You are on page 1of 649

XX

1999 .


. . ( ),
. . , . . (. ), . . ,
. . , . . ,
. . ( )


XX

- +
2004

94(55)"19"
63.3(5) ()
50
.
..

. .
50 ,
. XX / ;
. . . - . - .: -
: +, 2004. - 648 .
CIP
ISBN 5-93675-075-2 (+)
ISBN 5-89282-184-6 ( )

XX . - ,
, , .
, ,
, ,
.

.

ISBN 5-93675-075-2 (+)


ISBN 5-89282-184-6 ( )

9 0900 f W/

, 2004
.., 2004
+, 2004


I
XIX - XX
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
II
,
21 1921 .
(1920-1925 .)
2.1.
2.2.
2.3. - 1921
2.4.
2.5. . 1921 .

2.6.
1921
III
(1925-1941)
3.1.
. .
3.2.
3.3. , ',
.
3.4.
3.5. .

8
9
19
29
30
39
42
57
71
88
95

106
108
114
128
131
136
152
164
165
174
179
189
195

IV
- .
(1941-1949)
202
4.1. -

203
4.2.
210
4.3. ....215
4.4.
230
V


-
250
5.1. - -
251
5.2.
266
5.3.
21 1952
268
5.4.
276
5.5.
1953
280
VI
-
(1953-1977)
297
6.1. .

297
6.2.
307
6.3.
311
6.4.

314
6.5.
320
6.6.
329
6.7. .
..
334
6.8.

340
6.9.

349

6.10.

356
6.11.

375
6.12.

.......
385
6.13.
392
6.14.

408
V
1978-1979 .
.

421
7.1.
427
7.2.
436
7.2.
450

VIII
.

499
8.1. -
502
8.2. .
. -
514
8.3.
520
8.4. -
525

534

552

600

611

623

629

639
Summary
644


, , , . , , ,
.
,
. ,
.
, . . 3. ,
. . . , . . , . . . . . ,
. . . . . , . . . . . .
, ,
,
- ,

. , . ,
. , . , . ,
. , . . -, .
', . . , . - -,
- - .-., - .
.
,
, .

- ,
.
. . . . , .
- -
( ), , .

, ,
,
. ,
, . ,
, , .
,
XXI ., 1978-1979 .
. , . - [1]. -
,
, . - (). - -

.
, - .
, , ,
,
.

, ,
,

1 . 65

,
.
[2].
, - . , .
. , -
[3].

.

, . , ,
, ,
( , ).
,

- (1941-1979 .).

XX .

, , .
,
,
. , , . .
,

, 1979 .
.

.
, XX . . - - ( ).
(
, , ).
,

, , . .
,

.
, ,
.
() .
. ,
XIX-XX .
- ,
.
, , , , - . , ,

.
, .

11

, ' .
XX
. , , , , , , : . ,
- -.

, ,
. ,
,
- , , , , , . .
- .
, ,
- .
-
.
. . . (1926-1979).
, - . ,
-
. ( ) (1991 .) ,
, - (1997 .)
.
, , - ,
, . -


, . , .
XX .
.
, , . ,
.

, . . , . . ,
, .

.

,
, ,

.
,
,

, ,
.
. , , , , ,
- 1921 ., -
1946-1947 ., -

, .
, . .
- 20- .
,
- ,
(
) ,
1978-1979 .
,
. -
() .

.
,
,
1978-1979 . . , ,

.
, , , , -

. - . ,
,
. ,
, . - 19781979 . ( ), -
, - .
,
, .
. , .
,
,
[4].
. ,

.
- . -
. ,
, . ,
, . , , .

.
.

. , , ,
, - .
. . ,
[5], .

1978-1979 .
.
,
1978-1979 . ,
.
, ,
1979 ., . . , ,
, .
. .
, - . -
, 27 1978 . , , :
, 5 1963 , ( -)
[6].

XX . .
. , ( ,
),
1921 .
. 60-
,
. ,
70- 80- ( ),

,
.
-
( ) .
,
, XX , ,
,

.



. ,
. XX .

- ,
.
, . , ,
, ,
, -

. ,

. , ,
.

.
,
, , . ,
, , ,
.

( )
- .
- 1 648 195 . . 16-
. .

1 609 , - 486 .
, . - 40 , - 767 . - - 1206 .
( -) - 657 . 740 .
(945 ) (978 ). (
-) - 784 , (
- --, ) 1 259 .

7 870 .
[1].
90% .
. 52% -
. ,
17,8 . , 5,4 .
. 10,5 . , 7,3 . - . , , . - (5 671 ) (4 805 ) -
. - ,
- , .

.
- 1 275 , - 130 , - 15 50 . - 30%.
.
.
XX . :
10-11 . 65 . .
1956 .
( ) 70% ,
1992 . 42,97%.
57%. .

- .
40 12 .
.
. - , . .
().
. II - I
. . .
, , . 673 . . . ,
, ,
. . , ( 625 .
. .) ,
[2].

, - . 558 . . . (550 . . .). -

. , 334 .
. .,
. 330 . . . , .
. (250 . . .) ,
- . 224 . . . -
.
.
,
, .
, - 637-642 .,


.
- VII-X .
. - , -,
. - , II
(309-379 .) [3].
, , .
,

,
( ), ,
, , [4].
, () , , .
(, ,
) .
, , [5]

, , ,
. ,
-
, .
,
, .

.

. XIII .
.
, VIII - IX .
, .

. . [6], ,
, .
( , , , , ) . , ,
, , .
( - , ),
.
- XIII-XIV .
. ,

[7].

, , , , .
,
( )
, ,
.

I XV - XVI . -
- . , ,
, .
() . .
I 1501 .
,
[8].
.
, , 98% . 91% - -. - -. . * - 0,7%
, - 0,3%, - 0,1% - 0,1% [9].
- .
.
, ,

*
.

( 90%)

.

. , . , XX .
12% ( ).
, 1990 ., , 6,6 .
(12,4% ) [10].
,
, 4,5 .
[11].

: , .
,
-
( 50%
).
,
. .

.
. (. - [12] .), , , - .
.
, , .
()
, . - . , , ,
[13]. - (65%).
, , , ,

, , , - ,
, . ,
- , , . , .
, ()
. , . ,
, , , ,
, . , ,
.
.
, 26-28% .
,
.
, ()

[14].
, ,
. , ; ( ); ( ),
() ,
3-4% .
,
. , , . XXI . -
900 . .
.
. 28% . (
1978-1979 . - 5 517 . , 1991-1992 . - 8 758 . ),
( - 1 230 . 3 196 . ),

, , , , , , , , . .

. , , , ype . :
- 40 665 ., - 21 759 ., 6 368 .
,
, , , 4 .

.
. ()
, 89 . , 9% . , 96 .
21 . . .
,
.

. 40 1 . . , , , ,
.
() .
, (),
, , , , ,
,
- , , , -
-
.
-
. -


.
.
; , ,
; ; ; ( 75
).
.
. 1991 .
.
, ,
.
, ,
, , . .
. ,
, , . 1998 . . ,

, .
80% , . 1980-1981 .
20 . - ,
1991-1992 . 64,1 . - (
57 . - ).
1992-1993 . 66 .
12 . ( 4500 .) 38% .

.
,
, , , , (
, ) .
. 1939 . 1 392 . - -
. XX .
5 967 . 4 732
.
, , , (
).

. 2 . . 6% .
90- 170 .
. 860 , 25 . - 41 . -
.
80% .
.

- (. -)
. ,
, ,
- -.
1926 . .
- (),
.

.
( , , ,
-). 21 [15].

I
XIX -
XX

,
- (1779 .), [1].
()
, ( XV - XVI .).
, , .
- (1778-1797).
,
, , , , . -
1786 .
- [2].
,
.

,
, ,
.
.
XVII - XIX . ,
.

, 1800 .
,

(
1801 .). ,
, . ,
,
, [3].

1.1.
(1801 .), (1804 .) - ,
(1789-1833), .
. , .
1807 . ,

. [4].
. (1807 .) , , ,
. 15 1809 . - .
-
- , . ., , [5].
,
.
100 . . .,
, . . .


, 16 . (),
[6].
1810 . . 18101812 .
, ,
. . (
) . ,
- . . 1813 .

,
( ,
, , ), - , , , , , , ,
, (
) [7].
, , . ,
,
,
[8]. ,

XVIII . [9].
[10]. . . , I 1816 .
- [11], -
. ,
1817 ., ...

1813 [12]. - (1821-1823 .),


. . . , , .

() .
1826 .
,
. 1826 .
12- [13]. , 1827 ., .
, 1828 .
, ,
,
. 20 . . .
[14].


. , XVIII .,
I
. 1722-1723 ., . , ,
. 10
. I

II .
. ,
. .

, () .
. . ,
.
,
. . (1751-1825), , 1810 .,
. ,
. , , , ... . ,

. ,
, ,
.
, XIX .
, . . . - (
), ,
.
, , ,
.
, 1812 ., .

4 . 65

33

1809 .
. ( 1813 .) , , 1814 .
- . [15].
.
- -
,

200 . (150 . . .).

. .
[16].

1812 . .
,
.
- . . [17].


. , -
1798-1828 .
.
, ,
, , , , .
. , ,

, , . ,
[18].
XIX . - - . [19],

, . .
1813 .
I . [20]. . , 1812 . . ,
, . , ,
- .
.
- ,
1826-1828 . . . , 1798 . 1828 . - , [21].

(200 . . .)
III IV -
1814 . .
,
. ,
, [22].

4*

35

. ,
.
,
,
.
(1747 .)
XIX . . ,
.
,
. - -
.
. ,
- ,
,
- - ,
,
.
1837 . (1834-1848) ,
1838 . .
.
1851 - 1852 .
, , , . - ,
,
.
1856 . - (1848-1896),
- , .

. 1
1856 . -
. . ,
, , .
[23]. 4 1857 .
.
. [24].

XIX ., -
, .
- , 1881 . .
[25].
- .
. ,
- [26]. .
, , . 80- XIX . ,
[27].

, 1802 .
. , ,
1872 .
[28].
, 1896 .,
.
1857 . ,
.

-. - .
1903 . 18711903 . -
.
, :
, -, [29].
, () , 1935 .
. . , 1929 .,
. 1939 . - . - [30].
90- ()

. ,
XIX - XX .
, , , . ,
,
, , , . [31].
- .
,
. ,

, [32]. - .
.


XIX . , 1639 . . , ,
, , , 1821 . - 1823 .,
.
, . ,
. 1843 .
.
31 1847 .
, - [33].
1914 . ,
-- [34]. , XX
XIX
XX .
. .
( XX .)
, .
1.2.
, XVIII .,

- , .
,
: .
.

- .
- ( , . .). ,
[35],

.
, -
- XIX .,
.
, , , , ,
.
, , - ,
, , [36].
, , . , ,
,
.
,

-
, ( ,
-, .) - . , ,
.
-

,
.
, , , -. , -
(1827-1881), . , , , ,
,
.
(),
. ,
- .
.
1871 . - , . .
( ). , , .


[37].
XIX .
.
-
, , ,
, .
, . 1796 . [38], ( )
() [39].
-
,

.
-

3 . 65

,
.
,
, XIX . [40].

, , .

,
XIX .
, , , , , . XIX .
.
1830 . 2 . ,
1900 . 5 . . . (, , , , , , )
2 . . . 3,8 .
. .

- [41].
1.3.
, , XIX .
,
.
,
, .
, , , XIX XX . . ,
.
.
.
, -
, (), -

, -,
, .

( ) -
( , , , . .) .

. , (, , , ), , , . .
, ,
. , - .
, -, , , , (),
.
,
.
, - . ,
,
.
- .
,
,
, .
, , -

[42].
, 25 1872 .
(1816-1899), , . . 11 , , , ,
, , ,
. . 12 ,
15 20% [43].
,
.
, - , ,

, ,
, ,
, ,

[44].
, ,

, ,
. . -
, . 1873 . [45]

.
. 1889 . . ,
.
.
40 . . .
, :

. 11

, 1872 . 13 ,
16% ,
.
( )
1889 .
.
. . . ,
1889 ., . . ,
,
[46].
80-
,
. ,
. , . .. (1909-1986) ,
, , [47].
, . , 1905-1911 . ,
, ,
- .

70- XIX . 1879 .

. .

( ) [48].

, .
, - . 1879 .

, .
,
- 1889 .
1900 . ,

1910 .,
[49]. ,
.
. 1890. ..
. 1894 . . :
[50]. ( 1902 . -
).
,
(. . ,
- . .). .. , - . 1895-1900 .
,
.
-
[51].

.
50- XIX . . () .
1908 . - . . ,
. 800
. 9 . . [52]
,
,
. 20 1890 . . , ,
, 50 .
, , 15 000 . . 25%
5% . -
25 . . .
(),
. . .
- 1889 .
. . .

.
.
X. . . . . -
. ,
1965 .,

. [53].


, [54]. - .
.
. , , , [55].
() . , 90-
XIX . 2 . 8-9-
.
.
,
, 500 [56].
1890 .,

[57], (). .
, ,
. ,
, (
) [58].
, , , ,
, ,
. ., , , , ,
[59].
1891 . -

-
1892 . ,

. .
4 1892 .,

.
.
,
. . [60].
6 ,
. . , ,
, .
, 500 . ., ,
, . ,
.
,
. ,
.
-
(1 1896 .) -
() - - [61].
1992 .
. ,
.
,
-, , -


.
. .
.
19051911 . . , [62].
-
( 1896-1906 .). .
.
,
. , , ( 1900, 1902 1905 .) .
, , , .
150 . . .
, .
.
. 1900 .
. .
-, 1894 .
,
.
-, ,
, . .
. . , , .
. , , 1900 .

.
'. 1901 . '
. . . -
[63].
.
'. .
, .
.
. - - ( -
).
, . ,
,
. ' . . -
[64].
, 1902 .,
. .
, ' 50 .
, , -
,
.

. ,
. ,
. , . . , . . 6
'
60 , ,
, : () , , , [65].

. ' 1903 .
600 . . .
1 . .
. ,
1902 . - , , [66].
' 2 . . .
,
. , ' ,
.
,

.
1905 .
- . ' [67].
1905 .
,
. , , .
. 1908 .
. , ,
.
. 26 1908 . ( ) 340
.
[68].
14 1909 . - ().
2 . . .,
[69].

, '.
XX . ,
.
,
( , - -),
,
.
- . , , ,
. , , , ,
(), .
- , . 1897 . , ,
[70].

XIX . , 23
1897 .
.
1898 . , .

5,5 . . . 25 6% [71].

, ,
.
, 1905 .

-, . 15 1905 . [72] - [73] -, , -

- , ,
,
. 2 . . .

. 1906 . -
,
500 . ., - 1000 . . [74] ,
-
- .
, - ;
. 1907 . , ,
- -
.
, , 1907 . . () 20
. ,
, .

. 1908 .

.
. ,
[75]. , , , 1909 .,
. .

13 1909 ., ,
300 .
. . . , 3% .
,
, .
,
.

, .
,
, ,
.

,

[76].
,

( . ),
, ( )
.

. 1881 .
- . . .
, .

.
. 2 1896 .
[77],
. ,

(
), ,
. ,
,
[78].
, .
- . ,
XX . , :
,
... .

,
- .
, - ,
.
6 1909 . (1864-1937),

, .
.
( ).
,

- , .
. ( 1 . .)
650 . .
. 1500 . .
10 . . . [79]
1910 . ,

,



[80].

.


. , . ,
,
,
- , ,
[81].
1.4.
1905 .
. ,
.
.
. 1978-1979 ., , 1905-1911 . ,
, ,
. , , , , . - .
.
1905-1911 . XX .,
- .

. . , .
,
- ,
, , ,
. ,
. , ,
- -,
, ,
- , . . . , ,
, . , ,
, () ()
, .
, [82].
1905 .

,
, .
12 1905 . ,
,
,
- . 13 , , .
- . () -
, , :

- , ...
, , (), :
- , , !
[83].


. ,
( ,
[84]).
- .

-, , ( ) .
1906 . - . . , .
.
, , , .
(, ),

.
.
-, - -
-. ,
, .

.
, .
-

1906 . . ,

(, ), , , ( [85]),
. - .
,
,
. , () .
9
, 1906 . . 1906 .
.
. . 16 , ,

, ,
. , ,
- .
, .
, , ,
(. 25) [86]. - (8 1907 .).
, -.
, (
- . .\ [87]. , - . .
. ,


, .

.
.
(
); , , ; ( . - . .) ;
;
. . [88].
, , , . , . 18 (31)
- ( )
. ,
. . ,
. 1907 .
,
.
.
. . 9 , , .
, .
, [89].

,
, ,
,

( ). . , ,
.
. : , ,
. .
, , -
, . ,
, ,
, . 1907 . , .
- - - -
, - - - - - .
. , ,

. . . ,
[90]. . . ,

[91].
- , , , , -
.
. 9 1907 .
, ...

[92].
-, , .
1908 .

. 2 .
. ,

. .
. 22
,
. . .

-.
, . .
. ,
. , 300 .
, , . -
- -,
- -, .
, 23 . , . .

*, .
,
[93].
. .
.
. () () .
-, -
.
-, ,
,
.
. 1908 .
-
. : , , - , -

... ()
... [94]

- , - , , , -
.
, , . , , , -
.

*
.

8 1909 . . , . -.
. .
- .
,
.

56 ().
, , - . . [95]
,
, .
. .
.
[96] . 3

.
.

( ).
,
, ,
, (), (),
. . () ,
- - [97].

, . 1910 ., -

6 . 65

65



.
. ,
. .
, .
.

, .
10 1910 .
, , .
,
.
,
, . ... , , [98].
,
.
, , :
, : , ...
, [99]. ,
, ,
. , ,
- .
( ) ,
, . , 1909 . ,
.
-
, , . , -

,
, - .
(1863-1944) -
. -

[100].
1910 ., ,
, ,
-.
.

[101].
.
1911 ., . . , , .
,
- , [102].
, ,
,
.
, . . , , .
- -.
, 1911 .
[103].
,
-, .

67

,
- ,
. , , ,
, - .

. , .
- .
5 , (. - ..)
. 6
- , 16
-.
: .
, ; , , [104].
18 1911 .
. ,
, , . .

-, [105]. 7-8
,
( -). ,

... [106]
( . - ..).
[107]. , .
,
,
- ,
,
, . 8 1911 .
-
. .
- [108].
, - , .
,
- ,
-, , -,
-, , [109].
,
, .
1907 ., . . , , .
-
, , . ,
, .
,
,


. , .
,
, 1912 .
- - . ,


26 1912 . [110].

. .
, , .
, , .
.
- -
(). , -
.
,

.
24 1912 . -
. 17 (
) ,
, . ,
, . ,
39 26 ,
[111]. ,

. ,
. , -
[112].
,
,
.
1909 .
.
, ,

.

, ,
.
.
,
. : , , , , , , ( , , .) , ,
.
1.5.
, , - 1907 .

.
-
- .
1911 . ,

.
. ,
22 1911 .
, [113].

.
( 1913 .)
-.

- . . ,
,
.
, - . , , -
.
. , ,
. (
)
- . , , ,
,
.
1914 . -

: . ...
45
-...

,
- , .
-, , .

- ,
, .
:
1. - ,
, ;
2. -,
-,
;
3. -
( . - ..)....
- (. ), ,
-,
[114].
, ,
, . ,
,
-,
()
[115].
. , ,
[116]. 17
1913 . . ,

. 1909 .

5 . 65

73

.


. .
, - 1907 . ,
.

- . 1898 . II
,
- 5 . [117].
8 , ,
,
II :
300 ,
, ,
.

, , - , ,
() . ,
. , ,
.
[118]. 1907 .

.

( ).
, , , . , ,

.
- , , , ,
.
4 1914 ., .
,
[119].
, ,
: - 1907 .
1911 . .
,
, .
- .

- . . . ,
-,

. 1914 . ,
. 1914 .

-.
-
.
.
, 1 1914 . -

.
,

[120].
, . ,

[121], 15 . . (), ,
(), (),
.
.
- , , -
,
. ,
, ,

.

,
.
1914 . ,
, , [122].

. , , -
.

, ,

[123].


. . (
, 1911-1912 .,
[124].)
, ,
.

, .
23 1911 . - . . ,

. ,
, .
1912 .

-
. .

. - , , , .
.
20 1914 .
, , - , , 51% , 22 . . .
[125].

. 6 1914 .
. . . . : , , ,
,

,
,
1907 . [126].
-
120%
:
.
,
.

.
, 10
1914 .
--. - . .
.


.
, . 1915 .
.
.

1915 . , . ,

, - . [127].



. , , . ,
.
,
. - ,

.... , -
- : ,
[128].
, , . XIX .

, .
.

, -
1907 . ,
12
(27 . ) 1915 . , ,
, . -
1907 .
[129]. 20
.
( - 1907 .)
, ,


,

[130].
-

, . - .
, ,
. , -, 1915 ., . ,
, 27 1915 .
, . ( ) . . - ( 1915 .) [131].
, 1915 .
.
- . - , ,
. ,
, .
,

. .

, , . .
, , , . ,

[132]. , ,
.

,

.

1915 .
1914 . .
-.

. 1915 .
,
.
, .
. -,
:
[133].

,
.
,
( , ,
. .) .
.

.
, , -.
15 .
,
.

, .
, , . ,
-
,
.
,
.
.
,
. , 1915 .,
( )
.
.

- . , . ,
. . , , , , . :
[134]
,
, ,
- .

. -

. , [135].
. . .
1915 .
. 1915 .
- . , 1915 . 300 , - 70 [136].
1915 .
, ,
. , - , - (.
- ..)

[137].
1915 .
.

,
- . , - ,
. 1915 . . .
1915 . .

. 10 1915 . . . ( -

) [138].
. 1915 .
. .
,
.
() - . . .

.
, .
.
,
. 200 . .
,

-
[139].
- . ,
,

- . ,
. , 1915 ., 1000 . .

,
.
, ,
,
[140].

, , ,
. 1915 . ,

( ). 13 1915 .
. ( 1500 . ., - 1000 . .) ,
[141].
-
: , , , ,
;

;
;
,
; ; . . , ,
[142].

.
.
. ,
, . ,
. ,

, - .
, -

.
, , ,
.
, ,
. , 10 ,
.
, [143].
, 1916 .

- .

, .
- ,
, .
,
- (
) [144].
1916 . - (South Persian Rifles).
. , , - .

,

.
1917 . - , .
,
,
...
.

66 ,
, ,
, , , , (
, - ). . , - , [145].

1914-1918 .,
,
1917 ., , ,
. , .
,
. ,
.
. ,
1948 . 63 [146].
1917 .
. -
. 1916 .
, 1915 .
,
.
1916 . .
1917 .
1917 . .
, 1917 .,
, . . ,


. , , : "
"
, , ,
- ,
1907 . -
[147].
1.6.


.
, .
.
17 1917 .,
. . . . , : ... ,
- ...
. , , ,
. , , -,
. . . . . ,
, :
,
, , ,
, . ,
,
,
[148].
, , . .

: ... ,
:

, , ; , ; ,
; ,
, ,
, ,
...
, , : , ,
, .. ( . - ..).

,
. , , ,
. , ,

.... ,
, ,
: ,
, .
, ,
,
. , .
, , , (. . . - ..), .
, , , ,
- , , , [149].
, -

.
1917 . - . .
. : ... ,
, , 1908-09 . 5-6,
. , , , .
. .
.
,
, .
,
, ...
, , , , ,
,
,
,
. .
" "
,
, ,
. " " (, *) , , .
?
. .
* .


.
,
, . .
. ,
;
,
, , .
"", . .,
.
, "", , ,
,
.
, , ,
.
, , ,
.
, , , .
,
, , , ,
, , , , , .
: " ",
[150].

( )
. 1917 . , ,

: - .
( . .).
, ...
... ,
... [151].

. ,

. ;
( . - ..)

(. - ..) ,
. ,
,
.
, 1917 . , -
.
,
.
1917 .
.


.
-


3 1917 .,
. , - , -
. , [152].
, ,

. ,
[153].
, ,
.
1918 . .
, .

.
1918 . - - , , ,
. , 12 1918 .
,
-
. - - , [154].
-
-

.
[155].
,
, 18 1918 . . .
.

. , ,
.
.

:
. ,
,
. , , [156].

, , - ( - ), 30 1918 .
, . , , : ,

,
,
, ,
,

,
() , ,
, ,
() [157].
,
. . -, , , . -, ,
, . -
. [158].
1.7.
, , ,
.
1918 . ,
.

.

. -

. ,
.

, 1918 . ,
,
, -
. , - , - ( . ..) , ,
. ,
. : ... , , . ,
:
,
.
.
. : , , -
, - [159].
, ,
.
, ,
-. 1918 . . , - -
15 . .

-, 30 1918 .,
-. - , 1905-1911 .
, -
[160].
8 1918 . -
.
,
.
- : -
-, , - , - ,
. , -
, - [161]. , - .
1918 .
-,
- , . , ,
.
9 1919 . .
,
.

, .


.

8 . 65

97


.
- .
- ( ) ,
.
[162].

. . ,
, [163].

- . 1919 . - . , .
.
,
30 1919 .,
, - , .
.
1919 . . ,
,
.
-. , ,
, - , 1919 ., ,

[164].
, , , , ',
. ,

,
- 1919 .
, .

1919 . . 23 ,
16%-
, . .
.
.
1920 .
.
. . .
.
.
.
1919 . ,

7,5 . . . , -
. , .
, , .

.

[165].
-, - 1919 . .

8*

99


. ,
.

.
.

.
, ,
. - ,
, 6 1920 ., .

, .

,
. , -
, - , , , ,

[166].
, , 10 1920 .
,
- .
, 1920 .
, ,
, .
4 1920 .

. 11 1920 .

. ,
(
1920 . 50%,
1913 .),

.

31 1919 . 500 . . . 100 .
[167].
-
18 1920 . ( 4 1920 .)


. , ,
- 1919 .
1920 .
-.
.
-
- ( ) .
- , , , .

.
, 1919 .
. . ,
10 1920 .,
-
.
.

.
(1 1920 .) . 26 1920 . . , - , -
, ,
.

, -.
. 11
-
. 22
1920 . -
[168].
16%-
.
,

500 . . . 1 . . .,
31 1919 . (
192 . . ., ). (. 3 4),
16%-
,
, - -, -
[169].
, ,
(22 1920 .)
. 27 1921 ., , , ,

[170].

, , ,
, , , -.
, , 1920 .

.
.
,
,
- .

. , ,

"- . ,

,
. ,
.

, ,
.

, . , ,
1917 . , , ,
. 1918 .,

14 , , . ,
. ,
,
- .

. ,
,
. .

.
, (-
). ,
- .

,
[171]. ,
. -,
, 1919 . . -, - : , .
, - .
.
.
- -


.
, , ,
. , , . 1919 ., ,
, , .

,
.

7 . 65

II
,
21 1921 .
(1920 - 1925 .)

1914-1918 .,
, , . .
, ,
.
, . .
. , - , -
. - .
. ,
(-
),
.
. , .

- . .

.
.
-
.
.
,
, .
. ,
, , , . .
, .
, , [I].
1 (14) 1917 . :
- .
,
,
.
, [2].
,
: ( . ..) [3].
,
. ,
.
1919 . , , ,
[4]. . . ,
, ,

[5]. , ,

107


, .
, ,
1911 .
, . ,
.

,
[6] .
,
1914 ., , . ,
. , 1910 ., - , - .
,
1917 . , . ,
, 1919 .,
. : , , [7],
.
2.1.
1920 . -

.
. . ,
, 1915 . , .
.
. .
( ).
.
, . . ,

.
29
1911 ., , .
.
.
(
) [8], . . , , ,
.
[9].
, , .

. , [10].

, . ,
.
(), .
-
,
[11]. ,
.

.
,
,
, 1918 . . [12]. 1919 . ,
.

(). (). : - . ,
, - , .

,
- 1919 . [13]
15 1920 . ,
. ,
, :
;

(- );
();
; - - 1919.; [14].

.
. '-
( ). 1920 .
, . ,
, ( ) [15].
, , .
.

, ,
,

[16].
-
-, ,
.
. .
. ,
.
,
,
. .
-

, , - . - . , ,
. ,
, .


. ,
,
[17].
,
( )
. ,

(, 1918-1920 .) . ,
, ,
, , . ,
11- 1920 .,
. ,

. , [18].
, , . ,
,
[19].
, -

,
. , .
, - , [20]. ,

,
.
, ,
, . , , , ,
- 1919 ., . 22 1919 . - .
- -, ,
, ,
.
,
.
, .
, - (- ), . . -,
,

, .
,

,
.
.
12 1920 .
, ,
,
. .
, . 13

, .
, , - , ,
.
[21].
2.2.

1919 - 1920 . .
( -
, ). , , .
. -
.
, , ,
. .
, (
) .

1881 . . .

(), .
1905-1911 . ,
. 1915 .,

, - ,
.
.
[22].
1917 .
-
( ). ,
-. ( ).
, . ,
. 1920-.
,
.
[23].
- ,
, 1918 . . , .

. .
14 1918 . -

. .
, -


. -
.
, .
. ,
, . (
), - ,
[24].
, , . 1919 . .
, . , , . .
1919 .

.
.
. ,
, [25].

. 1920 .
. .
, 1920 . ,
, ,
() .
,
, ,

, .
25 .
. ,
[26]. 11 1920 .
, . . ,
(), 1916 . ,
(-. - ..) [27]. , 20-30 .
,
,
... [28].
, , . , .
. ,
. ,

.
-
. , . . . ,
, . ,
, , (. . . - ..) .,
[29]. ,
. ,
- ,
.

. ,
, . , -
. ,

.
,
. - .
18 - ,
.
. . ( )
. ()
. , , . . ,
- . , . [30].

.
,
23
1920 . ,

,
[31].
. -

,
. , 1920 . ,
. , , 7- , (). , ,
.
,

-
[32].

. ,
() 25 1920 .,

.
, . :
,
,
[33].
. . ,
. , : - , , , ,
...
, .
[34]. , .

. ,
, . .
:
, - ,
... [35]
,
. ,

,
,
.
,
. . .
: .
. . -
, . . - . .
, ,
- , -
.

