$ %hen
turn the %2 on and verify it is having the &nown failure$ %hen ta&e the hair dryer
and heat up the circuits with a smooth even action and carefully and slowly
panning across them until you find a location that gives you a reaction$ 'f you heat
that area the %2 starts to function properly$ ?nce you have isolated the problem to
any area rechec&5by starting the test from cold again6 to ma&e sure, once verified
chec& all the components in the isolated area$
'f you can not find any bad components or connections you may want to directly
replace components in this area if you have the parts$ Now if you have a %2 that
falls into the other category$ *or&ing fine at start up and then failing after
warming up then you will use the free)e spray$ %urn
%sing )air Dryer
on the %2 and let it warm up and stop operating normally, once this happens
power off and unplug the %2 use the free)e spay to cool down a section of one of
the 4":s and components in the %2 carefully going over all that section5but do it
(uic&6, after thoroughly cooling (uic&ly plug in and turn on the set and see if
failure is gone, meaning that an area you cooled down caused the %2 to start
functioning properly again if not, try again with another section, remember you
have to be (uic& enough to ma&e sure the %2 circuits in general don>t all cool
down causing the %2 to wor& normally as well$ Cou need to ma&e sure it is when
you spay the free)e spay on that area that the %2 is made to start wor&ing meaning
you have isolated the problem$ %he most efficient way is to use free)e spray that is
safe for use on live circuits so that you can spray components while the %2 is
running and loo& for normal operation after a component or area has been sprayed$
%he small no))le of the cool spray allows you to more precisely cool a small
location unli&e the hair dryer that>s more wide spread when it heats, this will allow
you to isolate the problem to a smaller area of a circuit and maybe even a single
component$ ?nce the problem is isolated carry on as you did previously in the hair
dryer example$
%sing Cool $pray
5Note the board is removed from the %2 in this photo but this is actually done as
described earlier with the boards in the %2 and completely connected6
Connection Problems
$older Crac-s
Loose Cables
"onnection problems, we discussed some of them earlier in the boo&, can cause a
lot of problems and you will find they are the reason for a good number of failed
%2s$ 3ost commonly you will find ring crac&s and cold solder connection and
even totally burnt up connections when inspecting 4":s with a magnifier or an
opti/visor$ Sometimes you will also find cables that have slightly crept out of their
corresponding connectors causing a connection problem$
"onnection problems will often cause intermittent issues but not always when they
are really bad effectively causing a part to be removed from circuit or causing an
open circuit in which case they will cause constant issues$ "onnection problems
are so common in 1"- %2s the first thing you may want to do is open the %2,
inspect all solder connections on each 4": and re solder all (uestionable ones and
bad ones$ ;e/seat all the cables into their corresponding connectors, careful not to
bend or brea& any pins on the cable connector$
+nspecting PCB or Bad $older Connections
Re seating Cable To +ts Connector :
Re seating Cable To +ts Connector 9
Re seating Cable To +ts Connector A
?nce finished double chec& and ma&e sure everything is properly reassembled and
turn the %2 on to see if the problem still persists$
P$% &Power $upply %nit' ailures
Now we will go over some common 1"- %2 4S! failures$ 4S! failure is (uite
common in 1"- %2s, so ' suggest you study as much as you can about S34S and
S34S troubleshooting, as these are the types of 4S!s used in 1"- %2s$ *e can>t
cover everything in this boo& but we will cover the most common failures$
/%2 is dead5no power and standby 17- not lit6 and main fuse is blown$
"hec& for shorted bridge rectifier, shorted diodes in primary side5especially
snubber diodes6, reservoir capacitor5chec& for short and lea&age6, varistor5chec&
for visible damage and low resistance reading6and chec& for shorted power
3?S,7%S$ 'f you find lot>s of shorted components in the primary side, replace the
power '" along with replacing all the bad components as it will often have been
