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On the cover:

Site plan of
Site 151, a Hellenistic
farmhouse in the
chora of Chersonesos
:

151

- -

,
,
,
, , ,
, ,
, . .,
. ,

,
.
, ,
, .

ARCHAEOLOGY FIELD DICTIONARY


English-Russian-English

This dictionary contains terms that are most widely used in


the practical language of archaeologists, as well as the
terminology of history, architecture, numismatics, museum
studies, archaeological conservation, tools, human bones,
materials and popular archaeological jargon.
The structure of the dictionary is similar to that of phrase
books in order to help the user find not only a translation of a
term, but also its phonetic transcription. It is for professional
archaeologists, historians, conservators and translators of
special literature.

ARCHAEOLOGY
FIELD DICTIONARY

E-R-E
S R E

N K
-

I NSTITUTE OF C LASSICAL A RCHAEOLOGY


The University of Texas at Austin

ARCHAEOLOGY
FIELD DICTIONARY

English-Russian-English
Second Revised Edition

Nikita Khrapunov
-
-

Institute of C lassical A rchaeology


The University of Texas at Austin

Contents

2007 by the Institute of Classical Archaeology


All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means
without the prior written permission of the publisher. The information in this
book is believed to be true and accurate at the date of going to press, but neither the editor nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility or liability
for any errors or omissions.
English-Russian-English Archaeology Field Dictionary / Nikita Khrapunov.
p.
cm.
Includes biographical references
ISBN 0 9748334 3 6 paperback
Production Editor: Dan Davis
Published by
Institute of Classical Archaeology
The University of Texas at Austin
3925 West Braker Lane
Austin, Texas 78759
Please send your comments to icainfo@uts.cc.utexas.edu
The Institute of Classical Archaeology (ICA) is an Organized Research Unit
of the University of Texas at Austin. In order to study, document, and preserve
sites, monuments, and artifacts of past life for present and future generations,
ICA conducts archaeological fieldwork and training in ancient Greek rural
territories on the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ICA engages in interdisciplinary research and publication, and it provides technical assistance and
expertise in cultural heritiage management.
www.utexas.edu/research/ica

Foreword

iv

Acknowledgements

vii

Guide

ix

Abbreviations

xii

Russian pronunciation

xiv

English pronunciation

xvi

English alphabet

xviii

Part I: English-Russian Dictionary


I: -

Russian alphabet

122

Part II: Russian-English Dictionary


II: -

123

Bibliography

232

Appendix: Measuring Systems


:

234

iii

Foreword
This English-Russian-English Archaeology Field Dictionary arose from
increased cooperation between Ukrainian and foreign archaeologists over
recent years. Every summer is the time of joint archaeological expeditions with
participation by colleagues from academic institutes in Ukraine, Russia, USA,
Italy, Great Britain, France, Poland, and other countries. Crimean museums
organized exhibitions of their treasures abroad. Ukrainian scholars work in
research centers and libraries in Western Europe and the USA. More and more
Russian and English speakers meet at scholarly conferences in Ukraine, Russia,
and Western Europe. Scientific publications of the former Soviet Union, present
Russia and Ukraine attract greater attention from Western colleagues, while at
the same time Western publications have become more available to us.
Needless to say, English is the language of international communication. For
archaeology, this is not only the case of direct communication at conferences,
in institutes, or during excavations in the field, but also for communication
via publications at scholarly journals, monographs, Internet and e-mail. The
scholarship of both Russian and English archaeological work has elaborate
systems of terminology that are missing in standard dictionaries. In order to
realize fruitful scholarly and pedagogical contacts, researchers require a quick
search method for an equivalent to necessary archaeological term. It is my hope
that this dictionary will make its contribution to solving linguistic problems for
the dynamically developing science of archaeology.
The novelty of this publication lies primarily in its concept: the dictionary
is aimed for practical use during fieldwork, that is to say during direct
communication with other scholars. Accordingly, the authors aim was to
select and include into the dictionary terms that are most widely used in the
practical language of archaeologists. The dictionary also contains terminology
of adjoining disciplines of history, architecture, conservation, numismatics,
museum studies, and others that is widely used by archaeologists, and also
words that are absolutely necessary for communication in the field (i. e. names
of tools, human bones, materials, etc.), as well as popular archaeological jargon.
The structure of the dictionary is similar to that of phrase books to help the
user not only find the translation of a term, but also phonetic transcription and
pronunciation. The small size and pocket format make the use of the book easier
in the field.
This dictionary is addressed, first of all, to students of Crimea, which is why
it includes terms to characterise the variety of archaeological heritage of the
peninsula, peoples, and cultures that existed in the territory of Crimea from
Stone Age to Mediaeval period. Many words and phrases cited in this book
are so specific, that they can hardly be found in standard printed or electronic
English-Russian dictionaries. Hopefully, this dictionary will be useful for not
only professional archaeologists, but also for historians, conservators, students,
as well as interpreters.
The methods used to compile the dictionary include: researching the best
archaeological dictionaries published in Great Britain and the USA (for English
terminology), Russia and Ukraine (for Russian terminology); analysing works
on the classification of archaeological materials issued in English and Russian
languages; selecting terms from archaeological scholarship; studying dictionaries
of adjacent disciplines (architecture and warfare in particular); and consultations
with local and foreign experts. The difference between existing English and
Russian archaeological classifications, as well as the presence of terms in every
language that are absent in the other one, are taken into consideration. Generally
iv

used words have been cross-checked with other dictionaries. Both printed and
digital sources have been studied.
The first edition of this book was published about two years ago, in a small
number of copies, and was distributed in a few months. Since that time, I had
been continuing my work of studying and collecting special lexicon. In result,
the decision has been made to enlarge the dictionary with new terms that
describe, in particular, architecture, archaeological conservation, ancient glass
and pottery. Many dictionary entries have become bigger in size, some misprints
and shortcomings, which have been discovered, are eliminated now. The new
edition of the dictionary keeps its former structure. It consists of two parts,
English-Russian and Russian-English, each containing about 4,000 entries.



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4000 .

Acknowledgements
I would like to express my most deep gratitude to all those people who
assisted and supported this project, without which this work would never have
been imagined, much less realized. Above all, I wish to thank the Institute of
Classical Archaeology of the University of Texas as Austin and the Packard
Humanities Institute for bringing this work to life. Much of the conceptual
work of this dictionary was made possible in 2003 by a grant from the
Autonomous Republic of Crimea for junior scholars in the humanities.
In 1996, Vladimir Vlasov (Simferopol) first suggested that I compile an
English-Russian archaeological dictionary. At that moment, I had already
encountered significant problems with translations of archaeological articles
due to inadequate terminology in most dictionaries. However, writing of the
dictionary then was an unthinkable task due to other factors. These obstacles
were mainly overcome thanks to my English teachers: Nataliya Radochina
(Tauric National University, Simferopol), and Jonathan Eagles and Judith N.
Rasson (Central European University, Budapest), who greatly expanded my
vocabulary and put it into organised form.
I must acknowledge special thanks to Glenn R. Mack (Austin), whose
continuous and comprehensive support, as well as his energy, organisational
skill, and benevolence, made this publication possible. I am very grateful
to Julia Ryzhova (Sevastopol), for she took the trouble to read the text of
the dictionary, showed me its shortcomings, added many important terms,
and expressed several considerations on the structure of the work, which
are accepted thankfully. Considerable assistance to my work was given
by Lucy Grinenko (Sevastopol). Many important terms were also offered
by colleagues and friends of mine: Nataliya Ginkut (Sevastopol), Irina
Zavadskaya (Simferopol), Daniil Kostromichyov (Sevastopol), Lyudmila
Ryzhova (Sevastopol), and many others. The last but not the least, it is a
particularly pleasant duty to pay my special tribute to my parents, Lyudmila
and Igor, for their various help which was never restricted to working with
terminology only.
None of those who are mentioned above are responsible for the mistakes
made in the text: all the errors and omissions in this dictionary must be my
own.

,

, . 1996 . ..
().

. , ,
.
..
() . .. (-
, ),
.
.. (, ),
, ,

vi

vii


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2003 .
.

viii

Guide to the Dictionary


Headwords are located in alphabetical order. Each headword (or each
meaning, in instances where a term has more than one meaning), as well as
each hyphenated word, makes a separate entry in the dictionary. Phrase or
locution with headword not included in the dictionary makes a special entry
as well. Headword translations are followed by particular phrases that use this
headword.
Modern English language allows different writing of composite words,
when principal word can be written separately, with hyphenation, or in one
word with attributive word (e. g.: arrow head, arrow-head, arrowhead). In
most cases, such words are put into dictionary entries according to the
principal word.
Headwords and head phrases are marked bold.
Meanings of a headword are marked with Arabic numerals: 1, 2, 3...
Meanings of a word or a phrase within dictionary entry are marked with Latin
letters with bracket: a), b), c)
Translations of terms are the main contents of dictionary entries. In case
when some explanation is necessary it is put in brackets and italicised.
An asterisk * indicates a case when the term has no exact translation.
Most headwords have a phonetic transcription given in square brackets []
immediately after its equivalent. If the equivalent has two ways of writing
that are pronounced in exactly the same way, the transcription is after the
second word. The pattern used to locate transcriptions differs from that in
most modern dictionaries thus making the given dictionary closer to usual
phrase books. However, exactly this pattern answers the goals of the given
book in the best way. This dictionary is aimed primarily for fieldwork, that is
to say, for use under the circumstances of direct contact with those who are
native speakers of other language. Hence its main goal is to provide the user
with a possibility of quick search not only for translation of a necessary word,
but also for pronunciation of its equivalent.
English pronunciation is given in accordance to an international phonetic
system. Transcriptions of English words are based on the Longman Dictionary
of Contemporary English (1999). For simplicity, only British pronunciation
is indicated; only one possible variant is chosen from a few, if available.
Transcriptions of Russian words are based on the system used in the Institute
of Classical Archaeology of the University of Texas at Austin.
Stress in phonetic transcriptions is placed before the syllable under stress.
At each headword there is italicised indication of: in the Russian part
gender of nouns and word class for all other parts of speech; in English part
word class is indicated for each part of speech, with a special sign of gender
for the nouns where available (e. g. ship). In case of phrases, word class of the
main word is indicated.
Equipollent variants of translation are divided by conjunction in Russian
part or conjunction or in English part. Non-equipollent variants are divided by
comma; rare variants are sometime indicated by preposition: or also.
Those entries more often or more widely used are located closer to the
beginning of the article. In case of all the variants are equipollent they are
listed in alphabetical order.
Russian adjectives, as well as ethnonyms are put in masculine form, if
possible.
Special terms or special meanings are supplied with conventional marks in
italics, e. g.: archaeol., archit., anat.
ix

American variants of writing terms are indicated as: Amer. Spoken forms
are indicated as: . or spoken.
In case of class of the word does not coincide with that of its equivalent in
the other language (or vice versa), there is necessary mark standing after the
word. In the same way verbs government (preposition, particle) is shown if
it differs in two languages. All such marks are italicized.
In compound terms, slash / separates interchangeable words, e. g.:
/ . If word or words in brackets are not italicized, this is
the case of the word(s) may be used as a part of the term, e. g.: (
) .
The Appendix contains additional explanations for the measuring systems
used in English and Russian traditions.

