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Chapter13

ThisiswhereyouwillexplainhowChapters13inyourbook,"ClassroominstructionthatworkswithELL"
byJaned.hillandKathleenM.FlynnhelpyouunderstandthelinguisticdiversitywithintheStagesof
SecondlanguageAcquisition,whatworkswithELLsandhowtosetobjectivesandprovidefeedbackfor
them.Besuretopostacommonontwootherpeople'spostsaswellasyourownpostinWeekOnetoget
thefull10points.

McRELidentifies9instructionalstrategiesforincreasingstudentperformance:

Settingobjectivesandprovidingfeedback
Nonlinguisticrepresentations
Cues,questions,andadvanceorganizers
Cooperativelearning
Summarizingandnotetaking
Homeworkandpractice
Reinforcingeffortandprovidingrecognition
Generatingandtestinghypotheses
Identifyingsimilaritiesanddifferences

ThesewerethebasisofthebookClassroomInstructionThatWorksandareexplainedthoroughlyin
ChapterOne.

ChapterTwooutlinesthedifferentstagesoflanguageacquisitionfrompreproductiontoadvancedfluency.
Thebookoffersachartwithcharacteristics,timeframe,andteacherprompts.Thesekindofchartsare
helpfultohavearoundandtosharewithteachers.Studiesshowthatteacherstendtoasklowlevel
questionsthroughallstages.Byknowingthedifferentstages,teacherscannotonlyaskappropriate
questions,butbeginscaffolding.Theicebergmetaphorishelpfulinthatithighlightsthedifferencebetween
conversationalandacademicproficiencyandtheprocessesinvolved.WordMESisanotherstrategythat
teacherscanusetoensuretheirinstructionisappropriate.

ChapterThreefocusesonsettingobjectivesandprovidingfeedbackforELLs.Bothlanguageandcontent
objectivesareessentialandconnected.AccordingtoBrinton,SnowandWesche(1989)thecombinationof
thesetwoobjectivesareimperativebecause:
1.Languageformsandvocabularywilldevelopasstudentsstudyareasofinterest.
2.Motivationplaysaroleinlearningcomplexlanguagestructures.
3.Teacherscanactivateandbuildonstudentspriorknowledgeinthecontestarea.
4.Languagestructureandformshouldbelearnedinauthenticcontextsratherthanthroughcontriveddrills
inlanguageworkbooks.

Feedbackneedstobecomprehensible,useful,andrelevant.LanguagecorrectionhappensalotinanESL
class.Insteadofjustmakingcorrections,teachersshouldbesimplyrestatingthesentencecorrectly.Of
course,inordertodothis,youhavetohaveastronggriponthelanguage.UsingrubricswillhelpELLs
keeptrackoftheirobjectivesandtheirshouldalwaysberoomforfeedback.

Section1
School#1
Schooldistrict:27Queens,NewYork
Schoolname:RichmondHillHighSchool
ELLpopulationThewebsitehttps://reportcards.nysed.gov/whereinformation
aboutschooldemographicsishousedwasnotavailableduringmyresearchand
callstotheschoolwerenotreturned.But,Icantellyouthatthereare147,164
EnglishLanguageLearnersintheNYDepartmentofEducationsystem.Thatis
13.3%oftheentirestudentpopulation.
ESLsupports:
AschoolwidemulticulturalpublicationcalledDiversitywhichgivesELLsa
chancetodescribetheirexperiencesthroughwritingandart,aswellas
tackleissuesthatareimportanttothem.
FreeESLtutoringduringtheschoolday.
EntitledtobilingualorELLcontentareaclassesinmath,science,and/or
socialsstudies.
LeveledESLclassesforbeginners,intermediate,andadvancedthese
rangefromsingletodoubleperiods.
Collegeandcareerreadinesscoursewherestudentscanearn2college
credits.
AfterschoolESLParentclassesusingRosettaStone.
AfterschoolTitleIIIEnrichmentclasses(supportclasses).

School#2
Schooldistrict:SacramentoCityUnifiedSchoolDistrict
Schoolname:LutherBarbankHighSchool
ELLpopulation:Belowarethetop5.Seefollowinglinkformore.
Lan
gua
ge
Cod
e
Language
Name
Grade
9
Grade
10
Grade
11
Gra
de
12
Un
gra
de
d Total
Percent
ofTotal
01 Spanish 47 44 54 51 10 206 47.58%
23 Hmong 42 24 38 43 0 147 33.95%
48 Marshalles
e
4 2 2 6 1 15 3.46%
22 Hindi 2 5 0 4 0 11 2.54%
02 Vietnamese 2 1 2 4 1 10 2.31%

http://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/SpringData/StudentsByLanguage.aspx?Level=School&
TheYear=201314&SubGroup=All&ShortYear=1314&GenderGroup=B&CDSCode=34674
393431012&RecordType=EL
ESLsupports:
ThisistheschoolwhereLarryFerlazzoteacherEnglishandB.I.courses.A
fellowteacherintroducedmetohissiteatthebeginningofmyESL
certificationcourses,andnotonlyhaveIuseditforthisclass,butformy
giftededucationclassesaswell.Mr.Ferlazzohasputtogetheranextensive
collectionofhelpfullinksforESLstudents.IntheEnglishsectionofhis
website(nothisblog),helistslinksappropriateforbeginningtoadvanced
ELLs.Animportantpartofthiswebsiteisalettertoparentsexplaininghow
tousethesiteandencouragingfamiliestoworktogetherontheactivities.
Thislistisincreasedtenfoldinhisblogwhichheupdatesdailywithhelpful
linksaboutcoresubjectsandcurrentevents.

School#3
Schooldistrict:PittsburghPublic
Schoolname:TOS
ELLpopulation5students(Iknowthatthisdoesntseemlikealot,buttheschool
hasatotalpopulationof25).Shanghainese(Shanghaidialect)(ESLLevel4,
sophomore),HeNaHua(dialectofMandarin)(ESLLevel5,senior),Shandong
(dialectofMandarin)(ESLLevel4,senior),Mandarin(ESLLevel5,senior)and
Korean(ESLLevel4,freshmen)
ESLsupports
Theschoolworkswithanexchangeprogramtohelpplacestudentsinhomes
intheUS.TheschoolalsohasanESLteacher(whoalsoteachesEnglish
andSpanish).Thereisamentorprogram,communityserviceopportunities,
andanextremelyindividualizedapproachasaresultofthesmallclass
classes.