destroyed as well$
/No power, standby 17- not lit and 3ain fuse is not blown$
"hec& the standby power circuit chec& the voltage at the secondary output
diode5typically 82 -"6 cathode if not present or within tolerance chec&
corresponding components$ "hec& the secondary diode, filter capacitor and cho&e
of the standby circuit$ ' have repaired dead 1"- %2s with a shorted standby
circuit secondary diode and 1"- %2s that would not power on and the standby
17- would flic&er caused by bad secondary output filter capacitors in the standby
circuit causing the failure$ Note that a blin&ing 17- can indicate a failure code
from the 3"!, and the failure may not even be related to the power supply$ 'f you
get a pulsing 17- that seems rhythmic or in a pattern5 li&e D flashes pause two
flashes repeat, etc$6 refer to the service manual to see if the %2 has 17- blin&
codes or not and if so what they are as they can lead you to the right circuit for
/%2 has no power, 4ower+standby 17- is lit and fuse is not blown$
"hec& for 2cc voltage to the power '"$ 'f not present chec& start up resistors in the
start up circuit$
-$tart up circuit
%he start up circuit usually consists of one or more large value resistors that drop
the voltage from the 180/102 source at the positive pin of the reservoir capacitor
to a voltage that is used to power the power '" when the S34S is not on$ %he start
up circuit may also grab voltage from the #" line in which case it will typically
also have a rectifier diode and a filter capacitor that should be chec&ed$
Some more common failures$
/?ne or more secondary outputs with voltage out of tolerance or with ripple at
mains fre(uency580+0 9)6 or twice the mains fre(uency5100+100 9)6$ "hec& the
reservoir or main filter capacitor for high 7S;$ #lso chec& surrounding
components in the primary side$
/?ne or multiple secondary outputs with voltage out of tolerance and or ripple at
the S34S switching fre(uency5usually 10s to 100s of &9)6$ "hec& the secondary
filter capacitors and cho&es$ #lso if secondary voltage is low, chec& for shorted
components in the circuit that could be dragging down the voltage$
/*hining noise coming from 4S! with low voltage on one or more secondary
outputs$ "hec& for shorted semiconductors5 diodes, :B% etc$6 in the corresponding
/%2 power supply ma&ing cycling+pulsing or chirping sound$ %his is almost
always caused by shorted+failed components in the secondary side of the S34S$
"hec& secondary output diodes, secondary output filter capacitors, also chec& the
feedbac& circuitry, meaning chec& the opto/isolators,directly replace the adAustable
shunt regulator, chec& the resistors in the sampling circuitry etc$
# bad power '" can also sometimes cause the power cycling symptom$ 'f you
have tried and chec&ed everything with no success, you might try directly
replacing the power '"$
/'ntermittent power failures$ %his can be a frustrating thing to troubleshoot$ Cou
will want to use the tap method discussed earlier in the boo& because most
intermittent failures in general are caused by loose+dry, burnt or oxidi)ed solder
connections$ 'f chec&ing and re soldering all the connections does not wor& the
next thin& ' would do is chec& all the electrolytic capacitors in the 4S! as they can
also cause intermittent failures$
/;eplacing a 4S! over repairing it$ Sometimes you will have a 4S! board with
such extensive damage, say from a power surge that you will really need to
consider loo&ing up the price for a new 4": online as it may not be worth your
time to try and save one that needs so much wor& done, but if you are li&e me you
are going to try to fix it anyways to gain s&ills and satisfaction in a repair$
4lease noteG
4S! board connection problems and especially filter capacitors with raised 7S;
are so common and cause so many different problems in 1"- %2s that may not
even appear to be 4S! related that the first thing ' do on all repairs is inspect the
4S! and chec& every electrolytic capacitor on the board, 'f all is good ' then do
the same on the rest of the 4":s$
+n"erter Board ailures
3ost inverter board failures will cause one of these two symptoms$ 7ither the
%2 will turn on but as soon as the bac& light turns on the %2 shuts down5this
can be very (uic&, the %2 may Aust (uic&ly flash and you must watch closely6
or the %2 will turn on and operate normally with audio but no picture$ 'f you
