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FRACTALS

V. V. ZHIKOV
The article is devoted to
the fractal geometry elements. Classical fractals
are described together
with calculation of their
Hausdorff dimension. The
notions of self-similarity
and iterated systems are
also discussed.

.., 1996

fl fl


. fl fl fl
, .

. .

. .. -fl

1975 . . fractus,
fraction,
fractional , .
.
,
0, 1,
2. , ..
3/2? -,

, 1-,
2-, (3/2)-.
1919 . - $ 0
, .
. ,
,
,
.
,
,
.. ,

.

, , .
, . ,

.
, . ,
,
. ,
,
,
.
. , ,

..

109

.
- ,
. , ,
(, ..),
.
. ,

:
?
, , . , ,
, .
, . .

,
, .
, ,
. .
,
.
, .
,
. ,
, . .

.
, , : A = [0, 1] , 1/2
, 1/2 A.
. {1, 2, 3, } . A
,
, ,
: A = {x1 ,
x2 , , xn , }. :
1) [0, 1] ,

110

2) .
(
1 1). :
1, 1, 1, 1,

= a1 , a2 , a3 , ,

ai =

1,
1 .

, . ,
;
= a 1,

a 2,
1

1
a 3,

= a 1,

a 2,
2

a 3,

= a 1,

a 2,

a 3,

2
3

2
3

2
3

..................
.
, ,
= a1 , a2 , a3 ,
1

.
1 ( ), 2 (
) ..
, .
,
[0, 1] ; x [0, 1] .

.
A B,
A B , . A0 , A1 ,
,
A0 A1 A2
,
A0 , A1 , , An , ,
:
A = An = A0 A1
. .
x ,
x = lim x n
n

xn A. ,
. [0, 1] , (0, 1) .

, 12, 1996

.
.

K0 [0, 1].
, (1/3, 2/3), K1 ,
[0, 1/3] [2/3, 1] (. 1). : (1/9, 2/9)
(7/9, 8/9). K2 ,
(1/3)2 .
,
K0 K1 K2
Kn 2n (1/3)n
,
n

2
K n = --- .
3

(1)

Kn ,
K :

K=

K .
n

n=1

, K [0, 1]
.
.
(1) , K .

:
1
--2
3
1 2 2
--- + -----2 + -----3 + = ------------ = 1.
2
3 3 3
1 --3
K .
,

K0

0,

1,

1
--- ,
3

2
--- ,
3

1
--- ,
9

2
--- ,
9

7
--- ,
9

8
--- ,
9

. ,
,
. K
, . , ,
: 0, 1 2. 21 (
7 = 2 31 + 1 30), 1/4 0,020202
, ( a/3k, a ) ,

1
--- = 0,100 = 0,0222
3
,
, [0, 1].
(1/3, 2/3).
x
1 ,
x = 0,1, a [1, 1/3], [2/3, 1]
0,0 0,2

(1/9, 2/9) (7/9, 8/9).
1 ,
0 2
. , : x ,
,
0 2. , , 0 2.


. , , () > 0.
. N() , . A
, ,
A = lim N ( ).
2

K1
K2
K3

. 1. .

..

,
0
N() ( A)/2.
2,
, , 2-.
,
0
d = dimA, 0 # d # 2,

111

N() C/d, C
, d-
A. ,
C = lim N ( ).
d

, d

ln N ( )
d = dim A = lim ------------------ ,
1
0
ln -

(2)

C
1
ln ----d
dln -- + ln C
ln N ( )

- = lim ---------- = lim ---------------------------- = d.


lim ----------------1
1
1
0
0
ln -- 0
ln -ln -

ln 2
ln 2
dim K = lim ---------1 = --------- .
n
ln ----n ln 1-r
r
r = 1/3.
, d (0, 1). .

.
(. 2) .
S,
.

(2) ,
d-.


. (2), N() .
. , Kn K = 3n, N() = 2n.

ln 2
ln 2
d = lim ----------n = -------- = 0,630929
ln 3
n ln 3

.

. , , 1/3.
.
, . r, 0 < r < 1/2. K0 = [0, 1]
1 2r
1/2. K1 ,
r. : r(1 2r). n-
Kn , 2n r n
.
Kn .
(2)

112

. 2. .

? , ,
. S ,
. -, ,
1/2. , , .
. .
, ,
? !
,
. S0 1.
,
S1 ,
1/2.
..

, 12, 1996

Sn , S . Sn
3n ,
1/2n S
( ). ,
n
, Sn , ,
.
, .
S
,
.
Sn S
= (1/2)n, N() = 3n.
ln 3
dim S = --------.
ln2
.
F0 ;
1/3
. F1 . F1 (. 3).

. 3. .

n- Fn ,
8n 3n, Fn Fn 1 , Fn = (8/9)n. F Fn , F = Fn . , Fn F N() = 8n
= 3n.
ln 8
dim F = --------.
ln3
. , , F .