, - . - , ,
.
,
,
, . (. . . ..) ,
,
, , . , .
, -

, ,
. , , , , . ,
"", ""

-, " ".

.
, , ,
( . - ..) .
, , , ...
,
.

, 4 .

. , , .
...
,
-, , ,
""...
.
...
- . , . , , .
, . ,
" ", -

,
.
"" ,
" ", ""... , . , ... ( ) , ... .. , ,
, ,
,
...

20 . ...
"" " ".
, "
".
. ...
, . . , , . , -.
, , ,
, . , : , .
: " , -, ; , ,
; -, , ,
. ,
, ,
" [36]. ,
. 19 1920 . ,
. .
, ,
, , .
,

, ,
. . , I (23 ) , ,
. , :
- ,
.
. -
[37].
, - , . ,
, . , . . , . ,
. ,
. , ,
,
, 19
, ,
[38]. 30
,

. .

. , ,
[39].
31 1920 .
*

, .

* . .
, , 1920 .

, , [40].


,
. .
,
, ()
.
-, , - .
,
, ,
.

, -
.
, (. . ) ,
[41].
.

. .


, .
. . . . [42].
. () .
28- [43].


.
20 1920 .
- - , ,
, , , . () [44].
, [45].
. .
. . .
27
. ( ): , , , . .
, .
, , [46].
, 28 ,
.
.
, -
.
, , . . .
[47].
,

.
()

. , ,
. .

. .
6 1921 .

[48]. ,
1921 . . .

, .
. . (29 1921 .)
,
- ,

- ,
.
, -
1921 ., . 1921 .
.
, ,
. ,
.
,
. : ... -

, ,
. ,

, . .
[49].
,
-
. , (1890-1946), ,

.
, , ,
. , , , . . . ,
, . 24
: , - ,
. - ,
, ,
,
[50]. .
, , [51]. . .

,
.
- ,
, . . [52].
.
.
(16 1921 .) : . , .
, . , ( 1921 . - ..)
[53].
( )

. , , ,
( , , ),
. , , , , .
2.3 - 1921 .
,
, 1920 .,
, 7
1920 . -
(- ) -
. 10

.
.
.
29 1920 ., VII
, () . . ,
-
, , : ,

, .
26 1921 . - . :
,
,
,

, [54].
1921 .
-, ,
. ,
( 2).

- , .


4 .
, ( 8).
, , 1917 .
65,5 . . .
- -,
, ; - -

10 . 65

129

;

; , . .; , , , . .
,
XIX . 1921 . ( 11). .
. .

, .
5
,
,
.

,
, . ,

,
,
,
.

.
.
, 1921 . .

.
, , . 5 6 .
.
.
- 1921 . .

.
,
. . - .
. . 1927 . - .
.
1953 .

,
50- -
.
2.4.
, 20-
, .
- . , , .
,
.
,
10*

131


20-30- ,
. . ,

20- .
, ,
. - . [55].
, - , . 1920 .
.

.
, ,
.

1917 . , - .

, 1920 . .
, , .
, - , - ,
, ,
(
1738-1739 . - .),
...
,
,

. [56].

, .
, , ,
.

. . . (
.) 6 1920 . .
, .
. , ( )
, . ,
, .
()
.
, .

.

- . 1919 . -
, 1918 . .

- - [57].

. . 1920 .

,
, [58].
1921 .
,
.
-
. . 1921 ., , ,
, -
. [59].
. 25 1921 . ( ) -.
. -.
[60].
,
.
.
. ,
-
.
,
. .

, .
.
- [61]. , - . ().


.
, ( ), , , , ,
. . ,
. (, ).

.


- [62].
- . ,
, .
.
, . , () ,
-, , . [63]. .
(4 1921 .) [64]
.
, .
.

2.5. .
1921 .
- 1919-1920 . ( 1919 .; 22 1920 .; ) .
, 20- .
, .
- , , ,
.
- .
.
, , . ,
. ,
1920 . ,
1919 . ,
, ,
,
1919 . . ,
, , , .

, , ,
.

, ,
29 1920 .,
.
,
, -, . :
, ... , ,
,
.
.

1919 . ( ,
, , , ), ... ,
, , , ,
.
... ,
().

, ( )
.
, , ,
. - .
, , ,
, -
[65].
.
, 28 1921 .

9 . 65

137

.
.

,
- , , -.
, ,
.
,
( ,
), , . , , [66].

, , , - 1919 . 1919 .
,

.
.
, - 1919 . 1920 ., . ( ), [67].

,
, . , .
- .

[68].
1920 .
.

. -,

.
(- ) 27 1920 . . 29 , ,
, .
.

, 1919 .

.
IV 7 1917 . .
,
.
,
- (), , , [69].
1920 . , , .
. ,
, - .
. 20 ,

9*

139

- 1919 .
. 19 1921 .,
, .
. 16 1921 .
, 21 [70].

21 1921 ., . , , , ,
.
, ,

. , - ,
' (), .
1966 .
,
(. . ) , 60-


1921 . . ,
. ,

,
- , [71].

, ,
[72].
, , - , ,
,

.
.
(1977 .) 5 ,
.
1921 ., . . ,
,
- . , : [73].
, 1972 .
-. [74], 1920-1922 .,
, 1921 . ,
, () . ,
, ,

1920 . , .
, -
.
5
. -
. ,

. . , , , . . .
: ... - (

. - ..) .
,
...
1921 . . ,
, ,
, ,
, [75].
1978-1979 . .
1921 . ,
.
,
,
,
( -).
, ,
, - .
, () - [76].
,
,

.


.
,
- - . 1921 .
.
, - 1919 .,
1920 . ,
. -

29

,
. , ,
, , .

(! - ..) [77].
1 1921 . .
,

, . , ,
. ,
1919 ., . . .
1921 . : , . ,
. ...
? [78].
14 . :
,
,
, ,
[79].
12 1921 .
. : ...

. .
.
. ,

-

,
.
.
. ,
.
,
, .
. ,
...
, .
, , , ,
, . ,
. ,
, ,
, , . , .
, . , .
,

. ,

[80].
15
. .
[81]. 21
1921 . 2500 ,
, .
. .
, .

. .


. .
, - . ,

1921 .
,
( ) . - .
- , * , 1893 .
-.
.
,
1933 ., . [82].
19051911 . ,
, .

1921 .
* ( ) -
, , ,
, IX-X .
, . .
- , . . .
. , , , ,
.

,

. . ,
1921 ., : -
. [83].
,

1921 .
, , , . , , , .
. , . ,
, ,
, .
,
[84].
,
, 26
,
. ,
. ,
. : , - - , ,
[85].
, , , , , , .
, . ,
-

,
.
.
.
- . , , ,
.

.
,
. ,
. -
.
, ,
, . , . ,


( )
.

[86].
1921 .
. , , -
, . , .
- ,
( 1943 .),
,
. ,


[87].
.

, , ,
1943 . [88].
- , ,
, , , [89]. ,
.
29 1921 .
.
3 1921 ., , , [90].
, , , [91]. , 500 .
. . , 21 .
1921 .
. ,

- , [92].

. , , ,
. .

, ,
-, . ,
,
. ,
- , .
,

1905-1911 .
, ,
.
, , . , , - [93].
,
" .


. 1921 .
,
( 1921 .)
. ,
. , , , " , 40- XX .

.
( ),
, , , .
- 1917 .

,
, . ,

.

2 0 - 3 0 - XX .
(. -, . .)
, .
, 1921 .
, . , , .
21 ,
, , , , ,
, , [94].
.
, ,
,
.
, 25 1921 . , , :
: - .
.

: , [95]. ,

. ,
,
,
[96].
: , . ,

, ,
(. . - 1919 .-..) [97].
,
. ,
, , , - .
.
. ,
.

.
, 1920 ., ,
. ,
.

. - -

,
.
, . , . , ,

.
, .
,
. ,
,
.
, , , .
.
.
,
, - . .,

,
.
2.6.
1921 .
1921 .
, ,

.
, - ,
.
.
, , , , ,
. , .
.
,
, ,
, , . ,
.

.
.
, , , , . , , , ,
, ,
. , , ,

,

. , 1921 .
,
,
. , , -,

, -, ( -, - .) .
- . , , . ,
( ) ,
. .
, , . ,
. . , -,
, , .
. 1921 .
40 [98].
5 1921 .
. 1922 .

, , .
. ,
1922 . , ,
. -

, [99]. , 1921 .
. , ,
.
.
, 1923 .
.
. , . , .
1923 .
. ,

- , .
- ,
.
1923 ., ,
-, , , ,
,
. ,
.
.
, .

1923-1924 .
. .


.


. ,
1921 . .
1921 . .
, [100].

. , , . ,
23 1921 . . , , ,
.
,
, .
, . . ,
.
. , ,
, . 1923 .
- ( ), . ,
1924 . , . , - ( 1923 .) .
, 1922 . . , ,

, .

1924 .
. , ,
.
,
,
,
[101]. .
,
,
500 .
[102].
,
, 26
,
. , 1914 .

, - . ,

[103].
, 1924 .
, , , : , , , ... ,
, [104].
,
, , , -.
, : ? - :
(. . - ..)
[ 105].
,
.

.
.
.
1923 ., ()
,
. ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
.
21 1923 . ,

. - ,
1924 . ,
. , .
, , , . ,
,
.
, 1924-1925 ., , .
, , .

1925 .
.
,
- () , . . , -
. ,
,
,
, , . .

.
, .
, - . . . - , , ,
.
1925 .,
. ,
, (), ,
-
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
. ,


.
,
, . .
(
)

. . 19 1925 . , .
,
[106].
, 1927 ., :
- ,
, , , ... , ,
[107]. . -,
, : (. - ..) , ,
,
[108]. ,
, - ,
.

ecpoc oc .

, -

, . ,
( , ) ,
. 26 1924 .

. . 31 1924 .
. , ,
: ...
... ...

... ,
... . ,
, ,


,
, .
,
, . ,
1924 . .
,
, , .
. ,
- .
, , . ., .

12 . 65

161

,
, , .
,
, ,
,

.
,
.
, , ,

,

. ,
- . ,
,
, .

,
. , - , .
, ,
, , ,
. 14 1925 .
. ,
[109].
,
, , ( -) -.
, ,

. ,
. , ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
29 1925 . , .



.
. 31 . 85
. . -
.

.
6 .
12 . 257
, - 3.

, , -, -
,
. -,
, ,
.

III
(1925-1941)

, .
- . , , ( ,

[1].
, , .
.
.

1923 . -
. ,
- , . ,
. ,
.
, , ,


,
. ,

.
,

, .
()
[2].
. . ,
(. - ..)
(. . . - ..).

, [3].
,
, . , 10 1927 .
.
, , ,

. ,
1927 . , , [4].
31 1927 . . ,
.
,
, , , [5].
3.1.
. .
,
20- ,
. 1927 .

.
, ,
1920 .,
, -.
1928 .
.
( ) .
, ,
, , .
,
, , , :
,
. , , , ,

, - - . . , -,
,
, -, ,
.
, , ', ,
, , , . .
,
. , . , , [6].


, . 1928 .
. - -
.
, , . , .
,
, , [7].
.
12 1928 .
, ', .
,
. , ,
[8].
1928 .
. . ,
;
,
. ,
- , , . , 20 1928 ., ( -)
, ' [9].
-

1929 .
-
.

. ,
, .
, - .
, - .
1929 . . , 1926 . . , , ,
.

,
.
1929 . .

. 9-10 . , 20 30- - 15 .
, ,
, , .
, . ,
, .
; -
, -. , ( . .) [10].

20- . 1922 .,
,
.

, . .
20- ,
. *.
1929 .
,
,
, , . 4
1929 . . . .
. , , , [11].

, , . ,

.
. .
,

, .
. ,
,
.
* ()
1925 . 1927 . .

11 . 65

169

, ,
-, . ,
, . -
, 1930 . . - [12].
, : - .
, 1929 1930 .
2,7 . . . [13].
7 1931 .
'. ,
16%- . ,
. 1932 .
. 16%- . , 1932 .
, . 3
,
1931 . 306,8 . . . ,
1929 1930 . 1437 .
1288 . . .
, ,
(?!),
.
1 . . . [14].

. . 1932 .
- -
, '. 27 X. , ,
' .
,
..., . 1 1932 . , 20 [15].

, , 1925 .
.
- .
,
,
. ,
( )
[16].
1932 ., ,
,
. , , . ,
,
, . (
,

.) ,
. -, .

-, , ,
,
' [17].
,
.
-.
. 1909 . .
1918 . .
1920 . . 1923 .
. , , [18].
1923 .

().

.
.
, 23 , . 24 1932 . .
,
,
.

. ,

[19]. ,
,
.
,
. 1933 .
.

. .
. .
.
1 1933 ., , .
[20].
. ,
, .
, ,
. . ,
, , .
.
, .
,
, 20 - 30- ,
,
.

. ,
,
- . , . (
,
.) - [21].
,
() .

3.2.
,

, , ,
. .

. , ,
1905-1911 ., , ,
() . - .
, ,
,
.

1921 .,
. . CC .
, ,
.
, , .
V (1923 .),
- ,
().
,
. ,

.
.
, ,
. , , ,
, ,
, ,
, , , ,
[22].

,

. ,
,

. ,
,
. -
[23].

. .
, ,
.
, . , ,
.
20- 30- - . ,
- , -

.

. 1933
. 1928 . , 1932 . .
. 1931 .

, , 20- . 1927 . ( ) 1394 . 1927 .

,
.

. , ,
[24]. , .
,
[25].
(. , . , . , . , . . ) ,
.. , - 1925-1941 .
- . ,
,
50 ! . . , . 1930-1941 . , 260
. . 1928 .
- , , , . 1931 . 19 .
1925 . , , .

, 30- , ,
, , - .
, 30- 50%
, , . . 1931 .
1938 .
29 . 1931 .
1940 . 38
460. 1938 .

150 . 1941 . 10
20% .
1940 . 4,9 . 3,75 .
, 1,2 . -
[26].
30-

.
. .

, .
30-
.
19 22 1932 . ,
. - , -
-. 25
1929 . ,
30- .
-
-- ( 1915 .)
[27].

-
, , , , - , [28].
1932 . - . .
. 1937 .,
- . , , ,
-- [29].

.

. 1932 . .
. ,

.
.

. , , , ,
. ,
,
- . 2 1932 .
[30].



. 19 1932 .
. , ,
. ,
. ,

, .
,
, ,
[31].
3.3. , ',
.

27 1932 .
,
1901 . '
[32].
30 .
. 2
'.
. ,
. , , ,
[33]. ,

.
8 1932 . .

, 15
,
,

,
.
[34].
,
.
. ,
. ; ,
- 1921 . 1927 .
[35].
,
[36].
, , .
11 . , ' . , -
, - , , , .
(. - ..).
[37]. ,
. 1930 ., ,
, ,
,
.
, , 22 1920 .


, , . ,

, .

[38].
, 14
1932 . ,
.
18
.
19 , -,
. , , , . .
.
[39].

(26 1933 .) .
. ,
,

. , ,
,
. , , : , ,

, , ,
, , -

.
, , 18 ,
[40].
24 .

. 3 ,
.

, . ,
.
.
, [41].
1933 .
. 3 - . .
,
. . 22 ,
,
. , ,
. ,
1993 .
. , , . .
. . 2 30
1933 . 28 ( 113
105 ),
29 .
,
. ,

. ,
, , , . .
. , , , . . 23 1933 ., .
, ,
, . , . ,
,
,
,
,
.
[42].
, , ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
, -
.
1901 . - '.
27 . ' [43].
16% , .
4 . (. X, ). 671 250 . .
20% ,

(. X, ). . X
750 . . . (. X, ). XI
30- . 9 . 6
, .
,
225 . . . (. XI, ). , , 7 .
.
1939 .
, '.
( . XXIII) 30

1 . . .,
1931 . 1932 . . X
(. XXIII, ).
. VI,
,
.

, .
. , - (. XVI).

60 , 31 1993 .

,

.

,

, .
,
( :
,
, ,
?), , .
, , ,
, , , [44].
, ,
,
,
. , , .
. - , -
[45]. , , ,
[46].
, , . . . . , , -,
,
. : (
1929-1933 . - ..)
, [47]. 20 - 30-
. .


. , , , ,
,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
: ,
; , ,
,
, , , , , , ,
,
.
, 1933 . y - .
. 20- .
1933 . 7 . , 1938 . 19 . .
. 1933 . 2,7 . . .,
1938 . - 6,1 . . .
, 30-
,
.
20 , 1921-1941 ., 35 . . .,
20- 30- .
, , - 16 . . .


,
. ,
20-
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
, . .
. X. ,

. , ,
, , . ,
20- 30- .
, [48]. .. , ,
, .
, ,
- . 30- , , 2 . . .
.
20-

.
30- :
,
. 1923/24 . 1925/26 .
2 261 2 992 . . ., 1936/37, 1938/39
1940/41 . - 125 . . ., 133 . 651 . . . [49].
, . .
.
30-
( 1935 . - - , )
. ,
20- , 30-,

, .
20- , 1932-1933 .,
,
.
1933 .
,
. . XIX ( ) , 25%, - 10%.
, . XIX, ( )

, ,
, . ,
( , ,
),
. ,

.
30-

. , 1937 . 162,3 . , , 44,5 . . 1938 .


48,1 . , 1927 . - 52,5 .,
1939 . - 253 . .
, .
, . 1939 . - 100 . . 1944 . 200 . [50].
30-
. 1938 . 30 . , , 1020 1200
. .
( ,
. .)
,
.
, , .
,
.
3.4.
- 20- 30-
, . ,
.
().
,
- .

[51],
- XIX .
. ,

[52].
.
. -,

. .
( ) .
, . . [53]

- -.
- . -
.
,
.
( - , . - ..) [54].
,
, ,
. ,
[55].
,
1921-1931 ., ,
. ,
.
,
1935 .
, .

. [56].
, ,
, ,

- . , ,
. , ,
1933 .
.
, , ,
. 1936 .
,
,
, [57].


- , , .

. -, , ,
. -, ,
,
(, , - .). , -

- .
.. ,
20-30- -


, [58].

30- . , ,
.

.
,


. . ,
.

30- . .
. -
,
, - . () ,
-
,

[59].

. - ,

.

.
, .

- . . . - , .

,
[60].
, . ,
,
, .

,
,
.
[61].
, , .
, ,
. ,
.

.
, - .
,
- , - (. .

14 . 65

193

),
, [62].

. , , , ; ,
, , . . , . , (, . .), .

,
. .
.
, , .
30- .

. , , (
) .
,
.
().
, , .
, , , -. , ,
, .

30- .

,
().
, , .
, . , , , -
- .

[63].
3.5. .
,

, ,
30- .
, ,
.
- .

. , ,
.
, ,
,
1941 .
. 30- .

14*

195

.

.
, , , - .

.

, .
, (. , 1977 .) ,

[64]. . .
. . ,
1954., , ""
" [65]. -
.
, . .
, ,
, 1941 .
. .
.
...

, [66].
.

,

- .
- 30-
.

, .
, ...
[67]. , , , -, - (
1940 .) , -, .
.
,
. : ,
, 70%
[68]. ,
,
. 1700-2000 [69].
, , , . , . ,
, , - .

1940 .


. ,
,
( . - ..) , , -
[70].
,
,
.
, ,

-
.
.
.
.
, - .
, ,
1933-1935 . .
- ( ). , .. [71]. ,

, . [72].
, , 1939 . ,
. . , , - ,
.
, , .

. . . 23 1940 . . .
, .
[73].
X. ', ,

. , . ,

,
. ,
,
, . ,
( ) . , ,
.
, , , .
, , .
20 1939 .
. [74],
,
.
,
.
, , , ,
. , , .

,
, . ,

. , , ,


.
, ,
,
.
, 1941 .
.

, ,
. ,
1939 . -
.


43- . , . ,
- 48 600 , . .
600
[75].
(, ),
, ,
, ,

. . .
, , . , .
, , . [76].

.

, , ,
. 1941 . (26 ,
19 16 )
- 1921 .
.
.
- . .
-
, - . , -

.
,
1941 . .

.
, .
(16
1941 .) - .
.
.
1942 . , , -
.

13 . 65

IV

.

(1941 -1949)

-
.

.
. . 1941 .
(). . ,
. ,
. , - , , .

.
. , , .



1944 . ;
(), ,
. .
, . , .
4.1.
-

.
, - . ,
1945 . 17 . ,
60 . .
, , [1]. 1948-1949 . ,
- [2].

,
[3]. 1949 . .

, . ,
.
. , , - - .
- . , . 1949/50 .
[4].

,
.

(2,6% ) [5].
, 75% , . - 1948/49 .
.
. 100 1936 . 925
1948 . , , , .
90% . 1949 .
15- 1,5 . ,
.

,
, . . . ()
1946 . 300 . .
1946 . ,
,
. [6].

. ,
, . 1946 ., - [7],
, , . , ,

1946-1948 . 0 [8], -. ,
- . ,
,

. . (), 1 . .
, .

, .
, , :
, , ,
[9].
.
[10].
(37,1%) ,
.

.
1947 .
.
, , ,
, .
, , X.
1947 . -

. 16 1933 .,
,
. , .

: 16,6 . 1945 . 31,65 .
1950 . 50-
33 . . .; 50% [11], .
59
. , 134 1716 . .

.

.

.
. .
- . ,

. , ,
.
[12]. [13].
1933 .,
. 1950 .
5300 [14].
. ,

[15]. 1948 .,

. , 1948 .
9,2 . . .,
1,3 . . . .
28,3 . . . 1950 .
50,7 . . .,
16 . . . [16].
; 1948/49 . 1,9 . .
1947/48 .
17 . . . [17].
6 . . ., 7,9 . . . ,
, [18].

, . , ,
1939 . - , . , .
-
, -. ,
.
- ,
, .

.


.
.
,
1946 . , ,
. 14 25 1946 .
, 10 . .
, :
(
), , .
[19]: ,

. 18 1946 . ,
.

.
, .
, ,
-,

. 1946 . ,
. .
[20]. -
,

. ,
.

.
.

.


,
.

,
, ,
. , , ,
,
.

. , ,
. ,

. , ,

.

( ) , , .
, ,


, (, ,
. .). , ,
.
.

1941 . -

, , ,
. ()
. .
, , , , . . -, , [21].
. ,
, .
, , 1942 .
.

, ,
. ,
.
,
.
,
, .
.
4.2.

.
,
() ,

.
. .
, . ,
[22]. .

. 1925 .
. (65%)
-. . . . , , , .
50- [23].
. -,
30 1941 ., ,
, - [24].
.
1941 . . .
, . .
. . .
(
)
. . , ,
() , ,
, , ,

- ,* () [25].
1944.
. , , .
.


. [26]. .
[27].


.
- [28]. ,
, 2 1944 .
( ) .
, , . , ,
.
.
- .
, . ,

* , . , . , .

. (10.09.1944 .).
. . , .
. . 25

.
,
- . 22 ,
60 . 1944 .
,
. ,

. 9
.
.
.

. . ,
[29].
,
.
, 8 ,
[30]. (
1944 .) - - .
.
,
-

, .
,
- 29 . ,
- , .
,
. 2 1944 .
.
, ,
,

. .
[31].
, ,
.
,
, , . 21
1945 . . ,
,
.
. .
()
. .
,
[32].

4.3.

1945 .
-

.
- .

. - , ,
.
. ,
.
.

X. ( ).
. ,
. ,
. , [33].
(06.VII.1945 .) ,
,
,
.
. , . , .
. . .
1945 . ()
- .

.

, .
, .
[34].
I (1920 .)
. 20-
-. 1941 . ,
10 , . ,
, .
. : , ,
, 1945 . . . [35].
- ()
-
.
. ,
, . ,
,

,
1917 . [36]

- .
.

*
. ,

.
- .
.
, .

, .
, . ,
,
,
. ,
,
.

. ,
- - .
.

. , (,
. .) ()
, . ,
JI. , . ,

. ,

* , . .: The
Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Vol.4, Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1994,
p. 2211.

.
,

. ,
, [37].
1941
1946 . ,
.

. - . . , : .
-
.
.
.
, ,
.


, , , .
- ,
, , , . .

.
, , , .
,
-
,

. . ,
,
-
.

. 1945 . ().
1945 .
() - ,
- . 12
.
.
, . : , , .
,

1946 .
. , , , , , . [38] , ,
. , .
. , ,
, ,
. - .
,
,
,

. , , ,
, ,
.
. , , , , , -

- .
, - ,
.
.
,
.
. 19 1946 .
-
, . , -
.
( - ), ( -),
.
1911 . 1921 .,
. 1923 .

( ). .
. 1942 . -, . [39]
(27 1946 .)
. , ,

. , ,
. ,
. . [40]

, .

.
. -

. ,
, . ,
, ,
. ,
, 4 . .
- , .
, .

. 24 ,
- 9 .
,

, . , , - ,
, .

.
.
. ,
.
, ,
. .
,
,
.

. ,
. ,
. ,
.

,
. : ,
, , .
...

, .
, , . , : ,
- - .

,
. . . . , , , . 13
1946 . [41] ,
( ), . ,
.
. .
, - .
, ,

XV .
. 13
, , , .


() . .
. ,
, .
.
, .
.
,
, , .

.
.

() ,
. , - . .
. . ,
.
,
,
. 1925 .
. [42].
,
,
. .
, .

.
,
- (
) .
. .
.
-
4 1946 ., - .
,
, , , ,

-
. ,
13 1946 .
.
, .
13 .

.
. , , .

-
4 1946 . .

,
.
. -

. ()
. .
. - .
. . . ,
-
-
, . , . , .
,
, .
.
, ,

. , ,

- .
30 1946 .
. ,
.
[43]. . , ,
. 18 ,
, ,
. .

(19..1946).
.

16 . 65

225

.
: , . : ,
. ,
.
, . , , ,
, , .
, ,
. ,
. .

, 1996 . 8
1946 ., . . .
, - . - ,
, .
, 1917
. , ,
.
, . ,
? , , ,
. , ,
. ,
, . ,
. , - , , ,
.
,
, .
. ,
, ,
, . ,

. ? , .
, , . , .
, . , ,
,

, [44].

,
, . .
,
.
. . .
, , , ,
. , . ,
. , , ,
.
. ,
[45]. . . , , ,
,
, ,
. ,
. , , ,
.
.

16*

227


. , , , . , - , - .

[46].
,
.
,

.

. , .
,
. 4 - . . - , -
.
- . .
1943 . , .
, ,
.
, , ,
.
,

.
.
. 14 . .
, ,
, .
, , .
.
. . .
. .
,
. .
.
, .

.

. 1942 . (. -) -
-
- ( ).

() . 1944 ., ,
- .
.
1945 . (), I [47].
, -

- .
.
.
,
. .
22 1946 .
.
. ,
[48].
. ,
, .
.

.
.
,
.
-
[49].
, 1947 .,
XV .
( ), 122 62 , 10 , 22 28 . ,
( 25 )
.
4.4.

-
.
.


.
.
.
1947 .
[50]. . . , ,
4 1946 .
, ,
.
, , , .
() , 1946 .
2 2 1944 . ( - .) ,
( 4 1946 .) . , , , . 104

-.
,
[51]. , , ,
:
, , , , , ,
(
, . - ..)

( ) [52]. ,
22 1947 . , ,
1933 . .
1947 . . ,
,
[53].
- , , .

, 1947 .,
, . ,
, .
.
, ,
1948 . .
. ,
. - . . . 1948 .
25 ,
[54].
, 15
1933 .
. ,
1933 .

. ,

, ,
.
, ,
.
1933 .,

. 1933 .

33%, 1947 . -
9%. , -
. ,
, . ,
, , 1947 . ,
.

,
.
. ,
,
, [55].
-
.
, .
,
22 1947 ., . . 7 1948 .
, , .
16 1948 .

. , -

15 . 65

233

, . , .

, .
1949 .
. . . . , 9 1949 .,
. .
,
.
, ,
.
. , 1949 . . ,
, . ,
, -
. , - . , , . , . . [56]

().
,
, , ,
, , () , , . ,
,
-

[57]. ,
.
. ,
.
,

. 4 1949 . - ,
- ( ),
,
.
, ,
[58].

.

[59]. , , , , .
- , .
. 5
- ( 11 ) - 1933 . ,
.
, . , ,
D 22
1947 . [60]. , ,
( ,
), . , , , -

. ,
,
, .
, . .
. 17 1949 .
, .

4 6 . , (. 3),
3 ,
6 . (. 7); ,
20% , .

5 . . . . ;
1 .
( 1933 . 9 ). 20%- 4 . . .
( 1933 . 750 . . .).
, 20%- , 1933 . 10% [61].

, , . , 19 [62].
. ,
,

. , -

, [63].
,
. 23 1949 .,
, X.

. ,
XV , . . 28 1949 . ,
(, , ), X. , . , (, ,
, ), ,
, () ,
,
[64].
XV , ,
.
1949 . ,
1949 . -
. , . .
,
,
, XVI ,
.
,


, , . , , 1949 .
, XV , 60 30 ,
- . ,
.
1949 . ,
.
, . .

.
, .

. - 1949 .
. , , , , ,
.. ,
,
,
XVI [65].
, . .
. .
14 1949 .,
, , , ,
. .

, ,
, . .
. ,
20 . , , ,
, ,
, ,
.

.
. ,
[66].

. 22 1882 . .
,
-- . , . 1914 . ()
. 20-
:
, . ,
(1925 .).
1928 . .
1940 . , .
.
(1941 .), 1943 . XIV ,
.

1943 . .
.
- -

,
. . XIV ,
( 1944 .
, ),
( 1945 .) . ,
1943 . [67].
,
. 23 1949 . ,
. : , , . .

3 1949 ., [68].
() . .
, , , , , .
, (,
.), .
,
. (. . . - ..)

. [69].
,
, .
,

.

[70],
. . , .

- . ,

. .

. ,
XVI . , .
4 1949 . -
. ,
() , , ,
.
.
7 1950 .

.
.
, , , .
[71].

, .
. .
.
XVI 1950 .,

.
, , , .

. 19
,
[72].

. 26 18 , 5 : ,
, , .