loo& carefully you can see that the picture is their but it has no bac& light to
illuminate it$ 'f you have one of these symptoms you will want to start by
chec&ing the inverter board5after chec&ing the electrolytic capacitors in the
4S!, they can also cause these same symptoms even a dim flic&ering display
as well when the secondary filter capacitors on the voltage supply line to the
inverter board go bad6$
Cou may also have %2s with dim display or flic&ering display which is
usually the inverter board also$ 4lease note that these symptoms can also be
caused by a bad "",1
/"hec&ing the inverter board
"hec& the pico+nano fuse+s usually found close to the cable connector that
connects the cable coming from the 4S! to the inverter board$
/'f the pico+nano fuse or fuses are open, you might first try replacing them
and see if this fixes the problem5normally it won>t6, if it does not move on to
chec&ing the components in the inverter circuits5if only one of multiple
pico+nano fuses is open chec& components in the circuit that correspond to
that fuse6$ 'nverter '"s are robust and don>t fail very often$ Suspect shorted
3?S,7% 'cs5very common6, 92%s59igh 2oltage %ransformers6 shorted
between primary and secondary windings, shorted secondary or primary
windings in 92%s, compare results with &nown good 92 transformer of
same type$ ,ortunately there are usually more than one on 1"- %2 inverter
boards so you can compare them against each other as most li&ely not all are
bad5remember to pull them off the board to test and to identify the primary
and secondary pins, they may not be the pins you assumed6$ "hec& that the
resin coated ceramic capacitors on secondary side of inverter circuit are not
shorted or lea&y$

/'f no pico+nano fuses are open on the inverter board, chec& the 92%s, chec&
for open secondary windings5common failure6 and shorted turns in both the
secondary and primary windings with ring tester$ Cou can also chec& for
shorted secondary windings by chec&ing the resistance of the 92
transformers secondary windings and comparing them to each other$ #
secondary winding that has shorted turns will have a resistance that is
significantly lower than the rest of the secondary windings$ ;emember that
bad secondary filter capacitors in the 4S! output that supplies voltage to the
inverter board can cause symptoms that are the same as a failed inverter
board$ #lso chec& the components in the feed bac&+?ver 1oad+?pen lamp
4rotection circuit of the inverter board$ *hen the inverter board shuts down
you should also first chec& to see if the voltage to the inverter board coming
from the 4S! is still present and within tolerance as the problem may be with
the power supply and not the inverter$
"lic& on the lin& below to see a repair ' did on a %2 with a shorted high voltage
+n"erter Board eedbac- and 1"er Load Protection Circuit
'f you can not find anything wrong with the inverter board or 4S! it is li&ely
you have one or more bad "",1$ Cou can use a "",1 tester for 1"- %2s to
find and then replace the bad "",1s or you can directly replace all the
"",1s which wouldn>t hurt since even ones that are not bad will li&ely be
right behind the bad ones$ "hec& the "",1s for physical damage li&e
blac&ened ends and for bad connections$
LCD TV CCL tester
%sing an LCD TV CCL tester
#lways chec& for loose or dry solder Aoints on the 92%s, 3?S,7% '"s and
inverter '" pins$ %hese are a very common cause of inverter failure$
Sometimes you will not be able to find any good info for the parts on an
inverter board or parts may not be available in which case you may want to
Aust loo& into replacing the whole inverter board, usually they are not to
expensive especially compared to replacing the %2$ #lso always save old
inverter boards and all 1"- %2 boards for that matter so you can salvage
parts from them that you may not have been able to ac(uire any other way$
*ain Board ailures
"ommon main board failures can include no video, no ?S-5?n Screen
-isplay+3enu6, no audio, tuning problems, video and audio distortions, no color,
white screen etc$ 3ain board failures can also cause no power and in this case will
most li&ely have a symptom li&e blin&ing power+standby 17-5often a code
indicating the section+4": of the %2 that is failing6, amber colored standby 17-
or some color other than normal standby or power etc and 17- not lit$ %he 4S!