Section2:SchoolSelection

IselectedTOS,whichisaprivateschoolinthePittsburghPublicSchoolDistrict,to
focusonforthisportionoftheFieldBasedAssessmentforacoupleofreasons.First,it
wastheschoolwhereIbeganteachingandhaveagreatworkingrelationshipwiththestaff,
whichmadesettingupinterviewsduringthelastweekoftheirschoolyearfeasible.Itis
alsoapeculiarlittleschool.AsitstatesinSectionOne,thisschoolonlyhas6ELL
students.Iknowthatweweresupposedtochooseaschoolwithsignificantnumberof
ELLs,andatfirstpass,itmaylooklikeIvemissedthemark.But,whenyouconsiderthat
theschoolonlyhasabout25students,thisnumberbecomesmuchmoresignificant.
Second,thestudentsinthisclasshaveadifferentESLexperiencethantheonewe
usuallytalkaboutinclass.WeusuallytalkaboutstudentsmovingtotheUnitedStateswith
theirfamilies.ALLofthestudentsinthisESLprogramarehereonanexchangeprogram.
Consideringthisaprivateschoolthatreliesontuition,thisESLgroupisintegraltothe
continuationoftheschool.Although,Iamsadtosay,thatuponinterviewingand
observing,IlearnedthatthiswillbethelastgraduatingclassfromTOS.
Finally,Ihaveobservedinthisschoolbeforeandhadagreatexperience.Their
ESLprogramisnotasindepthasothers,butthestudentsarefascinatingandreally
contextualizedthiswholeprogramforme.Allteachers,exceptforone,areemployedpart
time.ThereisoneESLteacher,butsincethisisasmallschool,shealsoteachesEnglish
andSpanish.SincesheisnewtotheESLfield,shehasbeengracioustomeforpassing
alongtheinformationthatIhavebeenlearninginclass.Forthis,Iwantedtotakealookat
herclassagainandseeifIcouldofferanythingmore.

Section3:CommunityDescription.

TOSislocatedinanoldchurchinOaklandneartheUniversityofPittsburghs
campus.TheschoolissurroundedbyapartmentsoccupiedbyPittstudents,andthereis
anItaliangrocerystoreonthecornerwheremanyOaklandschoolStudentsgoforlunch.
TheOaklandneighborhoodisconsideredtobethethirdlargestdowntownareain
Pennsylvania.Theareaisaneducational,medical,culturalhub,withinstitutionslikethe
UniversityofPittsburgh,CarlowCollege,CarnegieMellon,MaGeeWomensHospital,and
CarnegieMuseumsofArtandNaturalHistorywithinitsborders.Withsomanypeople
gatheredinoneareaforsomanydifferentreasons,thepopulationisverydiverse.Ihada
hardtimefindinginformationaboutpopulationbecauseitfluctuatessogreatlywhenschool
isinsession.Therearepeoplethatdoliveintheneighborhood,butthemajorityofthe
residentialspacesarerentalspacesforcollegestudents.
SincetheELLstudentsatTOSarethereonanexchangeprogram,thecommunity
populationisnotnecessarilyconnectedtotheschoolpopulation.But,consideringthe
diversemixofpeopleinthecommunity,themajorityofthemtheretostudy,theschool
populationactuallyisrepresentativeofthecommunity.

Section4:SchoolPersonnelInterviews.

TolearnalittlemoreabouttheschoolandtheESLservicesavailable,Iinterviewed
theassistantdirectoroftheschool,Mrs.Stein.Thestudentbodyismadeupof9thto12th
gradestudentsfromallaroundthePittsburghareas.Studentscometothissmall,private
schoolforavarietyofreasons.Thesmallclasssizes(nevermorethan7or8)are
desirableforparentsandstudentsalike,andareperfectforstudentswhohaveanxiety,a
learningdisability,motivationissues,(orELLs).Theschoolisprettyliberalandallows
studentssomefreedomslikeleavingschoolforlunchthatarenotpresentatother
schools.
IaskedherhowTOSbecameinvolvedintheexchangeprogramthatbroughtso
manystudentstotheschool.Ilearnedthattheschoolhashadtheirshareofforeign
exchangestudentsinthepast,butneverthismanyatonce.Before,exchangestudents
whowereoverwhelmedwiththepublicschoolsystemwouldfindaplacewithTOS.When
theschoolsnumbersstartedtodwindle,theadministrationreachedouttotheagencyto
placestudentsintheschoolfirst.TheincreaseinthenumberofELLstudentsrequiredthe
additionofanESLteacher.
TheESLteacherhasoneESLclassandalsoteachesSpanishandEnglish
Literature.DuringtheESLclass,sheworksthroughseveralESLbooksandworksheets.
AstheirEnglishLiteratureteacher,shealsobringssomeofthosesamesupportsintothe
classroom.EveryWednesday,thestaffgathersforafacultymeetingtotalkaboutany
issuesorconcernswithstudents.Shetakesthisopportunitytosharestrategiesifanyone
ishavingdifficultywithoneofherESLstudents.
Whenaskedwhatsupportswereinplaceforfamilyandconnectingtothe
community,shesharedthatfamilieswhicharestillintheirhomecountryarepretty
disconnectedtowhatisgoingonintheschool,butmanyofthestudentshavefamilyinthe
states,someinthelocalarea,acouplewithbrothersorsistersatCMUorPitt.Theschool
usesanonlinegradingsystemwhichallowsstudentsandfamiliestoaccessinformation
aboutassignmentsandgradesatanypoint.Teacherspostassignmentsandresourceson
theirpagesothatfamiliesareawareofwhattheirchildisdoingandstudentscanreview
informationiftheyforget.Communityserviceisanintegralpartoftheeducationcurriculum
atTOS.Studentsarerequiredtofulfillacertainnumberofvolunteerhourseveryyear.

FBASection5:ESLTeacherinterviews.