, 18 1950 . .
(3 ).
- ,
. . ,
.
,
. 27 1950 . - . , , .
, , , ,
.
X. 1901 . .
( ), 1937 . .
[73].
1947 .,
-

.
X. .
, [74].
,
,
. 1950 .
, .

.
, .
, , 1948 . ,
. , .
,
. .
, . , . ,
. , ,
( ),
.
. ,
. .
,
. , ,
, , ,
. .
- ( 19 1951 .),

. ,
[75].
, ,
.
, - 1950 . , .

, .
.
.
. . (12, 15, 17
19 1950 .) . , 1933 . , , , , .
, : -, ,
[76]. . , , .
. , 25 ,

1933 . ,
-
, ,
(), , -

.
. 25 1950 . , ,

.


. ,
, - [77]. , 25 . ( . ,
. , X. ) .
3 1949 .
, .
, :
, ,
[78].

-
, - , .
.
.

. 93- XVI
X.
, 11 -

, [79]. :
,
- .
- 1950 . 1951 . ,
-

, . ,
, ,

.
95-
1950 . .
, ,
. 22 , . . 24 .
1933 .,
[80].

. 26 1950 . .
, .
,
26
1950 . . 29 1950 .
, , , ,
, . ,
:
, . , 9 1951 .
, 23 - ,
[81].
1950 . 9 ( )

22 1947 . 1951 . . .
1951 . (- )
, .
.
.

[82].
26 1951 .
. , .

[83]. ' - (,
-
, , . . )
- , [84].

. 24 1951 .
, , ,

50%,
[85].
3 1951 . , . , , ,
300 . 500 . . . ,

. -
.

. ,
, - . ,
. 7 1951 .
- [86].
8 1951 . ,
. 15
.
20 .
11 ,
, , . 14 - ,
.

, , . . 16 1951 ., ,

( , ) ,
.
-,
, [87].
21 - . . - . 26
.
,
-
. ,

. 29 ,
. 12
- ; 13 ,
. 6
13 [88].
-, . ,

.
, , , . ,
13 1951 . , ,
() .
, ,
[89]. 22
20-
,
. 16
-, , .
25 . .
26 1951 .

. : 27
. 28 .
-
[90].

V


.
-

1951 . . , , , , , ,
- 1951 .
,
. 26
1951 . ,
[1]. . . 15 1951 . . .

- [2].

.
. (),
.

, (
)
[3].
, . . .
,
,
.
,
,

-,
. , , . , ,
, . , , , 27 ,
[4].
5.1. - -
,
, ,
. - , . , ,
, . ,
.
, -
. 28 - -.

-, - ,
, . ,
-, ,
,
. , - , -
, , . ,
, ,
,
[5].
,

,
.
,


- .

- , .
, ,
,
.

.
. -,
- . . , 1951 .
. -


,
. -,
,
(
, , , ,
, .). -, ( ),
( , .)

. ,
.
.
- . , . .
, ,
1948 . [6]
,
, 1951 . [7]
, 1949 ., . , , , -

.

.
.
,

.
,
[8]. , , - ,
.
. [9],
26 1951 .
.
- .
, . , , ,
,
,
[10].
, - . .
1951 .
- .
,
, . ,

,
- [11].
-

.
,
,
. ,
[12].
1951 .

.
. 1 1951 . - , [13].
, ,

. , ,
, . ,
. , , ,
,
[14]. .
,
, , . . . , . , ,
, , . . .

.
,
,
,
.
, ,
,

- , .
, , ,
- .
1951 .
() . ,
,

[15]. .
1952 . .
, , ,
.
,

, .

.
.
.

50-
,
,
. ,
-
.
, , ,
. ,
. , , , .
, , ,
. , 4- [16]. 1951 .
, 23 .
., 4- .
:

, 4- , ,

, .
, 1952 . ,
, ,

[17]. 1952 . .

18

. 65

257

,
, 24 1952 .
, , .
,
[18]. .
, 20 1952 .
, ,
.
, . ,
,
. , . ,
, ,
.
. , .
17 1952 . . 19
- :

[19]. . ,
.
.
,
- 1905-1911 . ,
, ,
, , . , ,
2000
[20].
, ,
.
.
. , .
.
. , , , .
[21]. -
- .
18*

259

,

. , , ,
. . [22],

-, .
. . , .
. ,

.

. ,
. ,
.
.
,
(- ), , , .
1951 ., , : ; ;
; () .

1949-1953 . ,


, [23]. , ,

, ,


. ,
- .
, , , , , .

. ,
,
.
, [24].
1952 .
. ,
.
. ,
.
. ,
[25].
,
. . [26].
1882 .
1885 . . 1918-1920 .
. 1919 .
. 1921 . , . 1942 .

. 1945 . . 1946 .
. . 1947 . 1949 .
.
1- ( )

[27]. 1950 . XVI .



.
-
(13.XII. 1951) . .
,
, [28].
,


,
, , , , . .
, - .
, , , , . ,

[29], - 1949-1951 . .
, -.
,
, . . ,
.
,


, , , , , .
1952 . . , . *,
1952 . - . ,
. , .


.
( ) . ,
,
(.: . . ., .449).
,
, . , . .

.
, ,
, . .
,

* .
.

, 22 1951 .

[30].
,
, , . ,
, , , .

- , . . . , , , , .
" ".
. [31].
, , ,
. . ,
, .
1952 ., XVII
, .
.
,
. , , . [32].
,


,
.

. , .
.
, . , ,
. . .
27 (1951 .)
. - ,

, ,
.
-
, .
.

.
. 5 1952 . . , , ( .
- ..), , ...
[33].


.
.
.

17 . 65

265

.
, ,
.
(16.VII.1952 .)
.
5.2.

. 1952 . ( ).
,
,
.

.
,
-.
.
(18.VII.1952 .)
- .


. , ..., .

, , . . , , ,
( . - ..), .
, .
, -

[34].
,

. ,
. 17 28 - - , ,

. . 19
.
.
, , ,
.
, .
, . ,
21 (30 - ).
,
, .
. ,
. :
, 22
[35].
. .
, , . ,
, ,
- , -

, 1947 .

,
.

- , , . , ,
, . , , :

( . - ..) , , ... [36].
5.3.
21 1952 .
21 . 50- . ,
20-21 . , ,
,
.
.
, 21
.
. 22 (61 64)
- . 22
,

. , .
.
,
, .
, - . ,

1952 ., ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
.
, , , 1952 .
, 30%
50%
, , 1951 .,
. , . , . .

, , .
.
. -


.
. , , , , , , , .
1948 . 42%
.
,
, , .
, ,

.
. , , ,
, -
. , .
- . , , , - , . , ,
,
, ,
. [37]
1951 1952 .
.
,
.

3
1952 . .
,
- ,
, . . 1952 .
, 1953 .
- .
1952 .

,
, . . 1950 1952 .
, 14 .
,
70 . 15 . [38].

. .
, , - ,
.
, ,
- . 6 11
1952 . - 10% 10%
( 20%), . -

[39].

,
. , 1952/1953 .
. , ,

,
,
.

. . ,

, ,

[40]. , , .
.
. ,
, . . .
,
. 27 1952 . - , . ,

,
7 .
30 27 . .
()
.
.

, -
10 . . [41]
,
,

. - , 24 . ,
, ,
.
.
14 .
,
.
, .

,
.
,
.
, , 16 1952 . [42]
,
, .
(. .
) , . . -,

. -, 50%

,
.
, [43].

[44].
[45].
50-
- .
, , 1952 .,
,
. , ( )
, , , ,
.
,
.

, , . 1952 .
, [46].
.
14 1952 .

, . ,
, 1952 . . , , , [47].

,
. [48].
. 1952 . . , . 19S2 .
( ).
.

.
, - ,
- - . ,
, , , . , ,
- ,
( ),
.
.
. ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
. ( ) . . , [49].
,
-

. ,
, ,

.

.
5.4.

. , .
. -
.
-
,
, -
. 1952 .
, , [50].
, , , [51]. .
-
. , 4 1952 .
, , [52].

.
,
, .
.
-

, ,
. , ,

.
28 1952 .
, . ,
, ,
. , , . ( ), , , . , ,
(
). , , . .
, [53].
, ,
. XVII
, ,
[54].
1952 .
,
. , (
) ,
,
. , ,
. , , ,
- [55].
,

,
.
. .
19S2 .
.
-
. , . (
) ( 400 )
.
,
(30 ) .
, ,
, .
, .
.
, , , .
.
, . ,
,
. ,
, ,
1952 .

.

, ,
, , - .

[56].
8 1952 .
. . , . , .
. (20 1953 .)
- .
. 1953 . . .
( ) . . . , .
:
[57].
20 1953 .
, ,
[58].
(
)
. .
. 28 1953 .
, , [59]. .
, ,
[60].

5.5.
1953 .
, , .
, . , . , , 1953 .
.
,
.
,
,
.
X.
. , , ,
.
24 , ,
, . . ,
[61].
28 , ,
, ,
,

, ,
. , , . ,
. . , .
,
. , ,
,
, ,

[62].
,
, 48
.

, ,
: - -, , .

.
28 (
) ,
, , , .
,
. , , , , ,
,

.
,
[63].
, -
,
, . -, 4-
, ,
, . [64]
, , 1961 .,
. , 28
.
, , ,
.
.
, -

. , .
,
, , , - .
, , . 1
. 2 85 .
,
.
12 , , .
35, 44, 48, 50, 52- . ,
, ,
1951 . 1952 . [65]
1953 .

.
, .
,
- 1953 . 20

, .
,
. . ,
,

.
- . . ,
.
, . , .
1953 .
,

. ,
, . ,
.
, ,
, . .
1953 .
.
( 1953 .)
,
X. .
-
. 1953 . 29 ( 79 ) [66]. - . , X. , , ,
. , ,
.

.

15 1953 . - - . , , . 22
, ,
, 4- . 27 , , [67]. ,
.
, ,

. . 3-10
:

. 12
XVII . ,
9 1953 .
, () . , .

,
. , , .
, ,
- , . .
.
-

. ,
.
1953 . .
.
. .
.

, .
,
. . 1953 .: , ,
.
.

. .
. ,
.
,
. 1953 .
. . .
22 1953 . . . , , - ,
. , . ,
. . .


.

. ,
,
. ,
( )
.
1 1953 . .
.
, . - . . . .
-, , . .

, .

, , . ,
.
. , 1978-1979 .,
- 1953 . . .
:
, (
, . - . .) .
: [68].
1953 .,
,
.
, ,
.

- . , 19431948 . . , . ,
, . - .
, , 9
1953 . ,
. : ... , , . ,
, , , "
".
,
[69].
1953 .
,
. - . . ,
. 1953 ., . , . ,
. ( ),
1953 . [70]
. ,
, ,
.
.
. , , , :

,
. ,
[71].
13 , ,
- . .
14-15
.
. , - , . 16

.
. , , -
, , . .
.
,
,
( ), -
.


. .
16
. , ,
() [72].
16 - ,
-
, . X. ,
, , , : ...
, (
-. - ..)
.

, ,
, , . , , , , .

[73].

. . . . , ,
. 17-18
,
.
.
. :
, !. 17 , , 18

.
,
. ,
, : !, !
, 19 ,
.
, , . .

, , ,

.

20 . 65

-
( ).
- , , ,
,
,
. , , ,
,
, . .

, ,
.
( , ),
, . . ,
, , , .
. , ,
[74]. -
1953 .
, ,
,
. , - , -
( . - ..), . , , , , , , , ,
( ..)
... ,

, , , ,
, ,
, - . , , , , [75]. ,
.
. - ,
, ,

, [76]. , .
,
, ,
.
, . 1952 ., ( ), . ,
.
: ,

[77]. ,
. ,
1953 .
, , . , , (
)
: .
1953 .,

, . ,
, ,
.
:
(). ,
. , .
.
, , - .

, .
,
,
.
: 17-18 ,
, , , 18
- - .
,
-
, . 1953 .
.
. , , 16 1953 .

. ,
. , ,

- , . ,
() , :
, ,
,
. ,
, . , , . ,
,
.
, .
,
. , - , -
...
,
19 1953 . ( 20
1332 .),
,
. , . ,
, , .
*

, 19 1953 ., .
.
, ,
, , .

, ,
.
,
, -

. , 1953 . ,
. - . .
,
.
,
.
1969 .
1979 .

XX
.
,

-
.
, ,
, ,

, -
.
, , , , ,
. :
, , .
, , , . ,

.
, - , , , ,
. , 16 1953 .
, ,
. :
, .
.
,
,
.

.
-

1953 .
,
1954 .
1953 . . ,
, ,
.
,
1953 .
4 , .
, .
1953 . , .

. ,
,
. .

11 1953 . 10
. . .
13 .

.
.
1953 .
, ,
.
.
. , .
,
.
, .
. , ,
, . ,
, .
,
. 1953 ,
- .

.

VI
(1953-1977)

1953 . - : ,
, - , ; - ;
.
.
1952 ., , , ,

.
1953 . -
.
, 50- .
6.1. .

,
, -

19 . 65

297

. . 20-
, 1924 . , ,
. ( ), ,
, . 1942 .

.

,
. 50- , ,
XVI .
,

1951 . 1952 . .
.
. , . ,
45 . . [1] ,

, ,
.
1953 . . ,
(
1953 .) ( 1953 .).
1953 . . . 1953 .,

, .

,
.
1954 . , .

. , ,
.


. -.
1953 .
. 1953 .
-
().
31 1954 .
.

,
, .

,
. ,
. . . , -
,
(

19*

299

- ),
. [2].


, 1954 .
,
. 660
130
.
[3].
19 1954 ., - . 29
( .
).
- 8 ( ). 10 - . [4].
1954 .
. - , .
, - . ,
,
1 1954 .
, , -.
, , .

. -


: 40% , (), 14% - - (-), 40% - ( -, , ,
), 6% -
(). ,

-
, , . , [5].
.
. , ,
( ,
) ,
5% .

[6].
-
. 99%
. ,
, , 1951-1952 .
. , 50% ,
.
- .
25 - 1979 .

. , -

.
, .
, , . .
,


. ,
. 1950 . , 31,8 . ,
16 . . .,
1957 ., 34,9 . ,
75,4 . . . [7].
. , .
.
.
, , , , , .
.
. ,
, .
, , 1953 . ,


1954 .,
, [8].
, , ,
.

. 1955 . ,
. .

, , .

. , ,
-
, ,
. , , 50-
,

.
, . ,
, , . , ,
.
, ,

. - , , (-

-) 1956 .
( ) - . .
,

, .
, 1955 . , ,
-
,
. ,

.
,

. , , , ,
150
. , - , - , , , , -
[9].
, ( - ),
- . .
, (,
.).
,
.
, , ,
1953 .
.

. ,
1956 . ,
, ,
(. . - ..)
[10].
1953 .,
,
( , ).
. , , , ,
, - . [11]
, .
. . .

- .
. , .
-
(17.VII.1956), , . . 1919 .
, ,
. -
. - . .
,
, . .
, X. -
.
.

, ,
[12].
X. - . .
1956 . .
50- .

.
.
- .
. .
(. . ). ,
,
,
.

. , , ,
.
, , ,
... , () .
[13].
,
. -


, 1953 . (
. - ..).
6.2.
, , ,
.

. . , . 1954 .
. , , [14]. .
1957 .
- ,
.

, 1958 . -
. ,
, , .
.
.
. .
. , .
, . :
. ,

[15].
50- . 5 1957 .
.
. .
-
. 1958 .,
, .
, , . II
.
14 1958 .
, , -
[16].
-
.
. .
- - .
.
.
.

.
,

. .

. 50-
- , . .
1956 . . ,
-
.
.
,

.
5 6 - 1921 . [17].
: ,
- 1927 . .
-
. 30 1959 .
. , ,
.
, [18].
, .
.
1956 .
. , .
, , .
.
,
.
. -

[19].

.


, .
. ,
,
. , .
. , .
: . ,
,
.

. . . , , . , 11 , [20].

. . ,
1959 ., .
. ,
, .
,
, -
.
, ,
, , [21].
-
.

- 5 1959 .
.
, -

, [22]. - - .
6.3.
-
,
, . (-
- , ).
1955 .
1957 .
:
; , ; ,
. . ,
.
, ,
. , , , .
1978-1979 . , ,

, ,
,
, , , , ,
. . [23]. , 1958 . , , X. ,
. [24].
.
. . ,
[25]. .
,
. ;
,
.
X.
, .
, - , ,
,
. X. , , , ,
,
, . ,

.
, ,
, .
,
. . ,
,
. , .
, , ,
.
[26].
, , , . 1957 . , , 1931 .

, 40-
(
), .
,
,

. .

. , , .
,
- -

. ,
,
, . , ,
, .
,
-
[27].

, ,
, .
, , . [28]

.
.
, ,
X. , , ,
, , , , , . .
.
. ,
, .
. 1956 .
.
6.4.

.

. 6 1959 . . ,
: . ,
.
300 600 . , .
, . . . ,
, , . , , 400 800 . 1960 .
, .
1960 . . ,
.

.
, . .
. .
, . . ,

. , ,
.


-
. , , , - ,
.
,
,
,
, .
- -
.
,
, -
. ,
50- - 60- . .
,
.
.
,
,

.
. , 1953 .,
, . ,
. . , - .
( ) - .


.
, -
. ,
50- , ,
. , - , -
[29].
. .*
, , , .

.
, , . ,
.
, ,
.
- ,
50- : () (). - . , /. ,
- , , .

XX ,
I960 ., ,
.
, .
* , .
, , .
1977 .

, . .
- , . , 1961 .

,
1953 .
,

.
.
. [30].
,
', 1960 .
-,
[31].
, - .


. . ,

, ,
, ,
, . , 1961 .
.
. . 10% . . . 2 1961 . 4 .

, .
.
. ,
, . , . -
(4.V.1961).
.
. ,
,
. .
.
, . , , - , , ,
.
, . , ,
, , , [32].
,
- . , 50-
.
.
60-
- . .

. 1961 .
.
,
, . .
,
.
, , 1962 . [33].
-
,
, , - , ,
. , ,
,
,
, .
6.5.

,
1958 . , 1960 .

. , , , ,
, ,
, . ,
. -
(6 1961 .) , .
.

1954 .
.
, . .
. . , 1966-1969 . . 1977 .
, .
. 1961 .
. . .
35 . . [34].

. , .
, . ,
- .
. 60-
70% . .
, , . -, , , , ,
, . .
,
, 50- ,

22 . 65

. ,
,
,

.
, ,
, , - , ,
.


.
,
.
. ,
, ,
40- . [35].
. 14 1962 . . , 1960 .
, , ,
,
, ,
.
1960 . .
, -, ,
, . , 60-
.

-, , - ,
. 60- .
, , .

.
. .
50- , .
.

. ,
1905-1911 .
.
,
, . -
. .
. , . , , .
,
. , . ,
. ,

22*

323

. : 1962 .,
,
.
.
, ,
.
(. , X. ),
, .
, - . .
. ,
1961 . .

.
25 1961 . .
, ,
,
. . .
,
, . . , , ,
, . . ,
, ...
[36]. , , ,

.
, , ,

, .
, . . .
.
. , .
.

,
.
. ,
- ,
.

.
. ,
-
,
.
. [37]. . ,
, , X. , . , [38].
,
60- , ,
. . . , , .


'. , , . ,

, . . . [39].
-
. .
.
.
( ) [40].
, ,
1962 . , .

. .
1962 . - - . -.
.
.
. 1962 . (18.VII)
.
.
.
. , , .
8 1962 .
() . , ,

.

, , ,
, .
, , , [41].

.
,
- -.
26 1963 . , ,
:
; ;

; ;
. 26 1963 . ,
.
,
(99,9% ).
.
, -
[42],
.

, 24
.
.
. , .
.


, , ,
.
. .
, ,
. . , . .

.
. , , , , , , . , .
, ,
. ,
, [] .
,
.

, , , : 15 (?! - ..) , ( . - ..)
15 . .
.
- .
(), .
(
1963 .) , , ,
, - ,

. . 22 . , . (),
. , .
[43].
6.6.
. . , . , ,
,
. 4
1963 . , 5 , , ,
, . , ,
.
. . , , . , , 28 .
5 1963 .
. , .
:
.
5 ,
, ,
. . , .
21 . 65

329

. ,
(), . :
! .
. , [44].
. ,
.
24 1963 .
. , , ,
.
, . . , ,
.
, 20-
60-
.
, .
- - - .
. . , , ,
.
,
, . .
.
,

.

.

.
- ,
, .
1963 . -
. . , .
,
1961 . .
.
.
[45]. 1962 .,
, X.
.
, , ;
; ;
;
; ;
;
. . [46].
1963 . .
.
, , ,
, 1957-1958 .
.
- ( ) 15 1963 . X. .
7 1964 . -. ,
- [47].

X. , .
, , - . 250
. - .
(- - ),
,
, .
, 10 1964 .,
, . , , ,
, -

.
, - , -
. , . , ,
.
,
, , 26 .

.

- , ,
. , 1978-1979 ., .

. , - , - - ,
, ?! , . ,

. - ...
,
, ,
- .
,
.
, [48].

. ,
, .
. 5 1963 . 1964 .
. ,
, .
1928 . ( ,
, ) [49].
, ,
- XX . 1905-1911 . ,
.
( . ') , - , -
.
,
,
X. . ,
200 . .
: - ( ), . . ,
!
!

! ! [50].
. , ,
,
.
. - ,
.
- - .
X. .
. .
. 4 1964 .,
. 12 ,
1965 . ,

, ,
, .
6.7. .

1965 . (). 5 1965 . .
15 ,
. (). , ,
- .

[51].
, - , , .
, . .
. , ,
. , .
. [52].

(14 1965 .)
. .
- , .
,
. , - .

, ,
.
, , , - ,
,
. : , [53].
,
( - -), - ,

. .
21 1970 .
[54].
.
, 1971 .
. .
- ( ).
(
)
. ,
(), .
(661 .)
.
, .

. , . . ,
, . - , - (). ,
.
- -, , ,
869 ., - . 873 . (
)
.
940 .
- . , , ,
, . . ,

, .

.
( ) - -
(). ,
, , , , , ,
. . , , -
.
.
, ,

[55].
, . .
,
, -

. ,
, . - .

.
. -
, ,
(. - ..) [56].
,
(),

- (1899-1992 .) [57].
.
. 13
. .
- , XX ,
. ,
. .
,
. , . ,
, .
, ,
.
, .
[58].

. , ,
- .
.
.
,
.
,
.
.
, , ,
[59].
,

.
70-
.
.
70- , - 2500- -
, 9
.
,
- , ,
. ,
1896 . , ,
(
), . , , .

, , ,
, ( . - ..) .
, ,
-
XVIII-XIX [60].

. . (. ,
. .) , ,
, ,
,
- . , , ,
.

, .
. , 60-
70-
- ,
, ,
- [61], - ,
. .
6.8.

,
, 70- .
-
, [62]. ,

, . - . , .
.
, .
, , , -, , .
,
. 1962 .

, .
,
, - . , , ( ) - .
. 7 1964 .

.

:
. ( , ,
. , , ,
.)
,
.
. 50- 60- -
.
, , ,
- ; , , ,
. - 1961 .
X. .

,


. ,
. , -
.
,
, - . , ,

, . , .
.
-
.
. ,
(6
1961 . - 17 1962 .), .
,
.
,
,
( 1965 .), .
, ,
. (
X.
.) ,
, ,

. -,
.

, ,
.
,
. 15 1962 .
,
,

[63].
. 13 1966 .

- ,
. 1970-1973 .

( , ..) 60-70-
-
.
,
. ,
, .
, .
- -

60-70- . . ,
() . 1967 . ,
,
,
[64]. , 1980 ., , . . :
. ,
, [65].
60-
.
(1962/63 - 1966/67) 2,7 .
.
, ,
, [66].
- , ,
, , , ,
, -
.
, , ,
,
,
.
.
,


,

, .
.

.
. ,

.
. ,
, 60- , .
-
, .
- , , , , , .
. .
(
,
,
, , ,
. .) .
.
, , -,
,
-, , ,

. , , .

, -
, .
, ,
,

. ,
. , ,
,
. , ,
,
,
,
. , ,
, , , ,
, , , . ,

, .

. 1953 .
,
. , .
. 1956, 1957
1958 . , ,
. .



, , , , ,
, , , , . . [67].
1958
, , ,
. .
[68].
( ,
).
. ,
.
, , ,
- , [69].

, , , ,
.
, . , ,
, . .
,

[70].

. - . . .

. , , ,
.


.
. .
. , ,
. . , [71].
,
, , . . , , .
, ,
.
- ,
.

, 60- - 70- , , ,

.
, ,
,
, .

6.9.

- 1960 .,
, 1973 .,
, -
.
- . .

.
. ,
( ,
, . .).

.
50- - 60-
. ,
.
: , -
, .

.


.

- -

.
, .
, .
, , -
.
.

, ,
. , 22 1927 .
.
,
1928 ., 40- 50- . , .
1957 . , .

, . ,
,
(12 1959 .) 12- .
. 19 1955 .
.

50- ,
. 1957-1958 .
,
, . , ,

, .
,
.
1963 .
.
,
, , . 1963 .
.

. .
1965 . .
- -.

1965 . ,
.
. .
1967 . ( )

. . .
1965 . . ,
[72]. . ( 1966 .)
(, . .).



. 1967 . -
, ,
, ,
. , - , - ,

[73].
. .
- 1967 . .
( 1967 . 1968 .)
.
, . 16 1968 . -
1971 . [74], , .
.
19 1968 .
. . .
, , -
, -

[75].
. , . 1968 .
. -
, -
.
, , ,

. --

, ,
, , ( ): 24 1968 .

,
13 1965 .
1969 . *.
,

1971 . ,
1970 ., ,
. . 1971 . ,
. [76].
,
1970 .
. 1970 .
[77].
- 1971 . . 2 1971 .
(-, , , - )
- (). 10 1972 .
--.
* ( 1971 .),
( 1974 .), (
1974 .).

24 . 65

353

. 30 1971 .
- -, [78]. . --.


. 28 1972 .
.

.
, 23
1970 . . 1972 .
,
, .
, , ,
.
,
. 1972 .

[79].

.
,
. , 1961 1965 .
--. ,
. 1960 .
.
, -

- . ,

. -
.
, , .

,
. , 19 1966 .
1967 .
-
1968 .

( , , - . .).
1968 . -
.
, 1968 .
1969 ., . 19 1969 .
, , 1937 .,
-. - .
1971 .,
, [80]. 1972 .
. 1973 ., -
, , 1975 .
, 60- ,

24*

355

, .
, ,

.
,
.
.
. .
6.10.

, .

, 60- . 50-
,
(-) , 60-
.
1966 .
. , . .
. .
1966 . ,
-
.
3 1969 .
(
27 260 . )
.

. - 89% , 60- 95% [81].


1954 . , , ,
. 50- ,
, ,
.
,
, -
1958 .
,
[82].
, - , .
60- ,
, ,
, 50- , .
- , . 1964 .
,

. ,
50:50
.

1962 . , IV . ,
1969 .,
50%, , 56,2% [83]. ,
IV ,

, .
.
, 15%,
, 6,25%.
1966 . , ,
.
1966 . . -,
12%; -, 1967 .
( 64 . . ); -,
1967-1971 .
[84].
1968 . 1969 .

16,8%, , , , . ,
, 1965 .
[85].
, , . , ,
, .
. , ,
,
.
. , , , , , , 40% [86].

. , 14 1969 ., 1969 .
- 1 012 . .
932 . ., 80 .
.

.
, ,
, , . ,
6 1969 . -
,
, ,
.
, - , - . , , , . 1969 .
, ,
, (
40% , - 7%).
, .
1969 . ,

1970-1971 . [87]. - .
1970 .


. ,
30 ,
.

14
1970 . 9 .
-

55%. ,
. XXI
(, 1970 .)

55%, ,
-
, , .
, , .
, 50:50, 1949 ., 1954 . [88].
XXI 1971 . , 15 ,
. , ,

, XXI
.
, .
1971 . XXII . , 15
, XXI . -

55%
- , [89].
. 14 1971 .

(-, , , , -

) 20-25% ( 30-40 5
1 1971 .)
1
5 . 2,5%.
[90]. 1971 .
45-59 .
-
, ,
, .
, 1968-1973 . ,
1968 . - . ,
,
[91].

. ,
1951 .
1972 ., , -
, , , 1979 .,
. ,
,
.
, ,
[92].
1972 .
( , , - -
, ) -

23 . 65

361

. 1973 . 25%
, - 30%
1979 . 51% 1983 . , , . , .
. 1973 .,
, , 1979 .
. , , , ,
5 . 8 . , [93].
, , , , - ,
1973 . .
,
,
. ,
, 1954 .
.
. , .
, : ,
, . ,
1954 .
,
,
.
, 1954 ., ,

. ,

, ,
,
[94].

, ,
,
.
. ,
,
. 23 1973 . . , 20 ,
[95].
,
, . 1973 .
. 70- ,
, 0,7 . . . 1972 .
( 532 . .,
- 286 ., - 254 . .) [96].
10%
27,8% , 21%
19%
- [97].


, , , . . -, ,
. -,

23*

363


.
. 60-70-
. 1972 .
,
. 1968 .
1,6 . , . 1971 .
. 1973-1974 .
( ) , 70- -
.
70- (
) 49 . [98].

.
. - 760 .
- .
. 230 .
- 260 .
[99].

[100]. 1955 .
. 80 .
. , -

, .
1966 . - .
, ,

,

, . 1965 . - (). - 700 . -
[101].

1966 . , , - .
. , 1106 , ,
, , ,
, - 667 .
() -, 1971 .
1971 . [102].
1972 . , .

, . . 1975 .

. 60- ( 22 . ),
1973 . - .
1972 . ,
(). -

8,4-12,4 . .
. 50%
( ) , 50% -
.
3 . .
70-
0,34 . . , 1975 .
1,9 . . . 1976 . 5,5 . . ( 2 . . ).
1972 . ,
. 1962 1975 ., ,
6,3% 17%,
84,6% 68,7%.
. 60-
.
. 1965 . .
, , , 1966 . , ,
.
, , . ,
, 70- 42 .
[103].
- , , ( ) ( ), 1961, 1968 1969 . 1972 .
9,3% .
( ),

.