.
( , ,
), , ,
. ,
,
.
.

: ()
, , (,
arrow head, arrow-head, arrowhead). ,
.
.
: 1, 2, 3...

: a), b), c)
.
, ,
.
* ,
.

, []
. ,
,
.
,
,
, , ,
,
.

, .

. Longman Dictionary of
Contemporary English 1999 .
,
x

.
,
.

.
:
,
;
,
, (, ship).
.
:
, or.
, :
also.

. ,
, .
,
.
, ,
, : ., ., .
: Amer.
: . spoken.
,
( ),
. (,
) , .
.
/
. : / .
, , ,
, . : ( )
.
,
.

xi

Abbreviations -
.

archaeological

m.

masculine gender

architectural

n.

noun

. .

including

. .

accusative case

n. pl.

noun, having plural form only

verb

. .

dative case

ornam.

ornamental

singular form

part.

participle

noun, feminine gender

noun, masculine gender

pl.

plural form

plural form

pref.

prefix

for example

adverb

sing.

noun used with a singular verb

indeclinable form

tr.

transitive

,


( )

ornamental

v.

verb

. .

prepositional case

adjective

prefix

participle

spoken

conservational

. .

genitive case

abbreviated

noun, neutral

. .

instrumental case

also
noun, having only singular
form
chemical

abbr.

abbreviated

adj.

adjective

adv.

adverb

Amer.

American

archeol.

archaeological

archit.

architectural

attrib.

attributive

conserv.

conservational

(
)

e. g.

exempli gratia

etc.

et cetera

f.

feminine gender

intr.

intransitive

( )

xii

xiii

Russian pronunciation -
Consonants -
Symbol
Keyword

Approximate English equivalent



p

t, with the tongue at teeth, not at gums

d, with the tongue at teeth, not at gums

v, like in vase, vessel, villa

z, like in zone, zodiac, zigzag

sh

hard S, like in shock, shop, shuck

shch

very soft S, with tongue closer to teeth

zh

hard Z, like in treasure, measure, illusion

hard h, with jaws and lips closer

ch

ts

C, like in chain, chapel, chimney


middle between t and s, with tongue at gums similar
to plates, bits, crafts if pronounced fast
m

n, with the tongue at teeth, but not at gums

r, pronounced with tip of the tongue vibrating


short I, similar to that in a diphthong (after vowel),
like in make, fine, lie

Special symbols -
[ / ]

stress (always shown before syllable)

some people pronounce it and some not


soft (precedes consonant); like in English before I or J, e.g.: fibula cf.
hard in fust, list cf. long, tea cf. tank

Vowels -
i

i, like in copy, happy, poppy, both in stressed and


unstressed syllables
e, like in fret, net, web
middle between e and i (close to English q), in
unstressed syllables
A, like in cut, but, fun

P, like in block, hot, rod

middle between P and A, in unstressed syllables

V, like in foot, root, good

very hard i, pronounced in a rough way

Diphthongs -
Ie

je, similar to yahoo, Yahweh, Armenian

Io

jqV, like in yoke, yolk, York

Ia

jR, like in yard, yarn, yarmulke

Iu

jH, like in view, few, fusion

xiv

xv

English pronunciation -
Consonants -
Symbol
Keyword

peg
p

Long -
Approximate Russian equivalent

bed

tent

, ,

date

, ,

key

god

foot

vase

theatre

leather

soil

-

-

zone

ship

treasure

hand

chain

jug

map

gun

, ,

ring

west

lock

,
, ,

race

yard

keep

father

course

boot

E:

bird

, , ,

Diphthongs -
eI

lake

aI

pike

OI

coin

qV

stone

oV

stone

aV

round

Iq

ear

iq

burial

eq

there

Vq

tower

uq

ritual

Special symbols -
[ ]

()

[ , ]

: ,

Vowels -
Short -
I

kit

copy

, ,

fret

apse

block

cut

foot

ritual

about

, ,
, ,
(, , , , )

xvi

xvii

English alphabet
Aa
Bb
Cc
Dd
Ee
Ff
Gg
Hh
Ii
Jj
Kk
Ll
Mm
Nn
Oo
Pp
Qq
Rr
Ss
Tt
Uu
Vv
Ww
Xx
Yy
Zz

xviii

Part I. English-Russian Dictionary


I. -

abaculus n. (pl. abaculi) 1 (tessera) [/smalta]


[mPza/ichnyI /kubik] [/kubik mP/zaiki]
abaculus n. (pl. abaculi) 2 ( small abacus) *
abacus n. (pl. abaci or abacuses) [a/bak] [a/baka]
abamurus n. [kPntqr/fors]
abbey n. 1 (monastery) [a/batstvP] [mPna/styr]
abbey n. 2 (a church that is or once was part of a monastery)
[mPna/styrskaIa /tserkPf]
abecedarium n. (pl. abecedaria) or abecedary * ()
ablaq n. [ab/lak] * ( )
aboveground adj. (building) [na/zemnyI]
abraded part. [/storshyIsa] [za/tortyI]
abrasion n. [iz/nos] [sti/raniIe]
abrasive adj. [abra/zivnyI] [shli/fuIushchiI]
absorbent n. [apsPr/bent] [pPglP/titql]
abut v. [prilq/gat]
abutment n. [pq/ta] (, )
acanthus leath n. [list a/kanta] [list a/kanfa]
acanthus n. (pl. acanthi or acanthuses) [a/kant] [a/kanf]
Accad n. [a/kat]
Accadian adj. [a/katskiI]
accompaniments n. pl. (to burial) [sPprPvPzh/daIushchiy
invqn/tar] ( )
account n. . [/dannyIe] [svi/detqlstvP]
[iz/vestiIe] ()
accumulation n. [PtlP/zheniIe] ()
aceramic adj. [akqra/michqskiI] [bqskqra/michqskiI]
acetic adj. [/uksusnyI]
acetone n. [atsq/ton]
acetonic adj. [atsq/tonPvyI]
Acheulean n. or Acheulian n. [a/shol]
Acheulean adj. or Acheulian adj. [a/sholskiI]
acid n. [kislP/ta]; acetic acid ; formic acid
; hydrochloric acid ; sulfami acid
; sulphuric acid
acid-proof adj. [kislPtP/stoIkyI] [kislPtPu/pornyI]
acinaces n. [aki/nak]
acrylic n. (acrylic resin) [ak/ril]
acrylic n. attrib. [ak/rilovyI]; acrylic resin
acrolithic n. [akr/Plit]
acropolis n. [ak/ropPl]
acroter n. or acroterion n. (pl. acroteria or acroters) or acroterium n. (pl. acroteria)
[akrP/teriI]
activity n. [dq/IetqlnPst]; agricultural activity

actual size n. 1:1 [v mash/tabe P/din k PdnP/mu]


A. D., Amer. AD abbr. [/nashqI /ery], . . .,
[hristi/anskPI /ery] [hristi/anskPgP
lqtPischis/leniIa]; 25 AD 25 . .
add-on n. (detail of a vessel) * / (,
, )
adhesive n. [/vazhushchqIe vqshchqs/tvo]
[/svazyvaIushchqIe vqshchqs/tvo]
adjacent adj. c [/smezhnyI] [pri/stroIenyI]
adobe n. [syr/tsovyI kir/pich] [sy/rets] [sa/man]
[a/doba]
adobe n. attrib. . [glinP/bitnyI] . [syr/tsovyI]

