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Pi line
Pipe li :
Transportation of liquids and gases from one
place to another place
Pipe line activity :
¾ Survey

¾ Unloading & stocking of pipes at site

¾ Marking

¾ Trench excavation

¾ Blasting
¾ Sand bedding

¾ Pipe
Pi lowering
l i

¾ Laying, joining

¾ Back filling

¾ Sand encasing

¾ Specials
S i l fixing
fi i
¾ Pedestals, thrust blocks & valve chambers

¾ Hydro testing

¾ Commissioning
i i i

¾ Final measurement

¾ Reconciliation
„ Mild steel (MS)

„ Glass reinforcement plastic (GRP)

„ Ductile iron (DI)

( )

„ Cast iron (CI)

„ High density poly ethylene (HDPE)

„ Poly vinyl chloride (PVC)

„ Pre stressed concrete (PSC)

„ Reinforcement cement concrete (RCC)

„ Asbestos cement pressure (AC)

„ Bar wrapped
pp steel cylinder
y ((BWSC))

„ Galvanized iron (GI)

„ Low alloy pipe (LA)

PVC pipe MS pipe GI pipe

GRP pipe BWSC pipe CI pipe

HDPE pipe
i RCC pipe
i DI pipe

LA pipe PSC pipe AC pipe

„ Obtain work permit before starting excavation work.

„ Marking is to be made

„ Excavate trench up to required level with free working

„ The side slopes of cutting shall generally have the following

slopes for stability.

slope for excavation in

1:1 clay, muram & boulders etc
1:2 hard muram

NOTE: Slope not required for soft & hard rock

„ Pipes shall be transported to the site of laying and stacked
along the route

„ Padding shall be placed between coated pipes and timber to

avoid damage to the coating

„ Suitable gap during pipe stacking should be left at proper

intervals to permit access from one side to the other
Unloading & stocking of material :
Each pipe & special should be properly stacked at
site in such a manner so as not to distort their circularity or
cause any damage to their outer coating.
manual pipe handling :
B f
Before h dli the
handling th pipe,
work men should wear
helmet and gloves

1. Ropes
p used to lift the material must be in ggood condition,,
and it should not be let over sharp edges

2. Ensure that the persons are moved away from the pit while
placing the pipe (if it is heavy)

3. while handling materials in the wet season, ensure that the

materials are free from slush as it may cause slipping.
Pipe handling by machinery

¾ Slings should be in good condition and free from defects,

¾ Ensure proper clamping of slings, these are provided on

same direction on free length

¾ p visibilityy for the crane.

Ensure pproper
™ Pipes should be lowered slowly in to the trench by means of
chain ppulleyy block and tripod
p stand or cranes or with the
help of ropes.

™ Rubber gaskets shall be inserted into the groove in the

socket. Spigot end shall be lubricated with good quality of
grease or oil, then the spigot shall be slipped into socket by
means of jack on the other end.

™ Spigot
p g ends of all ppipes
p shall face upp stream irrespective
p of
the direction of water flow.
Lowering and laying :
„ Pipe
Pi shall
h ll be
b laid
l id in
i dry
d condition
diti andd under
d no circumstances
i t
they shall rest on sludgy bedding. Pipes shall rest continuously
on the bottom of the trench.

„ Clearance of approximately 100mm in depth and width equal

to length
l h off the
h collar
ll plus
l 30mm
30 on both
b h sides
id shall
h ll be
provided at the joint which shall be refilled from sides after the
jjoint is made.

„ The pipe should be lowered in to the trenches either by pulley

or by means of two ropes. For road crossing or river crossing
the pipe shall laid 2.0mtr. Below the bed level. The pipe
should be encased with 300mm thick sand.
Joining :

1. Spigot and socket and socket joint with double water tight
bb ring
i gasket
k t packing

p g jjoint with water tight

2. Double socket coupling g rubber ringg
gasket packing

3. Flanged joint is used for connecting the valves, the flanged

joint is made from the same materials as the pipe

4. End pipes should not kept open, the ends shall be covered up
either by suitable cap or plug or double layer of gunny bags.
GRP joint with Spigot & socket end
Before Laying, M.S pipes should be coated with cement or
1. surface cleaning :
The pipe should be cleaned before painting with special
epoxy thinner. This avoids oil, Greece marks on the pipe.
Due to these marks the paint wasn't sticking. Inside dust can
be removed by using compressed air.
2. primary coating
After surface cleaning, first primer coating is necessary. For
this purpose zinc phosphate primer is combined with
activator in 6:1 ratio. Zinc phosphate primer is component a
& activator
i i component b,
is b so
primer = component a + component
3. Out side coating :
After primary coating, out side of pipe painted with
epoxy coall tar which
hi h is
i combined
bi d with
i h activator
i i 4:1
in 41