().
,
1969 ., 13%. 50 . . 1971 . 24,5% ,
60- .
,
(). 70% .

17,5%. 1972 .

.
50- 60- 70-
.
- .
, .
600 . . .
. 60-
184 . .
60- ,
.
, ,
1963 . , .
1965 .,
() - . . , 1966 .,
. -

.
,
. 1965 .
. - ,
. .
1970 . [104].

, - . 1966 . 74%
, 26% - . . . (,
, ) 1969 .
- ,

( ) 1965 .
(50% , 50% - ) , . . 1970 .
, 1972 .
. 60-
70-
400 . . [105].
. -
.
- 70- . 522 .

, 429 . , 339 . . , 164 .


, 147 . 121 . .
.

, , ,
.
,
. .
,
.
70-
, ,
. 1974 . ( ) 184 . . [106].

. - - . , , , , - . , , ,
.

,
.
,
1963-1977 . 4,5 .

()
(1962/63 - 1972/73 .) .
1967/68 .

.
(1973 .) (1967/68 - 1972/73)
13%.
13,8 19,5% [107].
- (
, ; ,
). -
[108]. , ,
, ; , .
, 11 (1960-1971 .) 7,4 . 1972/73 .
90% , 0,7% 9,3% - . 2257 . .,
- 140 . - 25 . . [109].
: 60-
30%, 70- - 50%. 50-

*. , ,

.
* 1958 . . 1958/59 . ,
: , , , . 1964 . ,
.

. . ,
1956/57 - 1971/72 .
22 22-24%.
, 1966/67 .
50,6% [110].
, , , .
, 1962/63 . 45,6%, 1967/68 . - 50,
1971/72 . - 60, 1972/73 . - 59%.

. 1967/68 . 70% , 1972/73 . - 76%. 1961/62 .
291,3 . .,
1968/69 . 958,5 ., 1972/73 .
2536 . .
,
. ,
, .
37,7% . 50-
, - .

810 . .,
69,3% ,
.
(23 1962 - 20 1967 .)
205 . (2 035 . .),
75% . 68%
. , , 6%
8%.

60- . 1965/66 .
75% .
72% , 1968/69 .
. 1970/71 . 79% , 1972/73 . - 79,5% [111].

(21 1968 - 20
1973 .). , .

10,8 . ., 5,1 . ., 80%
. (48%)
. , , ,

,
. , , , .

, - .
,
-
, .
1955-1972 . .
,
,
(, . .),
. 70-


(, , ) , 1955 .
,
. , - .
, 6070- .

.

,
, , .
, .
-

.

. ,

, . 19571975 . 20 34
[112].
( 1972 .
90,5% ) , (9,3% ),
.
, -, -

- . ,
. ,
.
. 19551975 . 4-7%
[113].
, ,
. .
, : 10% 70-

,
, .
, ,
70- , 10,20 ,
[114]. . , 5 10 . [115].



,
- .

, [116]
.
, ,
, .

, .
,
,
. . , 19611968 . 25 ,
[117].

. , -
. -
.
1962-1972 . , ,
.
. .
6.11.

1973 , . -
1973 . , , , . :
-
.
. ,
, -

.
1973 .

, ,
.
,

-
.
?
?
?
?
, 60-70-
. , , 50-
, 70-
90,5% .
60- 70-
.
, . - ,
,
[118], .
.
.

,
, . .
, ,
. ,
, - . 1972 ., ,

,
.
, , . , ,
,
,
. ,
,
, 1954 .
, .
.
1973 . - ()
[119].
1973 .
, . ,
, - .
,

1954 . 1973 . .

, . : , , , ,
-, , . .
,
[120].
, , ,

.
,

,
.
, ,
. ,
19S4 .

: . , 1973 .
70-
, , ,
.

.
, ,
. 3 . 6
,

,
. , ,

.
22 .
40% 1954 . ,
[121].
. , 20- 42,5 . ,
29,3 . - . , 6 .
, 7,2 .
. ,
. ,
200 .
. [122].
,
.
.
-
, , - . ,
.
-
( 70%) . 1954 .
1979 ., 1973 .
1993 .

1973 ., , : , -


1954 .;
(. 16, .1);
( )
300 . (.4); [123].
1973 . .

.
,
.
1973 . , ,
.

.

. ,

, -
,
. . , .
, , , 1974-1975 .
[124].
1973 .
.

. , 1973 .
, 70-

. , , .
, 1973 ., . .
. , ,
.


.
,
. 70-
, , . XX .
, -
1973 .,
. ,
. , ,
1973 . 1981 ., , , ,
,
.
1973 .
,
. 60-70-
7%.

. 70- , , -

,
[125]. ,
,

.
, .
.
,
. , .
, ,

. ,
( ) [126].

: ,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
[127].

, . , -
, ,
1973 . ,

, ,
. . ,


, . ,
, . , 1973-1974 .,
, . , , [128]. ,
, .
- , .
, 60-70-
10% ,
. , ,
. , . 1973 ., ,
,
, , , 70- , , ,
. , 17 1973 .
,
1971 . [129].
3,02 ., 3,65 .
,

17,34 . ( ) 16,04 . (

) . 1973 .
-
,
. ,
(, , ..).

1 1974 .
11,87 .
11,63 11,87 . .
1 1971 . 1974 .
. 1971 . 0,94 . (
) 0,98 . ( ), 1974 .
6,98 7,13 . [130]. ,
.
, , - , ,
.

, , ,
. ,
. ,

1973-1974 . .
.
,
.
, - .


1973/74 . 5 . ., 1974/75 . - 18,6 .
1973 . 295,8 . , 1974 . 299,8 . .
63,1 84,3% [131].
6.12.

,
,
-
: ; - ; ; ,
60- .

,
, ,
1978-1979 . .
, , , , - 20-25
. , XX , -
.
,
-
, , , .
, .
, 26 . 65

385

,
, 35%
1974 . .
. ,
.
.
- .
(1973-1978)
. 1974 .
, 69 . . 66%
.

,
.
( ,
, . .) , .
,
.
, ,

, , ,
,
, . ,
-
. , -

, - .

: ,
, . ,

,
. ,
. ,
,
.

.
, , ,
.
.

-
.
-, , , , .

, 70-
.
.
-, ,
,

26*

387


.
,
, (, )
,
. ,
, ,
, , .
, , . -,
,
. -, ,

,
.

. -,

.

. [132].
19,5% 1973 . 48,7% 1978 .
.
, , , , ( ), , ,
.
.

.
1973-1978 . .
70- 50% ;
.
, - ,
.
. ,
,
. ,
, ,
- .
, , .
- (
- ) 60-70-
.
( , , , , ,
, ,
).
, . ,
1979 .,
.
, .

,

[133].
.

- , . , ,
- ,

, .

. ,
60-
- . 1973 .
, ,
, .
,
, , , . 60-

,
[134].
, , , .
. 60-
XX ,
.
. . - [135]. ,
,
, -

,
, , - [136]. -, ,

. -, , . .
.

, - ,

.

.

, 70- ,
. 1975 . ,
- . ,
- -
[137].

, . - , ,
. , , ,
[138]. - , ,
. -

[139]. , . . ( 1977 - 1978 .)


, - ,
.
. , ,
- . , [140]. ,

.

(
. .) - , -
.
6.13.


. 1975 . . (- - -
). -

(. . ), ( ) . ,
.
.

[141].


, , .
,

[142]. , .
, - , - .
,
.
[143].

- . 60-
, , ,
, .
.
60-70-
. , . 1973 .,
, .
- , , , , , , .
,
, , -

25 . 65

393

. ,
.
, , , . , 60-
, , . . .
, 60-

, ,
70- , - , .
.
70- ,

, .

:
. , ,
,
, . , , ,
, .
, , . ,
.
,
.

.

, . -
[144].
- .
-
.
,

- . , ,
,
, .
,
, .
-
70- .
60- -
, . .
.

.
, ,
.
.
,
- ,

.
. , , 70-
40 -

25*

395

. ,
[145].
, , . ,
,
.

, ,
,
, ,
, .
,
,
.
.
: ,
, , 60- , - .

1975 . .
24
( ) [146].
, ,
. 60- 70- , , . 70- 2,5 . , .

, .
60-

, 70- -

.
,
. ,
[147]. ,
70- , .

.
1967 .
().
.
III
. ,
1975 . - ,
. .
.
, , . .
1972 .

. , - . , ,
. 1975 . .
, , . , ,

.

, , . , , -

[148]. , , .
. 1978 . 49%
99% ( 1-1,5 . .) , [149]. , ,
.
, , 54% ,
, (
1971 . 800 .
) [150], - . .
, .

, - ,
, .
.
.
- ,

, .
, . , , . ,
, 70- .
, , , -

,
.
- . . 1976 .

, , , ,
[151].
, .
. , ,
.

, . (
, .) , ,
. , 70-
,
.
, ,
, .
.
, 60-
, 70- -
, ,
-
.

.
. , , III . ,
,
. , ,

[152].
.
. ,
,
,
,
[153].

.
,
.
,
. , . , ,

. ,

, [154].
( ,
1978 .) ,
,
[155].

,
,

.
,
, .
60- . 70- ,
,
.
70- , , ,

. .
[156].

, . ,
.
, .
.
.

. ,
,
. , , ,
- ,
- [157]. -

[158].
, , ,
, , .
1966 . 37,98% (9,8 . )
( 25,8 . ),
1976 . 46,72% (15,7 . )
(33,6 . ) [159]. , 10
6 . . ,
, , 1,8 . .
.
: 2
[160].

[161].
, ,
,
.
60- .
.
, , ,
, , ,
. 1976 ., 14
,
3 . .
14,2 . ,
2 . , 1965 . [162].
, - , , .

,
, (
).

.
, .
,
[163].
, ,
,
.
. :
;
; - ( . .) ;
, ; ;
, [164].
, , ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
, , .
, -

, , - , -

, ,
...
... [165]. , ,
,
,
, .

, , , .

. , -

, . .
, , .
, ,
, ,
, ,
.

, .

,
,
. , .
, ,
,

. , ,
, .
- . , ,
.
,
, ,
, .
,
,
-
,

, .
.

,
. ,
.
,
.

,
,
. 1974/75
.

40%.


,
. . .
, 1973 . [166].

16-30% . , , . .
, , , , ,
. ., .

. ,
,
.
, . . , -
. , ,
.
, ,
.
. .
, , , ,
,
.
,
.
1976-1977 . ,
- .
, -


[167]. , , ,

. ,
, [168].
, .
. -
. ,
,
, -
, .

. .
70- , , ,
.
,

.
-
. ,

,
.
, , , ,
. -

.
, ,
, ,
.

.
, , .
6.14.


- .

1973 . .
,
- , 60- ,

[169].
.

, ,
. 60- .
,
. 1972 .
.
, .
1965-1972 .
3,6 . . [170].
1973 . ,

. , .
1973 . , . 1968/69 . 0,54 . .,
1973/74 . - 1,9 ., 1974/75 .
2,5 5,52 . ., 1975/76 .
7,79 . ,
4 , - 14,4 .
1977/78 . 10 . .
( 30%)
[171]. 1975/76 . 10
, .
70-
5-6 . . . 1973-1975 .
6 . .

70- , [172]..
1973 .
,
. (,
F-14) [173]. ,
,
. , , , ,
, , , - .
1977 . 1300. -. ,

F-15 F-5, F-14, -.


1977 .
140 F-16,
1977 . 800
( ).
2 700 , 3 . , [174].

,

, ,
- . , .
- . [175]
1975 . 50 , , . .
, - , .
, .
-
,
. - - .

- - .

.
, , .
,
.

- . , 80- -
[176]. ,
. , , -
; ,
. ,
, ,
, , .
, ,
,
,
.
-
.
, ,
, .

,

, , .


. ,
- ,
.
, , ,
,
, ,

, ,
.

.
. -, ,
[177].
, ,
,
[178]. -, ,


[179].

( )
.

. 1973 .
, . -
,
,
70-
, 1975 .
,
[180]. , ,
. - , ,
,
,
. 1977 . ,
.

.
1978 . ,
, . ,
.

, - , , . 1973 . [181]
.
, ,

- . , , ,
.
70- , .
, , ,
,
, .
.
,
. ,
- . ,
, , [182].
60- , , , -

, - ,
. ,
. , 70-

, .

. - [183],
,
. 1975 .

, . , ,
.
70-
, . . -, , ,
, , ,
, [184].
, , ,
. -,
.

. ,
.
.
. ,
60- - 70- , ,
.
70- . , [185].
70- , , , , , .
, , 1974-1975 .,
- , , .
, (
1975 .). ,

. ,
,
[186].
70- . - ,
. , 1976 . , ,

.
( 1977 .) ( 1978 .).
.

.
, ,
-,
,
.
,
.
.
,
, ,
( 25%
,
, , ), . ,
(
)
. , , ,
, . .
, .
,
1953 ., ,

.
. , , , , , .
, , ,

(. - ..) , ,
[187].
( )
( ).
,
. 1977 .
, .
, , [188]. , ( . ..), ,
, . .
, ,
.
[189]. .

,

.

,

28 . 65

417

, . , , 19761977 . , .
. 1977 . ,

,

[190]. ,
, - ,
.

1977 . ,

, , , .
,


.
, ,
.
, - , - , , . , , ,

, .
,
31 1977 . - 1 1978 .,
, ,
. , - ,
-
... , .

,

,
.
, .
. , :
, , ?

,
- , , ,
[191]. ,
, ,
. -,
,
. -,
.
, .
[192].
,
1981 .,
60- . ,
.
.
. . ,

[193].
, ,
, , -

28*

419

,
, .
, 1973 . ,

. ,
,
.
,
, ,
, .
,
, .
,
, .
, - ,
, -
.

VII

1978-1979 .
.

1978-1979 . -
XX .
-
; ,
, , , .
,
- , -
. , ,
. , 2500- 1971 .
, [1].

. .
, ( ) ,

. -,
,
70- , ,
, . , ,
[2].
, () :
- , (?! - ..) ,
. [3].
, . . -
507 .
., . , ,
67,5 . . . ,
[4].
, ,
, .

- , , . , ,

,
,

.

.

.
,
.
, .
, ,
. , ,
1978-1979 . .

,
, .
,
,
. ,
,
,
. ,
. . , ,
; , -
, , , . .

. , .
, ,
.

, . . .
. . : , . - , .
,
-
, , . . - ,
.
1978-1979 .
. -
. , ,
,
,
,
1640 . [5]. ,

,
. , .
- -. -,
, , - *.
,
, -.
* , , , ,
(), .
. VI .


, - - , , - , . ,
, -
(- ),
.
() . , -
,
.
,
(identity) . -
. ,
2500- , (
), , ,
. .*
, 70-
-.

.
, ,

*

1971 .
.

27 . 65

, , -
, .
,
, -
. ,
( ,
. .),
.

, .
.
, , , , , ,
. 1963-1973 .
, ,
, , . .
,
. , 70-, . , , ,
.
, . .
( , . .)

. .
, ,
.

.
- 60- - , ,

, .
70-
. , , .
, . .
,
, 1978-1979 .
, ,
.
.
, . ,
, [6].
,
1978-1979 . .
, 70- XX , ,
- , - - .

, , .
.
.
7.1.
60- - .


, ,
, , .
. 60- - 70-


.
, , , , -
. ,
.

. ,
,
. ,
,
, , , - .


, ,
- .

.
, , .
,
,
, .

, . , 70-
,
:

.
, ,

, .
, 1978-1979 .
, .


.
.
,
,
. ,
, .
, , , .
, .
, , -

. ,
. - . , , 70- : ,
, .
,
. ,
, <...> , , ,
[7].
, .
, ,
,
, , 1978 .
.

. . ,
, ,
.
.
( ) 70- [8]. ,
, .

. ,
,

.
- .
,
, , , , .
: .
.
,

, , , . ,
,
- . , ,
.
, , ,
.
,
, ,
, . .
.
. 1973 .
18,1%, 1977 . 8% [9].
1972 1976 .
23 15%.
32 . 1,5-2 . .
1977/78 . 2,5 . . [10].

1:2,1, 1974 .
1:4,15, 1978 .,
. , 1:8 [11]. ,
. , , . 1970/71 1974/75 .
31 303 36 258
, 13 251 11 581 . 70- 3% .
, .
,
280 . . - 500 . [12].
. 1966 . 31% ,
1977 . - 47%, 1978 . - 50%. , , , ,
[13]. : 70-
10- . 700 .
. , - (
) [14].

. . 1966 1976 .
. 2628% . (1972-1978)
,
,
19,38 . . [15]. 1978 . 45 500 , , -

[16].
. ,
. ,
. . , , , - . . -
.

. .

- - .
.
, . , ,

. ,
. .
. [17].

, .
.
.
,
, - .
,

- , .

-, ,
. .

-
, [18].

, , , , ,
[19].


- .
, ,
(1973-1978), . - , ,
. 1977 .
30%,
40% [20]. , - , -
. ,
, .
.
.
- . . .
1977 . . .
, . ,
[21].
- , . , .

, , ,
. , , ,
. ( ,

). ,
,
,
. , , .
40 . , .
, [22].
. ,
, . , , , .
. .
, , . . .
1977 . 100
,
. 1969 . 1977 . 64
.
143


[23]. 1977 .
, .
.
1977 . , ,
. 15
. . -
.
21 . .
[24].
7.2.
4 1978 .
,
. ,
, .
. 8-9 - . . ,
, . , , .
,
, .
, .
.


, , ,
.
: - . ,
;
, . . .
.
. . ,
,
,
.
,
.
, 60 , [25].
18-19 1978 ., , . 100 . .
.
.
, .
, .
. , ,
.
, . ,
.
.

,
.
,
. . , .
, . .

,
, . [26]. 1978 . .
,
.
,
1978 ., , ,
.
( )
( , , . .)
- .

,

. ,
,
, , , .
, ,
. , , ,

, ; ,
, ,
.
(,
, , ) . ,
,
, .
. ,
() . .
. , ,
.
.
- ,
.
4 , ( -),
, .
.
.
4 . ,
. : , ( - ), , .
6 , ,
, .

.
,
1978 . . , .

. 7
.
,
.
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
. 4 7 , ,
[27].
, ,
. - [28].
8 6
, ,
. . , . ,
, , .
8
.
. . , ,
.
.
. 8
4500 .
- ,
, 4290 [29].

.
,

. , .
, ,
.
.
.
, ,
,
, .


. ,
, , , , . (
)
, -, - , .
,
XX .
.
.
- .
.
-, - .
. . () , ,
.
-

.
,
60-70- .

, , , . 50- , , , . ,
. 1971 .

,
.
.
, ,
.

, , [30]. .
, , . , , 60-
- , - .


. .

.

[31]. 1961 . , -.

. 1978 . .

. ,
.
60-70- - .
- , .
.
(1933-1977). , .


, .
- . , (), -
.
, ,
, .
.

1977 - 1978 . -

, . 1978 .
, . , . ,
- , ,
-
.
, .
, .
.


. ()
, ,
.

,
.
- ,
.
,
,
, ,
. ,

[32].
, ,
. - .

.
, , .
,
-
.
.
, , , .
- .
,
, , , .
1978 . ,
, ,
.
. , , 5 (1963 .)
,
.
, 1978 .

.
1978 .
, . , ,
, . , ,
.
1978 . , ,
. -

, 1978 ., , . , .

, - -.
- 1978 .

,
.
, .
-, . , ,
1979 ., , .
, 1978 .,
1978 . . ,
. ,

. , -
,
,
- .
- 1978 .
, . - (). -

, ,
40 ,
. . , , 70-
, ,
, .
, ,
.
, , , , , ,

. - . ,
. -
, . , ,
,
(
).
( )

.
, ,
.
, .

-

.
5 1979 . .
.
. 1000-1500 [33].
, ,
.
16 1979 . -
(). 1
.
. 5 , ,
.
.
- . 9
[34]. 10

.
.
11 .
, . ,
10 30
.
, . , 27 - . , , , . ,
, . . -

.

, , , , .
11 , 11.00
, .
- ,
.
,
654 2804 [35].
10-11 1979 .
, - ,
. .
.

.
.
,
. ,
, . ,
.


. , , 1983 ., ,
...,
.
.

30 . 65

1978-1979 .,
, , -
. ,

, . , ,
( ,

, ,
- ). ,
,
.
,
.
7.3.

-
.
. ,

. ,
, .
-
, .
,
1979 .

, ,
- ,
, . , , - ,
. .
.
.
-
.

, ,
, 1979 .
, - - -- -.
- . , . , . -, . . ,
, . , ,
- . ,
. .
, .
,
,
. -


. .
. 5 1979 . , . .
,
- .
.
- , .
, , .
:
?.
. . 1 . ,
, .
. , . , , , -
-
.
- -
1979 .
( )
.
. - . . " " , . . .
, . (6 1979 .).

, , . . .
.
1906-1907 ., , ,
.
.

, .

,
, .
,
,
, , , , - .

.

, . , , , -
.

-
,
, , .
.
.
- . : ,

, (
),
- ,
-.
,
, ,
. ,
, .
, . , , : ,
- ,
.
, , , , ,
.

, -
.
, (
)
,
. 1979 .,

(17 ). .
-

, , ,
.
.
, ,
().
- (-, ) (
- ). . 144 , ,

, . 147 ,
. . 145 : ,
,
,
,
.
.
, ,
, , ,
, 1906 1907 .
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
. ,
.
, (- ),

. ,
.
, , , , , . -.
, ,

.

. -
, ,
. ,
.
,
, , . , . (
- , ,
, ) .
, ,
, ,
. , ,

, , () ,

. ,

.
, . :
; ;

; , ;
-
, ,
; .
; ;
; ; , , . ,
. , , .
- , ,
, .
- .
, ,
. ,

29 . 65


. , , - .

()
. , , , ,
. . , ,
, .
(
.) .
- . , 15 , . .
. .
.
.
. -
, . , -
,
.

- . -

,
- ,
.
, - , , , . ,
. . ,
. .
, (. . )
, . 1963 .,
,
. , 1978 .
, (
), .
, 1978 . .

.
.

. -
,
. 24 1979 . ,
, , .

. -,
, , . -,
.
1979 .
, - .
( ) .
, . .
,
- , . , , , , ,
, ()
.

. - . ,

, ,
, , . .
,
, .
, , .
- .
,
(). -

- ( ) .
19 1979 . - . , ,
--. ,
, -
( ), , , , . .
()
. ,
, () ,
.
. ,

.
.
,
, ,
.
- . 1978-1979 . ( )
.
1979 . , , , , - (. . (), ). , ,
- . 5


. 6 . ,
.
12 1979 . , ,
, , [36]. 13
.
, . ,
.

, , .


, .
.
. , . 3 1980 .
.
4
.
[37].
, , .

- .
, . . . , , ,

15 1982 . .
,
, . ,
, . .

. ,
-
,
. 1979 .
,
. .
,
. ,
.

. ,
, () . ,
,
. , , - (). , , .
, ,
.
, ,
(, ),
- .
-
() . , . , ,
, . : ,
, ( . - ..) ,

. () , ,
. .
[38].
- .
, . . ,
, , .


. 2-3 1979 . .

, 70- .
(, ) - , ,
,
, . , . .
, ( - ) . ,
, (
) ,
, , .

.
, -
. ,

, , .
, .
, -
, , .
- , .

. 5 8, . 107-112.
,
, ... . '- ,
. ,
,
(. 107). , ,
- , , , (. 110). () (. 112).
, 1989 . 112
,
.
-

. ,
, ,
. , , . .

,
.
,
, , . , , ,
, (. 3).
,
(. - ..)
, , , , , (. 43). , , , , (. - ..)
(. 43, . 4 5). . 43 ,
,
, , , ,
,
.
,
, , , , . . .
,

,
- , -

. . 44
: ,
, ,
, , , , , , , ,
, ,
.

. .
,
. - .
: ,
,
. . 3
.
153 ,
, , ,
. . 8 . 43. 81

,
. 146
.
, , , . ,
.

. 3
, . , . 11 : :
- ,
-
,

, , , . . 154
, , ... ...

.
, (. 152).
.

,
.
.
,
,
.
1979 .
, .
.
. - (
1979 .) . ,
. -

- . ,
. . , .
, . . , - - ( ) .

- , .

, . .
,

.
1979 . , . ,
. ,
,
. , .
, .
. .
, ( ) ,
.

, , , .

1980 . -,

.
, . , .
,
.
,
, - .
. . -. ,


, .

.
, - , . , .
- , , .
1972 . ,
, . -
1963 . . . , , . 1978 .
,
.
1979 ., , . 1 ,

, .

. ,
: , ; ; ; , . ,
,
; ,
. ,
.
, .
. , , - ,
, .
,
.
1980 .
, 11 . . 28 .
()
.


. , .
. .
.
, .
, ,
. ,
,
( ),

.
,
. ,

. ,
,
,
, ,
.
, - (- - - ). - 270 .
. , ,
. ,
, . ,
. , -,
,
.
.
14 1980 .
, . , 18 , .
, 9 .
28 217 . , (,
.) , .

. , . . .
.
, ,
, -.
, , ,
. . .

.

. .

. , , .
. 1980 .
,
.
. ,
. , . , .
, 28 .
20 .
, ,
-


.
.
- -,
,
.
( ) ,
.

, 10 1980 . , - . , - , -
.
.
22 , 26 .
. , ,
, , . , ,
, . ,
.
, -.
.
- .
-
.

. 31 , . 10 14 , .
21 .
, . .
,
. -
- . .
,
.
, ,
- ,
, ,
. , .

, ,
-
,
.

. - .

. 1980 .
. 17 1980 . 1975 . . 22
10 - .
, , .
.
. , .
,
,
. 1980 . . - (, -
.) .
4 ,
,
.
, , X.
,
.
. ,
.
12 1980 .
. .
15 1981 .
, .

.
.
, . , ,

.
,
, .
- ,
( , , ), , .
-

. ,
, ,

, ,
1979 . . ,

- ,
, ,
, . , , . . ,
, - .

. ,
. - . , . . ,
. , ,
, .



,
- - .
-
, ,
.

( ),
, ,

.
.

. . 1980 - 1981 .
.
1981 .
52 .
12 . . 330 (4 . .).

3,7 . . ,
, 2,3 . .
. - . . 444
52 20
1981 . 727
, .
.
.
.
, .
.

. 11 ,

, . , .
.

5 1981 .
. . ,
. , . .
.
. , .
: !, ! . .
,
. , - (. . ). .
.
.
.
, ,
,
.
5 . ,
.
[39].

. . -
.

, .
, , 10
. 130
, [40].
,
, , .
. .

.
.
(4 1981 .) , 46 [41].
,

- .
. (), - .
, . .
, .
, ,
.
. ,
- - . - (), . :

, - ,
[42].
, ,
,
.
.
, . . ( . ) - , , 1978 .
. .
1979 . . , .
1000

.
- .
, . , , [43]. ,

.
27 . .
, -
, , . 6 ,
- , , .
.
9 - -

32 . 65

. .

. , . .
.
, .
. 12
.
.
.
, , . .
14 1981 .
. . , , , .
,
, :
,

.
. ,
,
. 15 ,
. ,
. - , , .
. . , , . 17 . , . 20 , , . 178
177 , .

-
. 18 , .
. -, . , .

. , :
!. , - :

.
, ,
,
.
[44]. .
.
- 1979 . 15 ().

(18.VI.1981), .


, , .
.
28 1981., , .

. .
, .

. .
. , ,
,
[45].

. , .
, .
28 1981 . . . , ,
,
. 29
- .

- .
.
1980 . . , .
.
.
. . ( ,
4.VIII.1981),
.

30 1981 . , , .
-
, - - ,


[46].
. , . , , ,
.
, . , , . , .
, ,
. ,
,
. .
, , , .
.
.
,
, .
(), ( )
, .
. .
.
.
.
. , , : . .

.
1981 .
,
.
.
. - . ,
.
,
, .. ,
, 6-8 . .

- ,
. , .
,

, .
, .
. , . , .
.
,
.
. , , .

- - ,
.
. - , -


.
, - ,
,
.
, ( - .).
. 1981 .
(X. , . , . . ) . .
,
, .
80-

, () (, , ) ,
.
( ),
.
, , ,
.
1981 . . 1982 .
. ,
, 1983 .,
.
,
. 80-

- , -
- -, - .
,
.

.

,
, .

. ,
- ,
, .

, : , ,
. ,
() .


, , .
. .

(
) ,
, . , . ,

,
, , , ,
. . ,
- ,
,
.
, ( . 43, . 2)
, .
, .

- - -.
-
. .
.
- 1975 .
1978 . 1981 . . .
.

, , ,
- .
, ,
- .

, . , , . , . . ,

.

31 . 65

, , , .
,
. , ,
(-) ( , . .). . , , ,
. .

, , .
, , ,
. , .
(1977-1978),
,
,
(16-17 1978 .).
, , 1979 .

. (28-29
1979 .)
[47].
- , ,
, ,
.
, -

. ,
1979 . , :
. . , , , . .
, , : , , ,
1979 ., - , - [48].
17-20 1979 .
() . 5 1982 .

31-33 . . 1982 .
(34 . )
1973 . , ,
, - (
).

. 5 1979 .
.
, , . ,
1979 1980 .
1977 .,
3,45 . ,
2,65 . . 1358 (21 - 22 1979 .)
9 . .
. , . 22 1980 . .

. 1980 . 29%, 1981 . - 12%.

700-800 .
, , 1980 .,
11 . ., 60%
. .
. . ,
, . 1979 . -
. ,
, . [49].
28

.
. 1979 .
, 1973 .
, . , ,
, .
,
. ,
1954 . .
1980 .
( ),
1981 . .
, 1973 .
, .
1979 .

.

350 . . .
1980 . ,
.
,
, , 1951 . .
.

.
, ,
, ,

.
1981 . ,

[50]. , .

, , ,
. , , 1979 .
, ,

. 1979 .
350 . ,
1980 .
. , .

,
.
,
, ,
, , . ,
150-200 .
. ,
,
. ,
, , , .

. , . ,
- .

. , , -
.

, ,
. - ,
, . ,
,
, , .
,
.

70- . () 13,45 . 1979 .