ThefirstteacherIinterviewedwastheESLteacheratTOS,Ms.L.Whenasked
whatarethemainsystemsofsupportthatyouoffertoESLs,sheresponded,Iusea
varietyoftextbooksthatinvolvevocabulary,shortstories,grammarandwriting.(Books:
GrammarforWriting,WordJourneysandEnglish,Yes!)Iused
www.breakingnewsenglish.comoftenandothersitesonlyrandomly.Weplaygamessuch
asbananagramsorpictionarytohelpwiththeirvocabulary.Ihadaboxofidiomscalled
WordTeasersthatIwouldincorporatehereandtheretohelpthembecomemorefamiliar
withAmericanEnglish.Wedidtacklethenovel"Hiroshima"atonepointtoo,forwhichI
hadmanysupportsinplaceforthedifferentELPs:graphicorganizers,clozes,higherlevel
questions,etc.Theanswerstomyquestionsaboutfamilyandcommunitysupports
reflectedthosefrommyinterviewwiththeassistantdirector.FamiliesareprimaryinAsia,
andshehadlittletonocommunicationwiththem.Familieswithintheareawereinvitedto
TOSactivitieslikefundraisersandfieldtrips.ShesharedthattheELLsrespondwelltothe
communityserviceactivities,andtheallschoolfieldtrips.Withaccesstosomanydifferent
culturaleventsandestablishments,ELLsatTOSaregivenachancetoreallylearnabout
thecommunityandAmericaasawhole.
MysecondinterviewwaswithanESLteacherfromtheAIU,Ms.R.Sheworkswith
atotalofthreeschoolsinthePittsburgharea.Whenaskedwhatwerehermosteffective
studentsupports,sheanswered,Iscaffoldstudentlearningwithgraphicorganizers,visual
representations,andpreteachingvocabulary(makingtextcomprehensible).Ialso
encourageteacherstomodifytestsandmakesuretheyareawareofaccommodationsfor
standardizedtesting.(wordtoworddictionaries,extendedtime,etc.).
Tosupportfamiliesshesendshomeparentnewslettersifpossible,shewillsendit
inthefirstlanguage.Shealsosharesappsandotherresourcesthatwillhelpeveryonewith
languageacquisition.Sheisalsoresponsibleforprovidingatranslatoratparent
meetings,ifneeded.WhenaskedhowshefostersacommunityconnectionforELLs,she
sharedthat,Inthepast,IhavetriedtoencouragemyELsandtheirfamiliestosignupfor
summercamps,inanefforttoencouragesocialization.Ithinkjoiningsportsisalsoagreat
toolinaccomplishingthis.Ihavealsopointedparentsinthedirectionofworkshopsatlocal
libraries.EarlierinmypositionasanESLCoordinator,wehadtheschoolparticipateina
fundraisingatthelocalBarnesandNobles.Studentsandteacherssharedstoriesand
raisedmoneyfortheschooltobuybooks.

Section8:SchoolObservations

Forthisassignment,IfollowedaroundagroupofstudentsduringtheirdayatTOS.
Ididntfollowonestudent,buttriedtositinontheclasseswiththemostELLsatthattime.
Toreiteratesomepreviousinformation,althoughthereareonly6ELLsatthisschool,itisa
largepercentagebasedonthe25totalstudentbody.Theclasssizesarealwayssmall.
ThelargestclassIobservedat7studentsinit.Whentalkingtoteachers,thesmallclass
sizesarethecornerstoneoftheirinstructionaldeliveryforallstudents,butisespecially
helpfulwithESLs.
ThefirstclassIobservedwasaBiologyclass.Studentswerefinishinguptheir
animal/plantcellmodels.Thisengaging,handsonproject,hadstudentsusingfoundand
recycledmaterials,tocreatetheirmodel,whichisthenlabeled.Thisprojectwasdesigned
tobeafun,endoftheyearactivity,buttheteacherreportedthathedoesalotofhandson
activitiesinhisclass.TosupportELLs,healwaysprovideskeyvocabularybeforetheunit
beginsanduseslotsofvisuals,likepictures,movies,andgraphicorganizersto
demonstratenewconcepts.Whenplayingvideos,hestopfrequentlytoaskstudentsto
summarizewhattheyhavelearned.
ThemathclasswasdoingtheirlastFab5whichareasetoffiveproblemsthat
theyusuallydoonFridaysthatstudentsarenotallowedtouseacalculatorfor.She
encouragesthemtodomentalmathortousepaperandpencilifneeded.Thisisoneof
theroutinesthatshehasestablishedinherclassroom.Shenotedthatallstudents,
includingtheELLs,respondwelltohavingasetroutinesothattheyknowwhattoexpecton
certaindaysareforcertainthings.Iimaginethatunderstandingandexpectingthese
routinesishelpfulforELLs,takingawaysomeofthedaytodayguessworkthathappensin
theirclasses.Shealsosharedthatshedoesnotnoticelanguagehavingmuchofan
impactontheELLsperformanceinclass.AcoupleoftheELLsaresomeofthehighest
performers.OnethingthatInoticedfromtalkingtothisteacherandlookingatthematerial,
isthatshedoesalotofpracticeproblemsbutIdidntseealotofwordproblems.Iwonder
ifthosemathscoreswouldbesustainedifstudentshadtopiecetogethertheequation
basedoninformationfromawordproblem.
TheESLclasswasworkingontheirWordTeaseridioms.Doingsomethingfunlike
thisonaFridayispartoftheirusualroutine.Theteacherhasonestudentsreadtheidiom
whileotherstudentsoffertheirbestguessastowhatitmaymean.Thestudentthenreads
offthecorrectanswer,includingsomebackgroundinformationabouthowtheidiom
originated.Mostofthetime,thisisfollowedwithalivelydiscussion.Thisteacher(who
providedherstudentsupportinformationinthepreviousinterview)alsotookthis
opportunitytoaddontothecommunitybuildingsupports.Shesharedthateachstudent
hasateachermentor.Thesementorgroupsmeetaboutonceamonth.Thepurposeof
thementorprogramissothementorscanactasamediatorifastudenthasanissuein
schoolorcanhelpastudentwithanykindofproblem.Thegroupssessionsusuallybegin
withadiscussionaboutgrades,issues,etc.butthenthegroupsdispersetogotothe
museum,seeamovie,grablunch,etc.Shebelievesthatthesementorgroupshelp
studentsfeelliketheyarepartofTOScommunityandtheactivitiesallowthemto
experiencethecityevenmore.