4. Inside :

Foodd grade
d epoxy usedd for f inside
i id painting
i i resists
corrosion, this is the combination of resin & cure in 1:1
Lowering, laying and joining of MS pipes:

¾ Before welding the pipe faces shall be cleaned by scraping

by wire brushes

¾ MS pipe provided with cement mortar / apoxy painting

in lining and coating

¾ The
Th ends
d off MS pipes
i shall
h ll have
h beveled
b l d ends
d for
f welding
¾ While assembling,
assembling the pipes shall be close to uniform gap.
(Gap depends up on thickness) electrodes shall be conform
to is 814
814--1991 i.e, ee--6013

¾ MS pipes are manufactured either by electro resistance

weldingg or submerged
g arc weldingg pprocess longitudinally
g y or
spirally welded

¾ Manual metal arc welding with covered electrodes.

What is metal arc welding :
In metal arc welding a metal rod is used as one
electrode during the welding operation this metal electrode is
melted by the heat of the arc and is fused with the base metal.
Welding defects :
1. Lack of penetration,
2. Slag inclusion,
3. Under cut,
4 Poor
4. P ffusion,
5. Porosity,
6 Weld crack,
6. crack
7. Spatter,
pp g & distortion.
8. Wrapping
‰ Fusion welding is commonly used in HDPE and is a
permanent type of joint

‰ The pipes shall be brushed through out to remove any soil

deposited or stone their in

‰ Pipes shall be laid in dry condition and under no

circumstances theyy shall rest on slushyy beddingg

‰ Clearance of required depth & width on both sides shall

be provided,
provided at the joint which shall be refilled from sides
after the joint is made
¾ For road crossing or river crossing the pipe shall be laid 2
meter below the bed level and encasing should be done

¾ Pipe after transporting to the exact place should be cut square

by the hacksaw blade

¾ The face of the ppipe

p should be slightly
g y scrapped
pp pprior to the
fusion welding to remove oxidized layer

¾ Ensure the leveling of pipes is maintained at the time of fusion

¾ The heating mirror / pan should be heated up to 200 deg.deg. c
and the surface of the pan should be 210 + or – 5 deg
deg.. C

¾ The heating pan should be metallic plate which is heated up

to the required temperature either by electrical coil embedded
inside or by blow torch

¾ The fusion welding of pipe should be held in either side of

the heating mirror / pan with Teflon paper on each side

¾ The contact pressure of 0.2 kg/cm

2 in either side if the pipe
should be maintained
¾ Initial heating time for achieving the molten rim, varies from
1 to 5 min depending on the pipe wall thick & size.

¾ Pipes should be removed from the heating mirror / pan, when

the rim of the molten material is formed and ensure that the rim
formation is not excessive.

¾ Immediate joint should be made by the application of

moderate pressure of approx.
approx. 1 to 2 kg/cm
2 for 2 to 3 sec

¾ while joining, the pressure should be maintained until the

joint is luke warm

¾ After the pressure is relieved, the joint should be allowed to

cool completely
Back Filling :

Back fill with excavated soil should be free from

i d ashes,
h slag,
l refuse,
f rubbish,
bbi h vegetablet bl or organic
metal, lumpy or frozen metal, boulders rocks, other materials
which in the opinion of any authority, is deleterious.

Concrete slabs over pipes :

when pipes are laid below roads (which may be

subjected to heavy traffic loads), trenches should be covered
ith reinforced
i f d concrete
t slabs
l b
GRP Lamination Details

Materials used in the process:

1. Grinding wheels, (machine)

2. Surface,
3. Robin,
4. Matt,,
5. Resin,
6. Hardener,
7 Aerosol powder,
7. powder
L i ti Process
Lamination P :

1. First,, ggrind the damaged

g pportion with ggrindingg wheel.

2. After that , mix the aerosol powder with hardener, this

mixture has to be put on damaged portion,
portion hardener is
used to set quickly that joint.

3. Surface is very soft material, this has to put on that portion

& paste with resin which is used for sticking & hardening.
4. Matt & robin are the strength of that lamination
these both used one by one on damaged portion.

5. The robin & matt used up to 7 times

6. Resin pour on robin & matt
Hydro Testing:

1. After Completion of each section of pipeline, it shall be

tested for water tightness before being covered in.

2. This can be done by closing each end by means of

valve, blank flange, cap or plug and filling the pipe with
3. The pressure shall be raised gradually by means of a hydro
testing pump till the pressure is at least one and half times
th working
the ki pressure.

4. A pressure to be specified by the authority for a duration of

one hour.

NOTE : In the test pressure drops after one hour

THANK U.....