. . [is syr/tsovPvP kirpi/cha]


adorn v. [bP/gatP ukra/shat]
adornment n. [ukra/sheniIe]
adytum n. (pl. adyta) [adi/ton] ( )
adze, Amer. adz n. [dPlP/to]
aedicula n. (pl. aediculae) [q/dikula]
aegis n. [q/gida]
Aeneolithic n. [qnqP/lit]
Aeneolithic adj. [qnqPli/tichqskiI]
Aeolian n. [qP/liIets]
Aeolian adj. [qP/liIskiI]
aerobic adj. [aq/robnyI]
agate n. [a/gat]
agate adj. [a/gatPvyI]
age n. 1 (time in life or existence) [/vozrast]; dental age ()
; radiocarbon age ; the age at death

age n. 2 (historic period) [/vrema] [q/poha]
age n. 3 (main archaeological periodisation) [vek] ( ); Stone
Age ; Bronze Age ; Copper Age
; Iron Age ; Early Iron Age ;
Roman Age ; Middle Ages

agent n. [/faktPr] (); bonding agent ; doping agent
/ ; matting agent ;
release agent ( )
aggregate n. (rushed stone, gravel, or sand added to cement to make concrete)
[zapPl/nitql] ( )
agora n. (pl. agorae or agoras) [agP/ra]
agoranomos n. (pl. agoranomoi) [agPra/nom]
agricultural adj. [sqlskPhP/zaIstvqnyI]
[zqmlq/delchqskiI] ( ); agricultural
installation
agriculturalist n. [zqmlq/delqts]
agriculture n. [zqmlq/deliIe] [/selskPIe
hP/zaIstvP] ( , ); improvements in agriculture
;
slash-and-burn agriculture -

air pocket n. (in ceramic) [ka/verna] ( )


aisle n. [bPkP/voI nef]; choir aisle * ,
( )
aiseless adj. [PdnP/nefnyI]
ajour adj. [a/zhurnyI]
Akkad n. [a/kat]
Akkadian adj. [a/katskiI]
alabaster n. [alq/bastr] [gips]
alabaster n. attrib. [alq/bastrPvyI] [/gipsPvyI]
alabastron n. (pl. alabastra) or alabasrtum n. (pl. alabastra) 1 (vessel)
[ala/bastr] [alq/bastr] ()
alabastron n. (pl. alabastra) or alabasrtum n. (pl. alabastra) 2 (stone)
[ala/bastr] [alq/bastr] ( )
Alan n. [a/lan]
Alanic adj. [a/lanskiI]
alcohol n. [q/tilPvyI spirt], [spirt]
alcoholic adj. . . [is q/tilPvPvP /spirta],
[spir/tovyI]
alignment n. 1 (megalithic) [a/leIa mqn/girPf]
alignment n. 2 or coin alignment [PriIen/tatsyIa]
[sPPtnP/shenie P/seI] (); coin alignment /

( 180 ); medal alignment /


( 0 )
alkali (pl. alkalis or alkalies) [/shcholPch]
alkaline n. [shchqlPch/noI]
alloy n. [splaf]; copper alloy
alluvium n. (pl. alluvia or alluviums) [na/nos]
[aluvi/alnyIe PtlP/zheniIa] ., [a/luviI]
almandine or almandite n. [alman/din]
altar n. 1 (table for pagan service) [/zhertvqnik]
altar n. 2 (table for Christian liturgy) [al/tar] [prq/stol] ( );
funerary altar ; inscribed funerary altar
; sculptured altar
altar n. 3 (part of church) [al/tarnaIa chast] [al/tar] (
, )
altar rail n. or altar rails pl. [al/tarnaIa prq/grada]
[prqdal/tarnaIa prq/grada]
amber n. [Iqn/tar]
amber adj. [Iqn/tarnyI]
ambo n. [am/von]
ambulatory n. (passageway behind the choir) * ( )
amphictyony n. [amfiktq/oniIa]; inter-city amphictyony

amphiglyphon n. (pl. amphiglypha) (double faced memorial)


[amfi/glifqn] ( )
amphiprostyle n. [amfiprP/stil]
amphiprostyle adj. [amfiprP/stilnyI]
amphistylar adj. [amfi/stilnyI] (
)
amphitheatre, Amer. amphitheater n. [amfitq/atr]
amphora n. (pl. amphorae or amphoras) [/amfPra]; amphora with conical body
; amphora with double handles
; amphora with running dog corrugation
( ) ; amphora with zones
of corrugation ; globular amphora
( ); grooved amphora
; neck-amphora *
; one-piece
amphora * (
); panathenaic amphora ;
pointed amphora ; pseudo-panathenaic amphora
- ; stamped amphora ;
table amphora * ( );
transport amphora (transport amphorae pl.
., .); waisted amphora ; wine
amphora
amphoriskos n. (pl. amphoriskoi) [amfP/risk]
ampulla n. (pl. ampullae) [/ampula] (
, , )
amulet n. [amu/let] [obq/rek]
anaerobic adj. [anaq/robnyI]
analemma n. (pl. analemmata or analemmas) (archit.) [ana/lema]
[amfi/lema] [anfi/lema]
analogy n. [ana/logiIa]; by analogy with c; draw an analogy

analysis n. (pl. analyses) [a/nalis]; laboratory analysis ;
metric analysis ; phosphate analysis ;
statistical analysis
anatomical or anatomic adj. [anatP/michqskiI]; in anatomical
connection / connexion . .; individuals
in anatomical connection / connexion ()


anchor n. [/IakPr]
ancient adj. 1 (ancient Greek or Roman) [an/tichnyI]
ancient adj. 2 (very old) [/drevniI]
ancient-like adj. . [arha/ichnyI] . .
[arha/ichnPvP /oblika]
andamento n. (mosaic: the direction of the rows of tesserae) *
( )
andron n. [an/dron]
anepigraphic adj. [anepi/grafnyI]
angobe n. [an/gop]
angobed adj. . [angP/birPvanyI] .
[pP/krytyI an/gobPm]
animal n. [zhy/votnPIe]; domestic animal ; domesticated
animal ; wild animal
ankle n. [lP/dyshka]
annexe, Amer. annex n. [pri/stroIka]
annexed part. c [/smezhnyI] [pri/stroIqnyI]
annulet n. 1 (general) [a/nul] ()
annulet n. 2 (of a Doric capital) [rqmq/shok] ( )
Annunciation n. [blagP/veshchenIe]
anta n. (pl. antae) [ant] [/anta]
ante mortem adv. adj. [pP/smertnyI] .
antechamber n. [pq/rednaIa] [pri/hozhqIa]
[vesti/bul]
antefix n. (pl. antefixa or antefixes) [an/tefiks]
anteroom n. [pq/rednaIa] [pri/hozhqIa]
[vesti/bul]
anthelion n. (pl. anthelia or anthelions) [an/teliI]
anthemion n. (pl. anthemia) [an/temiI]
anthropology n. * ; physical anthropology
; cultural anthropology ;
historical anthropology
anthropomorphic adj. . [antrPpP/morfnyI]
. [antrPpP/morf]
antique n. [/drevnPst] ()
antiquity n. 1 (period) [/drevnPst] (); Classical antiquity /
; extreme antiquity
antiquity n. 2 (item) [/drevnPst] (); Classical antiquities
/ ; prehistoric antiquities

anvil n. [nakP/valna]
anvil side n. [/avqrs]
aperture n. [Pt/verstiIe] [prP/Iom] ( , . .)
apex n. [ver/shina] [verh]
apoikia n. [a/poIkiIa]
apotropaic adj. . [apPtrP/peI]
appadana n. [apa/dana] (
, )
apparent porosity n. [/kazhushchqIqsa /poristqst]
appearance n. (outward aspect) [vit] (); outward appearance ;
visual appearance of the object (
)
application n. 1 (act of applying something) [nalP/zheniIe]; brush
application (of glaze) [nanq/seniIe /kistIu] (
)
application n. 2 (decoration on vessel) [na/lep]
appliqu n. 1 (sewn to) [na/shyfka] [nashyv/naIa
/blashka]
appliqu n. 2 (applied to hard backing) [na/klatka] [Pb/klatka]

[plas/tina]; Dyonisos appliqu


; lion appliqu
appliqu n. 3 (glass decorative technique) * (
)
apse n. or apsis n. (pl. apsides) [ap/sida]
apsidal adj. [s ap/sidPI] . .
apsidiole n. [apsidi/ola] ( )
apteral adj. (columniation) * ( )
aqueduct n. [akvq/duk] [vPdP/vot] [vPdPprP/vot]
arabesque n. (design) [ara/beska]
arasta n. [aras/ta] * ( )
arcade or arcading n. [ar/kada]; arcade of five columns ;
blind arcade
; shady arcade (Islamic art)
/ (
)
arc-boutant n. (pl. arcs-boutants) [arkbu/tan]
arch n. [/arka]; acute arch * ; apsidal
arch * ( ); basket handle arch
; bifoliolate arch ; blind/false arch
/ ; chancel arch / ;
convex arch ; corbel arch ; depressed
arch ; equilateral arch
; four-centre arch
;hanging arch ; horseshoe arch
; intersecting arches ( ); lancet arch
( ); multifoliolate arch
; ogee / keel arch / ;
parabolic arch ; pentafoliolate arch
; pointed arch ; principal arch (formeret)
; quatrefoil arch ; radiated / round arch or
semi-circular arch / / ;
relieving / unloading arch ; ribbed arch
; Roman / true arch ; segmental arch ;
shouldered arch ; skew arch
, / ; stilted arch
; supporting arch ; tented arch
; traverse / transverse arch ; trefoil arch
; triangular arch ; triumphal arch
; Tudor arch
archaeo- pref. - [arhqP]
archaeoastronomy, Amer. archeoastronomy n. [arhqPastrP/nomiIa]
archaeobotany, Amer. archeobotany n. [arhqPbP/tanika]
archaeological, Amer. archeological adj. [arhqPlP/gichqskiI]
archaeological evidence n. . [arhqPlP/gichqskiIe

svi/detelstva]
archaeological resource n. [arhqPlP/gichqskiI
/pamqtnik] ( )
archaeologist, Amer. archeologist n. [arhq/olPk]; field archaeologist

archaeology, Amer. archeology n. [arhqP/logiIa]; classical archaeology
- ; field / fieldworking
archaeology ; maritime archaeology or marine
archaeology or underwater archaeology ;
prehistoric archaeology
archaeozoology, Amer. archeozoology n. [arhqPzPP/logiIa]
archaic adj. [arha/ichnyI]
arched adj. [/arPchnyI]
arched lining n. [/arPchnaIa /klatka /svoda]
archeo- pref., Amer. - [arhqP] (.: archaeo-)

archer n. [/luchnik] [strq/lok iz /luka]