31 . 1980 . [51].

, .
,
, ,
.
, ,
, 7 1980 . . .

( 12 . .), . 1980 .
. , ,
.

. , 1980 . -
.
.
: ,
,
,
, ,
.
.
, -

.
24 25 1980 . -
. , , - 1981 .
,
. 1983 .
,
, .
(, .) -, , , , , ,
. -, ,
,
. -,
( , ,
, . .), .
- (1980-1988 .) , - . , , , ,
, .
, . 1982 .,
,

. 45% ( 65 .
1981 . 100 . 1982 .). 1982 .
75 . . 1983 .
2,3-2,6 . , 1,8-2,0 . .
(1 . )
60%.
600 . . ,
( 1980 .), 17-19 . . 1983 . (- ). , ,
: 21 . . . ().


, .

,
.
, ,
-
. ,
. , ,

.
.
(1980-1988) ,
, ,
. .

. , , ,
.
.

. [52].

-
. X. . (1997 .) :

.
, . [53]

VIII
.

, ,
, . ,
(. .)
, . , ,
,
.
, . , . - 1959 . , [1].
1979 .
(). ,
. . ( ) . , , . . , [2].


.

- , 1980 . 7500 [3].


, 4 1979 . ,
, . ,
. :
, . .

, ,
1978-1979 . , , .
. ,
(16 1979 .), 240 . ( - 435 ) [4].
.
,
.
.
, . , , ,
. , . ,
, . .
( , ).

. , . , - , , , .


.
.
,
, - . . , . [5].
11-12 1979 ., ,
[6].

.
. 1958 .
. ,
,
. XX , , ,
.

- [7]. .
.
1968 . (
),
.

(
) .
1975 . .
, - 1975 .,
. 13 1975 .
. - .
. 70- . 1957-1958 .
' - ( ). 1974 . . '
[8].
.
8.1. -

. , , . . .
'
. , . ,
.
()
- . 17 1979 . . .


.

.
. , . . .
. -
- [9].
1980 . (97 )
', . 8 .
. -, 15 . .
1980 .
. 1975 .
,
. - . 1970 . 1978 .
630 3021 . 1979 .
38 . . 1980 .
.
.
.
. .

, ,

,
.
.
22 1980 .
[10].
( ) .
330- - .
, .
1980 . .
,
. . , . ,

:
.
, ,
, . , , , , - , - [11]. .
,
. ,

.
, ,
-,

.

, , , .
,
- .
,
()

.
,
, , -
(1899-1992 .). , ()
. , : ,
, , . (' ),
. ,
[12].
-
, .
-
. , ,
.
- 1973 .
, ,
. , -
. . ,

[13].
, -

.
, - .
-
.
3,4 . 400 . .
1,3 . 450
. . 1980-1981 .
26,1 . . 16,4 . .
1979 . 20,5 . ., 1980 . - 13,5 .
1981 . - 9,3 . .
, .
, ? ,
,
.
.
,

, . ,
.
,

.

. (),
(),
. , :
,
.
. ,

. , -

. .

.
140
( -4)
: , .
, - , , . [14].
( ) - , 1980 .
. . .
, , ,
. . . . - ,
:

- .
-
.
,
.
-
.
22 1981 .,
, . .
.
.

2000 ,
. 29 -
100 , 70 ,
70 . . . : 22,
27 29 1982 . , .
, .
.

, , -
.
,
,
. 24 ( 3 200 .
) . 19 [15]. 105 , 56 , .
,
, 20 1982 . .
[16]. 26

1975 . .
.
.
( )
.
29
. .
1982 . , ,
. -, ,

, -

,
[17].

, ,
( ) (). , ,
- ( ), ()
. ,
, - .
(- ). -
.
,
.
.

.
.

. , , , (
)
. . ,
.
1982 . . , ,
.
1983 . , ,
. ,
. -

( - ).
- . , - . .
, - - .
, -
. 1983 .

. . , 1983 . 120 000
60 000 [18].
, 1984
1987 . ,
, ,
.

.
. . .
1984 . .
. [19].
, ( )
.

, .

20 . , 30 . .
1984 . ,
. -

. , . .
. ,
.
.
80%.
, . 1987 .
314 .
70% .
, .
.
. , .
1984 .
- .
, .
.

- .
[20]. . ,
, .
1985 ., , - . 1986 . . - . 1986 . .
. 1988 . , .
1988 . -
.

. 14
1988 . . .
,
. ,
. .
.
. , ,
-- .
1986 .

. 18 36
[21].

.

, , - , F-14 . ,
.
, ,
.
[22].
.
1988 .
.
1988 . ,
,
.
, , , . 298 , 117 .


.

- .
.
- -.

.
, 27
.
. , , , ,
.

, . . , -
. , , ,
.
, , ,
-
. .
,
,
.
. .
16-18 , ,

34 . 65

, ()
598 .
.
.
18 1988 .
.
,
.
8.2. .
. -
3 1989 .

, ,

.
, . . . . , ,
. - . -
. .
.
.
- -.
, ,
.

, .
, ,
. , -


1992 . .
, , - , , ,
, .
. . .
- - .
, -,
. , ,
;
; - ;
; . .

-
.
, . ,

.
, ,
. .
1979-1993 .,
-,
.
(1997 .) [23]. , 80- , - -

.
, ( ) (, ) - .
, ,
-, .
(
) . ,
. , ,
,

. , . . :
1979 .

. -
, ,
, ,
,
. , - .
.
1979 .
.


. , , , -

, , ( - , ,
) - .
, , ,
,
, , .
( - ),
.

(- ),
,
. , , - (
) ( ,

). 1990 .
. 1990 . .

- .

.

,
.
, , ( ).
.

, ;

, ;
.
,
, . ,
, , -
( ), ,
. -

.

.
, ,

- , - , , ... 14

,

. ,

, , ,
, - . . , ,
, . , , , [24].
.
. -

.
,

. - . ,
, ,
.
, .
. . , .
, , , (). , . 1978 .
,
. ,
.
, .
.
. ,

.
, , ,
, , , , . .

, , , ,
. ,
, - ( - ).
. ,
- (- ) -
1979 . , , . .
,
. 80- 64 ; 5000
; 20 . (, , . .); 150
(, ,
, , , . .); 140 ; 250
. - ( ) 90- 150
.

, - . -
. 90-
.
8.3.
- . 1997 .
,
,
, . . -.
. . -

, , .
, .
,
. -, ,
, . -, ,

.

. 1943 .
- , . (1982-1992) . .
, , ,
. , 1978-1979 .
. ,
,
-. 1999 . .

. 1999 .
. .
, , - .
.
60% .
1,2 . - .
.

33 . 65

. . .
. , . ,
. , () ,
,
. ,
(, .).
, . ,
,
, .
2000 . ( ) .
- (
), (),
.
.
,

.
, 2000 ., 16
, . . ,
. . . .
.


. -

,
, . . . .

. ,
-
. . . II . 2000
.
,
- .

, . . ,

. [25]. , ,
, . , . 1995 1996 .
, . , 40 . .
,
.

:

(
), ;
; - ; ,
;
,
, . .
,
, . - .
, ,
, . .
1991 . .
,
.
, ,
(. 1),
.
, , ,
- . .

.
, 1993 .
, 2002 . [26]
, - .
.

- .

-
.
8.4 -
, ,
- -
. 00- .
, ,

.

, , .
. ,
, , .
,
,
. ,
, . ,

1979 ., 16- ,
. , - .
. .
1953 ., ,
. , ,
, .

, . , , , ,


.
.
, : , . ,
.
, .
. 1981 .
, 1982 .
.
. . . , , ,
()

- .
1981 . -
,
- .
,
.
.
. , .
400 .
, ,
. , ,
. ,
.
1983 . . .
.
. 1983 . 18
.

,
.
, 1983 .

. . ,
, ,
.
,
.
,

, ,
, , .

, , . ,
, . . :
, , ,
, [27]
.
.
. - . , .
.
( . .),
.
.
, , , .
.
.

,
. -

. 1982 . .
, ,
. ,
. -

- X. - ( 1985 .)
( 1986 .). ,
- . , , .

. ,

- . - 1987 .,

.
. - .
.

1989 . - , . . .

. , , .
.
- .


.
,
1989 .,
.


. 40 60 . , ,

.
80- - 90-
, - -24, -29, -72 . , . 1987-1990 .
2,5 . , 19911994 . - 1,2 . . , ,
. ,
. ,

, , .
- 90-
.
1992 . 1995 .
1 . . .


. , , . ,

.
, 6 1998 . - -


.


. . , 1998 .
, ,
(
),
.
. , ,

, , .
- . - ,
. .

. -
.

, -
. ,

. ,


, ,
. - ,
, .

,
( ) -

.
. , , .
, , , , ,
-
, . .


,
, .
.
.
:
.
,
.
,
,
.

, .
.
.


.
.
,

.
,

, -

, .

.
,
, .

.
, - . ,

, . ,
- (), .

,
,

.
.

2003 . - ,
. ,
,
. ,
, , , .
,
.

, ,
1926 ., () . XX
, ,
.
,
,
.

. , ,
,
. .
, , .
, ,
. , ,
, - .
, - .
, .

,

(, )
.
.

. ,
( ).
.
, ,
. . (- ).
. , ,
.
,
1978-1979 .
, , . .
( - ) .
, 1978-1979 .,
,
.
XIX XX
. ,
.

. - - () - 1 1896 .
- . . . .
, -, ,
,
.
. , , ,
().
- 1908 .
- - . . -
-
1909 . 1911 .

.
.
.
,
. -
, -

. . . : 1909 . -
, .
,
. ,
-

.

, . - , . 12 1912 .
.

. ,
, ,
. . , , ,
.
1919 . -
- 15 .
-. ,
-.
:
-
( . - .) ,

. 1921 .
- - -, 1925 .
. ,
. , 1923 ., - .
.
, , ,
.
.
, 1921 . .

( 1925 . - ) ,
.
, , .
,
. , , . .
, . : , , .
, , .
,
, . -
, . ,
. ,
. , - . , ,
.

. .
.
- .
, . ,
,

- .
, -,
.
30- , - . , .

, -
.
, . -- , .
. , ,
6 . . .,
.

.
. , .
, ( ) . , ,
. ,
: ,
.

- -.
, .
. 16 1979 .
. 16-22
(). 22 15
II .

, -
(). - ,
- ( ),
(). 23 1980 .,
. , , 27 1980 .
. .

, . , ,
-
,
:
. ,
,
,
? ,

. , . . ,
1979 ., . : ,
,
. .
, , . :
, , .
...
.
- . ,
, ,
.
,
, -

. , ,
. , ,
,
. [1]

. 19781979 .
. .
1947 . - ,

.
.

.

1953 . , , . ,
, .
1953 .
2000 . .
. : ,
. . - , .
:

.
,
.

,
,
.
, , .
1978 . ,
.
, ,
, ,
,
. , 400- . , .
.
. 1977 .
. , ,
.
- 1979 . (4 ) , - . , , , .
. ,

.
, .
,
.
,
.

,
,
. ,
. ,

.
, , - .
.
, . : . , ,
.
,
. 1979 . , . . .
.
.
. .
, . , ,
. ,
, .
27 . - -
.

. :
, 10 . 30 .,
,
.

. ...
11 , ,
.
(11-12 ) , . ,
, .
, , .
.
,
. , , ,
, ,
,
.
,
.
.
, ,
.
1978-1979 . . .
. . , , , , : XX , ,
, ,
, .
,
, -.
, . , -

. , , , . ,
.
, ,
.
.
*

,
. -
.
. () , . .
.
, , ,
,
.
, (),
. - , - .
, - (- - ).
. , ,
.
, , , . . .
36 . 65

. , 1988 . . . , -
- . . . - ,
.

1988 . . , ,
. , 1989 .
. . 18 .
- ,
. . -, , ,
, .
, . . - , , , .
, .
, , - .
,

.
. . . 1997 . , . .

,
.


. . 1999 .,
, , , , - , .
.
, - - . ,
, ,

.
. -, X. , . .

. - , ,
. , . ,

. ,
,
- - ,
(), - .
,
- . .

,
. 1978-1979 .
,
-. ,

: ()
, , .
, 1997 ., , - XXI .
90- ,
1997 .
. .
, . ,
.
, .
1999 .
.
.

. , ,
, 1997 .

.
60% . ,
. . - 1,2 . .
.

.
-
. . , ,

( ) , , .
-, ,
.
. ,
,
.
( - 2000 .)
- .
.
, 16
., , . .
66 45 .

, . .

.
, , , . , , .

, ,

.
.
,
,
: ,
, .
,
. [2]


.
- .

. .
- .
, , -
'. -, . . , .
' ().
, ,
,
() .
,
, , ,

, ,
, .

.
. , ,
, .
, 1989 . ,
,
, ( 157).
, ,
.
- - ,
, .
,

, .

1.
2.

3.

4.


. .: VI .

1978-1979 . ,


, . , . . . .: The Iranian
Revolution and the Islamic Republic. Proceedings of a Conference
(May 21-22, 1982). Editor Nikki R. Keddie. Erik Hoogland. Printed in
the US by the Middle East Institute. 1982.
Societas Iranologica Europaea,
()
, . , 2002 .
.

.
1978-1979 . . ., 1989.

(. 3. ) ,
(. 5).
: , - , , ,
... (. 450-451). .
: , ...
,... 1978-1979 .,
, (. . . - ..).
1978-1979 . (. 450). , , .
,

5.
6.

. . , , ,
. ,
.
,
<...> ,
. , ( ), , . . .
,
. -,
(, . .)

.
Halliday F. Iran: Dictatorship and Development. Penguin Books. 1979, p. 8.
C.M. ( , ). .
. ., 2001, . 7.


1.

2.

3.
4.

Iran. Statistical center digest 1378 (1999). Tehran, 2001; . Iran Almanac. Fifth Edition. Tehran, 1966, p. 120.
- 1155 , - 410 , - 905 ., - 855 ; . : Iran: Dilemmas
of Dyal Containment (Anthony H. Cordesman and Ahmed S. Hashim).
1997, Westview Press. Boulder, Colorado and Oxford (UK), pp. 126-127.
- 1448 , 499 , - 35 , - 432+179 ?,
- 992 , - 936 ,
- 909 . 740 - ?
. . . . , . . , . . . , . 1999, . 668; Roberts J.M.
Shorter History of the World. Oxford. Helicon. 1996, pp. 97, 99.
. . . VII . . . ., 1998, . 61.

. . . .: .. . . 2-. , 1989, . 152.

35 . 65

5.

6.
7.

8.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

-,
. .: Drechlser Andreas Die Geschichte der Stadt Qom im Mittelalter (650-1350)... Berlin, 1999.
Frye Richard N. The Golden Age of Persia. The Arabs in the East. (In:
Chapter 11. Turkish Ascendancy, pp. 213-230). N.Y. 1975.
.: Aliev, Saleh Muhammedoglu. Azerbaycan Turklerinin Menseine
dair uc ana Gorusun Elestirisi (XII. Turk tarih kongresi. 11 cilt, Ankara,
1991, pp. 293-308.
, . , I (1501-1524) . ,
- , . Sumer
Faruk. Safevi Devletinin kurulusu ve gelismesinde Anadolu Turklerinin
Rolu. Ankara, 1976, p. 69.
Iran Today, p. 24.
Izady Mehrdad. The Kurds: a Concise Handbook. Taylor and Francis.
Washington, 1992, p. 119.
The Economist. L., December, 2000, 51, p. 60.
Mc Dowall David. A Modern History of the Kurds. 1.. Tauris.
London. New York. 1996, pp. 445-449.
Izady Mehrdad. Op. cit, pp. 78-79.
Iran at Clance. Printing and Publishing Organization Ministry of Culture
and Islamic Guidance. Tehran, 1998, p. 16.
, ,
. : Amuzegar Jahangir. Iran Economy under Islamic Republic. I.. Tauris.
London, New York, 1993.

I
1.

2.

3.


XV . Faruk Summer. Oguzlar (Turkmenler). Istanbul, 1992, p. 131132, 355.
C.M.
. . , 1980,
. 27-66. (), , .
,
.
Faruk Consolidated Treaty Series, ed. C.Pany, N.-Y. 1969, IV, pp. 455-447.

4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

10.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

16.

17.
18.


.
, ,
. . . ., . ,
1988, . 69.
, . 71.
Edward Ingram. Britain's Persian Connection, 1798-1829. Prelude to
the Great Game in Asia. Clarendon Press. Oxford, 1992, pp. 119-121.
. , . 72.
.. 1813-1828 .. , 1967, . 11-130.
-, , 1758 .
,
. A. Lambton. Qajar Persia. Eleven studies. London, Tauris and
Co. Ltd., 1987, p. 8.
.. , :
, - , - . <...>,
. , ,
. .. . 1798-1826. ,
, 1991, . 295.
, . 430.
, . 10.
, . 18.
.: .? , . III, , 1830, . 125. 8 .
, - 25 1814 . - 1809 ., (.:
. . , 1977, . 229). .
C.U. Aitchison. A Collection of treaties, engagements and sanads relating to India and Calcutta, 1933, vol. XIII, pp. 60-63; no
, II, , , ., 1972. ,
. 7-74.
Ingram. Op. cit., p. 192.
Ibid, p. 172.

19. , ..
.

.
,
. , , : ,
(.: .. . ., . 13).
, ,
, 1966 .
. . , : 10 (21) 1735 . ... - (
1736 .
- . - .) . .
. ( .. , XVIII . ., 1966, . 122). 1744 .
: -
, - (
, . 125). , - , .
20. .. . ., . 19.
21. Ingram. Op. cit., p. 20. ,
, :
. Ibid.
-
. , 1888 .,

. , - 1907 .
22. Ingram. Op. cit., p. 288-289.
23. .: .. - 1856-1857 . .,
1959.
24. Makhzan ol-Vagaye. Journal de TAmbassade de Farrokh khan... Par
Hoseyn ibn Abdollah Sarabi. Edite par Karim Esfahanian. Tehran.
1344/1965. p. 219-225. . . ,

( , . 433).

25. . . - XIX XX . , 1964, . 55-63.


1881 . .: XIX . . . . . . , . . ,
.. . , 1946, . 189-192.
26. .. . ., 1960, . 62.
27. . ., . 131-168.
28. ,
, 4159 .
, 2848 . - .
.
1873 . ,
, .
,
. Mojtahed-Zadeh P. The Eastern boundaries of Iran. Edited by Keith Mc Lachlan, UCL Press, 1994, 128-139;
Dr. Reza Reiss Toussi. The strategy of Burned Lands. Tarikh-e mo4
aser-e Iran. Vol. 1, no 2, Summer 1997, p. 47-79; Wright Denis. The
English Amongst the Persians, London, Heineman, 1977, p. 145.
29. Mojtahed-Zadeh. Op. cit., p. 128-139.
30. Ibid, p. 135-137.
31. Dr. Toussi Reza Re'iss. The Strategy of Burned Lands: Seistan at its Last
Agony. Tarikh-e Mo'aser-e Iran, vol. 1, no 4, Winter 1998, p. 19-68.
32. Mojtahed-Zadeh. Op. cit., p. 136-137.
33. Lambton. Op. cit., p. 20.
34. The boundaries of Modern Iran. L., 1994, p. 90-92.
35.
. .: Ingram. Op. cit., p. XIII.
36. Schofield P.Interpreting a vague river boundary delimination: the 1847
Erzerum treaty and the Shatt al-arab before 1913. In: The boundaries of
modern Iran, p. 79-92.
37. 80- XVIII . .
-
- .
.
. -

38.

39.

40.

41.

. ,
, , , .


. . ,
.
-
- .
-,
- , . 1828 .
, -
.
XIX . - (200 . )
- (65 . ) .
. , - -
. .
.
, ,
, - XVIIIXIX . () .
- -
,

.
, -

, , ,
.
, -

42.
43.
44.
45.
46.

47.

48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.

55.
56.

, -
.
, , , ,
.
, , .
Guity Nashat. The Origins of Modern Reform in Iran, 1870-80. Urbana,
Chicago, London, pp. 43-113, 161.
- . - -- , ,
1962, . IX, . 4.
Nashat. Op. cit., p. 73.
M.C. .
XIV . ., 1982.
Issawi Ch. The Economic History of Iran, 1800-1914. Chicago and
London, 1971; X.A. -
XVIII-XIX . ., 1991.
,
,
1793 ., -
. -
, 60 40 . ,
. , . 36-611, . 191. : .. , XVIII . ., 1966.
. , . 129.
. - - , ,
1953, . 150.
- . . . .,
1956, . 20.
Robbins K.G. Public Opinion, the Press and Presure Gpoups. In: British
Foreign Policy under Sir Edward Grey. Cambridge, 1977, p. 87.
, . 258.
Kazemzadeh F. Russia and Britain in Persia, 1864-1914. A Study on
Imperialism. New Haven, 1968, p. 355.
.. . 18951914 . ( - ). , 1975, . 14.
.: 48, . 14-18.
.: 48, . 18. , 1906 ., -
.
. . .

57. .. - . ,
1975, . 24.
58. . - -
. ( - - -), , 1992, . 8689. . . S. Lambton. The Tobacco Regie: prelude to revolution, Studia
Islamica, XXII (1965), p. 19-57, XXIII (1966), p. 71-90. , , . . , 8
1890 ., 21
1890 . , X. ,
20 1890 . A. Lambton, Qajar Persia, p. 224; X. , .
., . 88.
59. Hatami, Muhacir Iran matbuati imperializm va mustamlacilikla mubarizada. Baki, 1964, p. 78. , , 20 1891 .
60. ..
1891-92 .
61. Nateg , . ., . 210-214.
16 . .
, , . - - . . , , 1965, . 150.
62. -,
XX ., ,
,
, ().
. - - . . 1953, . 12.
63. .. . .
64. .: 57.
65. . . ., . 155-162; .. . .
66. .
, - . .: .
- . , 1984.
67. Lambton. Op. cit., p. 275.
68. . ., . 65-67, 75; .. - XX . ., 1985, . 8-9.
69. .. .., . 9.
70. .: . ' 29 1901 ..
. , . 134-136.
71. .. .., . 10.

72. Sampson A. The Seven sisters. The Great Oil Companies and the World
they Shaped. N.-Y., 1975, p. 53-54.
73. C.M. .., . 10.
74. M. - - - -
-. , 1981, . 15-16.
75. .. . ., 19.. ., . 135.
76. Garthwaite Gene R. The Bakhtiyari Khans, the Government of Iran and
the British. 1846-1915 - GJ ES, 1972, 1, p.32; . , .
Khans and shahs. Cambridge, 1983.
77. - .
78. - .
79. Garthwaite. The Bakthtiyari Khans, p. 33-34.
80. - , 1976, . 19, 3-6, .327.
81. Ahmad I. Anglo-Iranian Relations. 1905-1919. Aligarh,1974, p. 285.
82. . - - . , 1951, . 252.
83. .: 76, . 257. . 1897 .,
. (Kazem-zadeh F. Russian and Britain in Persia,
p. 428). ,
12 1896 . -. - . ,
1976, . 109,202.
84. Garthwaite. The Bakhtiyari Khans, p. 36.
85. Bullard R. Britain and the Middle East. L., 1951, p. 123. Ahmad I. Op.
cit., p. 284.
86. Churchill W. The World Crisis. 1911-1914. N.-Y., 1923, p. 140.
87. . 1905-1911 . . - - . . 1953.
88. . - - . , 1962, . 100.
89. (). : , , . .
. ,
, , ,
.
: ,
, ,

, . XX ., 1905-1911 .,
,
.

90.

91.

92.

93.

94.

95.

96.

97.


.
, . .
, , , .
- - ,
. . . . 12
1906 . -. - - .
, 1953 , . 301.
, ,
.
. .. 1905-1911 . ., 1957, . 175.
. , . 167. 26 : ,
, . .
.. - ( ). ( ) (8.V. 1873-18.XI. 1961) . (). - . 1901 .
.


.
, .
. . , , 15 1905 ., ,
.. ,
. . , , : ( . - ..)
, ,
, (. .. (
10 000 ) . , -....
. . 2- ., .
. 1989, .252-253; ... -
. .: . ., 1984, . 136.

98. , 1977, . 273.


99. . , . 201-203.
100. Lambton. Eleven Studies, p. 327.
101. . 1977, . 278.
102. . , . 222.
103. . - - . . . 3, . 109-111,
113, 117-119.; .. , . 279.; . , . 225-226.
. , -
- , - - - . . ,
-
(), --
- . - ( )
.
104. . ., . 1, . 290-291.
105. .. 1903-1911 . .:
. , 1965, . 206-207.;
. - ' - . .
106.

. 1908 ..
-
- .

- . .
. .: . , . 237-238.
107.
( )
( ) -.
108. ,
. . V, , 1912. 23 31
1910 ., . 48-52.
109. .
. . . -
. , 1998, - , . 62-63. .
18 40 .

110. - . - - . -
. , 1372/1993, . ? .
111. Shuster . The Strangling of Persia. N.-Y., 1912.
112. . XIX., . 1, . 9.
113.30 1911 . (3 1329 ..)
, .
: ,
, ,
100 , , . , () - -.
. , . 273-274.
114. , . VII, . 266-267.
:
,
48 ,
. , , , ,
, , , .
115. - 18 (1 ) 1911 . , -
. . 2, . XIX, . 1, . 134, . 119.
116. , . 2, . XIX, . 1, . 264, . 242-243.
117. , . 2, . XIX, . 1, . 175, . 162. .., VII, . 350, 362-364, 399.
118. Abrahamian. Op. cit., p. 107-108.
119. , VII, . 406-407,
395; .. 1905-1911 , . 497.
120.28 1912 .
. . , . 290.
121. , ,
, . , .
A.M.

1912 . , 1.
VII, 1954, . 144. ,
A.M., . .
, , . 1905-1911 .

, - .
1912 . , , (?!
- .) . . ., . 150.

. :
,
.
, ( A.M. . - ..). A.M. .
., . 137. ,

,

.
122. Persy Sykes. Persia. Oxford. 1922, p. 153.
123. - (- ). -
- (1333-1334). , 1992, . 35.
124. - . ., 132000, 1, 14,
. 117, 130.
125. . - - . , 1353
/1974, . 552-556.
126.06 17 1913 . -
. . ., . 49, 59.
127. .. - (1914
1918). , 1980, . 19.
128. Hopkirk Peter. On Secret Service East of Constantinople. Oxford
University Press. Oxford. N.-Y., 1994. .: Drang nach
Osten., p. 7-101.
129. - . ., . 98-176.
130. - , , - (
), - - . - . . ., . 10.
131. 1911 .
. ,

.
.
.
1911 .


. '. . . ., . 67.
132. 1908 . - -
. 1908-1909 ., 1911 .,
, , , - - . .. . ., . 335, 336,482,497.
133. - . . ., . 120.
134. Jack . The Purchase of the British government's share in the British
Petroleum Company, 1912-1914. Past and Present. Vol. 39, 1968,
April, p. 162.
135. , III, .VII, . 130.
136. - . 26/13 1915 . , III,
. VII, . 1, . 116.
137. -. 8 /26 1915 . ,
III, . VII, . 2, . 112.
138. .: , . 1, . 456.
139. . XVIII XX . ., 1978, . 393.
140. .
141. - -. . ., . 142-160.
142. , III, . VII, . 1, . 335.
143. - 10
1915 . Gehrke U. Persien in der Deutschen Orient
Politik, wahrend der Ersten Weltkrieges. Stuttgart, 1961, . 2.
. , . 304-306.
144. , . ,
.
145.
(1909-1910 . 1913-1914 .). .: Hopkirk.
Op. cit., pp.63, 171-172, 111-113, 173-175, 210-211. ,
3, . VII, . 2, . 399. .
146. .: 133, . VIII, . 2, . 446, . 12.
147. .: 133, . 12, 103.

148. .: 133, . IX, . 394-396; 694-696; 794-800.


149. , III, . VIII, . 1, . 121; . 2, . 75.
150. Garthwaite Gene. The Bakhtiyari Khans, p. 41.
151. .: 138.
152. .: 138, . 42.
153.Niedermayer Oskar von. Unter der Glutsonne Irans. Hamburg. 1925;
Hopkirk P.Op. cit., p. 99-101; 113-123; 134-148.
154. .: 141, . 218-219.
155. .: 141, . 210.
156. .: 141, . 220.
157. . .
(1917 .). , , 4, 1990,. 89.
158. .: 145, . 89-90.
159. .: 145, . 90.
160. .: 145, . 91-92.
161. . . 1. ., 1957, . 35.
162. - , . ., 1946, . 64-65; Aliev Saleh. Iran: influence of the October
Revolution ideas. In: The October Socialist Revolution and Middle East.
Lahore, 1987, p. 62-63.
163. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the U.S. 1918. Suppl. 1,
vol. 1, Wash., 1933, p. 906.
164. C.M. - .., . 27.
165. .
166. Ahmad I. Op. cit., p. 31.
167.0p. cit.
168. Documents on British Foreign Policy. Vol. IV, p. 1121-1122.
169. Op. cit. First Series. Vol. XIII. Document 710.
170. .: 157, . 1120.
171. .: 149, . 178.
172. .
173. .. - .., . 30.
174. Documents on British Foreign Policy. Vol. IV, p. 1181, 1259.
175. Op. cit., vol. XIII, p. 484.
176. C.M. .., . 32.
177. Documents on British Foreign Policy. Vol. IV. 406, 407.
178. - . 7 1920. In: Documents on
British Foreign Policy. Vol. XIII, p. 561.
179. Ibid., p. 659.
180. -. . ., . 45.
181. -- . , 1973.

II
1.

, ,
6100 .
Azeri . Azadistan, devleti ve seyh Muhammed Hiyabani (1918
1920). Ankara, 1994 p. 126; . . , ,
, ,
. , , . -. , ,
Map 1918 .
( ) . .
,
. Dowall. A. Modern History of the Kurds. I.B. Tauris,
London - New-York, 1996, pp. 380-181, 422, 153, 216;. ..
(-), - ..
. ., 1968; Wigram A. The Cradle of
Mankind. London. 1929.
2. - , 2100, 1, 428, 45.
3. , 47.
4. Documents on British Foreign Policy. Op. cit., vol. IV, p. 1122.
5. Moon Parker Thomas. Imperialism and World Politics. New-York,
Macmillan Co. 1926, p. 285.
6. , . . .
7. ,
. .
.
() , .
-, . .:
' . - . , 1373/1994, . 39-46.
8. Azeri . . ., . 18.