must get a start up or <on= signal from the 3"! on the main board in order for
the %2 to turn on and in some designs the inverter also gets an <on= signal from
the main board as well$ 'f you are suspecting main board problem, first chec& for
proper voltages to main board and '"s, you might need to get a schematic or
service manual or study the board and loo& up the '"s online to get an idea of what
the voltages you are loo&ing for are, but typically you will have voltages li&e 82,
D$D2, 1$82, 102 and 0$82 -"$ "hec& the outputs from the voltage regulator '"s
and ma&e sure they are within tolerance$ ;emember to use cold ground when
chec&ing voltages on the main board$ 'f all voltages are present and within
tolerance remove the main board and inspect for bad solder connections and then
chec& all the electrolytic capacitors li&e the S3- decoupling capacitors and also
chec& the ceramic chip or disc bypass capacitors$ 4ay special attention to the
electrolytic filter capacitors in the voltage regulation section of the main board$
"hec& components surrounding '"s including crystals and S3- capacitors$
$*D Ceramic Chip Capacitors
$*D 0lectrolytic Capacitor
# crystal oscillator is an electronic circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a
vibrating crystal of pie)oelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very
precise fre(uency$ %his fre(uency is commonly used to &eep trac& of time 5as in
(uart) wristwatches6, to provide a stable cloc& signal for digital integrated circuits,
and to stabili)e fre(uencies for radio transmitters and receivers$ %he most common
type of pie)oelectric resonator used is the (uart) crystal, so oscillator circuits
designed around them were called Kcrystal oscillatorsK$
@uart) crystals are produced for fre(uencies from a few tens of &ilohert) to tens of
megahert)$ ?ver two billion crystals are manufactured annually$ 3ost are small
devices for devices such as wristwatches, cloc&s, radios, computers, and
cellphones$ @uart) crystals are also found inside test and measurement
e(uipment, such as counters, signal generators, and oscilloscopes$
%esting "rystals can be simple$ Set your -33 to the fre(uency setting5if it has
one, if not you can use a fre(uency counter6 and place the red test lead on one of
the crystals pins5%2 3ust be powered on6and blac& test lead to cold ground, %he
fre(uency should be within tolerance of the fre(uency labeled on the crystal$ Cou
will not be able to test all crystals as some will be out of the range of your meter$
#lso ta&e into account your meters accuracy$ 'f you have a scope you can also use
it to test crystals again if it>s range is withing the fre(uency of the crystal you want
to test$
Testing $*D crystal with !re2uency setting o! D**
'f you get no fre(uency reading this could indicate a bad crystal, S3- capacitor in
the oscillator circuitry or a bad '", chec& the surrounding components in other
words S3- capacitors etc$$ %ry directly replacing the crystal$ 'f the surrounding
components test good and+or replacing the crystal does not wor& most li&ely the
corresponding '" is bad, in this case the main board will most li&ely have to be
replaced as replacement '"s can be hard to find and even if you could get them
many are in :I#5:all Irid #rray6 or other S3- pac&age which re(uire special
e(uipment and or s&ill to replace$
Testing $*D capacitor on main board
irmware upgrades-
Sometimes main board type failures can be solved by uploading the flash
memories firmware, or reprogramming a corrupted flash with the original
firmware$ ,irmware can normally be downloaded and put on a flash drive or
memory stic& to be put in the !S: port or memory card reader of the 1"- %2 by
visiting the manufacturers website or calling them and ordering it$
Sometimes you may need to purchase the firmware and in this case the company
usually sends a thumb drive with the firmware on it$
lash,Thumb Dri"e
4o Video
'f you have a %2 that wor&s fine but has no video5blue screen, white screen etc$6,
first chec& the obvious and ma&e sure it is not a problem with the video
source5-2- player cable box etc$6 or a connection problem li&e a loose cable
between the video source and the %2$ #fter verifying that the source and
connections to the %2 are good we can move on$ No video can be caused by an
inverter board failure, but this is not common in 1"- %2s, as usually the feedbac&
circuitry for the %2 will shut the %2 down in the event of inverter board failure$
1oo& closely at the %2 if it is blac& but you can &ind of see video when loo&ing
closely than this verifies that it most li&ely is the inverter board, but remember it
could always be bad electrolytic capacitors on the 4S! board$ 'f you can tell that
the bac& lights are lit and you have ?S-5?n Screen -isplay6 but no video than
you most li&ely have a tuning issue5li&e a failed digital tuner6 with the main board
or maybe something simple li&e your on the wrong input or a setting in menu for
instance li&e needing to switch from antenna to cable$ 't could also be a bad 24!