Chapters410

ThisbookisaguidetothepracticalapplicationoftheMidcontinentResearchfor
EducationandLearning(McREL)sninecategoriesofinstructionalstrategiesadaptedfor
ELLinstruction.Eachchapteriscenteredaroundoneofthestrategiesandhighlightsthe
importanceofeachtoESLinstruction,aswellasprovidesgeneralizations,
recommendations,andexamples.
Chapter4tacklesnonlinguisticrepresentationsanindispensabletoolinESL
instruction.Ifknowledgeisstoredlinguisticallyandnonlinguistically,andESLstudents
haveadifficulttimeaccessesthelanguage,studentsneedtobegivenachancetousenon
linguisticmethodsforstoringanddemonstratinginformation.Twogeneralizationsfrom
ClassroomInstructionThatWorksare:
1.Avarietyofactivitiescanhelpstudentformulatenonlinguisticrepresentations.
2.Nonlinguisticrepresentationselaborateonknowledge.(pg37)
Somerecommendationsincludeusinggraphicorganizers,pictures,models,and
movements.Teachersshouldalsoshowstudentshowtocreatementalpictures.
Chapter5dealswithcues,questions,andadvanceorganizers.Askingtheright
questionisalmostasimportantasknowingtherightanswer.Questioningcanservemany
functions.Higherlevelquestionsproducedeeperlearning(pg46).Usingtiered
questionscanofferseveraldifferentaccesspointsforarangeofELPs.Advanced
organizersaregreatforkeepinginformationorganized.Questionshelpstudentsconnect
oldinformationwithnewinformation.
Chapter6isaboutcooperativelearning.ELLsexcelinsmallgroupssettingswhere
thereisplentyofrepetition,offerslotsoffeedback,andreducesanxiety.Groupsshould
bemixedability,relativelysmall,andshouldbeusedincombinationwithotherstrategies
likethink,pair,sharesandjigsaws.
Chapter7explainshowELLsshouldbeexplicitlytaughttosummarizeandtake
notesbylearningtounderstandtextpatterns(e.g.,chronologicalandcauseandeffect
patternsinhistorybooks)andrecognizethesignalwordsaccompanyingthem,reading
andwritingskillsimprove.
Chapter8isallabouthomeworkandpractice.Homeworkshouldemploythesame
strategiesthatareusedintheclassroom,likevisualaidesandnativelanguagesupport.
Expectationsforhomeworkshouldalsobemadeclear.PracticeisessentialforELLs.
Practicesisntdoingthesamethingoverandoveragain.Helpfulpracticewillallow
studentstochangeandadaptinformationduringthepractice.
Chapter9isaboutreinforcingeffortandprovidingrecognition.Effortisnt
somethingthatcomesnaturallytoeveryoneandshouldbeexplicitlytaught.Trackingeffort
andachievementallowsstudentstobereflectiveoftheirownwork.Makesurethepraise
ispersonalandarecognitionofprogress.
Chapter10dealswithgeneratingandtestinghypothesisandhowitcanhappen
acrossthecurriculum.Byaskingstudentstogenerateandtesthypothesis,theyare
practicinginductiveanddeductivereasoning.

SECTION6LITReview

1.ESLandClassroomTeachersTeamuptoTeachCommonCore
byLesliA.Maxwell

ThisarticleprimarilydiscussestheroleofESLteacherswithintheeducational
systemduringtheshifttowardscommoncore.Thearticlebeganwithanexampleofa
contentareateacherwhoreachedouttotheESLteachertogethelpadaptingher
curriculumtomeettheneedsofherESLstudents.Thiswasthecatalystforamuchcloser
collaborationbetweenthecontentandESLteachersinthisparticularschool.Together,
theypeeledbackthelayersofcommoncore,findingtheaccesspointsforELL,using
simplifiedlanguagetoconveytheessentialideaswhileusingstrategiestheydevelopedas
ateam.
Theauthorsgoesontocomparethetypical(orstereotypical)roleoftheESL
teacher:ateacherwhoworkswithstudentsprimarilyonlanguageinstructioninanisolated
settingtotheroleESLteachersneedtobegantoplay,ascoteachersand/orcontent
collaborators.TheTESOLbroughtupthisideaaswell,essentialstatingthatteachers
needtoworkwithstudentsaswellasactasconsultantstocontentareateachers,offering
strategiesandbestpractices.
Contentrichcurriculum,whichinitselfisabestpractice,canonlyworkifthereare
thepropersupportsinplace.LiketheexecutivedirectoroftheInternationalNetworkfor
PublicSchoolssaid,Everysingleteacherisateacheroflanguageandcontent.When
ESLteachersmovefrompullouttopushin,whentheyareofferingstrategies,scaffolds,
andsupportfortheeverydayclassroom,ELLsbenefitfromamuchricherexperience.
2.BlueprintforEnglishLanguageLearnersSuccess
NewYorkStateEducationDepartment/UniversityoftheStateofNewYork
OfficeofBilingualEducationandForeignLanguageStudies
http://usny.nysed.gov/docs/blueprintforellsuccess.pdf

ThisdocumentfromtheNewYorkDepartmentofEducationisinresponsetothe
largeachievementgapforELLsinthestateandtheshifttowardsthecommoncoreto
ensurethateveryoneistakingresponsibilityforthesuccessofELLs.Underthecommon
core,allstudentsmustbechallenged,includingELLs.Thedocumentthenoutlinesa
frameworkofsevenprinciplesforthatsuccess.Theframeworkismorecomplexthanmy
summary,butthesepointsshouldprovidethebasicidea.
1.AllteachersareteachersofELLsandneedtoplanaccordinglybydesigningand
deliveringinstructionthatisculturallyandlinguisticallyappropriateforalldiverselearners.
2.Schoolboards/leadersareresponsibleforensuringtheacademic,linguistic,social,and
emotionalneedsofELLsareaddressedbyprovidingaclearvisionforELLsuccess.
3.SchoolsengageallELLsingradeappropriate,rigorous,andalignedinstructionby
articulatingclearlanguageandcontentobjectives.
4.SchoolsrecognizebilingualismasanassetandgivestudentsachancetoearnaSeal
ofBiliteracywiththeirdiploma.
5.Schoolsvalueandinvolvefamiliesaspartnersineducationbyprovidingresourcesand
trainingintheirhomelanguageandEnglish.
6.SchoolsshouldutilizetheirESL,Bilingual,andLOTEteachersbyprovidingallteachers
andopportunitytocollaborate.
7.Schoolsshouldleveragestudentshomelangaugebyusingthelanguagetobridgeprior
tonewknowledge.
3.ELLShadowingShowsPromise
byLianaHeitin

Thisistakingtheideaofwalkinginsomeoneelsesshoestoalmostaliterallevel.
IvanniaSotodevelopedELLShadowingasaprofessionaldevelopmenttoolandtechnique
in2003.AteacheroradministratorwillsimplyfollowanELLtohisorherclasses.Neither
thestudentnorhisorherteachersknowtherealreasontheobserverinthebackofthe
roomisthere,whichistolookspecificallyatthestudentsuseofacademiclanguage.
Theobserverwilltakenotesonthestudentslisteningandspeakinginfiveminuteintervals.
OneofthefirstthingsthattheobserverwillnoticeishowsilenttheELListhroughoutthe
instructionalday.Andalthoughdevelopingacademiclanguageisessentialtogaining
proficiency,ELLsspendaverysmallpercentageoftheirdayengagedimprovingtheir
academiclanguage.Observersalsowalkawayfromtheexperiencewithasenseof
urgency:WhatcanIdotohelp.Sotofocusesonthreeinstructionaltechniquesthatfoster
academiclanguage,Think/pair/share,reciprocalteaching,andtheFrayermodelofusing
picturesandcontext.
4. Math: the Not-So-Universal Language
BySeanCavanagh