9.
10.
.
12.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.

, . 31.
, . 33.
, . 19.
Swietochowski Tadeusz. Russian Azerbaijan. 1905-1920. The Shaping
of National identity in a Muslim community. Cambridge University
Press. Cambridge, 1985, p. 187.
Azeri . . ., cc. 172-193.
Swietochowski Tadeusz. Op. cit., p. 187.
Azeri . . ., . 176.
, cc. 239-240.
, cc. 186-187.
Swietochowski Tadeusz. Op. cit., p. 187.
Fatemi S.F. Diplomatic History of Persia. 1917-1923. New-York, 1952,
p. 250.
Swietochowski Tadeusz. Op. cit., 187.
.: The Story of Simqu. In: Mc'Dowall. Op. cit., 214-222.
. - . , 1344/1965, . 28.
, . 46-50.
Hopkirk P. Op. cit., . 336
. . ., . 178-179.
.. .
1920-1921 . ., 1999, . 27.
, . 48.
.
B.JI. : . .: . ., 1999, 1, . 64.
, . 65-66; .. . ., . 90-95.
. ., 1953, . II, . 542-543.
.
. . 1912-1927. ., .
1996, . 130.
, . 129.
B.JI. . ., . 70.
.
1919-1920 .. . 1930, 29, . 101-102.
II . . II. 1921, . 143.
.. . ., . 116.
, . 117.
.
. ., . 280.

42. - 1920 . .. .
., . 133.
43. . , . 158.
44. , . 160.
45. .
46. , . 167.
47. .. ., . 145.
48. . . ., . 320.
49. . . . 18961925., Costa Mesa, 1996, . 76.
50. . , . 222.
51. -,
, . ,
... , ,
,
.
B.JI. . ., . 65.
52. ... 28
,
... ( .. . ., . 150, ). , , . (). ,
1921 . . . , . 222.
53. .
54. .: - ,
. . ., 1946, . 74-82.
55. ,
20 - 30- , ,
- 20- XX (,
1962). , - ,
:
- . - ,
,
( X. - 20- XX . , 1962, . 93.). , X. .

56. .JI. 1920 .


). 1996, 5-6.
57. ' . - -
. - . , 1377/1998, . 81-83; 92-94.
58. , . 93-98.
59. , . 99-108.
60. , . 109-112; - . -
. -- . , 1370/1991, . 265.
61. - , . 96-97.
62. , . 149; 171.
63. ' . . ., . 167-169.
64. - ., . 222; , ',
. ., . 313.
65. Documents on British Foreign Policy, vol. , 668, p.713.
66. , 667, . 710.
67. .. (1914-1920 .).
1961, . 190.
68. Documents on British Foreign Policy, vol. , p. 623.
69. Ibid., 599.
70. .. - .., . 40.
71. .., 1971 . : . 1925-1941. .
72. ,
1978-1979 ., . .
- . -
'- - . - -
. , 1369/1991, . 89.
73. . ., 1977, . 313.; , . Documents
on British Foreign Policy, First Series, vol. , 573. Curzon to
Norman. October 9,1920.
74. Ironside Edmond (Major Gen.), High Road to Command, the Diaries of
Maj. Gen. E. Ironside: 1920-1922. Edited by Lord Ironside, London,
Leo Cooper, 1972, p. 251.
75. . 1977, 347 (5), . 283.
76. ' . - .., , 1373/1984, . 129.
77. Documents on British Foreign Policy, vol. XII, 573.
78. Ironside. Op. cit., pp. 177-178.
79. Ibid.
80. Ibid., p. 161.

81. Zargar, Ali-Asghar. Anglo-Iranian Relations: 1925-1941. These presentee a PUniversite de Geneve... These 373, Geneve, 1984, p. 56.
82. - - ., 1959, . 133.
83. , . 151. , , 1921 ., - , .
84. , , ,
. , ,
, , . .:
,
1931 . - - , . 146-159.
85. -. - - -
- . , 1322/1943, . 66-69.
86. Farman Farmaian. S. witch Munker. D. Daughter of Persia. Woman's
Journey from Her Father's Harem Through the Islam Revolution.
Berksire. Bantam Press, 1998, pp. 73-74, 76-77.
1992 . 1993 1998 8 .;
. .
. , 1373/1994, . 17-18.
87. ' . - ., . 128-129.
88. -. . ., . 29.
89. . .
. , 1979.
90. -. . ., . 56.
91. Documents on British Foreign Policy, vol. , 681, p.713.
92. . - . IV. , 1957, . 150-152.
93. .. . . .:
. . ., 1975, . 66-69.
94. . . 8. ., 1961, . 460.
95. Documents on British Foreign Policy, vol. , 681, p. 729.
96. Ibid., p. 683.
97. Ibid., p. 731.
98. ' , ()
30 . .: ,
3 1299 . , 2000, ( , .), . 35-38.

99. Van Bruiness Martin. Kurdistan uzerine yazilar. Istanbul, 1995,


p. 239;.H. Arfa. The Kurds. An Historical and Political Study. Oxford
Univ. Press. 1966, p. 63.
100. . ()
() .
, .. . - - ,
1339/1950, . 298.
101. - . , 1976, . 8-9.
102. Klieman A.S. Foundations of British Policy in the Arab World| The
Cairo Conference of 1921. Baitimor and London. 1970, pp. 141-141.
103. - , . 8-9; 91.
104. , . 116.
105. , . 6.
106. 27 1936 .
. 8.XI.1977.
107. . . ., 1949, . 70.
108. - JI. . ., . 80-81.
109. . - - . . II. , 1358/197980, . 343-344.
110. Zargar A. Op. cit., pp. 106-107.

III
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

-
IIIVII ., ,
.
Documents on British Foreign Policy. Vol. II., pp. 817, 840.
Ibid.
Documents on British Foreign Policy, vol. VI, 326, p. 596.
Ibid.
M. - - , . 286.
Documents on British Foreign Policy, vol. VII, pp. 709, 750.
18 1933 . . : - - . , 1976, . 131.
Documents on British Foreign Policy, vol. VII, p. 708.
3.3. . , 1968,
. 44, 95, 106-107, 112-113.
The Times. 08.05.1929. . . ., . 144-145.
Documents on British Foreign Policy, vol. VII, p. 772.
Beck P.J. The Anglo-Persian Oil Dispute. 1932-1933. - Journal of
Contemporary History. 1974. Vol. 9, 4, p. 125.
- . , . 98.

15. C.M. -
XX ., . 56.
16. . 01.06.1976.
17. - - , - . .
1374/1995, . 23-28.
18. .; ' . - - .
. 1993.
19. Documents of British Foreign Policy. 1919-1939. Series la., vol.
German, Austrian and Middle Eastern Questions. 1929-1930. L., 1975,
p. 727.
20. - - , . 27; ,
'. ( ). ,
- . 1378/1999, . 447-564.
21. .. (1925-1941).
( ). . 8.
. . ., 1953, . 41-47.
22. Abrahamian Ervand. Iran Between Two Revolutions. Princeton, New
Jersey, 1982, pp. 122-123.
23. Ibid., p. 123.
24. Floor Willem. Industrialization in Iran. 1900-1941. Centre for Middle
Eastern and Islamic Studies University of Durham, England. 1984, p. 36.
25. .. -
. . .
26. Floor W. Op. cit., pp. 20-44.
27. . '- '- .
, 1376/1997.
28. .. - - - -- -' -4 . . 1974.
29. Iraq a country study. Washington, 1990, p. 70.
30. Beck P.Op. cit., p. 129.
31. Ibid., p. 130.
32. - , . 108.
33. Beck P. Op. cit., . 133; Walter F. . History of the League of Nations.
L., 1960, p. 572.
34. - - , . 110-111.
35. Beck P. Op. cit., . 132.
36. .. -
XX , . 60.
37. - - , . 11.
12 1932 .
38. JI. -. .
39. Beck . Op. cit., . 139.

40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.

55.
56.
57.
58.
59.

60.

61.

- - , . 14-15, 25, 129-134.


Beck P. Op. cit., . 142.
Ibid.
.. . ., . 64.
.: . - - -
, . 44-45.
-. . ., . 127-128.
Beck P. Op. cit., . 147.
. , . 105.
B.C. . 20-30-
. ., 1960, . 103.
, . 198.
Fesharaki F. Development of the Iranian Oil Industry, pp. 32-35.
H. , X. '. . ., . 258.
, . 263.
, . 260-266.
, , ., . ,
.
, . 265.
. . ,
, . 589-603.
- JI. . ., . 127.
3.3. , . 65.
,
, , - , . . , , .
, ,
. ,

(1927 .), ,
: , ,
. . . . . ., , 1996, . 220.

( -) . . .: Sykes
Christopher. Wassmuss. The German Lawrence. 1936.

62.
, .
. , .
63. ,
.: X. . ., . 254-259.
64. , . , 1977, . 347.
65. . . (19411953 .). ., 1954, . 44.
66. , . 347.
67. .
68. Letter to F by Nancy Lambton, Tehran, 19-th May 1940. In: Bullard
Reader. Letters from Tehran: a British Ambassador in World War II
Persia. I.B. Tauris and Co. Ltd. London - New-York, 1991, p. 31.
69. Ibid.
70. Ibid.
71. Ibid.
72. .: Hopkirk P. Op. cit., pp. 99, 101, 113, 122,220,233, . .
73. ' X. : . - .
1376/1999, . 28-29, 33-34,44-45.
74. , . 10-11,62-63, 97,156.
75. , . 11, 81-85, 95,283, 346.
76. X. . ., . 89 - 90.
77. X., ,
. ,
.
: , , :
. , , , . ,
. :
, ,
.
. X. . ., . 87-94.

IV
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
.
12.

13.
14.
15.

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

.. . ., 1965, . 13-15.
. - - . . 1963.
Issawi Ch., Yeganeh . The Economics of Middle Eastern Oil. N.-Y.,
1962, p. 212.
Grunwald K., Ronall A.J.O. Industralization in the Middle East. N.-Y.,
1960, p. 212.
50-
16,7 . , 12 . .
..
. 1946-1953 .. , 1965, . 108.
' . . ., . 339.
, -
1950 . . , -
.
Avery P. Modern Iran. London, 1965, p. 409.
.: . ., 1960,
. 217-224.
Parliamentary Debates. Fifth Series. House of Commons. Vol. 508,
p. 611.
. 1929 . , 1937 . .
. - - - . -
- - . . 1956, . 1-17.
Loghurst . Adventure in Oil. The Story of British Petroleum. L., 1959,
p. 135.
, .
1948 . In: The Memoirs of Antony Eden. Full Circle. Boston, 1960,
pp. 214-215.
Shwadran B. The Middle East. Oil and the great Powers, p. 159.

.: - ., . ., . 209-214.
, . 111.
Samida A.I. Iranda fahle va hemkarlar herekati (1941-1946). Baki,
1961, pp. 148-149.
M.C. . M., 1952, . 383.
.: Hasanli Camil. Guney Azarbaycan. TehranBaki-Moskva arasinda (1939-1945). Baki, 1998, pp. 16-118.
, . 119-131.

38 . 65

23. Farmanfarmanian Manucher. From Tehran to Caracas. Petroleum and


Politics in Iran. Tehran, 1994 (in farsi), pp. 461-465.
24. - JI. . ., . 140.
25. . . ., . 87.
26. -
1943 . 8 1945 . . .
27. . ., . 454-460.
28. 1944 . - .

. , .
29. .
20.XII.1944 . , , , . .: . 1998, . 144-145.
30. . ',
. . .
., . 149. ,
.
31. .: - , . , . 38.
32. . 1998, . 184-185.
33. , X. :
, , . (. 148). X.
:

, (. 149).
34. 1920-1921 . . () ,
, 1995 . . - . -

. - - - ... - . , 1377/1998, 507 .


35.
, . , ,
(1300-1310/1921-1931 ..), 1991 . ( ). .: . 67; 10; 111127; 129-141; 143-171.
36. , 1941-1947 .
() ,
.
. 80- , , ,
, .
37. 1939-1945 .
. . , 1941 1953 ., , .
, , , .
,
.
' . (L'Estrange Fawcett L.)
: 1946 .
.
-
. ,

.
. .

('- ). 1990 .
- .
,
, ,
. - , -

. X.
. ,
. - . .
.


1945-1946 . ,
(1945
1946 .) 1993 . 2000 .
I.B.Tauris (--)
Azerbaijan - ethnicity and the struggle
for power in Iran.
,

, .

,
( , ). ,
.
, .
. -
: , (1939-1945 .)
, -
(1945-1946 .). .
.
, , . .
,
.
. ,
,

.
:

.
.

1941

38.
39.
40.
41.
42.

43.
44.

45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.

59.
60.

1945 . .
. -
.
. .
' . -. ...- .
, 1377/1998, . 428.
, . 383.
: X. ., . 554-557.
-.
.: I II . . .
.
Rubin . Op. cit., . 36.
Araz. Oktyabr-Dekabr, 1996, Sweden, 1, pp.31-32. 1996 .
. Soyug muharibanin baslandigi . Guney Azarbaycan. 1945-1946.
Baki, 1999, c.338.
., 1999, . 226.
Rubin . Op. cit., p. 36.
Eagleton W. The Kurdish Republic of 1946. L., 1963, p. 134.
Mc Dowall D. Op. cit., pp. 231-236,241, 56.
Ibid., p. 246.
- JI., . ., . 151.
' . -.., . 529.
. . ., . 71.
10
1950 . - - - , . 268.
.: - .
. ., . 209-214.
. . ., . 73.
- - - . . . , 1949,
. 3929.
, . 3931-3933. X. ,
. . .
In: Taheri Amir. Holy Terror. The inside Story of Islamic terrorism. L.,
1987, p. 57. , ,
, .
,
, .
. - - . , 1950, . 10.
. -- - , . 211.

61. .: - , . 28-31; Correspondence between


His Majesty's Government in the UK and the Persian Government, and
Related Documents Concerning the Oil Industry in Persia. L., 1951,
pp. 19-22; ., ., . 80.
62. - - - . . 1. , 1949, . 24.
63. Abrahamian Ervand. Iran between Two Revolutions. Princeton Univ.
Press, 1982, pp. 88-92; 230, 234, 238, 269, 277-278, 280, 300, 333,
459, 461. Kauz R. Politische Parteien und Bevolkerung in Iran: Die
Hezb-e Demukrat-e Iran und ihr Fuhrer Qavamo s-Saltana. Klaus
schwarz verlag. Berlin, 1995, ss. 176-177; 183; 195; 201-204; 214-216;
242. . ., cc. 203,419,428,432,461. - . - . - '- -
- . , 1366/1987, . 20-25, 79-80, 91, 104112 . .
64. - - - , . 4822.
65. . - - . , 1979, . 1-10.
66. . . , .: .
. , 1981, . 219-230.
67. , -
. . '. - .
, 1378/1999; . Katouzian . Musaddiq... U.K.,
Tauris, 1990.
68. . - - - . , 1953, . 2-5.
69. . , . 116-117.
70. .. , . 186.
71. .. .., . 85.
72. . , . 185.
73. ' . . ., . 307.
74. , . 309.
75. , . 332.
76. . - - - - , .87.
77. - - , . 468.
78. , . 43.
79. , . 408,414,433,450-451.
80. - , , 1330/1951, . 136.
81. , 09.01.1951.
82. Bullard R. Britain and the Middle East, p. 153.
83. , 27. 01.1951.
84. -, 26.01.1951; 27.01.1951; 15.02.1951.
85. C.M. .., . 89.

86. X. .
.
.
,
1953 . . Taheri Amir. Op. cit, p. 58.
87. -
20-40% .
88. , 13.04.1951; 15.04.1951.
89. .. . ., . 136.
90. .
102
99 . 51 48 . (- , 17 1330;
19 1330). ' . . ., . 350-351.

V
1.
2.

3.
4.

5.

6.
7.
8.

.: JI. . .,
. 270-271.
: - . , . ,
. , - . - . ; - -
. , , - . ' X. . . .
. - . , 1330/ 1951,
. 254.

1 1951 . .: - , . 354-364.

- . . , ,
. , , ,
.
, .
. ' . . ., . 363, 75.
. 18..1951; - , . 91.; . :
,
12 1951 . - , . 124-126.
- JI. . ., . 339.
.. -
XX . ., 1985, . 92.
.. .
., 1958, . 250; . , . - . 1959, 10, . 42.

9.
10.

11.

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

17.
18.

19.
20.
21.
22.

23.

Correspondence between His Majesty's Government in the UK and the


Persian Government. L.,1951, pp. 34-36.
21 1951 .
, 18 .
23 . United States. Department
of States. Background Iran Point of World Interest. Wash., 1959, p. 7;
- , cc. 95-96.
1926 . : , , , , (); ()
- . .
Stobaugh R. . The Evolution of Iranian Oil Policy. In: Iran under
Pahlavis. 1925-1975. Stanford, 1978, p. 210.
The New-York Times, 01.VI.1951.
Ghosh S. K. The Anglo-Persian Oil Dispute. Calcutta. 1960, p. 121.
, 03.1.1952.
, 4- .
1951 . 1 . . ., 1952
1953 . 23 . . .
, 19.1.1952.
, , .

, ,
.
.. .., . 104.
' . . ., . 380 161.
, . 361.

,
, . . -
- . . -
, . .: . . BSOAS, XLIX (1986).
. .: . . , 1364/1985,
. 257-401.

24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

29.

30.
31.

32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.

40.
41.
42.

.
'. . ., . 380.
, . 433.
. IV.
Akhawi Shahrokh Religion and Politics in Contemporary Iran: ClergyStates Relationships in the Pahlavi Period Albany. N.-Y. Sunny Press,
1980, pp. 68-71.
M.X. ( , ) ,
. (The Middle East. Abstracts and Index. Vol. 2,
4. Pittsburgh. 1979, p. 8.). .
.
. .

. - . -
.
' . . ., . 381.
.. XIX . , 1952,
. 11-12. . , , ,
, , .
' . .
. . ., . 282.
. 05.VII. 1952.
. 19.VII. 1952.
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. Mission for my Country. L., 1969, p. 94.
. . ., . 160-161.
.. . ., . 113.
Grunwald ., Ronall A.J.O. Industrialization in the Middle East, p. 222.
P. .
(1950-1953 .). , 1963; . - .
, 1961, . 6.
. .., . 395.
, 30.VIII. 1952.
.. . ., . 116-117.

37 . 65

43. X. . ., 1968; -.
, 1954.
44. Engler R. The Politics of Oil. Chicago, p.205.
45. - JI. ., . 387.
46. ' . . ., . 406.
47. , . 407.
48. , 28.XII.1952.
49. , 13..1952.
50. X. - ., . 94.
51. , 05.XII. 1952.
52. - - . . , 1979, . 58.
53. . . ., . 267-268.
54. ' . . ., . 408.
55. , , 1953 .
.
.
56. Parliamentary debates. Fifth series. House of Commons. Vol. 512,
p. 2073.
57. , 29.111.1953.
58. , 28.V. 1953.
59. The New-York Times, 10.VII.1953.
60. . '. - . ,
1379/2000, . 213-216,262-265; , 02.111.1953.
61. - XX . (1985 .)
. :
. .
. ., . 125.
62. . ' , ,
, - . , 1361/1982, . 261-266.
63. .. . ., . 125.
64. .
65. , . 127.
66. - , 27.VII. 1953.
67. . . ., . 281.
68. , 9.VIII. 1953.
69. , 18.VIII.1976.
70. Roosevelt, Kermit. Countercoup: the Struggle for Control of Iran. NewYork. Mc Craw-Hill. 1979, p. 168.

71. - ,
. - .
72. . . ., . 351.
73. , 1955, 97, . 11.
74. . . , , , . , (
) . ,
. Keddie N.R. Roots of Revolution:
an Interpretative History of Modern Iran. With a Section by Y.Richard.
New Haven.
75. Engler R. The Politics of Oil no
: ..
. 1949-1953 . - . ,
1976, . 247-248.
76. - JI. . ., . 384.
77. . . ., . 211,260.

VI
1.
2.
3.

1954 . 85 .
., 1955 . - 76 . ., 1956 . - 73 . .
' X. , . 466; - ., . .,
. 405.
.-., - , , 1378/1999, . 111-168.
1953 .,
. - .

. , , , , -
- . , -

.
.

.-. . . ., . 241-271.

4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

10.

11.
12.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

, . . ,
,
.
.
(. V). . . . ., . 396.
.. .., . 140.
Engler R. Op. cit., p. 69.
.. . - , 1962, 2, . 62-63.
Rubin . Op. cit., . 94.

.
The Memoirs of Abolhassan Ebtehaj. (in Farsi), London, 1991, vol. 2,
Photocopy of the Annual Review for 1995. British Embassy. Tehran,
p. 744.
Ibid., pp. 744-754.
, . ., . 37.;
,
, . ,
17 1955 .
-
X. , .
. . X. . Taheri Amir. Holy Terror. London, 1987, p. 161; .
. ., . 80-81.
Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi, Mission for my Country, p. 125.
.
Rubin . Op. cit., pp. 100-101.
Iraq. A Country Study. Washington. Department of the Army, 1990. p. 49.
Iranian Contemporary History, Tehran, Summer. 1998, vol. 2, 6,
pp. 139-140; 144, 146.
Ibid., p. 148.
Iraq. A Country Study, pp. 51-52.
Iranian Contemporary History. 1998, vol. 2, 6, p.p. 175-187.
Ibid., pp. 187-195.
Hiro Dilip. Iran under the Ayatollahs. London. 1985, pp. 301-302.
. , 1959 . , .

23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

28.
29.

30.

31.

32.
33.

,
. , . 302.
. . . 1364/1985, . 43-50.
X. (1917-1987) , 1978
1979 ., .
Rubin . Op. cit., pp. 177-181.
Ibid., pp. 108-109.
The New-York Times. 2.01.1958. The Memoirs of Abolhassan Ebtehaj.
(in Farsi), London, 1991, vol. 2, Photocopy of the Annual Review for
1995. British Embassy. Tehran, p. 744.
Ibid, pp. 744-754.
.: The Internal Situation in Iran.
Tehran, July 18, 1957. - .
The Memoirs of A. Ebtehaj, vol. 2, pp. 779-780.
.
. . , , .

. ,
.
- () 8.IX.1910 . ,
, .
(, ). . 1954 . .

, , .
. Memoirs of
Jafar Sharif-Emami. Editor: Habib Ladjevardi. Iranian oral History
Project Center. Harvard University, 1999. -
, - , , 1374/1995, . 399-422.
.. . ., . 159.
X. ,
. . X. - . - , . 146; Ramazani .. Iran's Foreign Policy. 1941-1973. Charlottesville. 1975, p. 360.

34. , 22..1977; . : Zonis . The Political Elite of Iran.


Princeton. 1971, p. 49.
35. 1922 . . . 40- ,
.
36. - - . - , . 306-307.
37. , . 310-327.
38. .
39. - - . - , . 525-526.
40. Chubin S., Zabih S. Foreign Relations of Iran. A Developing State in a
Zone of Great Power Conflict. Berkley - Los Angeles. London, 1974,
p. 102.
41. . . ., . 298-303.
42. -
.
43. Hiro Dilip.Ibid., p. 47.
44. . .., 408.
45. - - , - , . 255-365.
46. Iran Almanac and book of facts. Fifth Edition, Tehran, 1966, pp. 237-239.
47. .
48. .: . ., . 460-461.
49. , . . , , ,

,
. 1951 . ( 1920-1941 . . , 1970, . 25.).
50. . , . 454-455.
51. .: Joyce N.Wiley. The Islamic Movement of Iraqi Shi"as. Boulder &
London. Colorado. 1992.
52. . - , - , ,
1364/1985, . 151.
53. , . 156-164.
54. , . 494.
55. . - . , 1971, . 27.
56. .
57. . .: Islam Ansiklopedisi. Istanbul,
1998, 18, pp. 309-311; Oxford Encyc. Of Modern Islamic World,
New-York, 1995, II, 423; Joyce N.Willey. Ibid., pp.48, 57, 66, 82.

58.
59.

60.

61.

62.

63.

64.
65.
66.
67.
68.

69.
70.

, 1991 ., .
. Helda Graham. Apocalypse in Iraq
means it's now or never. Observer, 24.3.1991.
Taheri Amir. The Spirit Allah. Khomeini and the Islamic Revolution,
p. 162.
, ad-Da'ava ()
(). .

(1790/1791
1843), . ,

(). , -
, . ,
- , ( ) - , . .
, . ,
, ,
.
,
, , () . - .
, ,

, . .: X. . . - - . - . 1374/1995, . 271-272.
. 16.IX.1962. .
.
15 1962 . Tarikh-e mo%aser-e Iran. 1998, vol. 2, 6, p. 206.
Issawi Ch. Iran's Economic Upsurge. Middle East Journal, 1967,
4, pp. 447-461.
Singh K.R. Iran: Quest for Security. New Delhi, 1980, p. 87.
.. . .: . . ., 1977,
. 394.
- , - , . 783-788.
, 10%
.
- , - , . 785.
- , . 38,262-264,297,497.

71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.

- , - , . 507.
Orient. Opladen. 1967, 2, p. 66.
.
The Times. 17.01.1968.
The Economist), 10-16. II. 1968, p. 25.
Singh K.R. Op. cit., pp. 132-135.
- - - 1348, . 63-69.
.. . ., 1980, . 196.
Kayhan International, 28.XII. 1972.
Kayhan International (Weekly), 18.XII. 1971.
Bank Markazi Iran Annual Report. 1968, p. 27.
. : ..
, . 62.
83. Stobaugh R.B. Op. cit., p. 129.
84. . 13.XII.1966.
85. . 7.III. 1968.
86. .
87. . 8.. 1968.
88. . - - , . 299; ..
, . 67.
89. . 1971, 5, . 123.
90. . . ., . 299-300.
91. .. . ., . 92.
92. . . , 1972,
9, . 53.
93. . 30.1.1973.
94. . . ., . 374-376; Stobaugh R.B. Op. cit., p. 243.
95. Keyhan International. 24.V. 1973.
96. Fesharaki F. Op. cit., p. 135.
97. - - . - ... , 1977, . 67.
98. Turner L., Bedore J. Middle East Industrialization. N.-Y. 1979, p. 28.
99. . . ., cc. 479-480.
100. , 29.VI.1976.
101. . . ., . 247.
102. .. . - . . .
., 1976, . 21.
103. . . ., . 468.
104. Mostofi . The Status and Future Prospect of Petrochemical Industries
in Iran. Tehran, 1974.
105. . . ., cc. 226-235.
106. Stobaugh R.B. Op. cit., p. 224.
107. . . ., cc. 326-327.

108. Amuzegar J., Ali Fekrat M. Iran. Economic Development under


Dualistic Conditions. Chicago, 1971, pp. 15-16.
109. . ., 1979, . 518.
110. .. , . 80.
111. - - - , - , 1973.
112. Stobaugh R.B., . 218.
113. , . 220.
114. Iran Almanac. 1973, Tehran. 1973, p. 252.
115. Stobaugh R.B. Op. cit., p. 249.
116. Amuzegar J., Ali Fekrat. Op. cit., pp. 29-75.
117. Fesharaki F. Op. cit., p. 144.
118. P.H. . - , 1974, 5, . 108.
119. .: . . ., . 381-382.
120. . 24.1.1973; . 24.VI.1973.
121. Middle East and North Africa. London. 1979, p. 95.
122. . . ., cc. 395-399.
123. .: . 28.VII.1973; 4.VIII.1973.
124. The Economist. 28.VII.1973.
125. Iran. A Country Study, p. 439. Appendix , p. 440.
126. Ibid., p. 338.
127. .. , . 30-31.
128. .., .. . ., 1978, . 123.
129. . . ., . 302.
130. , : The Middle East and North Africa. L., 1974/75.
131. - - . - - 2535, . 67,
68, 130.
132. A Summary of Iran's Fifth National Development Plan (1973-1978).
Tehran, 1975.
133. The Gulf. A Survey by Economist, 17-23.M.1975., p. 43.
134. ; : .
., 1980. (. ..); Iran: une Premiere Republique,
pp. 202-203; Halidday F. Iran: Dictatorship and Development. L., 1979,
pp. 149-153.
135. .. . ., . 310.
136. .
137. The Times. 10.V.1975.
138. . . ., 1977,. 235.
139. The Times. 10.V.1975.
140. ( 1928 .).
. . . 60-

- . . 1966 .
,
. 1975 .
. ,
,
(, ).
141. - - . , 1976, . 10.
142. . - . . 1966, . 22.
143. .. . , 1967, . 17.
144. Katouzian. The Agrarian Question in Iran. In Agrarian Reform in
Contemporary Developing Countries. Edited by Ajit Kumar Grose.
London and Canberra. New-York, 1983. Printed and bound in Great
Britain. Pp. 309-357; Tehrani Bahram. Etude sur la Situation Economique de L'Iran (1975-1986), (in Farsi), Khavaran, Paris, . 1 (1365/
1986), . 2 (1365/1986); Neglected Garden: The Politics and Ecology of
Agriculture in Iran. London, I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd., 1988.
145. . 1975, . 184.
146. 24 1975 .
147. , 1976 .
530 . 12 . . . - - . , 1978, . 123.
148. , . 131.
149. .: Kayhan International. 14.V.1975.
150. Amuzegar J. Iran: an Economic Profile. Wash., 1977, p.255.
151. Keyhan International. 15.111.1976.
152. . 1.V.1976.
153. .
154. . 5.IV.1977.
155. Keyhan International. 15.VI.1978.
156. Looney R.E. Iran at the End of the Century: a Hegelian Forecast.
Toronto. 1977, pp. 14-15; Hooglund E.J. Land and Revolution in Iran.
1960-1980. ...1982, pp. 139-152.
157. . 19.VI.1976.
158. ,
, , . Katouzian .
Oil Versus Agriculture: a Case of Dual Resource Depletion in Iran. Journal of Peasant Studies. London. 1978, vol. 5, 3, p.361.
159. - - - - -
-, 2535. . 1977, . 5-7.
160. Kayhan International. 11 . 1976.
161. . 10.VI.1976.