arching n. (masonry) [/klatka /svoda]
architect n. [arhi/tektPr]
architectonic adj. [arhitqk/turnyI]
architectonic member [arhitqk/turnaIa dq/tal]
architectonics n. 1 (art) [/zotchqstvP] [arhitqk/tura]
architectonics n. 2 (structural design) [arhitqk/tonika]
architectural adj. [arhitqk/turnyI]
architectural member n. [arhitqk/turnaIa dq/tal]
architecture n. [arhitqk/tura]; Crusader architecture
; fortificational architecture ;
Islamic architecture ; monumental architecture
; Ottoman architecture
; palatial architecture ; ritual
architecture ; wattle-and-daub architecture
-
architrave n. [arhi/traf] [epi/stil]
archivolt n. [arhi/volt]
archway n. *
arcosolium n. (pl. arcosolia) [arkP/soliI] [arka/soliI]
ard n. (primitive plough) c [sP/ha]
area n. 1 (large region) [ra/Ion] [/oblast] [/zona]
[rqgi/on]; Black Sea area or Pontic area ; Bug area
; Dnieper area ; northern Black Sea area or north
Pontic area ; outlying area .
area n. 2 (site) [u/chastPk]; agricultural area
; dwelling / residential area ; excavation area
; storage area (in a museum) ; void areas (in
an artifact) ( )
argil n. [gPn/charnaIa /glina] ( )
arm n. 1 (human limb) [ru/ka] ( ,
); upper arm
arm n. 2 (archit.) [ru/kaf] (.); arm of the cross
arm n. 3 (of steelyard) [kPrP/myslP] (); scaled arm

arm n. 4 or arms pl. (heraldry, insignia, on coins) [gerp] ( ,


)
armband n. [na/plechnyI bras/let]
Armenian n. [arma/nin]
Armenian adj. [ar/manskiI]
armilla n. (pl. armillae) [ar/mila] (
)
armour, Amer.armor n. 1 (for individual) [dPs/peh] ., [brP/na]
., [/laty] ., [/pantsyr] .; ceremonial armour
; defensive armour ; full
suit of armour ; knightly
armour ; mail armour
; plate/plated armour ; scale armour
; splint armour - (
)
armour, Amer. armor n. 2 (in general) [dPs/pehi] ., . [/laty] .
array n. [ma/sif] ()
arris n. (pl. arris or arrises) [rq/bro] [/kromka] [/vystup]
(, )
arrow n. 1 (weapon) [strq/la]
arrow n. 2 (indicatory) [/strelka]
arrow straightener n. [vyprq/mitql strel]
arrowhead money n. pl. - [mP/nety /strely] .
arrowhead n. (tip of an arrow) [nakP/nechnik strq/ly];
arrowhead vane ; four-aged arrowhead

;
four-vane
arrowhead
;
socketed arrowhead
; stemmed arrowhead or tanged
arrowhead ; tanged-and-barbed point
(of stone) ( ); three-edged
arrowhead ; three-vane / triangular /
trilobate arrowhead ; bilobate / twovane arrowhead
arsenic n. [my/shIak]
arsenic adj. [myshIa/kovyI]
art n. [is/kustvP]; applied art - ;
coroplastic art ; Gothic art
; funerary art ;
jewelry art ; monumental
art ; rock art ;
Romanesque art

artefact n. [artq/fakt] [arti/fakt]


artesonado n. a [artqsP/nadP] *
( )
article n. 1 (written) [sta/tIa]; collected articles
article n. 2 (individual thing) [prqd/mqt]; toilet article

artifact n. [arti/fakt] [artq/fakt]; fragmentary artifact



artificial adj. [is/kustvqnyI]
artisan n. [/master] ()
artists impression n. (of something) [vari/ant rqkPn/struktsyI]
[gra/fichqskaIa rqkPn/struktsyi]
aryballos n. (pl. aryballoi) [ari/bal]; globular aryballos *
; lentoid aryballos * /
; piriform aryballos ;
ring aryballos *
ash n., often pl.: ashes 1 (decayed organics) [tlen]; ashes of bone ;
ashes of wood
ash n., often pl.: ashes 2 (of fire or cremated burial) [zP/la] [/pepql]
ashlar n. 1 (squared block) [kvadr] [blok] ()
ashlar n. 2 (masonry) [/kvadrPvaIa /klatka]
[/klatka is /tosanPvP /kamna]
[rqgu/larnaIa /klatka]; oursed ashlar * ;
random ashlar
ashlar n. attrib. * [is /tosanPvP /kamna] . .
ashy adj. [zP/listyI]
askos n. (pl. askoi) [ask]
assault n. [shturm]
assemblage n. [/komplqks]; ceramic assemblage
; closed assemblage ; drinking / sympotic
assemblage * ; faunal assemblage
; funeral assemblage ;
open assemblage ; pottery assemblage
; vessel assemblage
association n. (of finds) [/komplqks] (); genuine / close association
; open association
astragal n. [astra/gal] (.)
Assyria n. [a/siriIa]
Assyrian adj. [asi/riIskiI]
astynomos n. (pl. astynomoi) [asti/nom]
ataghan n. [Iqta/gan]
Atlas n. [at/lant]
atlas n. [/atlas]

atlatl n. [kPpIemq/talka]
atrium n. (pl. atria or atriums) [/atrium] [/atriI]
attachment n. 1 (part of a book) [prilP/zheniIe]
attachment n. 2: handle attachment [/mestP krqp/leniIa
/ruchki] [/mestP pri/lepa /ruchki]
attic n. 1 (part of classical facade) [/attik]
attic n. 2 (room under roof) [man/sarda]
Attic adj. [a/tichqskiI]
attribute v. [Pprqdq/lat] ( ,
)
attribute n. [atri/but]; morphological attributes (of a vessel)
()
atypical adj. [nqti/pichnyI] [ati/pichnyI]
avant-corps n. pl. (archit.) . [vystu/paIushchiI fa/sat]
aventurine or aventurin n. (glass paste) [avqntu/rin] (
)
awl n. [/shilP] (pl. )
awning n. [tent]
axe, Amer. ax n. [tP/por] ( ); battle axe
; boat axe ; double axe
; dressing axe ; flanged axe
; flat axe ; polished axe ;
shouldered axe ; socketed axe
; wedge axe
axe-head, Amer. ax-head n. [tP/por] (, )
axe-hammer n. - [tP/por /molPt]
axe-shaft n. [tPpP/rishche]
axis n. [os] ()
axle n. [os] ()
axonometric projection or axonometry n. [aksPnP/metriIa]
azimuth n. [/azimut]
azulejo n. [asu/lehP] *
( )

B
bab n. (gate) [bap] ( )
Babylon n. [vavi/lon]
Babylonia n. [vavi/loniIa]
Babylonian n. [vavi/lonanin]
Babylonian adj. [vavi/lonskiI]
bacchant n. (pl. bacchants or bacchantes) (he) [vak/hant], (she)
[vak/hanka]
bacchantic adj. [vak/hichqskiI]
Bacchus n. [vakh]
back n. 1 (part of human body) [spi/na]
back n. 2 (of a stone tool) [/spinka] ( )
backbone n. [pPzvP/nochnik] [pPzvP/nochnyI
stolp] [hrq/bet]
backfill n. [Pt/val]
backfilling n. [kPnsqr/vatsyIa ras/kopa]
background n. 1 (information, data) [PsnP/vaniIe]; against this or that
background
background n. 2 (education) [pPdgP/tofka] ()
background n. 3 (colour) [grunt] ()
background n. 4 (image) [fon]; the image of Christ set against a gold background

backing n. [Ps/nova]
backyard n. [/zadniI dvor]

badge n. [/blaha] (small) [/blashka]; sewing badge /


/
badgir n. (wind tower) [vqntqlatsi/onaIa /bashna]
( )
baetulus n. (pl. baetuli) or baetyl (pl. baetyls) or baetylus (pl. baetyli)
[svq/shchennyI /kamqn]
baetylic adj. *
bag n. [/sumka] (usually plastic or paper) [pa/ket]
bagh n. (garden) [bak] ( )
bailey n. 1 (wall) [/vneshnaIa stq/na] (, )
bailey n. 2 (yard) [dvor] (); inner bailey ; outer
bailey
balance n. (measuring instrument) [vq/sy] . ()
balcony n. [bal/kon]; stone carved balcony

baldachin or baldachino n. [balda/hin]
baldric n. [/perqvas]; broadsword baldric ; rapier
baldric ; sword baldric
balk n., Amer. [/brofka]
ball n. (to be thrown by a weapon or machine) [Iqd/ro] [bol] (
); sling ball
ballista n. (pl. ballistae) [ba/lista]; hand ballista (Roman crossbow)
( )
balsamarium n. (pl. balsamaria) [balza/mariI]
baluster n. [ba/lasina]
balustrade n. [balus/trada]
band n. 1 (stripe) [/lenta]; bridle band ; leg band (decoration)

band n. 2 (ornam.) [/poIqs] [fris] [/Iarus] (.)
band n. 3 (on vessel) [na/lep] (cordon) [/valik]
bandage n. [bint]; crepe bandage ; gauze bandage

bank n. 1 (embankment) [/nasyp]; joining bank ()


bank n. 2 (sloping land) [/berqk]
bank n. 3: savings bank (container) [kP/pilka]
banner n. [flak] [/znama]; processional banner or church banner

baptistery or baptistry or baptisterium n. 1 (building) [krq/shchalna]