ThisarticlebeginswithMalindaEvans,amathteacher,whoteachesmathtoaclassroom
ofstudents,over50%ofwhichareELLs.Althoughmathhasbeenpeggedastheuniversal
language,thephrasequicklyfallsapartwhenstudentstrytofigureoutwhatisosceles
meansorwhytheteacherisaskingthemtodrawatableontheirpaper.Sheshares
severalstrategies,Sheworksonanoverheadprojector,writingouttermsasshepronounces
them.Sheavoidslengthydefinitions.Andshepointsoutsimilaritiesintherootsofwordsinthe
twolanguages:Equilateraltriangles,shetellsstudents,canberememberedasigualandladoin
Spanish,orequalandside.
5.InstructionalModelMayYieldGainsforEnglishLearners
ByMaryAnnZehr
AlthoughthemodelatBrooklynInternationalHighSchoolisunusual,thegraduation
ratewhichexceedsalotofotherNewYorkCitypublicschoolsindicatesthatsomething
isworking.Teamsof5teachersfromdifferentcontentareasarepairedwithacohortof
studentsofvaryinggradesandELPs.Thesegroupsloopfortwoyears.Theteachers
worktogethertocreateinterdisciplinarylearningprojects,whicharethecornerstoneof
theircurriculum.Sincetheschoolisforimmigrants,almosteveryoneisanELL.Having
suchawidevarietyofELPsintheclasstogetherrequiresteacherstohaveadeep
understandingofESLinstructionsothattheycanprovidetheappropriatesupportsforall
students.Studentsarealsorequiredtoholdaninternshipinthecommunityduringtheir
junioryear.
6.ELL2.0:HowtoMaketheMostoftheWeb
ByLarryFerlazzo

AnappropriatearticlefromLarryFerlazzobecauseitfocusesonhowtousethe
webtosupportELLs.Hestartsbysayingthathedoesnotbelievetechnologyisthemagic
bullet,buttheinternetandthethousandsofaudioandvisualsupportsitprovides,doesgive
aplaceforELLstudentstotakerisks,makemistakes,andlearnfromthemwithoutfearof
publicembarrassment.Thewebisalsoaplaceforteacherstoshareandfindresources.The
remainderofthearticlelistsintypicalFerlazzothebestwebsitesforELLstudentsandESL
teachers.Heprovidesthewebsiteaswellasadescriptionofhowitcouldbeused.
7.MomentumBuildsforDualLanguageLearning
byLesilA.Maxwell

Thisarticlediscussedthegrowingtrendofduallanguageimmersionprograms.Experts
saytheinterestinduallanguageprogramsnowisdrivenbyanincreaseddemandforbilingual
andbiliterateworkersandbyeducatorswhoseepositiveimpactsonacademicachievementfor
bothEnglishlearnersandstudentsalreadyfluentinEnglish.Althoughprogramslooks
differently,theysharesomecommonalities:atleasthalfoftheinstructionaltimeisdedicatedto
thesecondlanguageandthereisadistinctseparationbetweenthetwolanguages.Sinceithas
beenshownthatELLswhoareproficientintheirhomelanguagedobetterwithacademic
contentinEnglish.
8.DesigningRatingScalesforSmallGroupInteraction.
byRogerNunn

ThispaperproposesusingratingscalestomonitorandassessELLstudentsduringsmallgroup
settings.ThesmallgroupisusedduringESLinstructionbecauseitoffersstudentsachanceto
interactandconverseusingthelanguageinapressurefreesituation,buttheassessmentofan
ELLinthesmallgroupisalittlemoredifficult.Aratingscalewithleveledbandsofdescriptorsis
idealforassessingwhetherornotthestudentwasabletomaintaintheconversation.The
writingofthoseratingscalesisalsoanactivitythatcouldbenefitstudents.Ratingscalesshould
includesometoallofthefollowing:scalesforinteractive/turntaking,genuineinformation
exchange,pronunciation,andgrammar/vocab.
9.AnInvestigationofEffectivenessofPeerFeedback
byGraceHuiChinLin

Theresultsfromthisresearchpaperimplythatmostparticipantsbelievedthatpeerfeedback
positivelyassistedtheirlearninginEnglishwriting.Thepeerreviewpracticeoffersmany
benefits:providesmoreselfcontroltoELLs,peercorrectionismoreflexibleandnoncoercive,
opportunitiesforselfreflection.Overall,thedemocraticclassroomprovidesthebest
atmospheretodevelopstudentswritingskills.
10.HowtoUseSkypeintheESL/EFLClassroom
SarahElaineEaton

Skype is a communication tool which allows people to see and hear each other over
the Internet, and it is free! All you need is a microphone, speakers, and camera - all of
which come standard in modern computers. A Skype interaction could be person to
person, person to people, or people to people. Using Skype to integrate technology
into the ESL curriculum can provide authentic language experiences like interacting with
other students across the world, interviewing experts and authors, or working on
collaborative projects.

WORKCITED
1.BlueprintforEnglishLanguageLearnersSuccess.(n.d.)..RetrievedJune5,2014,from
http://usny.nysed.gov/docs/blueprintforellsuccess.pdf

2.Cavanagh,S.Math:theNotSoUniversalLanguage.EducationWeek,24,1,22.

3.Eaton,S.E.RetrievedJune5,2014,fromhttp://www.drsaraheaton.wordpress.com

4.Ferlazzo,L.(n.d.).ELL2.0:HowtoMaketheMostoftheWeb..RetrievedJune5,2014,from
http://www.edweek.org/tm/articles/2009/09/23/tln_ferlazzo_ell_web.html

5.Grace,H.C.AnInvestigationofEffectivenessofPeerFeedback..RetrievedJune5,2014,
fromhttps://www.academia.edu/3699369/An_Investigation_of_Effectiveness_of_Peer_Feedback

6.Heitin,L.ELLShadowingShowsPromise.EducationWeek.

7.Maxwell,L.'Dual'ClassesSeeGrowthinPopularity.EducationWeek.RetrievedJune5,
2014,fromhttp://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2012/03/23/26duallanguage_ep.h31.html

8.Maxwell,L.A.ESLandClassroomTeachersTeamuptoTeachCommonCore.Education
Week,33,912.

9.Nunn,R.DesigningRatingScalesforSmallGroupInteraction.ELTJournalOUP.Vol.54,
169178.

10.Zehr,M.a.InstructionalModelMayYieldGainsforEnglishLearners.EducationWeek,27,
12.

Section7

1.TESOLPositionStatementonHighStakesTestingforK12EnglishLanguageLearnersin
theUnitedStatesofAmerica.