162. . 1.V.1976.
163. Zonis . Op. cit., pp.36-37.
164. . 10, 15,24 29.XII.1976.
165. . - - ., . 286.
166. ()
.
167. . -- - ., . 169.
168. , . 270.
169. The Times. 17.1.1968.
170. U.S. News and World Report. 15.X.1973; Washington Post. 11.VIII.1974.
171. M. - -, 1357 - . 1978, 12; International
Herald Tribune. 16.XI.1978.
172. BusinessWeek. 17.XI.1975.
173. Time. 7.VII.1975.
174. ; Singh K.R. Op. cit., pp.289-296.
175. , cc. 302-320.
176. Der Spiegel. 7.1.1974.
177. . - - , . 246.
178. .
179. .
180. 1971 .
1973 ., - . .: Keyhan International. 9..1973.
181. Keyhan International. 15.1.1975.
182. Keyhan International. 28.V.1978.
183. Keyhan International. 13.X.1975; 24.XII.1975.
184. The Economist. 17-23.V.1975, p.l 1.
185. A.E. : . ., . 81.
186. . 15.V.1976.
187. Washington Post. 25,26,27,28,29, 30..1980.
188. .
189. .
190. .
191. .
192. .
193. Daily News. Tehran. 9.1981.

V I I
1.

: 641 1501 ,
2500- .
Hiro Dilip. Op. cit., p. 376. ,

2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

, 1978-1979 ., .
. , ,
, ,
, .
2500- .
. , ,
,
, . , , , , .
Halliday F. Iran: Dictatorship and Development. Penguin. L., 1979,
p. 38.
F.Richard N. The Golden Age of Persia. The Arabs in the East. Barnes
and Noble. New-York. 1975., p. 4.
, . , . 1973 . 1978 .
.
Nikki R. Keddie. Roots of Revolution: An Interpretive History of
Modern Iran. New Haven, L., 1981, p. 18.
Wright Robin. The last Great Revolution. London, 2001.
Looney R.F. Iran at the End of Century, p. 116.
. . .
Keyhan International. 10.06.1976.
Katouzian . Oil Versus Agriculture, p. 357 (In: Journal of Peasant
Studies, April, 1978).
Salmanzadeh C. Agricultural change and Rural Society in Southern Iran.
Kent, 1980, p. 267.
. 10.VI.1976.
Iran. A Country Study, p. 76; Hooglund E.J. Land and Revolution in
Iran, p. 94, 139-145.
Salmanzadeh C. Op. cit., p. 266.
Kazemi F. Poverty and Revolution in Iran: the Migrant Poor, Urban
Marginality and Politics. N.Y. 1980, p. 3.
Washington Post. 12.XI. 1978.
Iranian economic trends. A Report prepared by the American Embassy
in Tehran. June, 1979. Documents from the U.S. Espionage Den (63),
Tehran, 1987, p. 105.
X. . ., . 244-248.

18. Tabarra'ian S. General Toufanian: A Review of his Part in Second


Pahlavis Rull; Iranian Contemporary History. Vol. 1. 3. Fall 1997,
p. 119-182 (In Farsi); ' . - . ,
1377/1998.
19. Foreign Affairs, 1979, 1; Halliday F. Op. cit., p. 165.
20. New Zuricher Zeitung. 30-31 .VII. 1978.
21. Keyhan International. 07.VIII. 1977.
22. Iran: une Premiere'Republique. sous la directon Mortfeza Kotobi. Paris.
1983, p. 208.
23. Keddie N.R. Roots of Revolution, p. 233.
24. L'Humanite. 20.06.1978; Morning Star. 15.IX.1978.
25. Fischer M.M. Iran. From Religious Dispute to Revolution, p. 29;
. . ., . 503-506; . 07.1.1978; .
10.1.1978.
26. . . ., . 521-524.
27. The Down of the Islamic Revolution. Vol. 1, p. 263.
28.
1963 . . 3 1979 . .
. 1984 .
.
. 08.02.1984.
29. Hiro D. Op. cit., p. 77.
30. 70- 100
. , , , , , () . 1965 . -
(- ),
. Husain Asaf. Islamic Iran. Revolution and Counterrevolution. New-York, 1985, p. 54-85.
31. - . .., . 259, 271-272; . - - - . -
. . 1987, . 222-80,110-138,243-252 . .
32. Viell P., Bani Sardar .-. Petrole et violence. Paris, Anthropos, 1974,
p. 348.
33. Sepehr Zabih. The Iranian Military in Revolution. Routledge, London
and New York. 1988, p. 38.
34. .

.

35. Admiral Collins F.C. Anatomi Revolt. In: Document from the U.S.
Espionage Den (63). Tehran, 1366/1987, p. 79; Cm.: Merip Reports,
March-April, 1981, p. 13.
36. Hiro D. Op. cit., p. 139.
37. Ibid, p. 141.
38. Entessar. Kurdish Ethnonationalism. Boulder, Colorado. 1992.
39. HiroD. Op. cit., p. 175.
40. Guardian. 10.111.1981; 11.111.1981.
41. New York Times. 05.IV.1981.
42. Bakhash Shaul. The Reign of the Ayatollahs. Iran aand the Islamic
Revolution. London, 1986, p. 160-161; M. . . 22-28.1.1982.
43. Hiro D. Op. cit., p. 179-180.
44. Sunday Times. 21.VI. 1981.
45. HiroD. Op. cit.,p. 188.
46. New York Times. 06.IX.1981; The Dawn of the Islamic Revolution,
vol. 1, p. 247.
47. . ... , 1980, 1, . 44-58.
48. Newsweek. 30.07.1979.
49. .. - .., . 261.
50. Daily News. 09.IX. 1981.
51. OPEC. Annual Statistical Bulletin. Vienna. 1980, p 126.
52. In: Hydrocarbons, oil, gas and petrochemicals. (In: Amuzegar J. Iran's
Economy under the Islamic Republic. I. A. Tauris, London, 1997,
p. 229-265).

V I I I
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.

Hiro D. Op. cit., p. 130-131.


Bakhash Saul. Op. cit, p. 109-110,244.
Daily Telegraph, 11.11.1980.
.: Zabih S. Op. cit. Chapter G. Purge and Punishment,
p. 115-135,244.
.: Hiro D. Op. cit., p. 94.
Bakhash Saul. Op. cit.
Bakhash Shaul. Op. cit., p. 62; 68; 115-116; 134-135; 238; 248.
, - , , . , ' ( ) ' ().
Wiley N. Joyce. The4 Islamic Movement of Iraqi Shi'as. Boulder.
London. 1992, p. 31-71.
Ibid. p. 116.

10. Ibid. p. 55.


11. , ( ),
, , , ,
-23 -21. , , ,
.
12. HiroD. Op. cit., p. 168.
13. Rose G. Velayet-e Faqih and the Recovery of Islamic Identity in the
Thought of Ayatollah Khomeini. In: Religion and Politics in Iran
shi'ism: from Quietism to Revolution. London, 198, p. 177; Hui Ebul
Kasim (1899-1992) In: Islam Ansiklopedisi. Cilet 18. Istambul, 1998,
p. 309-311.
14. . .
15. New York Times. ..1980.
16. . - 17 500 .
HiroD. Op. cit.,p. 210.
17. . ,
30 .
18. Iraq. A country study, p. 235.
19. Ibid, p. 237.
20. Ibid.
21. Tangling with Tehran. Time, May, 2, 1998, c. 22-23.
22. Ibid.
23. Amuzegar Jahangir. Irans Economy under the Islamic Rebuplic.
24. Ibid, p. 320-231.
25. Anthony H. Cordesman and Ahmed S. Hashim. Op. cit., p. 3.
26. . : . ., 1993, . 2.

1.
2.

Henry Kissinger. White House Years. Boston-Toronto, 1979, Ch. XXIX.


. .
. ., 1998, . 162.

1
.
, *
. , .


, ,
, .
, 199S .
. 11
6 , ,
, 40 .
. , ,
()
.
. , . , ,
.

,
. * Anthony . Cordesman and Ahmed S. Hashim Iran: Dilemmas of Dual
Containment. Colorado-Oxford. 1997, c. 100-102; 113-115.
. .

.
, ,
,
.
,
.

, ,
.
,
,
, , ,
. , , , .
, , ,
. , , ,
:

,
.
, , , .

, , ,
,
.

,

.

.


,
.
,

, .

, .
, , .
,
.
,
, .
,
-,
, .

. , , -


,
. , , ,
, ,
, .
,
.
15,5 .
, . 1995 .
15 . 45 .
, .
, , , 2 400 . (ULCC), 10 160 . (VLCC) 10
. 1996 .

VLCC, 1997 . - VLCC. 16 , .



.
,
.
, , , 90- . NIOC
, ,
, Glencore Philbro.

. 1991 .
6,8% , 1992 . - 19,2%, 1993 . - 23,2%, 1994 . 23,3%, 1993 .,
1987 . 100 . 1995 .
2,6 .
. , (35%), (32%), (23%),
(10%), (0,02%). ,
, EXXON (250-300 . ); Coastal (130
.), Bay Oil (70 .), Caltex (60 .) Mobil (40-50 .).
, 1995 ., .
,
,

. 44
,
. ,
28 ULCC VLCC .

, 1995 .
2,445 . , - 2,745 .

3,7 . , - 3,495 , - 3,795


.
,
,
1995 . 839 . , 812 .
1984 .,
. , 2,54 . 1995 . 2,82 .
, ,
- . 1994/95 .
14,6 . ., 1995/96 .
- 14,8 . . , 1996/97 .
14,5 ., , .
(IEA)

15,0 . . 1997/98 ., 15,2 . 1998/99 . 15,5 .
1999/2000 . -
, ,
.

.
1995 . 267 . .,
, . 1995 .
496 . . ( 46% ,
2,1 . . - 3%).

, ,
47%, 40%.
17% 8%,
17%, 5%. 5% ( ,
) 10%. , ,
1995 . 478 . .,

- 1 1 8 . .
25%
.
,
, -
.
,
.

2
?
.*
,
19S3 .,
. - .
,
.
,
. . ,
, , , , ,

, 20 .
1978 .
,
.
, ,
.
, .
, , - .
.
. , ,
* Stanley . Escudero. What Went Wrong in Iran. Confidental documents from the
US Espionge Den (63). , 1987, cc. 70-73. . .

. . .
,
, 30 ,
. : ?
, ,
?
,
, . , .
, , , .
, , , ,
, ,
,
. , , , ,
,
, .
.
, , . ,
, - 1974 .
. ,
,
, , , .
,
. , , , .
. ,
, . 50%.
, . , .
. , -

19 :
, , 1953 , .

, , .
. ,
,
, , ,
.
:
,
. , ; , , .

.
, . ,
,
, ,

. , , ,
, .
,
, . , ,
, , .
, , ,
83 . , , . ,
1796 ,
. , , , . .
, ,
, .
, , ,
1953 .

,
,
. ,
,
. 1968 ,
, (, ,
)
, .
1971-1975 .
, ,

. ,
, , -
. .
, , , ,

.
,
, .
. ,
25 .
. , , , , . ,
, .
, ,
, .

, ,
.
; . ,
.
,
; , , . -

- ,
10 . ,
, -,
, ,
,
,
.
,
.
, , ,
. , ; ,
, . -?
, 25 , .
, ,
. . , .

. ,
- , ;
, ,
.
,
, ,
,
,
, , , .
,
, .

,
- .
, -
, , ,
. , .

40 . 65

3
1

'

1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370

1977/78
1978/79
1979/80
1980/81
1981/82
1982/83
1983/84
1984/85
1985/86
1986/87
1987/88
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92

- - 4
1
5 1
*
3

34,7
36
37,9
39,6
41,2
42,8
44,4
46,2
47,8
49,4
51
52,7
54,5
56,4
58,2

4695
4360
5538
5632
6883
9 107
11449
12 507
14 048
15 195
17 680
18 347
22 860
30 049
39 430

135
121
126
142
167
213
258
271
294
307
347
348
419
533
677

10 143
8 653
9 538
8 232
8 035
9 107
10 220
10 155
11593
9 829
9 891
7 944
8 226
9400
10 568

292
240
251
208
195
213
230
220
242
199
194
151
151
167
181

5323
5430
5615
5360
5533
5943
6804
7170
7306
6634
6307
6172
6327
7563
8108

153
151
148
135
134
139
153
155
153
134
124
117
116
134
139

: . . -, . . . ,, . 402.

, -
, 1925 . ( 365

366 )
. 21
, - 20 22 . 1382
(29 ) 19 2004 .
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

.
.
.
.
.
.
.


1862,1865,1868,
1872
1872,

1873
1879
1888

1888

1889

1890,21

1890,9
1891,

1892

1896,1

1900,1902
1901,

38*

.
.
,
, ( ),
, . .
- .
.


.


,
, .
. 60
.

.
. . 75 - .
..
.

.
1892 . , .
.
- ,

. .
.
' ,
.

611

1905,

- ( ).

1905, 12-14 .
1906, 5
- .
1906,
. .
1906, 7
() .
1907, 18 (31) - , , .
1907, 3-7
1908,26
1908, 23

1908,
1909, 8
1909, 12 (25)
1909,13
1909, -
1909,

1910,4
1911,
1911,

1911,
1911, 18

1911,29

1911, 7 - 8

().
(-
).
,
. , , .
, , .

- .
,
.
- .
.
.
,
.
, , .
.
- .
- -.

. .
( ) . .
.
.

1911, 8

1912, 1

1912, 26
1912,
1914, 20
1914, 1
1915

1915,

1915, 27

1915,

1915, 10
1916,

1917,
1918,
1918, 30

1918, 30 8
1919, 9

3 9 . 65

- .

. - ( ).
()

: -, .
.
. -
- .
.

( ).
.

.

.
- 1907 ., ,
.
-

.

.
,
.
(SPR).
.
-
.
- (- ) ,
.
-.
- .

613

1919, 21
1920, 6

1920, 20
1920, 20
1920, 5
1920, 14

1921, 21
1921, 22
1921, 26
1921, 27
1921,24
1921, 25
1921,22
1921,

1921,

1921,
1921,
1922-1928

1922-1927
1923
1923,9
1923,22
1923,27
1924,
1924,
1924, 7

.
() .
, -.
.
.

( 15 ).
.
, - .
- .
-
1919 .
.
.
.
( 4
).
,
-.
.
.

. .
, , .
.
. () -
- .
,
.
-.
.
,
.
.
.

1924, 11
1924, 3
1924,
1925, 14
1925,
23-27
1925, 31

1925,6
1925,12

1925,20
1926,15
1926,9
1926, -

1926,23
1927, 17
1927,
1927,1
1927, 16
1928, 14
1928, 10
1928, 8
1929,

1929, 11


.
,
, .
. , .
.
.
.
.
.
36,37 38 .
, . .
, .
. .
(), -, , ,
().
.
, .
.

100 .
-
.
.
25 1938 .
, .
.
- ( )

-, - ,
.
.

1930, 28

1930
1931,
1931,
1932,
1933,

25

27
29

1937, 8
1937,
1937, 8
1939, 3
1941, 25

1941, 16
1941, 27
1942, 29

1942
1943,

1943, 9
1943,
1943, 1

1944, 6

1944,
1945, 3
1945, 12
1945,
25-28


(
).
.
.
.
'.

.
(), .
.
, ,
.
.
: - - (, ,
), - (, ).

-, .
.
,
.
,

.
.
- . , , -
.
.
-
.

(, ) . .
,
- . ,
.
.

.

.

.

1945, 12

1946,

1946, 28
1946, 19
1946, 4

1946, 4
1946, 14

1946, 13

1946, 30
1946, 1

1946,24
1946, 17

1946,
11-13
1947,31

1947, 16

1947, 22
1948,23-26
1948, 9

.

. (1943 .) , .
.

. .
-
. . ( 9 1946 .)
-
.
-

.


.
. .
.
(, , . ) ( ).

.

, .
.
.
.
- .
- : ,
.
XV .
.
4
1946 .
II .
.


, .
.
1949, 5
, .
. . ().

1949,21
48 49 .
- .
.
1949, 17
.
1949,

, 20 - - . .
.
1949, 13
.
. -
1949, 3
- ( ).
1950, 23
.
.
1950,4

1950, 5
.
1 9 5 0 - .
1951
-,
1951,6
- .
XVI
1951,15
.
.
1951.27

1951.28

.
1951.29
. -.
1951,25

.
1951, 15
. -
. .
, .
, -
.
. 1951, 19
, .
15 .
1951,
.
.

1949, 4

1952, 16

1952, 17
1952, 22
1952, 23

1952, 6
1952,22
1953,28
1953, 20
1953, 16
1953, 19

1953, 22
1953,
1953,
1954, 19

1954,19 ,
30 , 8
1954, 10
1954,2
1955,23
1956,25 13
1957,31
1959, 5
1960,
1960,
1961,9


.
-

6 .
.
.
.
. .
, . 6 .
.
.

.
. , . .
.
, . .
.
.

.

-
.
- .
X. , .

.
.
- .
.

.
.
- .
XX .

1961, 18
1962, 9
1962, 15

1963, 21
1963, 23
1963, 26
1963, 3
1963, 22
1963, 1,2

1963,
5
1963, 5

1964, 10
1964, 6
1964, 26
1965, 21
1965, 10
1966, 13
1971, 8
1971,

1971,

1971, 1

, .

.
.

. .
- , , ,
, , . .

.

.

(. ) .

.
( ), (
), ( ) . .
15- (5 ). , , , , , . .
. . - .
.
.
(. ).
X. , .

.
-
, .
(- ) - ().
.

.

2500- . 69 .
, -
- .

1972,

,
.
.
1975,
.
1975, 8
(- )
. . .
1977, (,

, )
.
1977,
. . .

. .
1977, 15
.
1977, 21

.
1978, 8 - 9
, .
1978,18-19 .
1978, -
.
, .
1978,
.
477 .
1978,
. .
-.
1978,4

!, . .
1978, 7
.
.
1978, 8

. 4500 .
1978,
. -. - .
1978,
.

.
1978,
, . 132 , . . ,
. .
1978,30

,
.

1978,29

1978, 30

1978, 31
1979, 3
1979, 5
1979,16
1979, 1
1979, 9
1979,
10-11

1979,11

1979,
5
1979, 1
1979,
1979,
1980,
1980,

28

1980, 22
1981,
1988,
1989, 3
1989,

1997,

- ,
300 . .
900 . /.

-
.
.
.
.
. .
-
.
, .
.

. .
, .
.

- .
.
.
. . .
.
.
.
- .
.
-
598 (1987).
.

.
- . 1993 .
,
- .

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.

13.
14.

15.
16.
17.

18.
19.


Abrahammyan Ervand. Iran between Two Revolutions. Princeton.
Princtton university Press, 1982.
Abdulghani J.M. Iraq and Iran: The years of Crisis. Baltimore. The
Johns Hopkins U. Press, 1984.
Aghely Bagher. Nosratoddoleh Firooz. Namak Publishing (in Farsi),
Tehran, 1994, p. 380.
Amanat Abbas. Pivot of the Universe. Nazir al-Din Shah Qajar and the
Iranian Monarchy, 1831-1896. University of California Press, Berkeley.
1997, (XIX. 536 p.).
Amuzegar Jahangir. Iran's Economy under the Islamic Republic.
I.B.Tauris and Co Ltd London. New York, 1997.
Atabaki Touraj. Azerbaijan: Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in
Iran. London. New York, 2000.1.B. Tauris Publishers.
Bakhash Shaul. The Reign of the Ayatollahs. Iran and Islamic
Revolution. Counterpoint. London. I.B. Tauris and Co Ltd. 1985, 290 p.
Bakhash Shaul. Monarchy, Bureaucracy and Reform under the Qajars.
1858-1896. London. Ithaca Press, 1978.
Balli Raffet. Kurt Dosyasi. Cem Yayinevi, Istanbul, 1992.
Bast Oliver. Les Allemands en Perse pendant la Premiere Guerre
Mondiale. Diffusion Peeters. Paris, 1997,208 p.
Bullard Reader. Letters from Tehran: A British Ambassador in World
War Persia. Edited by E.C.Hodgkin. London. New York. I.B. Tauris
and Co Ltd. 1991,301 p.
Cordesman H. Anthony and Hashim S. Ahmed Iran. Dilemmas of Dual
Containment. CSIS Middle East Dynamic Net Assessment. Boulder
(Colorado). West view Press, 1997, XII, 364 p.
Digard Jean-Pierre, Hourcade Bernard, Richard Yann. L'lran au XX
siecle. Paris, Fayard, 1996.
Drechsler Andreas. Die Geschichte der Stadt Qom un Mittelalter (6501350): politische und wirschaftliche Aspekte. Klaus Schwarz Verlag.
Berlin, 1999,378 .
Ebtehaj. The Memoirs of Abdolhassan Ebtehaj. London. III. 1991.
Entessar Nader. Kurdish Ethnonationalism. Boulder and London, 1992,208 p.
Farman Farmaian Sattareh with Munker Dona. Daughter of Persia. A
Woman's Journey from Her Father's Harem Through the Islamic
Revolution. Corgi Books, London, 1998, 542 p.
Farouk-Sluglett, Marion and Sluglelett Peter. Iraq Since 1958. London.
I.B. Tauris, 1987.
Floor Willem. Industrialization in Iran. 1900-1914. Durham, 1984.

20. Floor Willem. Safavid Government Institutions. Mazda Publishers, Inc.


Costa Mesa, California, 2001, 311 p.
21. Floor Willem. The Persian Textile Industry in Historical Perspective,
1500-1925. Paris, L Harmattan, 400 p.
22. Fragner G. Bert. Von den staatstheologen zum theologenstaat: Religiose
Fuhrung und historischer wandel im schi'itischen Persien. Wiener
Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes 75 (1983), s. 73-99.
23. Fuller E. Graham Iraq in the Next Decade: Will Iraq Survive until 2002?
Santa Monica. Published 1993 by RAND.
24. Hiro Dilip. Iran under the Ayatollahs. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
London, Boston and Henley, 1985.
25. Hopkirk Peter. On Secret Service East of Constantinople. The Plot to
Bring Down the British Empire. Oxford Univ. Press. Oxford - New
York, 1994.
26. Ingram Edward. Britain's Persian Connection, 1798 - 1829. Prelude to
the Great Game in Asia. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1992.
27. Iran after the Revolution: Crisis of an Islamic State. Edited by Saeed
Rahnema and Sohrab Behdad. London. New York. I.B. Tauris, 1995,291 p.
28. Iraq a Country Study. Edited by Helen Chapin Metz. Washington. 1990,302 p.
29. Izady R. Mehrdad. The Kurds: a Consive Handbook. Taylor and
Francis, Inc. Washington, 1992,269 p.
30. Jafri S.H.M. The Origins and Early Development of Shi*a Islam. Qum.
1978, 332 p.
31. Katouzian . Musaddiq and the Struggle for Power in Iran. I.B.
Tauris U.K., 1990.
32. Kauz Ralph. Politische Parteien und Bevolkerung in Iran: Die Hezb-e
Demukrat-e Iran und ihr Fuhrer Qavam Saltana. Berlin, Klaus Schwarz
Verlag. 1995,332 s.
33. Keddie R. Nikki. Qajar Iran and the Rise of Reza Khan. 1796-1925.
Mazda Pullishers. Including Theatrical Buildings and Performance in
Tehran, 1999,134 p.
34. Keddie N.R. Religion and Rebellion in Iran. The Tobacco Protest of
1891-1892. London, 1966.
35. Keddie N.R. Roots of Revolution: An Interpretive History of Modern
Iran. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.
36. Keddie N.R. and Hooglund Eric (eds.). The Iranian Revolution and the
Islamic Republic (Revised edition). New York: Syracuse University
Press, 1986, 377 p.
37. Lambton A.K.S. Landlord and Peasant in Persia. Oxford, 1954.
38. Lambton A.K.S. The Persian Land Reform. Oxford Univ. Press. Oxford, 1977.
39. Lambton A.K.S. Qajar Persia Eleven Studies. London. I.B. Tauris and
Co Ltd., 341 p.
40. La Perse et la Grande Guerre, Etudes reunies et presentees par Oliver

Bast. Ins. Francais de Recherche en Iran. Teheran, 2002,462 p.


41. Mc Dowal David. A Modern History of the Kurds. I.B. Tauris. LondonNew York, 1996,472 p.
42. Mc Lachlan K. The Neglected Garden: The Politics and Ecology of
Agriculture in Iran. I.B. Tauris and Co Lo. London, 1988.
43. Memoirs of Jafar Sharif-Emami. Prime Minister of Iran (1960-1961 and
1978). Editor Habib Ladjevardi. (In Farsi). Tehran, 1999.
44. Migeod Heinz-Georg. Die Persishe Gesellschaft unter Nasir ud-din Sah
(1848 - 1896). Berlin. Klaus Schwarz Verlag, 1990.
45. Moin Bager. Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah. I.B. Tauris. London,
1999, 360 p.
46. Nashat Guity. The Origins of Modern Reform in Iran. 1870-80. Urbana,
Chicago, London, 1982,222 p.
47. Nategh . Les Commercants Les Banque imperiale et la Regie des
Tabacs (D'Apres L* archive D'Amin-oz-zarb). Abnousse. Paris. Edition
Khavaran, 1371/1992, 378 p.
48. Olson Robert. The Emergence of Kurdish Nationalism. 1880 - 1925.
University of Texas Press, Austin, 1989.
49. Papoli-Yazdi, Mohammad-Hossein. Le Nomadisme dans le Nord du
Khorassan. Inst. Francais de Recherche en Iran. Tehran, 1991,434 p.
50. Qajar Iran. Political, social and cultural change. 1800 - 1925. Edited by
E.Bosworth and C. Hillenbrand. Edinburgh. Univ. Press, 1983,414 p.
51. Rahnema A. and Nomani F. The Secular Miracle: Religion, Politics and
Economic Policy in Iran. London. Zed Books, 1990.
52. Richard Yann. Der verborgene Imam. Die Geschichte des Schiisus in
Iran. Verlag Klaus Wagenbach. Berlin, 1983, 159 p.
53. Rubin Barry. Paved with good intentions. The American Experience and
Iran. New York. Penguin books, 1987.
54. Shakeri D. Historical Documents: The Workers', Social-democratic and
Communist Moment in Iran - 19. Tehran, 1985, 192 p.
55. Taheri Amir. The Spirit of Allah. Khomeini and the Islamic Revolution.
London, 1987.
56. Tehrani Bahram (Farbod). Etude sur la situation economique de L'lran
(1975-1985). Khavaran. Paris. III, 1986, 582 p.
57. The Boundaries of Modern Iran. Edited by Mc Lachlan Keith. London.
UCL Press, 1994, IX, 150 p.
58. Wiley N. Joyce. The Islamic Movement of Iraqi Shi'as. Boulder and
London, 1992, 193 p.
59. Zabih Sepehr. The Iranian military in Revolution and War. Rout ledge.
London and New York, 1988.
60. Zargar Ali-Asgar. Anglo-Iranian Relations: 1925-1941. (These presentee
a L'Universite de Geneve...). Geneve, 1984.


61. ' . - . , 1373/1994.
62. ' . - -
. - . , 1377/1998.
63. ' . - - . , 1993.
64. . - - .
, 1340/1961, 339 .
65. ' -. - . 1320 - 1332
( ). , 1374/1995.
66. - . , 1330/1951.
67. . . , 1364/1985.
68. . . , 1981.
69. - . - - ...
- . , 1377/1998.
70. - . - - - .
- . , 1361/1987.
71. . ... ,
1378/1999.
72. . - - - . -
- - . , 1956.
73. , -. - -
. , 1908.
74. '- . \-: . . ,
1375/1996.
75. . - - . , 1962.
76. . ' , ,
, - . , 1361/1982.
77. . . ( )
78. - '- . - - . , 1374/1995.
79. - . - - . -
. , 1372/1993.
80. . - - . , 1963.
81. - , - . , 1374/1995.
82. . - - . , 1979.
83. . - - . , 1951.
84. . - - . . . IIII, 1968.
85. . - - . , 1353
/1974.
86. - .
. - . , 1372/1993.
87. . - - . - . ,
1374/1995.

88. . - - - -
-. , 1981.
89. , . - - . , 1953.
90. . - - . , 1950.
91. . -- . . . , 1358/1979-80.
92. . - - - . , 1953.
93. . '- '- .
, 1376/1997.
94. - (- ). -
- (1333-1334). , 1992.
95. , . - - .
, 1379/2000.
96. . '. - . , 1378/1999.
97. ' X. : . - . ,
1376/1999.
98. . - - . - . , 1377/1998, 360 .
99. . . , 1330/1951.
100. - - . . , 1979.
101. . - - . , 1978.
102. -. - . , 1976
103. , - -- , ,
1962, . IX.
104. . - , - , ,
1364/1985.
105. . '- - : 20 .
, 2536.
106. . - - ' - . ,
1352/1973.
107. ' . - . , 1377/1998.
108. -, . - .
, 1377/1998.
109. Tarikh-e mo'aser-e Iran (in Farsi). Vol. 1. 3. Fall 1997, Tehran.
110. . Acp-e - , , 1953.
111.'- - (1300-1310).
-: . , 1370/1991.
112. . , , 1965.
. . . - - .
- . , 1379/2000.
114. . .
. , 1373/1994.
115. . -- - . , 1954.
116. . - . , 1344/1965.

117. -. - - -
- . , 1322/1943.
118. - -. - - ' '. , -, 1982.
119. - . - - - '.
1968-1979. , 1989.
120. , . - - - : 1324-1333. , 1378/1999.
121. - . - . --
. , 1370/1991.

122. 3.3.
XIX - XX . , 1963.
123. , . . . ., 1996.
124. . vs : . ., 2002.
125. .. -
XX . ., 1985.
126. . . . ., 1998.
127. . . 1912-1927. .
., 1996.
128. . :
. ., , 1993.
129. . . . .. .,
, 1997.
130. . . . ., 2002.
131. . . ., , 1934.
132. .. XIX - XX .
., 1974.
133. .. XIX - XX .
., 1988.