or other another '" on the main board, chec& all the main board and main board '"
voltages and ma&e sure they are within tolerance$$ 'f you are using the co/axial
connection on the tuner you may also have a bad tuner, verify by fist running
through a different tuning source for instance a cable box or 2"; first, then to the
%2 if this fixes the problem you &now the tuner is bad and needs to be replaced$ 'f
you have chec&ed the obvious li&e the menu setting then you should follow the
procedure for chec&ing the main board$ %ry a firmware upgrade, sometimes no
video can also be caused by a bad controller board5not when ?S- is visible6$
"hec& to see if the pico+nano fuse on the controller board is open or has a high
resistance value if so try to replace it5unli&e most fuses, pico+nano fuses have a
tenancy to sometimes open for no reason6 if replacing open fuse only causes fuse
to blow again you can try fixing the controller board by tracing down shorted
components with a tool li&e the lea& see&er or chec&ing for shorted components
with your multimeter$ 'n most cases you will need to replace the controller board$
-on>t forget to loo& for solder connection problems on the main board or Aac& pac&
when troubleshooting video and audio problems, especially right on the
connectors that the video+audio source cables plug into$ ?ften crac&s develop in
the solder connection because of cables being pushed in and pulled out of the
video+cable cable connectors$
Chec-ing controller board pico,nano !use
'f the pico+nano fuse is good and you have scope verify output signal from main
board, if present and testing main board chec&ed good chec& all components
possible on controller board or directly replace, if controller board is found to be
good, then the most li&ely case is the main board will need to be replaced if you
can not find the bad components on the main board $ ;emember to chec& all the
electrolytic capacitors on the main board, main board and '" voltages and '"
surrounding components$
0lectrolytic capacitors on LCD TV main board
4o (udio
#s usual chec& the obvious, li&e the connections from the audio source to the %2
and chec& in the user settings within the menu to ma&e sure the spea&ers are not
turned off$ Sometimes issues such as low audio while watching -%2 but normal
#udio during analogue programming etc$ can be fixed with a firmware upgrade$
;emember bad filter capacitors on the 4S! as well as the main board can cause all
&inds of problems li&e no audio or intermittent audio$ "hec& the 2cc at the audio
processor and the audio amplifier '"s, if no or low voltage is present lift the 2cc
pin from circuit, if the voltage returns after removing the '"s pin suspect the '" is
bad and replace, if voltage stays low or is not present after lifting pin suspect
components in the voltage supply line to the '"$5remember to always chec&
surrounding corresponding circuit components6$ #gain don>t forget to loo& for
solder connection problems on the main board and or Aac& pac& for video and
audio problems, especially right on the connectors that the video+audio source
cables plug into$ ?ften crac&s develop on the solder connections because of cables
being repeatedly pushed in and pulled out of the video+cable connectors or because
the cables get tugged on, tripped over or moved around to often$
1$D,*enu ailure
'f you have no on screen display or no menu or erratic menu functions, you may
also have menu functions but the user setting can not be saved, or reset every time
the %2 power is cycled$ %his indicates an 3"! or 24! failure and or 774;?3
failure and in most cases unless you have another main board to swap '"s from,
and in the case of the 24! very speciali)ed expensive e(uipment for testing
removal and replacement, you will have to replace the main board$ ;emember to