TESOLcontendsthatwhenitcomestohighstakestesting,EnglishLanguageLearners
areatadistinctdisadvantagethatisdifficulttoaccommodate.TESOLacknowledgesthatthe
purposeofthesetests,otherthancontinuedaccesstostatefunds,istotrackastudents
progressovertimethroughastandardsetofgoals.Forreasonsthatarenotacademic,these
testsdonotaccuratelytracktheprogressofELLs.
SincestudentsmustexpresstheircontentknowledgeinEnglish,astudentwithlimited
languageproficiencymaynotbeabletoarticulatetheiranswersaccuratelyevenifthestudent
alreadyhasamasteryofthecontentintheirnativelanguage.Thesolutionistooffer
accommodationslikemoretime,bilingualdictionaries,andtranslations,buteventhesehave
theirshortcomings.SomestatesevenofferELLstudentsagraceperiodbeforethey
commencetesting,butaccordingtoresearch,ELLsneed57yearsofassistedEnglish
instructionbeforetheycanfullyengageinthecomplexitiesofacademicEnglish.
Culturalandeducationaldifferencesalsoposeaproblem.Timedtests,forexample,is
somethingthatalmosteveryAmericanchildisfamiliarwith,althoughthisconceptisnovelfor
manyELLs.TestquestionswhichcanunfamiliarculturalreferencesalsoputELLsata
disadvantage.
Inconclusion,TESOLhasmaderecommendationsforassessmentthemostimportant
ofwhichisthedefinitionofpurpose.Thepurposeofeachassessmentshouldbemadeclear,
andELLsshouldhavethecapabilitiestofulfilthatpurpose.Portfoliosandmultipleclassroom
assessmentsgiveamuchbetterpicturesofstudentprogress.Allpartiesintheeducational
systemstobemeawareofthetimeittakesforELLstolearnthelanguage.
2.TESOLPositionStatementonAssessmentandAccountabilityofEnglishforSpeakers
ofOtherLanguages(ESOL)Students
TherearefourmajorissuesregardingthetestingofELLs:
1.TheUSeducationsystemasawhole,doesnotseemtohavetheresources,procedures,
andpersonneltocreateandcarryoutmultiplemeasuresofassessmentofELLs.Generally,
schoolsseemtobeunawareofESLbestpracticesanddedicatelittletimetoprofessional
development.
2.TheobjectivesofinstructionforELLsseemtoberunningontwoseparatepaths:contentand
language.Thelackofconnectionbetweenthesetwothingsresultsinassessmentswhichdo
notrelatebacktostandardsandgeneraldisconnectionforthestudent.
3.Current,widelyusedassessmentsdonotreflectcurrentresearchonbestpractices.
4.ThestatewidestandardizedassessmentsprovidemanyobstaclesforELLstomaneuver:
unfamiliartestinglanguage,formats,testtakingskills,vocab,culturalreferences,etc.Ontopof
that,fewmeaningfulaccommodationshavebeendiscoveredwhichwouldallowstudentsto
accuratelydemonstratetheirknowledgeandabilities.
Withthesethingsinmind,TESOLmadeafewsuggestions.Thefirstofwhichisthatthe
purposeofassessmentsneedstobeidentified.Moreappropriateassessmentsareneededfor
theintegrationofcontentandlanguageobjectives.Professionaldevelopmentisamust.All
teachersandadministratorsneedtobesensitivetothechallengesELLsfaceinstandardized
testingandshouldprovidesupportstrategies.
3.TESOLPositionStatementonTeacherPreparationforContentBasedInstruction(CBI)
ContentbasedinstructionhasalotofmomentuminESLinstruction.Thebulkof
languageinstructionisnolongerhappeningoutsideoftheclassroomandtheshiftrepresentsa
fundamentalchangeinESLinstruction.SincethegapforELLsisoftenintheacademic
languageintheircontentclasses,thisshiftisexcited,buttricky.Theproblemliesinteacher
preparation.TESOLstatesthatitsfollowingstandardsunderscoretheimportanceofcombining
languageandcontentpedagogy.
Constructlearningenvironmentsthatsupportstudentslanguageandliteracy
developmentandcontentareaachievement(Domain1Language)TESOLPositionStatement
onTeacherPreparationforContentBasedInstruction(CBI)
Constructlearningenvironmentsthatsupportstudentsculturalidentities,
languageandliteracydevelopment,andcontentareaachievement(Domain2
Culture)
Know,understand,andusestandardsbasedpracticesandstrategiesrelatedto
planning,implementing,andmanagingsecondlanguageandcontent
instruction(Domain3Planning,Implementing,andManagingInstruction)
Collaboratewiththeircolleaguesacrossdisciplinesandserveasaresourceto
allstafftoimprovelearningforallstudents(Domain5Professionalism)
(TESOL,2002)
Onafinalnote,TESOLrecommendsthatifaschoolismakingthisparadigmshiftto
CBI,theyneedtoinvestintheprofessionaldevelopmentfortheirteachers.

Section9SchoolSupportsandModelProgramComparison

ModelProgram FBASchool
ESLClass x
Facultymeetingstodiscuss
supports/progressforELLs
x x
Onlineassignments/grades
foreasyaccess
x
Communityservicehours x
Culturallyandlinguistically
appropriatecurriculumfor
alldiverselearners
x x
Academic,linguistic,social,
andemotionalneedsof
ELLsareaddressed
x x
Articulatingclearlanguage
andcontentobjectives
x
ChancetoearnaSealof
Biliteracywiththeirdiploma
x
ELLShadowing x
Supportingmathcurriculum
withvocabulary,overhead
projectordemonstrations,
andwritingthingsoutasthey
aresaid.
x
Loopingteachingteamsand
PBLs
x sometimesbutnottothe
extentofmodelprogram
Usingthewebtosupport
instruction
x x
DualLanguagePrograms x
Ratingscalesforsmallgroup
interaction
x x
PeerFeedback x x
UsingSkypetomake
connections
x

Section10
SincetheschoolIconcentratedonisverysmall,withoutalotofbellsandwhistles,I
expectedtheretobelittletonooverlapbetweentheirsupportsandthemodelprogram
supports.ButwhenIstartedconstructingthechart,thereweremanysimilarities,whichis
hearteningbecausetomethatmeansthatyoudonthavetohavetheseelaborate(and
sometimescostly)programsforELLstobegiventhesupportstheyneedtosucceed.One
ofthebestsupportsinplace,Ibelieve,whichwasfoundinboththemodelprogramandmy
FBAschool,wasthecooperationbetweenESLandregulareducationteachers.Of
course,thatcooperationmanifestsitselfindifferentways:coteaching,ELLshadowing,
curriculumdevelopment,etc.AtTOS,ithappensduringthestaffmeetingevery
Wednesday.Allteachersgatheraroundtheconferencetabletodiscussstudent
progress/setbacks/strategies.Thisisnotonlyhelpfulfromanacademicpointofview,but
alsogivesthemachancetoraiseredflagsonstudentsthathavebeenoffintheirclass.
AnothersimilaritybetweenthemodelandFBAschoolprogramsistheideaof
looping.Inthemodelprogram,ateamof5teacherslooptwoyearswithastudentcohort.
Duringthosetwoyears,thefiveteachersworktogetheronacompletelyintegrated
curriculum.AtTOS,thereisonlyahandfulofteacherswhichmeansthattheyloopalmost
theentirewaythroughtheschoolbydefault.Thisallowsstudentsandteacherstoformasolid
bondandallowsteacherstoalwayspickuprightwheretheyleftoff.
School#3
Schooldistrict:PittsburghPublic
Schoolname:TOS
ELLpopulation5students(Iknowthatthisdoesntseemlikealot,butthe
schoolhasatotalpopulationof25).Shanghainese(Shanghaidialect)(ESLLevel4,
sophomore),HeNaHua(dialectofMandarin)(ESLLevel5,senior),Shandong(dialectof
Mandarin)(ESLLevel4,senior),Mandarin(ESLLevel5,senior)andKorean(ESLLevel
4,freshmen)
ESLsupports
oTheschoolworkswithanexchangeprogramtohelpplacestudentsinhomesin
theUS.TheschoolalsohasanESLteacher(whoalsoteachesEnglishandSpanish).
Thereisamentorprogram,communityserviceopportunities,andanextremely
individualizedapproachasaresultofthesmallclassclasses.

