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Handbook of

Polymeric Foams
and Foam Technology
edited by
Daniel Klempner and Kurt C. Frisch
with 179 Figures and 79 Tables
Hanser Publishers, Munich Vienna New York Barcelona
Distributed in the United States of America and in Canada by
Oxford University Press New York
Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
by Dr. K. C. Frisch and Dr. D. Klempner
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Foam Formation 5
by J. H. Saunders
1 Introduction 6
2 Fundamental Principles of Foam Formation 5
3 Supporting Evidence from Specific Foam Systems 11
4 Summary 13
5 References 14
Chapter 3: Cellular Structure and Properties of Foamed Polymers 17
by Dr. Fyodor A. Shutov
1 Introduction ,,/ 18
2 Porous and Cellular Systems ''. 18
3 Open- and Closed-Cell Foamed Polymers 22
4 Density of Foamed Polymers 25
5 Cell Shape of Foamed Polymers 27
6 Cell Size of Foamed Polymers 32
7 Models of Cellular Structure and Calculation of Mechanical Properties
of Foamed Polymers 37
8 Cellular Structure and Thermal Conductivity of Foamed Polymers 39
9 References 45
Chapter 4: Flexible Polyurethane Foams 47
by F. E. Bailey, Jr.
1 Introduction 47
2 General Description of Foam Intermediates 49
3 Foam Chemistry 53
4 Laboratory Preparation of Polyurethane Foam 60
5 Foam Properties and Their Relationship to Foam Structure 62
6 Commercial Production and Processing 66
7 Applications 68
8 References 71
Chapter 5: Rigid Polyurethane Foams 73
by Dr. John K. Backus
1 Introduction 74
2 Structure 74
3 Chemistry 75
X Contents
4 Reactants 76
5 Formulations 82
6 Foam Preparation 82
7 Foam Physics 84
8 Properties 85
9 Applications 90
10 Health and Safety 91
11 Future Trends 93
12 References 93
Chapter 6: Polyisocyanurate Foams 95
by Dr. Kaneyoshi Ashida
1 Introduction 96
2 Isocyanurate Chemistry 98
3 Preparation of Modified Polyisocyanurate Foams 112
4 Applications 128
5 References 131
Chapter 7: Rim and Prim Foams y/ 135
Dr. Rick Tabor and Robert B. Turner
1 Introduction and General Description 135
2 Chemistry and Preparation 137
3 Properties and Relation to Structure 144
4 Commercial Production and Processing 146
5 Applications 146
6 References 149
Chapter 8: Polystyrene and Structural Foam 151
by Dr. K. W. Suh
1 Introduction and General Description 152
2 Chemistry and Preparation 154
3 Properties and Their Relation to Structure 156
4 Commercial Production and Processing 168
5 Applications 173
6 References 183
Chapter 9: Polyolefin Foam 187
by Dr. Chung Poo Park
1 Introduction 188
2 Chemistry and Preparation 190
3 Properties and Their Relation to Structure 211
4 Commercial Production and Processing 223
5 Applications 235
6 References 238
Contents XI
Chapter 10: PVC Foams 243
by Dipl.-Ing. Reinhold Brathun and Ing. P. Zingsheim
1 Introduction 244
2 Extrusion of Foam Profiles, Sheet, and Tubing from Rigid PVC 245
3 Injection-Molded Foam Process 254
4 Foamed Plastisols 255
5 References 271
Chapter 11: Epoxy Foams 273
by Dr. H.-P. Homer
1 Introduction 273
2 Chemistry and Formation 274
3 Properties and Their Relationship to Structure and Raw Materials . . . . 279
4 Commercial Production and Processing 283
5 Applications 285
6 References 288
Chapter 12: Urea-Formaldehyde Foams 289
by Professor Heinz H. Baumann /^
1 State of the Art in UF Foam Plastics 290
2 Development of UF Foam Plastics 290
3 Raw Materials and Auxiliary Agents for Foam Generation 292
4 Reactions of Foam-Stabilizing Agents and Formaldehyde 294
5 Effects of Other Chemical anpounds on UF Foam 295
6 Chemistry of the Resins 296
7 Chemistry of the Foam-Stabilizing Agents 297
8 Manufacturing Processes for Plastic Foams 297
9 Standardization and Quality Safeguards 298
10 Properties of Foams 299
11 Industrial Applications of UF Foam Plastics 302
12 Summary 309
13 References 310
Chapter 13: Latex Foam and Sponge 315
by Robert F. Mausser
1 Introduction 315
2 Dunlop Process 316
3 Freeze Process 321
4 Sponge 322
5 References 325
Chapter 14: Silicone Foams 327
by Jack R. Harper and Therese M. Bauman
1 Background and Development 328
2 Chemistry and Preparation 330
XII Contents
3 Properties and Their Relation to Structure 333
4 Commercial Production and Processing 334
5 Applications 337
6 References 338
Chapter 15: Fluoropolymer Foams 339
by Dr. Chakra V. Gupta
1 History and Introduction 339
2 Chemistry and Physics of Foam Preparation 341
3 Properties and Their Relation to Cell Structure 345
4 Commercial Production and Processing 349
5 Applications 352
6 References 353
Chapter 16: Syntactic Polymer Foams 355
by Dr. Fyodor A. Shutov
1 Introduction 356
2 Hollow Sphere Fillers 356
3 Syntactic Foam Processing , . ' . 359
4 Syntactic Foam Production .,.": 364
5 Physical Properties of Syntactic Foams 368
6 Main Applications 372
7 References 374
Chapter 17: Blowing Agents for Polymer Foams 375
by Dr. Fyodor A. Shutov
1 Introduction 276
2 Classification 376
3 Chemical Blowong Agents 378
4 Physical Blowing Agents 402
5 Gases 407
6 Nucleazites 407
7 References 408
APPENDIX I 409
APPENDIX II 411
INDEX 413

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