chec& all components surrounding the 3"! and 24! li&e S3- capacitors,
resistors, crystals etc$ and also always chec& all the electrolytic capacitors on the
main board$
.hite $creen
'f the 1"- %2 powers on with an all white screen5can also be all blac& screen
with bac& lights lit depending on panel design6, first as usual inspect the 4S! for
bad solder connection and chec& all the electrolytic capacitors on the 4S!$ Next
chec& the pico+nano fuse on the controller+%/con board$ ;emember the controller
board is 7S- sensitive, so ta&e the proper precautions when testing the board$
"hec& the 12-S cable from the main board to the controller board and ma&e sure
it is not loose$ #lso chec& the solder connections on the cable connectors$ 3a&e
sure voltage is present at the t/con board$
Cable !rom main board to controller board
"hec& and re seat the ,4" or the flat flexible cable from the controller board to the
driver board$
lat !le3ible cable connecting controller board to dri"er board
'f all the previous chec&s out good then chec& the main board components li&e
electrolytic capacitors etc$
'f the pico+nano fuse on the controller board is open you can try replacing the fuse
to see if it will fix the %2, 'f the fuse opens again you can replace the controller
board or use a tool li&e the lea& see&er to find the shorted components on the
controller board or use your meter to chec& for shorted compoents$ !sually with
controller boards it is best to Aust replace the 4":$ 3ost of the time white display
is caused by a bad controller board or bad electrolytic capacitors in the
4S!5secondary filter capacitors on the voltage line to the controller board6 or in
the voltage regulation section of the mainboard$
Rainbow $creen
Steps for troubleshooting the rainbow screen or colored lines screen$ ,irst chec&
the 12-S cable from main board to controller board is not loose$ ' chec& that the
cable itself is actually good and re seat the 12-S cable, replace 12-S cable if
necessary$ ;e seat ,4" from the controller board to the driver board and also
chec& the solder connections on the cable connectors to the boards$ "hec& solder
connections and components on the controller 4":$ 'f everything chec&s good,
although this still could be a main board issue it is most li&ely a bad controller
board '" or the panel$ 3ore li&ely the 1"- panel has a bad driver board+driver
'"s, but use the procedure for chec&ing the main board before you spend the
money to replace a panel if you actually decide to or if the cost is economical$
Note that you can almost never find the 1"- panel alone, but only a full display
panel which has the bac& light assembly and all$ 3ost people refer to this whole
assembly as the 1"- panel, but actually you can disassemble and remove the
actual 1"- panel li&e the photo on page D8$ %ogether the 1"- panel, and the bac&
lights ma&e the 1"- display$ !sually when you order a full display5listed as panel
with part distributors6 it will also have the controller 4": mounted to the bac&
already but not always so as&, this can be good if you are not (uite sure if the 1"-
panel or controller 4": are causing the issue$
$creen lashes Then TV $huts Down
'f you turn on the 1"- %2 and it flashes, meaning that the bac& light comes on for
Aust a moment and then the %2 shuts down this almost always indicates an inverter
board failure$ Io over the methods for testing the inverter board$ ;emember chec&
the electrolytic capacitors in the 4S!, especially the secondary side filter
capacitors that are filtering the ripple from the 4S! voltage output that goes to
inverter board$
4o Bac- light
%his is when the 1"- %2 turns on and wor&s normally has audio and if you loo&
closely it has ?S-, video etc$, but the display is not illuminated$ %his is almost