ParentRecommendations:
Developaplanforcommunication.AtTOS,theELLsareexchangestudentswhomay
ormaynothavefamilyinthearea.Withtechnologytoday,thereisnoreasonthatthere
shouldntbemorecommunicationbetweenfamiliesandschool.Involvingfamiliesisonlygoing
tostrengthenthestudentscontinuedEnglishlanguagedevelopment.
AdministrationRecommendations:
SinceTOSisahighschool,allowELLstudentstoworktowardssomekindofseallike
aSealofBiliteracyontheirdiploma.Thisnotonlyprovidesthemanothergoaltoworktowards,
butplacesvalueintheirabilityandskillsinbothlanguages,notjustEnglish.
TeacherRecommendations:
AlthoughTOSdoesntrequireteacherstowriteoutlessonplans,itwouldbehelpfultoat
leastprovideELLswiththecontentandlanguageobjects.Thisway,theyhaveabetter
understandingofwhatisrequiredandbeingaskedofthem.
ParaprofessionalRecommendations:
AlthoughTOSdoesnthaveparaprofessionalsonstaff,iftherewereany,Iwould
recommendthatwhenappropriate,theyvisualizewhattheyteacherissaying.Bythis,Imean
thatifateacherisworkingthroughamathproblem,theparaprofessionalcouldbewritingitout
ontheoverheard.Or,ifduringalecture,theteacherusesatrickyword,theparaprofessional
couldwriteitontheboard.Thiswouldtakesomeclosecollaborationbetweenbothteacherand
paraprofessional.
PolicymakerRecommendations:
IreallylovetheideaofELLShadowing,andIthinkpolicymakersmorethananyoneelse
shouldengageinthepractice.Sincemanypolicymakersarenotintheeducationalfieldtobegin
with,itisevenmoreimportanttounderstandtheELLsperspectiveinschool,sinceitdeviates
sowildlyfromthenormthatpolicymakersoftenworkfrom.

FBASection11
1.Theknowledgeofthecultureofmultilinguallearnersandfamiliesspecifictothecultural
demographicsofTOSwasprimarilyheldbytheESLteacher,andsheknewalot.Allofher
studentswerefromsomewhereinAsia,butsheneverlumpedthemtogetherlikethat.She
knewthedifferentareastheywereeachfrom,alwaysreferencesthespecificdialectofthe
languagetheyspoke,andhadadeeperunderstandingofwhatfamilyandculturelookslikein
thosespecificareas.Shealsogavethemplentyofopportunitiestothinkaboutandshare
informationabouttheircultures.Afterreadinganarticle,forexample,oneoftheirquestionsmay
beaskingthemtomakesomekindofconnectiontotheirhome.Therestoftheteachers,
althoughtheydidntknowasmuchastheESLteacher,theywerealwaysrespectfuland
inquisitiveabouttheirculture.TheyalsoknewenoughtoreadsomeofELLsactions(likestaying
morequietthanmost)notasdisrespectful,butasaproductoftheirculture.
2.Beforeyouevengettotheteaching,therehastobealevelofrespectandappreciationof
ELLsnativelanguageandculture.TheESLteacherisnevertryingtoreplacetheirnative
language,onlygivethemanotherone.Smallgroupinstructionwasthecornerstoneof
instructionatmyFBAschool.Withinthesesmallgroups(orevenwholeclassinstruction)there
issomesortofdifferentiationthatallowsstudentsofvariousproficiencylevelaccesstothe
content.Thiscouldbeaskingdifferentstudentstoreaddifferentsupplementalmaterialsor
assigningthemadifferenttask.Graphicorganizers,rubrics,andvisualrepresentationsshould
beconsistentlyusedtosupporttheinstructionandstudentsengagementwiththecontent.
Theseinstructionalstrategiesshouldbeinthecontextofauthenticlearningexperiencesand
resultinmeaningfulfeedbackfromtheteacher.
3.Wheneverpossible,theESLshouldorganizesomekindofcommunityeventattheschoolto
givetheELLfamiliesandteachersachancetointeractbeyondtheclassroom.Thiscouldbefor
aserviceprojectorculturaldinner.Also,oneofthefirstthingsyoushouldestablishisalineof
communicationwithfamilies:throughnewsletters,emails,websites,schoolvisitswith
translatorswhateversupportsthefamiliesthebest.
4.SpecificallyatmyFBAschool,whichholdsstudentcenteredfacultymeetingsevery
Wednesday,oratotherschools,duringplanningperiods,professionaldevelopmentdays,the
ESLshouldshareinformationabouttheculturesrepresentedbytheELLsintheschool.
Learningaboutotherplacesandculturesisalwaysfun,andtheESLcoulddeliverthis
informationinanexcitingway.Alongwiththis,shouldcomeasensitivitytrainingthathighlights
thedifferencesinculturesthatmaymanifestintheclassroom.
5.ThedifferencesbetweenAmericancultureandotherculturesaretoomanytolisthere,but
specificallytheculturesrepresentedatmyFBAschoolwereavarietyofAsiancultures.They
tendedtobemorequietandsomeavoidedeyecontact(atleastwhentheyfirstarrivedatthe
school.)Theimportanceofeducationintheircultureswashighlightedbythefactthattheir
familieswerepayingalargesumofmoneytohavethemattendschoolinAmerica.
FBASection12:Advocacy