, .

,
L() = N(),

..

N() . , .
L,
lim L ( ) = L
0

N() L/

0.

L
ln --ln N ( )

--------- = 1 = .
lim ----------------1 = lim
1
0

0
ln -ln -

N()
0.
, , 1
,
ln N ( )
d = lim ----------------1 ,
a0
ln -
: d > 1.
.
. ,

.
, ,
d = 1,3.
, , . , .


S0 .
1/3, . 4.
S1 ,
1/3.
. S0 ,
S1 , , Sn , , ( ). S,
,
1904 .
, . , Sn
4n 1/3n (4/3)n.
, ,
n

ln 4
ln4
d = lim ----------n = -------- > 1.
ln3
n ln 3

113

n=0

n=1

n=2

n=3

n=5

. 4. .

, () ,

1/3.
.
, ,
, .
. ,
, 1905 :
, , .
,
.

(. 5).
F0 c 30, 120, 30. : , F0 . F1 F0

. .
.


K :
K = f1(K) f2(K),

(3)

1
f 1 ( x ) = --- x
3

1
f 2 ( x ) = --- ( x 1 ) + 1
3

0 1
.
, (3),
. ,
1/2
,
.
, .
.
f1(x), f2(x), f3(x),

, fm(x)

(4)


k1 , k2 ,
. 5. .

114

, km ,

ki < 1 i = 1, 2, ..., m.

, 12, 1996

1 (. [4]). ( ,
) F,

f ( F).
m

F=

f ( A).
m

i=1

F = (F).
F0 ,
(5)


F1 = (F0),

F2 = (F1),

s $ 0

[0, ). g(t) , g(0) = m $ 1,


lim g ( t ) = 0
t

g' ( t ) = k 1 ln k 1 + + k m ln k m
t

, ki < 1 . , g(t) 1 t = s. .
s (7) F : s = s(F).
s
, s(F) = dimF.
. .
.

(6)

F0 , F1 , , Fn , : F0 F1 F2 F = Fn
.
F0
. , F0 = [0, 1],
F0 .
F0
(5) , .
F0 (, )
F1 , F2 ,
(6). ,
F, , Fn n. . F0
S0 , Fn Sn , .
, (4)

F . ,
. ? ,
? , k1 , k2 , , kn ?

..

(7)

g( t ) = k1 + + km

F , , (4).
1
.
.
(A)

(F0) F0 ,

. (7) .
.

i=1

( A) =

k 1 + k 2 + + k m = 1.

2
f 1 ( x ) = --- x,
3

2
f 2 ( x ) = --- ( x 1 ) + 1.
3

F = [0, 1]
F = f 1 ( F ) f 2 ( F ),

dim F = 1,

ln2
s ( F ) = --------- > 1.
3
ln --2

, ,
. , .
, , V ,

f (V ) V ,
m

f i ( V ) f i ( V ) = ,

i j.

i=1

, ,

. , ..
.
2 (.[4]). ,
, s(F) = dimF.

. ,
V ,
.

115

, .
(fractiles) . . 1 2
,
.


:
f(x) = r(x ai ) + ai ,

i = 1, 2, 3, 4,

1. ,
,
.
.
(. 7) Kn . 2n 1 1 (2/3)n.
, , . (),
.

a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 F0 ,
0 < r < 1/2.
F0
(5). F1 r (. 6). .
Fn 4n r n. F = Fn
n

ln4
ln 4
d = dim F = lim ---------- = --------1
1
n
ln ----n ln -r
r

(8)

r
(0, 2). (7)
4r s = 1.
s = d, ,
.

. 7. .

Jn , (, , )
.
, ,
. 6. .

,
(, ),
. , ,
. ,
. ,

.
. .
,
.

116

J n = j ( x ) d x,
2

j 2(x)
j(x),
. , n ,
Kn . Jn n, ,

J = lim J n
n

. , n
, , .

, 12, 1996

J
,
.
! ,

, .
K. ,
.


, .
.
, 1. , ,
t
, .

, T0
n
. , , .
F, (8)
r.
dimF > 1 ( r > 1/4),
T0 ,
,
n.
. r # 1/4,
n
n
.

1. Mandelbrot B. The Fractal Geometry of Nature. San


Francisco: Freeman, 1992.

2. .., .. . .:
, 1993.


T0 > 0,
,

t = 0 (, t = 0
).

3. . . .: , 1991.


Fn .
Fn ( ,
. . 6) ,
, .
Fn .
n

. ,

..

4. Gerald A. E. Measure, Topology and Fractal Geometry.


N.Y.: Springer-Verlag, 1990.
5. .., .. , , . : . , 1992.

* * *
,
. :
, , . 100 .

117

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