always an inverter board failure$ Io over the procedure for troubleshooting the
inverter board$ #s ' have said many times now chec& the electrolytic capacitors in
the 4S!, especially the secondary side filter capacitors that are filtering the ripple
from the voltage output that goes to the inverter board$
Lines +n Picture
2ertical and hori)ontal lines as well on the display are almost always caused by
bad connections from the driver board to the panel$ 'n this case the display or
panel must be replaced unless you have the speciali)ed e(uipment necessary or
can come up with a device to safely redo all the connections on the ,4" that
connects the driver board to the panel and even if you could repair the connection
there is still a chance you could have a bad driver '" on the ,4"$
PC&le3ible Printed Circuit' that connects the dri"er board to the LCD
Crac-ed panel
'f the panel becomes crac&ed the only method of repair is to replace the display or
remove the 1"- panel from the display and replace it, but most li&ely you will
have to buy an entire display, bac& light assembly and all$
LCD TV Repair Case )istories
Vi5io LAE)DTV-
#mber light , no power
;emoved !0 5this is near the tactile switch6 and added a 10Lohm resistor
between pins 0 and D$
Vi5io V1CEL-
Set has no bac& light, has audio$
;eplaced 0 80u,, D82 7lectrolytic capacitors on the inverter 4":, and one in
$amsung L4TC=<:G,G((-
%2 had vertical colored lines no ?S- and no remote function$
,ound E 1000u,, 12 electrolytic capacitors in power supply puffed and vented$
7S; to high for meter to display reading$ 4art location numbers for capacitors,
"311 "310 "317 "3$ ;eplacing "apacitors fixed %2$
$amsung L4TC<<:-
%a&es a while to come on, when it is on, there are red dots over the video$
;eplaced three 1000u,, 12 electrolytic capacitors in the 4S!$ 1ocation "S80E,
"2810, "281D
$amsung L4TC<E:G-
!nit cycles on+off for minutes before coming on$
;eplace electrolytic capacitors with locations, "388D and "3880, both 0000u,,
102 in 4S!$
.estinghouse LTVA9.:-
No power, power 17- turns blue to amber then off , might be intermittent$
,ound bad solder connection on 4S! transformer %1 pin E, soldering connection
fixed %2$
$yl"ania LCA9=$L;-
-ead set, main fuse blown, and blows violently if replaced$
1 1N8E0 diode -800 shorted, :ridge rectifier shorted$ ;eplacing shorted
components and fuse repaired the %2$
$harp LCAEDCA%-
No bac& light$
;eplaced fuse 5,78006 rated 800ma on the inverter board$ %2 wor&ed fine after
replacing fuse$
Polaroid L*A9AB-
No #udio$
;eplace open 10 ohm S3- resistor 5;D886 near the
top end of the main board located between two audio supply filter caps$
Polaroid L*AEA9-
No power, no standby 17-
;eplaced 1000u,, 102 electrolytic capacitors, locations "110 and "11Don the
*agna"o3 :H*AAEB-
,lic&ering picture, loud audible noise, maybe be intermittent start$
;eplace electrolytic capacitors in 4S!$ 1ocation "10, "117, "11851000u,, 126
and "1785E70u,, 1v6
*agna"o3 AE*A9:DAE-
No power$
;eplace electrolytic capacitors in 4S! 5li&ely vented6 two
0000u,, 802 and two 1000u,, 802$
*agna"o3 >=*9A:D,AE-
4ower 17- lights but set does not come on$
;eplaced bad DD00u,, 102 electrolytic capacitors, locations "8089 and "800 in
the 4S!$
LI R*-A=LD>=-
'rregular glittering spec&les on screen$
;emove "887, 000u,, 12 electrolytic capacitor on main board
and replace with E70!,, 12 electrolytic "apacitor$
LI R*-A9LD>=-
No picture but has sound sound$
;emove ;0 S3- resistor on
'nverter 4":$
LI 9<LG:D-
*avy lines in picture$
;eplaced "708 and "70E on main board$ 100!,, 12 S3-
electrolytic capacitors$
0merson LCA9=0*;(4-
No power,-ead$
;eplaced shorted diode,type ,;000, in 4S!$ 1ocation,
# few important tips to remember when wor&ing on live circuits$
/?nly attempt to wor& on electrical or electronics devices when well rested$