AsanadvocateforELLs,oneofthefirstthingsIwouldwanttodoiseducateandconnectwith
contentareateachersregardingtheimportanceofELLinstruction.Maybethishappensinsmall
groupsorprofessionaldevelopment.Oneoftheactivitiesthatstuckwithmethemostduring
thiscertificationcoursewaswhenweread/listenedtoatextofOldEnglish.Youkindof
understoodwhatwasbeingsaid,butnotquite.Ithoughtthiswasanexcellentactivitythat
demonstratehowlowlevelELLsspendtheirdayandwouldfacilitatethissameactivityto
teachers.IvanniaSotoalsodevelopedtheELLShadowingstrategyweresomeoneobservesan
ELLthroughouttheschoolday,takingnoteofhowengagedtheyareintheirclasses.
OnceteachersunderstandwhatitisliketobeinanELLshows,Ithinktheywillbemore
receptivetotheresources,strategies,andcoteachinghelpIwouldhavetooffer.Iwouldcreate
shared,onlinesnapshotsofeachoftheirstudents,outliningproficiencylevelsalongwiththe
kindofworktheyshouldbeengagedin(maybewiththeuseofmodelindicators).Thiswouldbe
anopendocumentthattheycouldeditandaddinformationsothatwecankeepthelinesof
communicationopen.
Iwouldhelpteacherswiththeirdifferentiation,creatingabinderfullofblankgraphicorganizers,
checklists/rubricsforRWSL,outlinesofbestpractices,andotherresources.Inmylistofbest
practices,afewofthemostimportantwouldbe:
KnowyourcontentANDlanguageobjectives.Theseshouldbesharedwithstudentsso
thattheyknowwhattheyareworkingtowards.
Beawareofyourwords.Whenspeaking,thinkaboutwhatyourELLishearing.Ifyouhear
idiomsorconfusinglanguage,restatewhatyouhavesaidusingmorestraightforwardword
choice.
Makeinstruction/thinkingvisible.Wheneverpossible,supportyourinstructionwithvisuals:
pictures,artifacts,writtenwords.Eventheuniversallanguageofmathisriddledwith
confusingcontentwords.IfamathteacherasksanELLtodrawatable,whatdoyouthinkthey
woulddraw?ThisiswhyMalindaEvans

RachelLendyakPetersKWLChart
Know Want Learned
ELLpopulationhas
dramaticallyincreasedin
theUS.
Wheredoyouevenbegin
teachingastudentEnglish?
Theimportanceofclearly
statedlanguageandcontent
objectiveswhichalignwith

ESLteacherscanwork
oneononewithstudentsor
inaclassroomsetting.

ELLsoftenexperience
cultureshock.

MustbesensitivetoELLs
nativeculture.
Whatdoesthefirstdaylook
like?

Bestpracticeswhenit
comestocommunicating
withELLs?

Howdoyouknowwhenan
ELLhasmasteredthe
language?

statestandards,common
core,andWIDA.

ELLsgothroughasilent
periodandshouldalways
begivenmorewaittime.

TherearetieredEnglish
LanguageProficiency
Levelswithperformance
indicatorswhichESL
teachersuseas
benchmarksofproficiency.

Wheneverpossible,
teachersshouldusevisual
aidesintheirinstruction.

Authenticlearning
experienceswhichsupport
languageacquisitionisbest

ImperativethatESL
teacherworkscloselywith
contentareateachers.

CelebrateELLsculture

Importanttofacilitatealot
offamilyandcommunity
involvement.

Differentiationiskey
withintheregularclassroom
settingaswellaswith
varyingproficiencylevels.

FinalReflection
1.Language
OneofthemostimportantthingsIlearnedaboutlanguageisthedifferentschoolsofthought
behindthebestwaytoapproachlanguageinstruction:Languageisacquiredvs.languageis
learned.Thelanguageacquisitionpathseemstohavemoreweightbehinditandtheinstruction
developedwhichsupportsitseemstobemorehelpfultostudents.Insteadoffocusingon
grammaticalcorrectness,thefocusisplacedonmeaningmaking,withtheunderstandingthat
correctgrammarwillfollow.Thismanifestsitselfthroughthingslikefeedback:insteadof
pointingoutmistakes,simplyrestatethesentencethecorrectway,writinginstruction:insteadof
learningtherulesandregulationsthroughroutleaning,offerstudentsauthenticwriting
experiences,likeletterstofamilymembers,andofferworkshopstoimprovewriting.Thiscourse
alsogivemeachancetobrushuponmyownunderstandingoftheEnglishlanguage,which
wasalotoffun,fromlookingatwordoriginsandspellingtodeconstructingthewaywemake
soundsandusethealphabet.
2.Culture
WhenthinkingaboutthefirstthingtodowithESLstudents,Iwouldsayitwouldbelearninga
littlemoreabouttheirculture.Throughthiscourse,Ihaveanextensivecollectionofresources
forthispurpose.Onaprofessionaldevelopmentnote,theESLteachershouldalsoteach
culturalsensitivitytootherteachers.Undertheumbrellaofcultureistheimportanceof
communityandfamilyinvolvement.TheESLteachershouldestablishregularcommunication
withfamiliesthatincludetheproperaccommodations.TheESLteachershouldalsoprovide
opportunitiesforELLstoconnectwiththecommunity.
3.Observing,Planning,ImplementingandManagingInstruction
Thebegin,theESLteacherisresponsiblefordistributingtheHomeLanguageSurvey.Basedon
thoseresults,thestudentwilltaketheWAPTtodeterminewhetherornottheyareinneedof
ESLservices.Afterthat,theywillbecategorizedintoanELPlevelandinstructionwillbebased
onthatdesignation.Itisimportantforallteachers,notjustESL,toclearlystatebothlanguage
andcontentobjectives,althoughtheESLteachermayhavetoworkwithcontentareateachers
tocreatethese.WhetherELLsareinaclassoftheirownoriftheyareinmainstreamclasses,
differentiationishowtheteachercanensurethatallstudentsarereceivinginstructionthatis
appropriateforthem.Accommodationsandadaptationsmayincludethingslikeadapted
readingmaterials,clozes,sentencesstarters,graphicorganizers,etc.
4.Assessment
Thereareawidevarietyofassessmentswhichcanbeusedinsidetheclassroom.These
shouldbeusedtobothassessstudentability,butalsoinformfutureinstruction.Some
assessments,likechecklistsandratingscales,canbeusedbyteacherstodoquicklyassess
theareasofRWLSinbetweenlargerassessmentsandusedbystudentstochecktheirown
learning.Rubricsmakeexpectationsclearandshouldbegiventostudentsbeforehand.
Portfolios,asopposedtotests,giveamorewellroundedassessmentofstudents.

5.Professionalism
TheESLteachershouldworkcloselywithcontentteachers,evenifitisntacoteaching
situation.TheESLteachercanprovidebestpracticestocontentteachersandcontent
teacherscanprovideappropriatevocabularyandcontextforESLinstruction.ESLteacherscan
alsoprovideprofessionaldevelopmentopportunitiesaboutESLcontentinstructionsandcultural
sensitivity.ESLteachersneedtoservetheneedsoftheirstudentsaboveallelse,todothatto
thebestoftheirability,theyneedtobeanadvocate.