134. Azeri Ali. Azadistan devleti ve seyh Muhammed Hiyabani (1918-1920).
Ankara, 1994.
135.Nasibzada Nasib. Iranda Azarbaycan masalosi (XX asrin 60 - 70-ci
illari). Baki, 1997.
136. Nasibzada N. Bolumnus Azazbaycan, butov Azazbaycan. Baki, 1997.
137. Hasanli . Soyug muharibanin baslandigi yer. Guney Azarbaycan.
1945-1946. Baki, 1999.
138. Hasanov Nariman. Oyanmis. Tabriz va Sattarhan. Baki, 1986.
139. Hatami Muhacir, Iran matbuati imperializm va mustamlkacilikla
mubarizada. Baki, 1964.
140. Samida A.I. Iranda fahle va hamkarlar harakati (1941-1946). Baki, 1961.


161
() 30-32, 34,
40,41,239, 555
- 142
575
245
-, - 486
, 308
, 208
3. 3. 176,191
328
194
- ( ) 336,
337, 339,463, 591
( ) 499
. . 121-123
568
162, 573
. 170,575
. 120, 121, 123
. . 140, 148,571,590
69
, 347
' 12, 563,572
2 3 7 , 2 8 4 , 581
619
' . 227, 244, 259, 260, 263,
286, 578, 579, 585
' - 65,563
. 446,620,621
189,
190
. 138, 141-146, 154, 571
, 141
, 190
, - 97
' - 68,564
, 181, 248, 249, 251, 280,
282, 305,306,314,347,588,617
' . 317, 318,325,326,333,619
', 195, 323,
326,328,330,331,333,343, 346
-, 591
131, 35

21
, 23, 336
. . 596
210
. 600,605
. 225
. 419
. 38,
- 124
- 49
- (- ) 47,
51,61
-, - 503
237,277
300, 320-325, 326, 342,
443,619
. 261,619
342
40
235, 588
451,470
114
( ) 148
', 519
, 12, 392, 400,
434,498,515, 516, 518, 519,620
' 125, 126,613
. . 46, 559
. . 390
593
, 392
. 3. 552
. 591
, 199
21
145,146, 572
-, 99, 101
103,166
. 419
54
, 322, 324, 590
', 51, 52, 98, 166,
171, 179, 180, 183, 184

()
- 49, 58, 59,63,536,610
274,348
X. 487
215, 580
X. 570
115
282,618
277
, 275
591
614
. 498
546
(), 42
., 279, 584
, 49, 560
485
, 617
, 237, 239, 240, 241,
263,276,283
66,611
, 211, 215, 216,
217,219,225, 226
556
556
449,540
, 332, 340, 448, 450452, 454, 464, 468-470, 477, 492,
499, 526
, 502
. . 556
. 176
, - 444, 445,
470-484,486, 507, 526,621
, 470
87,107, 115,612
, 230, 309,
412, 502
. J1. 78
. 279
237
84
111. 480
, - 484,486
199

, 162
, 313
, 277, 447, 448, 494,
543, 621
. 196, 241
579, 580
, 12,190
, - 213
., 277,
583
449
. 182
67
. 211, 212, 215, 217
, 59, 64, 562
, 245
,
259, 281, 284, 286, 290
. 460, 469, 471-480, 483,
484,486, 507
3.452,550
29,31
, - 262,
339,442
, 619
. 94
197
. 125
. . 556
. 49
. 232,233
. 528
. 83, 566, 575
, 527, 529
II 74
95
103
352
. 285
, 44,47, 50
. 529
- 75
, 277
- 68,96-101,103,105,
111-113, 124, 133, 154, 220, 537,
612,613

239
, 30
. 51, 54
. 487
. 255,279, 320,617
, 215
, 479
, 272,285,286,300
196,198
. . 187
205, 232
. . 556
, -,
461
. 234,235,236
. . 529
. 462,463,477
38
77, 99
. . 51
. 74, 79
525
. 176
-, 299
. . 553
. . 33
. 169,232,234
70, 564
69
, 181, 182,614, 615
, 66,72, 110,611
- 539
. 285, 295
. 279,285,301,586
234
, 485
, 277,293
. . 185
. 117
93, 115, 570, 612
. 300
300
. 138
346
422
. 234

- 149
449
198, 199
295
. 433
, 63, 563
504
295, 296
- 36
148
- 352
, 557
. 480
II 33
. . 31,32, 555
, - 29
. 162
, . 281, 287, 305,
422, 596
, 160, 275, 282, 283,
287, 288, 292, 296, 298-300, 304,
305, 596,618
260
125
288,619
- 69
173
. 133
. . 45, 62, 141
. 273, 279, 577
- 72, 73
. 176
- 98
287
. 35, 556
II 523
526
() 234,
235,616
I 23, 554
. 344
55
. 451,452,616

354
- 162
- 83, 138,
614
- (), 12,
133-135, 149, 154, 204, 218, 220228, 231, 232, 240, 266-268, 305,
322, 563, 590,613,616,618
. 213,578
, 29, 559
, 65, 76, 81, 9698, 111, 134, 137, 138, 146, 147,
150, 154, 156, 159, 162, 220, 537,
565,612
, - 50,
59,60,183,295, 536,611
, 36
, 54, 60,
62, 64, 65, 67, 70, 110, 536, 537,
562-564,611,612
, - 36, 41,
44,46, 47,49, 536, 610
, 31,34
147
591
. 561
- X. 529
229,230,615,616
,
132
, 239
216
125
82
, 36
196
283
, 74
. 448,449,621
. 120,131,173
220
. 515
. 417-420, 444, 447, 452,
495, 506, 542,606,620,621
, 309
114
, - 12,327,590
X. 395, 589

616
. 241, 242, 246, 247, 255,
261-263, 265, 268, 276-278, 281,
283, 284, 299, 547, 585, 617, 618
20
. 14, 126,424, 552, 587
. 234
. 319-321, 324-326, 589
, 56, 95-100, 102-104,
107, 108, 137, 142, 143, 147, 148,
150, 158, 178,423, 571
- 237,480
, 49, 536,
560,610
- 560, 561
, 127, 563, 575
. 243
20
. 128
. 414, 540
-, 50, 51
290
. 526-528
. 167
. 523, 531
485
121
56, 78, 84, 95, 98, 136,
137, 147, 148, 156
78,79
. 50,51
. . 562
. 526-528
332,619
20
, 114-116, 119-127,
570,613
. 167, 168, 170, 171, 179,
182, 183
. 253
- 391
, 485
. 47, 50, 62, 197, 260, 560,
584
529
. 613

68
. . 117, 119, 125, 128, 129,
226
300
. . 610
. X. 187
158
. 430
' . 579
- 559
. . 63
, 470
, 55, 56, 561
, 253
- . 24
35
-, 395
- 38
, 237, 239, 241, 242,
245, 263, 277, 283, 299, 581, 583
38
. 352
- 63, 563
- 575
, 239
, 276,283
. 215
93
30, 31
42-43
, 197, 200, 242
, 331, 332, 333,
334, 340-342,619
Map 568
- . 461
. 51
. . 556
. 96
310
. . 565
- . 150,200,357,583
-, 451
619
575
. 123, 124
347
. 321

41 . 65

401
-, . . 489, 546, 547
587
- 171
. 24
272
. 123, 124, 128

. 156, 212, 240, 305, 578,


613,615
. . 88
. . 88, 90, 91, 562
546
- 325
110, 114
43
614
. 474
' . 583
, 162, 163,
193, 330
588
, 120-122
- 98
, 290, 448
- 462
470
. 215, 217, 220, 222
, - 460, 476,
488, 508, 547, 548
568
, 12, 214, 231,
238-242, 244-246, 248-270, 272304, 306, 348, 442, 479, 526, 541,
583-588, 605,615,617,618
-, 43
- 66, 67, 81,
93, 155,612,614
69
514
36
133, 134, 135,
570,613
163
36
- 113, 167
. . 515
- 128

633

- 58, 59, 101, 113,


138, 139,613
. . 107
. 505
487
. 175
, 336, 337, 591
- 555
478,483
-
178
. 232, 234, 583
( ) 32, 36, 40, 132, 556
492
,
162, 338, 573
122
, 234,241,245
. 128, 570
- 69, 71, 612
. 288, 292, 620
X. 11-12, 47, 49, 560
- . . 520
59, 61
. 41
- 84
- , - 565
564
85, 86, 87
. 408
. 101, 136-139, 142, 143,
148, 150, 151,571
295
-, 12,
97-100, 105, 142, 147, 154, 162,
538, 544, 581
, 90
, 110
116
. 514
239
308
, - 440, 597
, 541

. 120, 121, 124, 126,


128, 570
, 334, 346
36
. 487
299
. 419
. 263
90
190
I 32
, 287
, 282, 286, 347, 433,
619
, 9, 10,
141, 145, 185, 190, 195, 201, 203,
219, 263, 278, 280, 281, 286, 288,
289, 296, 297, 310, 312, 320, 325,
346, 359, 361, 362, 384, 395, 400,
407, 416-418, 420-422, 424, 425,
431, 433, 434, 441, 448, 449, 497,
539, 540, 550, 552, 571, 576, 581,
590, 591,607,615,618, 621
, ( ) 10, 17,
127, 128, 141-147, 149-167, 171177, 182, 183, 185-187, 189-202,
209, 216-217, 220, 229, 239, 244,
278, 288, 289, 298, 350, 441, 537539, 544, 572, 573, 576, 613-615
, - 190
, 418, 448, 621
, 205, 232
205
183, 185
, () 120, 121, 216, 217, 219, 223,
226,227, 228, 578-580
- 564
. . 46, 610
. 33
61
122
. 458,484, 486, 501
, 474, 475,
478-480, 484, 507

, () 228, 241,
242, 243, 244, 245, 247, 248, 255,
583,617
12, 578
. 541
. 117-121,123
, - 67, 612
, 276, 281
70
391
. 512
52, 53
74,81,612
44,45, 50,610
, 288, 290, 292, 293, 295,
299, 588,618
. . 45
. 352
. 447
. . 176
. 321,352, 580
. 125, 127,128, 570
. 225,228,312
, 285-290, 293, 294,
296, 587, 588
, 244, 268,272,379
. 540
619
230, 616
, 502, 503
- 69
, 212, 213,
233-237, 242, 578
. . 78, 536
71, 86, 565
, 181
- 564
239, 242, 245, 319,
442, 443, 583,616
69,612
. 418,419, 542, 543
- 53, 54, 65, 67,
69, 72, 73, 84,94-97, 563,612
, 239, 445,451, 619,
620
54, 65, 84, 563
84, 85

83
135
65
(
) 85
, 142
- 614
- 64, 66, 69, 611
260
259
- 247, 262
508
198
616
. 310
65-67, 82, 124
() 102,
139, 140, 142, 144, 148
, 40. 41
. 432
- 69,612
114, 154, 155,
159, 568
555
. . 344
564
143, 144
67, 84, 116, 160
563
, 618
. 583
. 547
- 138
513
- 54
. . 125, 211, 214, 216,
219-227, 264, 292, 570, 581, 585
116, 138, 139, 142
346
. 374
, 52
290, 294
. 117
- 63
. 117,123, 125
. 554
. 491
178

, 528
, (-) 59,
64, 134, 139, 140, 142, 146-151,
153, 220, 239, 251, 259-261, 339,
562, 572, 578, 583,613,615
. 487
546
, 67, 171, 182
, 286, 319, 332,
340, 526, 544
. . 47, 50
, 44
. 12, 139, 165-173, 178,
179, 186, 538,614
. . 88,90
, 395
. 351
. 253
73, 78, 79, 81
. 117, 119, 120, 125, 133
. . 185
. 226, 252, 255, 257, 272,
273,279,617
X. 433, 434
. 31, 35
. X. 585
515
, 61
. 277, 377
, 200, 312, 325, 347,
576
. 82, 142, 544
. 544
37
, 469
, 241, 261, 288, 300,
588,618
- 36,239
581,617
156
II 308
. 375
177
104
, 222, 223, 581

162
52, 77
. 176
, - 179, 182,
538,614
. 246
. ( . ) 481
422
. 56, 234, 235, 236
. 117
86
304, 400
. 234, 237, 240, 241, 242284, 304,581
, 232-234, 239,
241,617
55, 56, 80, 85, 138, 155-160,
164, 298, 573,614
. 540, 542, 543
(-),
335, 548
, () 232,
234
- 147. 148
288
. 487
. 419
. 150
583
- 126
, 483, 515
, 480, 488, 489,
508,514,516, 522, 523,546, 621
. 575
. 430
, 110
II 539
, - () 336
121, 122
60, 562
147
546
469, 471
. 218, 227, 580, 581
X. 578
. 583,619

, 521-524, 547549, 621


-
474, 476, 480, 482, 483, 487, 488,
508, 513-516, 520, 522, 526, 529,
546, 546, 621
276
, 310
. . 198
333, 542, 588, 595, 599
. 353
, , 109-114,
126-127,613
, 484
. . 342, 399,424,434,620
- -
487
( ) 132, 133,
135
, 470, 515
, - 335, 338, 505,
548, 590, 591
334, 338
9, 11, 15, 16, 328330, 332-339, 421, 424, 436, 437,
439, 440, 444, 445, 448-456, 458465, 468-474, 476-482, 484, 486,
489, 492, 497, 500-505, 507, 508,
511, 513, 514, 531, 543, 545-547,
550, 589, 591,607,619-621
476
' 12, 198
.-. 587
38
. 211
. . 307,309,310
. 243
, 308, 419
476, 502, 503, 505,
508-513, 525, 591,599
87
, 423
, - 500
. 160, 165
. 57, 77, 156, 201, 272,
273, 286

. 122
. 118, 124, 127, 128, 131
. 241,242,290, 583
II21
325
. . 60, 562
237
443, 444, 591
, ,
452,459-463
. 3. 371
- () . 318,
319, 320, 433, 589, 620
231, 583
- 53, 54
, 335
228, 287
245
463
. 141, 142
247

48, 339
- 68,82, 564
- 76, 110,
566
-,
135, 195
87
. 67, 68, 70, 75, 109, 110,
611
91
. 317,325, 326, 346, 348
238, 314-318, 324,
346
. 279, 286, 287, 298,
307, 541
- 59, 64, 80, 111,612
- 73
- JI. 102, 160, 185, 211,
-291
577
234,244, 251, 259
294
181
523

X. 498
, 575
, . 605
142, 143, 144
53

12
. 255, 583
121, 124, 126,
. 325, 326


28, 56, 168, 169,191,208,248250,267,300,364,368,380,496,504,
507,599
-, 78
- 353,360,361
-, - 177
31
- 82
26,208,248,249
351,352
353
111-113
21, 23-26, 29-32, 34, 46,
48, 51, 60, 61, 64, 67, 69, 76, 77, 80,
90, 91, 97, 100, 109-114, 118, 119,
126-128, 136, 147, 154, 163, 190,
209-211, 214-224, 227, 228, 231,
259, 268, 271, 303, 338, 425, 437,
461, 541, 553, 554, 557, 558, 567,
568, 575, 578-580
19, 104,
112,118,119,124,126-128,218,226,
228
100,112,118
72,73
91,377,415,452,478
30, 33-37, 39, 40, 42-44, 46,
51, 56, 58, 62, 66-69, 72, 74-77, 79,
80,82-85, 88,89,94,95,98,103,107,
136, 138,147,155,156,158-160, 164,
165,168,171,173,178,181,182,186,
192,200,201,203,219,226,243,244,
247,253-257,259,269,270,272-274,
279,286,291,294,295,297,298,302,
311,317,332,350-354,356,358,362,
382,408,410,414,434,491,500,526,
538, 539,555,556,565,579,593
28,334
53,156,158,159,165,298
, 307,558
25,114,119,124
19,125,553
104
19,47,118,119

46, 51, 67, 70, 115, 211, 536,


537
448,539
, 37,307
19, 21, 22, 25, 30, 34, 37,
38, 62, 69, 81, 86, 137, 366, 413, 527,
528,553,557
- 37
, 25-27, 37, 53, 54, 169, 189, 249,
250,267,364, 504, 593, 599
239
-, - 129
280, 288, 296, 306, 308, 309,
334,501/502,507, 509, 511,588
329
63
28, 32, 87, 112, 115, 117, 120,
122-125,210,211,214,216,217,227,
533,564
, , 19
78, 156, 159, 161, 169, 507, 509,
512
350,351,353
- 177,178
53-55,85,155
25, 29, 38, 86, 96, 194,
287,396,500
50
- 19,28,62,410
- 28
- 248,249
- 28
- 28
- 368
81,87,149,199,526,539
26
- 365
24,62
63
423,603
(), 25, 28, 37, 64, 69, 78,
82,90,176,275,530,531,566, 575

212, 254, 257, 272, 285,


296,305-307,310,411,423,478,495,
523-525,541,542,578,5%, 608
34, 37, 39, 45, 47, 50,
51, 54, 56, 57, 62, 64, 66, 69-73, 7780, 83-85, 93, 96-99, 103-106, 116,
127, 130, 136, 137, 140, 145, 147,
150-158, 160, 164, 165, 168, 171, 173,
177-181, 183,186,193,198,200,201,
203,209,210,225,231,232,234,246,
247,252,253,255,256,259,260,265,
266,272,273,276,279,282,288,293,
297,299,303,304,306,308,312,314,
325,332,346,347,349,350,352,408,
409,411,422,423,433,537, 539,552,
556, 559, 579,584, 585,604
270,358
491
329
62
, 19,38
36,37
, 62,66,67,74-77,80-82,85,
171,190,192,195,196,198,199,201,
261,324,539,589,604
14, 24, 51, 65, 69, 113-116, 120,
121, 123-128,136,139,147,150,163,
211,214,288,485, 568
, 92
47,145,396
, 19
226,602
, 104
29-31,125,555,556,558
32,90,555
26,364,367
, 19
129
168,508
159
351,353,354,412
353,604,605
22, 89, 180, 226, 304, 320, 350,
352,353,413,419,420,448,539,540

181,351,416
25,116
62
311, 329, 332, 333, 413, 419,
420,433,434,494, 500, 525, 530, 531,
540
22, 29, 30, 34, 37, 38, 40, 45, 53,
56, 74, 79, 81, 86, 89, 95, 117, 132,
145,146,169,178,180,196,198,206,
367,413,416,505,527,572, 577
410-412, 414, 418,
419
10,22,96,137,155,156,161,162,
177, 178,225,261,304,308,309,313,
320, 334,335,338-340,350,351,354,
355, 360,377,412,415,476,480,482,
485,486,491,497,501-511,513-515,
524, 525, 528, 529,546, 553, 560, 573,
589,591,595,598,602
19, 39, 308, 309,
335,354,502,508
27, 28, 53, 62, 64, 82-84, 86,
137,138,168,249,250,267,289,364,
365,426,438,476,483,497,548,563,
597
171, 273, 274, 288, 350, 410,
541
62,137,396,485, 521,597
17, 21, 22, 29-35, 46, 74, 90,
103,104,107,110,112,113,124-126,
128,136, 152,199,531,532,556-559
65,68,72,73,82,107,115,116,
118,129,144,148,214
161
38,135
540
31,32,555
360,416,491
285
Kapc 110
, 55
- 62,503
351,353,361
84,329,365

507
- 211
64,156,334,510, 598
81,177
21, 29, 62, 83, 137, 287, 485,
575
24, 52, 84, 85, 116, 188,
267,302,364,485
91
91,516
350, 351, 355, 360, 361, 416,
507
59, 84, 161, 261, 327-330, 332,
334, 365, 436, 437, 439, 444, 445,
461-463,489,553,554,597
24, 26, 92, 107, 158, 159,
194,209,216,224,229-231,243,303,
396,472,500,553,579
, - 28
261,308,340,505
359,377,602
17, 35, 47, 48, 51, 52, 54, 55,
67,73,95,98-102,104,136,141,146,
164,165,167,168,170,178,180,183,
200,205,236,248,253,255,269,285,
299,305,351,359,361,492,537,557,
560
26,53,84,155,158
367
25, 29, 51, 115, 124, 211,
485
64,76
539
89
26,359
367,368
540
188
29,37
37
- 52, 53, 191, 248,
378
92,217,227,229,478
28, 29, 64, 69, 70, 110, 134,
314,329,332, 365,426,438,565,597,
609

27
434
28, 73, 86, 100, 101, 116, 118,
120,124-126, 128,132,133, 140, 171,
173, 200, 210-212, 215, 217, 218,
220-222,224,227,243,255,307,309,
310,343,528,529,534,541,578,580
507
161, 334-336, 338, 436, 439,
440,445,470,502,505,510,573,598
, - 87
248,249
167,354
186,189,302,354, 364
491
353,354,361,604
19,354,410,411
354,355,410
32, 39, 74, 76, 80,
82,85,85,86,90,110,164,557,558
115
19, 25, 287, 304, 352, 409,
413,505,553,580, 594
37, 47, 49, 50, 103 156, 170,
305,448,463,470,477,481,484,543,
597
21,26
19, 26, 28, 30, 34,
36, 39, 42, 45, 53, 55, 56, 78, 80, 95,
96, 164, 165, 173, 176-178, 180, 192,
201,208,249,302,303,308,34-356,
359-361,367,378-380,383,390,408,
410-414,417-419,503, 506, 510-513,
524,534, 540, 546,602,605
21,33, 34,45,46,62,73, 78,79,
86, 88-93, 96-98, 107, 116, 117, 119,
121-123,125,127,129,130,201,534
35, 46, 64, 68, 73, 82, 172,
190,559
110
87-89,91,94
() 133
19
539

-- 353,354
271
64,65, 68,69, 115, 118,120, 121,
123,124,154,176,267,482,564
295,296
13, 27, 34, 35,
72, 100, 116, 118, 126, 521, 525, 529,
532,533
16, 17, 30-35, 37, 39,40,42-44,
46, 47, 50, 51, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 67,
69-83, 85-94, 96, 100, 103, 107-109,
111-113,116,117, 124,125,130,131,
151,190,197,211,212,226,516,528,
529-532,536,537,555-558,565
188,343
288,587
155
161,334,560,598
27
29, 247, 350-354,
356,360,361,363,412,414-416,444,
490,504,507,512,540
367,372,387,416
29
211,213
- 377
28,37,38,365,497
25, 37, 38, 86, 135, 395, 396,
557
13, 17, 32, 132, 140,
171,180,188,198-200,209-213,217,
218,221,224,226,227,243,268,270,
274,280,309,310,304,307,314,332,
343,344,352,365,370,372,444,470,
487,527,529,531,539,579,591
- 92,229
- 129,130
13,14,17,165,174,180,195,200,
201,209-211,213,215,216,218-221,
224,225,229-231,243,270,304,307,
309,343,344,365, 372,527-529,531,
539,541,589
48,80,111,560
39,91,92
10-12,14,26,66,67,95,98,103,
104,145,200,202,203,209,210,219,
225,226,231,240,243,248,252-258,

265,266,272-274, 276,277, 279, 282,


285-287, 289-291, 293-306, 310,
312-314,316-318,320,321,323-326,
329,332,333,342,344,347,350,352,
356, 358, 362, 363, 366, 382, 384,
408-412, 414, 416-420, 422, 428,
432-434,443,444,447,450,467,470,
477,478,481,490,495,496,499, 500,
503, 504, 506, 511-513, 522-525,
529-531, 539-544, 552, 579, 581,
584-587, 589, 593, 597, 600-605,
607-609
27, 60,64,66-69,109-111, 113,
114, 127, 129, 176, 210, 217, 219,
222-224,227,228,249,250,267,329,
364,437,439,444,445,462,482,483,
485,497, 536,553,558,562,566, 597,
605
10, 17, 20, 25, 28-30, 35-38,
44-49, 51, 53, 54, 58-60, 63, 65, 6770, 72-74, 78, 79, 81, 84-88, 92-104,
108,109,111,115,118,124-126,129,
133,136-140,142,144,145,147,148,
150, 153,155,162,166,168-170,172,
173,176,178,179,182,183,189,191,
192,196-199,213,216,219-223,225,
227,228,232,234,235,238,239,241,
242,246,249-251,253-256,259-261,
263, 267,271,276,289,284-287,290,
293,295, 296,304,305,307,309,310,
313,318,329,346,347,350-352,354,
360,364,365,374,383,384,397,418,
419,422,436,439,440,443,446,448,
449,452,461,463,470,471,479,481,
483,487,494,496,497,500,508,511,
521,524-526,528-530,536,537,540,
541-544,548,554,555,558,562-564,
568, 571,575,577-580,589,591,594,
597,599,605,608
540
, - 177, 354
19
37, 70, 86, 103, 104, 106,
115, 117, 132, 133,136,531
24, 33, 75, 91, 115, 117, 125,
200,304,311,320,352,511,533,553,
589

-- 353
, 20,48,130
107,568,599
78,511,512
12,25,26, 83, 138, 193, 194,239,
271,356
, - 351
30, 35,39,80,89,95,98, 159,
171, 239, 242, 270, 274, 324, 356,
408-410,434,445,468,471,484,538,
555,579,590
270,359,478,494
353
211
24,63,87,129,482,599
365
, - 28,36,37,367,368,511
186
, 38
12, 21, 24-26, 37, 38, 51, 64,
70, 86, 93, 131-136, 145, 159, 172,
193,211,271,396,401,570,571
25
28,55,191,410,508
-, 19
21, 25, 53-55, 156-160, 164166,168-170,173,191,193,204,206,

208,246,248,249,267,298,349,350,
447,470,472,496,504,507,575
211
182,270,343
46
354
-- (), 19,
39,78,177, 178,354,355,512
- 155
170, 212, 239, 286, 312,
347,377,434
28, 69, 83, 86, 364, 365, 367,
481,485,497,559,575,597
132
275
31
20
-, - 351
19
68, 69, 101, 115, 117-123, 129,
130,176
367,416,494
413,522
351
273, 274, 359, 363, 366, 411,
416,494,522,593,603,604

IRAN IN THE 20th CENTURY


(Summary)
As a result of the revolution of 1978-1979 one the most ancient
monarchies in the world crashed in Iran. Just before this happened the
dictatorial regime of the late Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi was
formally at the height of its power. The result of the revolution, the
forming of a new state in Iran - the Islamic Republic - was no less
unexpected. The Shi'a authority ayatollah Khomeini became its leader.
Khomeini's theocratic concept about Velayat-e Faqih (the regency of
the most authoritative Shi'a 'Faqih1, law-maker) served as the basis for
the top power in the Republic.
The removal of limitations and prohibitions that existed under
Shah offered scientists and journalists an opportunity to start the
study of various formerly secret documents from both state and
private archives. These documents revealed the hidden side of the
Pahlavi family's activities, as well as of other members of the ruling
class. Moved by the desire to expose the anti-populist, dictatorial and
pro-Western nature of the former regime the new Iranian power in
every way supported the publication of materials found in official
archives (state, SAVAK, police, gendarmerie). Of these, the secret
documents from the US embassy in Tehran had exceptional signifycance for the study of the history of Iran.
The peaceful disintegration of the Soviet Union strongly enhanced
the documental base of Iranian history of the 20th century. The removal of official barriers, the elimination of restrictions formerly applied
to the study of some subjects, the change of status of official archives,
the appearance of private publishing houses and, on the whole, the
process of general democratisation stimulated the creation of freer and
more objective historical writings in Russia and, to a certain extent, in
other newly formed states. These processes had direct influence upon
the Iranian historiography.
This can be explained in the first place by the fact that from the
first days of Bolsheviks in Russia, with Lenin at the lead, Iran had an
important place in the foreign policy of the new state. Moreover, due
to a number of reasons of historic and political nature at times Iran

became the object of pressure and territorial claims for the Soviet
leaders.
These factors and the new developments made an interpretation of
the history of Iran in the last century possible and, indeed, imperative
in order to bring it closer to the historic reality.
A new interpretation is a more than complex task for an historian.
Only using new reliable evidence coming into circulation he/she can
afford attempting a new explanation of significant issues related to the
history of a given country and/or society. Naturally, the new interpretation should also be based upon a critical examination of distortions
that may have become part of the historical tradition. In certain cases
we deal with obvious falsification that aims to misrepresent the nature
of phenomena, events, actions etc. However sometimes the wrong
construal of a document or an event results from the sheer lack of
information at the researcher's disposal. In general, in some cases the
history is re-written or re-interpreted because of objective circumstances, in some - at the order of the authorities in order to legitimise
the power or popularise it.
The book consists of the following main chapters:
Introduction. The general information about the Islamic Republic
of Iran.
Chapter 1. Iran at the end of 19 - first quarter of the 20th century.
Chapter 2. The crisis of the Qajar power. The coup-d'etat of
21 February, 1921 and its consequences (1920-1925).
Chapter 3. Reza Shah's dictatorship (1925-1941).
Chapter 4. The new centres of power and the intensification of the
socio-political struggle. Rivalry between the Allies (1941-1949).
Chapter 5. The movement for the nationalisation of oil industry.
Dr Mosaddeq's role.
Chapter 6. The rule of Mohammed-Reza Shah Pahlavi.
Chapter 7. The antimonarchic revolution of 1978-1979 and the
creation of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The Khomeini era.
Chapter 8. The war with Iraq. The consolidation of the Islamic
regime and the new issues.
Conclusion.


X X



..
- . .
.. , ..
..

00173 27 1999 . (+)


04697 28 2001 . ( )
2S.0S.03. 1S.02.04.
60x90 1/16. .
. . .. 42.
.-. . 40,4. 1000 . . 65


103031, , , . , 12
-
. ..
+
129343, . , , 14

248640, . , . , 5

-

( 5 . )
, ,
, ,
,

, ,
, ,
- ,

:
, , -, ,
, , ,

129343, . , , 14, +
. 186-93-78,363-68-73
.-: 141-23-37
E-mail:kraft@podlipki.ru.
www.podlipki .ru\~kraft

<
( ):


:

.. . :
.. . ,


,
,
, .
P.P. : - . - 2-
. - : , *-, 2003. - 256 .

, , 1994 . -
; , 2001 .

, .
- XXI . - .,
, >, 2003. - 272 .
- - .
,
.
- XXI
,
2002 . .

:
129343, . , , 14