*or&ing on electrical or electronic e(uipment when you are very tired is not only
a safety ha)ard but also it is very unli&ely that you will be able to troubleshoot
properly and ma&e successful repairs if your not thin&ing properly$
/9ot and cold ground$ #lways be aware of the difference between hot and cold
ground especially when ta&ing 4S! voltage and waveform measurements$
%he hot and cold side are usually clearly identified$
/Soldering can be ha)ardous to your health, remember to be in a well ventilated
open area when soldering as smo&e inhalation is the main ha)ard when soldering,
besides giving yourself a really good burn$ %he solder we use on electronics
circuits contains rosin, which inhalation of the smo&e from can cause asthma$
/-ischarging ;eservoir+,ilter capacitor+s
*hen you remove the 4S! board to chec& components and etc$ always discharge
the reservoir+primary filter capacitor to avoid getting shoc&ed$ ' use a 1& ohm 0/8
*att resistor to discharge the capacitor$ "hec& the -" voltage on the capacitor
after discharge Aust to be safe$
Discharging Capacitor
Chec-ing "oltage a!ter discharge
/*or&ing on live circuits$ %ry to never wor& on live circuits, of course this is not
always possible as tests li&e the voltage testing must be done with the %2 on, but
always use the most care when wor&ing on live circuits as to not hurt or &ill
yourself and or damage your test e(uipment and the %2 under test
'n conclusion ' hope you have learned a lot about 1"- %2s, how they wor& and
how to troubleshoot and repair them$ ?bviously ' could not even come close to
covering or mentioning all of the electronics circuits involved in the wor&ings of
an 1"- %2 as it is way beyond the scope of this boo& which is based in common
repairs and not 1"- %2 design$ %he best you could do to further your &nowledge
is to study the different designs and of course learn as much about electronics as
possible from the basics to the advanced from the past to the current$ %he more
you understand and recogni)e different electronic circuits the easier it will be for
you to troubleshoot and repair 1"- %2s and any other electronic devices as well$
'f you have any further (uestions or need troubleshooting help email me
urther Reading
Some good boo&s to further your electronics &nowledge$
7lectronic and 7lectrical Servicing "onsumer and "ommercial 7lectronics 0nd
edition, :y 'an Sinclair and Bohn -unton
7lectronic and 7lectrical Servicing "onsumer and "ommercial 7lectronics 1evel
DK 0nd edition, :y 'an Sinclair and Bohn -unton
9ow %o ,ind :urnt ;esistor 2alue, :y Bestine Cong
1"- 3onitor ;epair, :y Bestine Cong
%esting 7lectronic "omponents, :y Bestine Cong
%roubleshooting O ;epairing Switch 3ode 4ower Supplies, :y Bestine Cong
.ebsites and ree Download
Some good websites for electronics information$
1"- %2 repair membership site
4lasma %2 repair membership site
4roAection %2 repair membership site
Bestine Cong>s :log
4reher/%ech :log
4reher/%ech>s newsletter
ree Download
1"- %2 -isplay ,ailure Symptoms and 4ossible "auses
Part# Tool and Test 02uipment Distributors
9ere are the distributors ' most commonly use to get all the parts, tools and test
e(uipment ' need for fixing 1"- %2s$
#nd ' also always li&e loo&ing on ebay, ' have bought many %2 parts and
electronic components on that site in general with great deals and ' have only had
great transactions so far$ ?nly buy from reputable dealers$
Places to purchase 0$R meters# ring testers and more-
4reher/%ech5%ools and test e(uipment sales page6
7lectronic ;epair Iuide5also sells ;ing %ester6
#nate&5also sells ;ing %ester6
;adio -evices5the 7S; micro, which also chec&s capacitance6
CCL Testers-
Iood place to buy decent and a!!ordable digital multimeters # analogue
meters and more-
3ultimeter *arehouse