[baptis/teriI]
baptistery or baptistry n. 2 (font) [ku/pel]
bar n. 1 (axis) [os] ()
bar n. 2 (piece of metal or wood) [brus]; carrier bar ; glazing bar
( ); spreader bar
bar n. 3 (fine) [/sterzhqn]
barb n. [chqrq/shok] ()
barbarian n. [/varvar]
barbarian adj. [/varvarskiI]; barbarian in its style and execution

barbican n. [barba/kan] [barbi/ken]
barbotine n. [barbP/tin]
bardiglio n. * (, , )
barn n. [am/bar]
barracks n. pl. . [ka/zarma]
barrel n. 1 (container) [/bochka]
barrel n. 2 (of a cannon) [stvol]
barrette n. [za/kolka] [za/kolka dla vP/los]
barrow n. 1 (burial mound) [kur/gan] [kur/gan-naIa /nasyp]
( ); bell barrow ; bowl barrow
; disc barrow ; double barrow
or twin barrows ; long barrow ; round

barrow ; saucer barrow


barrow n. 2 (wheelbarrow) [/tachka]
bartizan n. [barti/zana]
base n. 1 (of a statue or a building) [pPsta/ment] [/baza]
[PsnP/vaniIe] [pPd/nozhIe]; statue base

base n. 2 (background) [PsnP/vaniIe] [Ps/nova]; foundation base
; road base
base n. 3 (of a vessel) [dno] (. ) [/dontse] [pPd/don]
(); conoidal / pointed base ; flat base ; footring base ; globular / rounded base
base n. 4 (headquarters) [/baza]; archaeological base
baseboard n. [/plintus]
basement n. [pPd/val] [pPd/valnPIe pPmq/
shcheniIe] (storey) [pPd/valnyI q/tash] (used for
household needs only) [/potpPl]
base-ring n. [pPd/don] [kPltse/voI pPd/don]
basilica n. [ba/zilika]; domed basilica ; longitudinal
basilica
basilican adj. [bazili/kalnyI] ( )
basin n. 1 (general) [/IomkPst]
basin n. 2 (round, for water) [tas]; lustral basin
basin n. 3 (elongated, for washing or feeding animals) [kP/rytP]
basin n. 4 (fine, for food) [/miska]
basin n. 5 (of a fountain) [ba/seIn] ()
basin n. 6 or river basin n. [ba/seIn rq/ki]
basket n. [kPr/zina]
basketry n. (wares) [plq/tonyq iz/deliIa]
bas relief n. [barq/lIef]
bastion n. [basti/on] [basti/on-nPIe ukrqp/leniIe]
batch n. (mixture of components for making ceramic or glass) [/shihta]
baths, n. Amer. bath-house n. . [/bana], .: [/bani]; public baths

baton de commandment n. [zhezl na/chalnika]
batter n. (slope) [skos], [uk/lon]
battered adj. (archit.) * ,
battle-axe n. [sq/kira] [bPIq/voI tP/por]
battle-belt n. [bPIq/voI /poIqs]
battlements n. pl. or battlement n. or battlemented parapet n.
[zup/chatyI para/pet] ( )
baulk n. [/brofka]
bay n. 1 (of a sea) [za/lif]
bay n. 2 (of a roof) [skat] ()
bay n. 3 (part of a building marked off by vertical elements) [prP/lot]
bay n. 4 (space in a building) [Pb/Iom] (.)
bay n. 5 (opening in a wall) [/nisha]
bay n. 6 (wing) [kry/lo] (.)
bayt al-mal n. [gPsu/darstvqnaIa ka/zna] (
)
bazaar or bazar n. [ba/zar] ()
B. C., Amer. BC abbr. [dP /nashqI /ery], . . .,
[dP hristi/anskPI /ery] [dP hristi/
anskPgP lqtPischis/leniIa]; 25 BC 25 . .
BCE abbr. (Before the Common / Christian / Current Era) [dP /nashqI
/ery], . . .
bead n. 1 [/busina] (. ); bead of nontranslucent glass
; bead of opaque glass ;
glass shard bead ; globular bead ;
melon bead ; spool-shaped bead -
; medallion pendant bead -

10

11

bead n. 2 (very fine) [/bisqrina] (. )


bead and reel n. (decorative motif) [/busy] (
)
beadwork n. [Pp/shifka P/dezhdy /busami]
[ukra/sheniIe P/dezhdy /busami]
beaker n. [/kubPk] ( , ); bell beaker
; drink beaker or drinkbeaker ;
funnel beaker ; long-neck beaker
; protruding foot beaker ()
beak-spouted adj. * (
) . .
beam n. [/balka] [brus]; carrying beam or supporting beam
; hammer beam (
); ridge beam (of a roof)
bec n. (stone tool) [kluf] ( ); alternate burinated bec

bed n. 1 (furniture) [krP/vat] [pP/stel] [/lozhe]
bed n. 2 (under foundation or dead body) [pPt/sypka]
[pPt/stilka]; mortar bed /
bedding n. 1 (under a wall) [pP/stel] (.)
bedding n. 2 (undercovering) [pPt/stilka]; mortar bedding, also bedding
mortar
bedding n. 3 (of poured down friable material) [pPt/sypka]
bedestan n. [bqdq/stan] [/krytyI /rynPk] (
)
bedrock n. [matqri/kovaIa ska/la] [matq/rik]
beef cattle breeds n. pl. [mas/noIe skPtP/vots-tvo]
believer n. [/veruIushchiI]; old believer (in Russia)

belfry n. [kPlP/kolna] ( )
bell n. 1 (big) [/kolPkPl]
bell n. 2 (fine, open shape) [kPlP/kolchik]
bell n. 3 (fine, closed shape) [bu/benchik]; sleigh bell
bellows n. pl. . [meh] [mq/ha] . ( )
bell-shaped adj. [kPlPkPlP/vidnyI]
[kPlPkPlP-P/braznyI]
bell-tower n. [kPlP/kolna]
belt n. [/poIqs] ( ); sword belt
belt-end n. [nPkP/nechnik /poIasa]
belvedere n. [belve/der]
bema n. [/bema] [/vima]
bench n. [ska/mIa]
benchmark n. [znak /mastqra]: a) (on a stone slab)
, b) (on a roof tile)
beneficiation n. (of clay) [Pt/muchivanIe /gliny]
[prPmy/vaniIe /gliny]
bentonite n. [bqntP/nit]
benzotriazole n. [bqnzPtriP/zol]
benzotriazolic n. [bqnzPtriP/zolnyI]
berm n. (level space separating two areas) [/berma]
besageur n. [na/plechnik] ( )
bezel n. [gnqz/do] [zhukP/vina] (, )
bi-apsidal adj. [dvuhap/sidnyI]
biconical adj. [bikP/nichqskiI]
bier n. [pPgrq/balnyIq nP/silki] .
biface n. [bi/fas] [ru/bilP]; cordiform biface
; core shaped biface ; elongated biface
; incomplete biface ; lanceolate
biface ; Micoquina biface ;
partial biface ; subcordiform biface

; subdiscoid biface ; sublanceolate


biface ; triangular biface or triangulate biface

billon n. [bi/lon] ( )
bimetallic adj. [bimqta/lichqskiI]
binder n. (binding agent) [/vazhushchqIe vqshchqs/tvo]
[/svazyvaIushchqIe vqshchqs/tvo]
biocidal adj. [biP/tsidnyI]
biocide n. [biP/tsyt]
biological group n. [biPlP/gichqskaIa /grupa]
birch bark n. 1 (material) [bq/rosta]
birch bark n. 2 (inscribed) [bqrqstq/naIa /gramota]
biritual adj. [biritu/alnyI]
bit-hilani n. [hila/ni] ( , )
bits or horse bits n. pl. [udi/la]; cruel bits ; single-ring horse-bits

black coring n. (of a shard) * (n
)
blacken v. [zachqr/nat]
blackened adj. [s chqr/neniIqm] . .
blackening n. [chqr/neniIe]
black-figure or black-figured adj. [chqrnPfi/gurnyI]
black-glazed adj. [chqrnP/lakPvyI]
black-lacquered adj. [chqrnP/lakPvyI]
black-on-red adj. [chqrnPfi/gurnyI]
black-slipped adj. [chqrnP/lakPvyI]
blacksmith n. [kuz/nets]
blade n. 1 (of a weapon) [kli/nok]; broad blade ; curved
blade ; double edge blade ; full
tang blade ; kriss blade
; rat-tale tang blade
; scalpel blade
; serrated blade
blade n. 2 (stone tool) [plas/tina] [usq/chonyI Pt/shchep];
Aurignacian blade ; backed blade (total backing)
/ /
; backed blade (partial backing)
; knife blade
; strangled blade /
bladelet n. [plas/tinka] ( ); backed bladelet
; denticulate bladelet ;
denticulate backed bladelet ;
truncated bladelet ; truncated baked bladelet
; notched
bladelet ; bladelet with inverse retouch or Dufour
bladelet
blank n. 1 (form) [blank]
blank n. 2 (half-finished product) [zagP/tofka]
blazon n. [gerp]
blister n. (in glaze) [pryshch] [puzy/rok] (
)
blistering n. (in glaze) [pry/shchi] [puzy/rki] . (
)
bloating n. (glaze defect) [puzy/ri] . ( )
blobs pl. (glass-making technique) *
( )
block n. 1 (solid piece) [blok]; impost block (); pillow
block (.); sod block
block n. 2 (quarter) [kvar/tal]; residential block or dwelling block or living
block

12

13

blockwork n. [/klatka stq/ny]


blood brotherhood n. [pPbra/timstvP]
bloom n. (of metal) [/kritsa]
blowing n. (glass-making technique) [vydu/vaniIe]
[/tehnika vydu/vaniIa] ( )
blown adj. (glass artifact) . . ()
bludgeon n. [/palitsa]
board n. 1 (piece of wood) [dPs/ka]; (hewn) boards ., .; ridge
board (of a roof)
board n. 2 (office) [sP/vet] (); editorial board
boat n. [/lotka]; small boat a) (nautical) , b) (container) *
; incense boat * ()
boat-shaped adj. [ladIe/vidnyI]
body n. 1 (of a being) [/telP]
body n. 2 (exluding head and limbs) [/tulPvishche]; dead body

body n. 3 (of a vessel) [/tulPvP]; decorated body ;
globular body ; hemispherical
body ; low body
body n. 4 (ceramic fabric) [kqra/michqskPIa /massa]
[/testP] [chqrq/pok]
body mix n. [sPs/taf /massy] [sPs/taf /testa]
[sPs/taf chqrqp/ka]
boiling n. (to remove soluble salts) [kipq/cheniIe] (
)
bold adj. (coin) [/chotkaIa] [s /chotkim izPbra/zheniIem]
. . [/chotkP Ptshtam/povanaIa] ()
bolt n. [za/por]
bombylion n. (pl. bombylia) [bPm/biliI]
bond n. (of masonry) [pqrq/vaska] (); common bond * /
(
) ; Flemish bond / / ;
running /stretcher bond / ()
bonded adj. (walls, masonry) [fpqrq/vasku] . (, )
bonded brickwork n. () [/klatka fpqrq/vasku]
bonded lining n. () [/klatka fpqrq/vasku]
bone n. 1: [kost]; animal bone ; calcined bones
; cheek bone ; ethmoid bone
; frontal bone ; hip bone
; human bone ; long bones ;
metacarpal bone ; nasal bone ; occipital bone
; parietal bone ; skeletal bones
; sphenoid bone ; splint bone
; tarsal bones ; temporal bone ;
thigh bone ; zygomatic bone
bone n. 2 (bone types): flat bones ; irregular bones ;
long bones ; short bones
bone n. 3: articulated bones ; disarticulated
bones

bone-carving n. [rqs/ba pP /kosti]
bonfire n. [kPs/tor]
bore n. [/vysvqrlenPIe Pt/verstiIe], (of a gun) [ka/nal]
()
borer n. [prP/kolka] ( ); atypical borer ;
borer on truncated plate ; micro borer
; multiple borer
borer-burin n. - [prP/kolka rq/zets]
boss n. 1 [/vystup] [/vypuklPst]; shield boss
boss n. 2 (archit.) [us/tup] (.)

boss n. 3 (of an arch) [pPd/veska] ()


boss n. 4 (on a glass or terracotta vessel) [/shishqchka] (
)
bothros n. (pl. bothroi) * ( ); purification bothros *

bottle n. 1 (container) [bu/tyl] [bu/tylka]
bottle n. 2 (fine, for perfumes) [fla/kon]; globular bottle
; spindle-shape toilet bottle ;
toilet bottle with double body
bottom n. [dno], (of a vessel) [/dontse] (. )
bouleuterion n. (pl. bouleuteria) [bulqf/teriI]
bow n. 1 (weapon) [luk]; composite bow ; sigmashaped bow
bow n. 2 (of a fibula or a brooch) [/spinka] [lu/chok] ();
highly arched bow ; narrow arched bow

bowcase n. [fut/lar dla /luka] [sagaI/dak]
[na/luchIe]
bowl n. 1 (for food) [/miska]; pottery bowl ; polypod bowl
( )
bowl n. 2 (for fruits or drinks, big) [/chasha]; bird bowl
; bowl with eyes ; ameo glass bowl
; cast mosaic bowl
; flat bowl ; footed bowl ; hemispherical bowl ; Ionian bowl ;
Megarian bowl ; mixing bowl *
; plain bowl (
); pottery bowl ; rosettes bowl

bowl n. 3 (for drinks, fine) [/chashka]
bowman n. (pl. bowmen) [/luchnik] [strq/lok iz /luka]
bow-shaped adj. [luch/kovyI]
box n. 1 (large and hard) [/Iashchik]
box n. 2 (usually small and fragile) [kP/ropka]; small box (for jewelry)
; money box
bracelet n. [bras/let]; expandable / adjustable bracelet ;
jemstone bracelet ; toothed bracelet

bracer n. (archers) [naru/kavnik] ( )


brachycephalic adj. [brahi/kran-nyI]
bracket n. [skP/ba], (iron) [krPn/shteIn], (building) [kPn/sol]
brass n. [la/tun]
brassard or brassart n. [na/plechnik]
brattice n. [/vykush] ( )
braze v. 1 (to make of brass) [izgPtP/vlat iz la/tuni]
braze v. 2 (to decorate with brass) [ukra/shat la/tunIu]
braze v. 3 (to make hard like brass) [zaka/lat] (
)
braze v. 4 (solder) [pa/Iat /tvordym pri/poIem]
brazier n. [zha/rovna]
brazing n. (soldering with use of a hard solder) [/paIka
/tvordym pri/poIem]
breach n. (rupture) [prP/lom] ( )
break n. (place where vessel is broken) [skol] [iz/lom]; fresh / new
break ; old break
breastbone n. [gru/dina]
breastplate or breast-plate n. [na/grudnik] ( )
breastwork n. [para/pet]
breccia n. [/brekchiIa] (,
)

14

15

breeds of horses n. pl. [kPnq/vots-tvP]


brick n. [kir/pich]; burned brick ; facing brick
; glazed brick ; mud
brick or raw brick ; sun-baked
brick ; sun-dried brick

brick adj. [kir/pichnyI]
bricklayer n. [/kamqnshchik]
brickmaker n. *
brickwork n. [kir/pichnaIa /klatka]; bonded brickwork
; decorative brickwork ; herringbone
brickwork ; patterned brickwork

brickwork adj. [kir/pichnyI] [/zdelanyI is


kirpi/cha]
bridge n. [most]; arch bridge
bridle n. [uz/da] [uz/dechka]
bristles n. pl. (made of several bunches) [/shchotka]
broadsword n. [pa/lash]; two-hand broadsword
bromine n. [brom]
bronze n. 1 (material) [/bronza]
bronze n. 2: bronzes n. pl. or bronze ware n. [iz/deliIa iz /bronzy]
bronze adj. [/bronzPvyI]
bronzesmith n. [/bronzPvyh del /master]
[brPnzP/del]
bronzework n. 1 (technology) [brPnzP/deliIe]
bronzework n. 2 (ware) [iz/deliIa iz /bronzy] .
brooch n. [/fibula] ( ) [brosh] - [/fibula
brosh]; brooch in the form of a fly or insect brooch -
/ ; brooch with knobbed inset to
bow ; crescent type brooch
; crossbow brooch
; cruciform brooch -
c ; divided bow brooch
; double bow brooch
; equal-armed brooch
; inscribed brooch ; looped foot
brooch ; moulded brooch
; one-piece brooch /
; plate brooch ; radiate-headed brooch:
a) (having a head with five knobs between straight edges, a short barched
bow, and a long foot also with lateral knobs) , b) (without
important knobs of the head plate) ; serrated
edge brooch ; single bow brooch
; triple bow brooch ; twopiece brooch / ; umbonate disk brooch
; zoomorphic brooch
broom n. [/shchotka] ()
brush n. 1 (fine) [kist], (very fine) [/kistPchka] (); glass
bristle brush ; squeeze brush *

brush n. 2 (big) [/shchotka]
brushing n.(overlapping and uneven lines covering the surface of vessel) *
(
)
bucket n. [vq/dro]; water bucket
buckle n. [/prashka]; belt buckle or strap end buckle ;
buckle with cast integral plate ; circular
buckle ; decorated buckle * ;
eagle-headed buckle ; plain buckle *

( ); simply decorated buckle *


/ / ; shoe buckle
; spur buckle *
buckle-plate n. [shchi/tok]
bucraneum n. (pl. bucranea) or bucrane [buk/ran] [buk/raniI]
building n. 1 (action) [strP/itqlstvP]; church building
; fortress / fortification building /
; monumental building
; period of building c
building n. 2 (structure) [/zdaniIe] [pP/stroIka]; adobe building
; apsidal building ;
building is sunk into ; centralized building
; frame building ;
household building or industrial building ;
multi-storey building ; one-storey building
; public building ;
residential / living / dwelling building ; stilted building
; two-storey building ; wattle
and daub building -
building n. 3: buildings n. pl. (urban area) . [za/stroIka]; urban buildings

bulb of percussion n. [u/darnyI bugP/rok]
bulbous adj. (archit.) [/lukPvichnyI] (.)
bulla n. (pl. bullae) [/bula] [pq/chat]
bullet n. [/pula]
bulwark n. 1 (earthwork) [val] [/nasyp]
bulwark n. 2 (defensive wall) [PbPrP/nitqlnaIa stq/na]
bulwark n. 3 (fortified rampart) *
burg n. [burk] [ukrqp/lonyI /gorPt] (
)
burgher n. [gPrP/zhanin] ( )
burial n. 1 (ceremony) [/pohPrPny] ., [pPgrq/beniIe]
[pPgrq/balnaIa tsqrq/moniIa]
burial n. 2 (grave) [pPgrq/beniIe] [zahPrP/neniIe];
burial no. was found associated with (artifacts) /
( ); burial in sitting
position / ; burial in treetrunk sarcophagus (pl. sarcophagi) or tree-trunk burial /
; childs burial / ;
contracted burial (
); cremated burial /
/ ; crouched burial /
( ); flexed
burial / ;
horses burial , ; in-ground burial
/ ; inhumated burial /
/ ; jar burial
/ (); main
burial or primary burial / ; open-air
burial / ;
prone burial /
(); secondary burial / ;
sacrificial burial ; supine burial or extended
burial / ;
twin burial /
burial adj. [pPgrq/balnyI]
burin n. [rq/zets] ( ); angle burin ; angle
dihedral burin ; asymmetrical dihedral burin
or canted burin ; atypical burin
; burin on broken blade

16

17

; burin on truncated piece ;


burin plan or flat burin ; core-shaped burin
; mixed multiple burin ; multiple
burin on retouched truncation
; Noailles burin ; straight dihedral burin
; transverse burin on lateral retouch
; transverse burin on notch
; typical burin
burin-end-scraper n. - [skrq/bok rq/zets]
burj n. (fortified tower) [burdzh] c [krqpPs/naIa /bashna]
( )
burnished adj. [lP/shchonyI]; black-burnished ; carefully
burnished
burnishing n. (of a vessel) [lP/shcheniIe]
burnt or burned part. [sgP/refshyI], (not completely) [PbgP/
refshyI] [gP/relyI]
bury v. [hPrP/nit]
bust n. [bust]; portrait bust
butt n. [ftok] [pPt/tok] ()
butter churn n. [maslP/boIka]
button n. (cloth) [/pugPvitsa]
buttress n. [kPntqr/fors]; flying buttress ;
stepped buttresses
Byzantine n. [vizan/tiIqts]
Byzantine adj. [vizan/tiIskiI]
Byzantium n. [vizan/tiIa]

cairn n. [/kamqnnyI kur/gan]; court cairn


()
caisson n. [kq/son] [ka/seta] [kasq/ton]
caked adj. (in fire) [/spokshiIsa]
calcaneum n. (pl. calcanea) or calcaneus n. (pl. calcanei) [/
patPchnaIa kost]
calcined adj. [prPka/lonnyI]
caldarium n. [kal/dariI]
caldron n. [kP/tol]
calix n. (pl. calicis) [/kilik]
calomel n. [/hloristaIa rtut]
calotte n. 1 (type of vaulting) [/kruglyI svot]
calotte n. 2 (of shield boss) [ka/lota] ()
caltrop n. or spiked caltrop [Iosh] ( )
camera n. [/kamqra] [fPtPapa/rat]; camera shooting
; digital camera ; video camera

cameo n. (pl. cameos) [ka/meIa]


cameo cutting [/metPt /matPvPI gravi/rofki]
[/tehnika /matPvPI gravi/rofki] ( )
ami n. (Friday mosque) [sP/bornaIa mq/chet]
[/patnichnaIa mq/chet] [dzha/mi] ( )
camp n. [/lagqr]
campanile n. [kampa/nila] ( )
campanula n. [kPlP/kolchik]
canal n. [ka/nal] (); crushing canal (
); drainage canal ; irrigative canal

canalization n. [kanali/zatsyIa]
andelabrum n., often pl.: andelabra [pPt/sveshnik] ( )

[mnPgP/sveshnik] [kandq/labr]
candlestick n. [pPt/sveshnik] ( )
candling n. [/medlqnnaIa /sushka]
cannon n. [/pushka]
canon n. (tradition) [ka/non]
canopy n. 1 (archit.) c [/sandrik]
canopy n. 2 (awning) [sen]
cantharos n. [kan/far]
cantilever n. [kPn/sol]
cantle n. [/zadnaIa /luka] [/zadnaIa /luka se/dla]
cap n. 1 (head covering) [/shapka] [kPl/pak]
[gPlPv/noI u/bor]; Phrygian cap ; pointed cap
/
cap n. 2 (of a nail) [/shlapka] ()
cap n. 3 (of a bottle) [/propka]
cap n. 4 (archit.) [pqrq/krytiIe]
cap n. 5: knee cap n. (of armour) [nakP/l-nik]
cap n. 6: knee cap n. (human) [kP/len-naIa /chashqchka]
cap n. 7: finger cap n. [na/porstPk]
cape n. * [PkP/nechnPst /mysa] [mys] (
)
capital n. 1 (of a column) [kapi/tel]; Arabian capital ;
bell capital * (-); block /
cubic / cushion capital ; capital in antis
; Corinthian capital ; crocket capital
*
( , ); Doric capital
; figured / historiated capital
( ); foliate / foliated / leaf capital ; Ionic
capital ; parastade capital *
; palm capital *
(); scalloped / Winchester capital (
); side capital ; stiff leaf capital
* ; water leaf capital
*
capital n. 2 (pillow block) [pP/dushka] (.)
capstone n. 1 (keystone) [zam/kovyI /kamen]
capstone n. 2 (covering slab) [pli/ta pqrq/krytiIa]
caravanserai or caravansary n. - [kara/van sa/raI]
carbon fiber n. [uglq/rodPnPIe vPlP/kno]; carbon fiber
reinforcement
carbonization n. [P/buglivanIe]
carbonized part. [P/buglqnyI]
carchesium n. (pl. carchesia) [kar/hesiI]
card n. [/kartPchka]; sample card
carinated adj. (vessel) . [PstrP/rebqrnyI]
carination n. * ( )
arnelian n. [sqrdP/lik]
arnelian adj. [sqrdP/likPvyI]
carpenter n. [/plotnik]
carpet n. [kP/vor]
carpus n. [za/pastIe]
carrier n. (archit.) . [nq/sushchiI]
carrying slot n. [P/boIma] [P/boImitsa] ()
cart n. [pP/voska] ( , , ), (military)
[dvuhkP/losnaIa kPlqs/nitsa]; funeral cart
; wheelless cart
cartilage n. [hrashch]; costal cartilage
cartouche n. [kar/tush]
carved adj. [rqz/noI]

18

19

carving n. 1 (technique) [rqz/ba]; bone carving


; rock carving ; stone carving
; wood carving
carving n. 2 (element) [rqz/noIe iz/deliIe]
caryatid n. [karia/tida]
cascade n. [kas/kat]
case n. [fut/lar] () [chq/hol]; needle case
casemate n. [kazq/mat]
casing n. 1 (of a door or a window) [nalich/nik]; door casing
; window casing
casing n. 2 (glass-making technique) [na/klat] [/tehnika
na/klada] ( ): (if background glass is coloured and overlay
glass is colourless) , (if backgorund glass is colourless
and overlay glass is coloured and covers the whole vessel) ,
(covering a part of vessel)
casket n. 1 (small box) [shka/tulka]
casket n. 2 (reliquary) [kPf/chek] [rqlik/variI],
[/skiniIa] ( -)
casket n. 3 (coffin) [grop] [dPmP/vina]
cast n. [Pt/lifka]; plaster cast of Greek inscription ()

castellation n. (of vessel rim) [vqrti/kalnyI /valik] ( )
casting n. [li/tIo]
casting voids pl. [dq/fekty li/tIa]
[Pt/livPchnyIe ka/verny]
castle n. [/zamPk]; consuls castle
catacomb n. 1 (Roman) [kata/komba], .: [kata/komby]
(
)
catacomb n. 2 (barbarian chambered grave) [kata/komba] [sklep]
(
)
catacomb adj. [kata/kombnyI]
catalyst n. [katalq/zatPr] [uskP/ritql prP/tsesa]
catalytic adj. [katali/tichqskiI]
catapult n. [kata/pulta]
cataract n. [fPrtifikatsy/onnaIa rq/shotka]
catch-plate n. [pri/Iomnik], [iglPdqr/zhatql]
()
cathedral n. [kafqd/ralnaIa /tserkPf]
[Ie/piskPpskaIa /tserkPf] [kafqd/ralnyI sP/bor]
cattle n. [skot]; beef cattle ; dairy cattle
cattle-breeding n. [skPtP/votstvP] [razvq/deniIe
skP/ta]
Caucasian adj. 1 (area) [kaf/kaskiI]
Caucasian adj. 2 (racial) [IevrPpq/oidnyI]
causeway n. [gat]
cauldron n. [kP/tol]; all-cast cauldron ; ribbed cauldron
; rivetted cauldron
cavalry n. [/konnitsa] [kava/leriIa]; heavy cavalry

cavalryman n. (pl. cavalrymen) [kavalq/rist]
cave n. [pq/shchera]; hesychasterion cave -
cave adj. 1 (related to cave) [pq/shchernyI]
cave adj. 2 (Stone Age art) [na/skalnyI]
cavetto n. 1 (pl. cavetti or cavettos) (concave molding with a cross section that
approximates a quarter circle) [/vykrushka]
cavetto n. 2 (pl. cavetti or cavettos) (upper part of cavetto vault) [/zerkalP]
( , )
CE abbr. (Common Era, Christian Era, or Current Era) [/nashqI /ery], .

. ., [hristi/anskPI /ery]
[hristi/anskPgP lqtPischis/leniIa]
cease to exist v. [prqkra/shchat sushchqstvP/vaniIe]
ceiling n. [pPtP/lok]; beamed ceiling
celadon n. (pottery) [sqlP/don] ( ,
)
cell n. 1 (monastic) [/kelIa]
cell n. 2 (military) [kazq/mat]
cella n. (pl. cellae) [/tsella] [/naos] ( )
cellar n. [/pogrqp]
celt n. (axe) [kelt] ( )
Celt n. [kelt] ()
Celtic adj. [/keltskiI]
cement n. [tsq/ment]
cement n. [tsq/mentnyI]
cemetery n. (ancient) [mP/gilnik]; barrow cemetery
; Byzantine cemetery
; Classical cemetery
; Roman cemetery
; roadside cemetery
; suburban cemetery ; urban
cemetery
cenotaph n. [kqnP/taf]
censer n. 1 (Christian) [ka/dilP]
censer n. 2 (pagan) [ku/rilnitsa]
centaur n. [kqn/tavr]
center n. Amer. [tsentqr]
centrally planned building n. [tsen/trichqskPIe
sP-Pru/zheniIe]
centration dimple n. (on a coin) [tsqn/trovPchnaIa /Iamka] (
)
centre n. [tsentqr]; ceremonial centre ; production
centre
centuriation n. [tsqnturi/atsyIa] (
)
century n. [vek] [stP/letiIe]; turn of the centuries
ceramic n. 1 (material) [kq/ramika] ()
ceramic n. 2 (fabric) [chqrq/pok] ()
ceramic n. 3: ceramics pl. (artifacts) [kq/ramika] .,
[iz/deliIa is kq/ramiki] .; architectural ceramics
; polished ceramics or burnished ceramics

ceramic calculation n. [ra/shchot sPs/tava] ( )
ceramic adj. [kqra/michqskiI]; ceramic flaw
cereals n. pl. (plants) [zqrnP/vyIe kul/tury]
ceremonial adj. [tsqrqmPni/alnyI]
ceremony n. [tsqrq/moniIa]; burial ceremony
chain n. 1 (thick) [tsep]; horse chain ; thurible chain
chain n. 2 (fine) [tsq/pochka]
chain mail or chainmail n. [kPl/chuga]
Chalcolithic n. [halkP/lit]
chalice n. [pP/tir]
chamber n. 1 (room) [/kamqra] [/komnata]; bed chamber
; living chamber ;
powder chamber: a) (in a ship) , b) (in a fortress)
, c) (in a cannon barrel) ( )
chamber n. 2 (in a barrow grave) [grPb/nitsa] [/kamqra] (
); main chamber
; side chamber
chamber n. 3 (in an underground grave) or burial chamber or funeral / funerary

20

21

chamber or grave chamber or tomb chamber


[pPgrq/balnaIa /kamqra]
chamber n. 4: desiating chamber [su/shilnyI shkaf]
chamber n. 5: stacking chamber [/kamqra /stafki]
[/kamqra /obzhyga] ( )
champelev n. [shampele/ve] [/tehnika shampele/ve]
chancel n. [al/tarnaIa chast] [al/tar] (
, )
chancel barrier n. [al/tarnaIa prqg/rada]
chandelier n. [mnPgP/sveshnik]
channel n. 1 (water pasage) [ka/nal] () [prP/lif]
channel n. 2 (of a column) [kane/lur]
chape n. [bute/rol] [/lopast] ()
chapel n. 1 (small church) * [nqbPl/shaIa /tserkPf]; altarless
chapel (for praying the hours)
chapel n. 2 (part of a bigger Orthodox church) [pri/del]; side chapel

chapel n. 3 (part of a bigger Catholic or Anglican church) [mP/lqlna]


[ka/pela]; Lady chapel * (
)
character n. [ha/raktqr]
characteristic n. [haraktq/ristika]; biological characteristics
of individuals (of the deceased)
; clay, glaze, and colour characteristics
,
charcoal n. [drq/vesnyI /ugPl]
chariot n. [dvuhkP/losnaIa pP/voska]
[dvuhkP/losnaIa kPlqs/nitsa]
charred adj. [gP/relyI] [PbgP/relyI]
charter n. (general) [Iuri/dichqskiI dPku/ment]
chasing n. (metal) [chq/kanka] ()
Chatelperron n. [shatelpq/ron]
Chatelperronian adj. [shatelpq/ronskiI]
cheek-piece n. [/psaliI]; two-holes cheek piece
Chellean n. [shel]
chemical adj. [hi/michqskiI]; chemically induced *
(,
)
chemise n. (of a tower) * (
)
chernozem n. [chqrnP/zom]
Cherson n. [hqr/son]
Chersonese n. or Chersonesos n. or Chersonesus n. [hqrsP/nes]; Greek
Chersonesos ; Roman Chersonesos

Chersonesian adj. [hqrsP/neskiI]


Chersonesite n. [hqrsPnq/sit]
Chersonian adj. [hqr/sonskiI]
Chersonite n. [hqrsP/nit]
chert n. [shert] ( )
cheval-de-frise n. (pl. chevaux-de-frise) [rP/gatka] (
)
chevet n. * ( ,
, )
chevron n. (design) [shqv/ron] (.)
chiefdom n. [/vozhdqstvP]
chieftain n. [voshd]
chimney n. [dymP/hot] [pqch/naIa tru/ba]
china n. [far/for]
china n. attrib. [far/forPvyI]

Chiot adj. [/hiPsskiI]


chip n. 1 (gaming) [/fishka]
chip n. 2 (imperfection) [dq/fekt] [iz/Ian]
chipping n. (defect of ceramic) [Pt/kalyvanIe] [PtslP/IeniIe]
[shqlu/sheniIe] ( )
chisel n. [tqs/lo]
chiton n. [hi/ton]
chlamys n. (pl. chlamydes or chlamyses) [hla/mida]
chloride n. [hlP/rid]; sodium chloride
chlorine n. [hlor]
choir n. (part of chancel occupied by singers) [/hory] .
chopper n. [/chopqr]; inverse chopper

chora n. [/hora]
chous n. [hus]
Christian adj. 1 (general) [hristi/anskiI]
Christian adj. 2 (decoration bearing Christian symbols) *

Christianity n. [hristi/anstvP]
Christogram n. [/hrizma]
chronogram n. [hrPnP/grama]
chronology n. [hrPnP/logiIa]; absolute chronology
; relative chronology
chryselephantine adj. [hrisPelqfan/tin-nyI]
chthonian or chthonic adj. [htP/nichqskiI]
church n. 1 (function) [/tserkPf] () [hram]
(), (if has no parish) [sP/bor] ();
abbey / monastic / monastery church /
; collegiate church * /
(, , ); church outside the city
walls or extramural church ;
commemorative / memorial church
-; parish church ; pilgrimage
church
church n. 2 (architecture) [/tserkPf] () [hram]
(); aiseless church or single-aisled church
; ambulatory church * (
); arched church ; arcosolia church
; basilican church
; bi-apsidal church
; body of the church * (
); centralized church or centrally planned
church ; church of antae or church with antae or
church in antis ; cross / cruciform church
; cross-in-square church or crossinscribed church or quincunx church
; domed church ; oneapsidal church ; fortress church
; hall church ; rock-cut church /

church adj. [tsqr/kovnyI]; Church Fathers pl.
churchyard n. [tsqr/kovnyI dvor]
chytra n. (pl. chytrai) [/hitra]
ciborium n. (pl. ciboria) 1 (a container for the consecrated wafers of the Eucharist)
[ki/voriI] [kPf/chek] [kPf/chezhqts]
( )
ciborium n. (pl. ciboria) 2 (canopy on columns over the altar)
[al/tarnaIa sen] [ki/voriI]
cimeter n. [sham/sher] [skimi/tar] ( )
Cimmerian n. [kimq/riIets]

22

23

Cimmerian adj. [kimq/riIskiI]


cinder n. [zP/la]
cinerarium n. (pl. cineraria) *
cinerary adj. * (),
cinereous adj. [kaltsy/nirPvanyI] [pqrq/zhzhonyI]
cingulum n. (pl. cingula) 1 (belt) [/poIqs] [rq/men]
cingulum n. (pl. cingula) 2 (girdle) [pPrtu/peIa]
[pPrtu/peInyI rq/men]
cinqfoil n. [pqti/lisnik]
cipolin n. * (, , )
cippus n. (pl. cippi) [/kipus] [/tsypus] (
)
circle n. [kruk] [P/kruzhnPst]; concentric circles
; hut circle
(); interlocking circles
; stone circle
circulated adj. (coin) [pP/tortyI]
[nahP/difshiIsavPbrP/shchenii] ( )
circulation n. [Pbra/shcheniIe]; coin circulation
circumference n. [P/kruzhnPst]; have a circumference of meters

cist n. [/kamennyI /Iashchik]; segmented cist
, (megalihic)
cistern n. [tsys/terna] [tank]; fish-salting cistern
; underground cistern ; water cistern

citadel n. 1 (general) [tsyta/del]
citadel n. 2 (East Slavonic) [kreml] [dq/tinqts] [/gorPt]
cithara n. [ki/fara]
city n. [/gorPt] (); daughter city of ( );
fortress city -; walled city
city n. attrib. [gPrP/tskoI]
city-state n. -[/gorPd gPsu/darstvP]
clad adj. or metal-clad adj. [pla/kirPvanyI]; silver clad
; silver clad bronze
clamp n. [/skrepka]
clan n. (division of tribe) [rot]
clansman n. (pl. clansmen) [chlen /roda] [sP/rodich]
clasp n. 1 (fastener) [za/stoshka]
clasp n. 2 (lock) [za/shcholka] [za/dvishka]
Classical adj. [an/tichnyI]; Early Classical ; Late Classical

classical adj. [kla/sichqskiI]


classicism n. [klasi/tsyzm]
classification n. [klasifi/katsyIa]
classify v. [klasifi/tsyrPvat]
clay n. 1 (general) [/glina]; ball clay ; baked clay
; china clay ; diluted clay ; elutriated
clay o ; flaky clay ; friable clay
; ill-baked clay ; impermeable clay
; perfectly-elutriated clay or well-floated clay
; tempered with soil clay or tempered with rock clay
; untempered clay
clay n. 2 (already prepared for pottery-making) [/testP] ()
[kqra/michqskaIa /massa]
clay adj. [/glinqnyI]; red clay
claybody n. (ceramic) [/glina] [/glinqnPIe /testP]
[kqra/michqskPIe /testP] [/testP]
clean v. 1 (pavement, grave, etc.) [zachi/shchat] [rashchi/shchat]
()

clean v. 2 (in conservation of an artifact) [Pchi/shchat] ( )


cleaning n. 1 (of a monument) [za/chistka] ()
cleaning n. 2 (in conservation of an artifact) [P/chistka] (
); chemical cleaning ; mechanical
cleaning
cleaning kit n. (for cleaning coins, bronzes, etc) *

cleaver n. [/klivqr] ( ); flake-cleaver
clepsydra n. (pl. clepsydrae or clepsydras) . [klqp/sidra] .,
[vPda/nyIe cha/sy] .
clerestory or clearstory n. 1 *
( , ,
)
clerestory or clearstory n. 2 * (
, )
clergy n. [klir]
clergyman n. (pl. clergymen) [/klirik]
cliff n. [ska/la] [u/tos]
clip n. (frame) [P/boIma]
lipped adj. (coin) . . ( ,
)
clock n. [cha/sy] .
cloisonn n. or cloisons n. pl. [kluazo/ne],
[klua/zon-nyI Pr/namqnt]
cloister n. 1 (overed walk) [klu/atr] /
/ ( ,
)
cloister n. 2 (monastery) [mPna/styr]
cloister garth n. * /
( , )
cloistered adj. * ; cloistered quadrant *

(,

)
,

close-up n. (of something) [vit /krupnym /planPm]
[s uvqli/cheniIem] . .
coarse n. or sub-base coarse *
coarseware n. * ( )
coast n. [/berqk] [pPbq/rezhIe]; northern Black Sea coast

coastline n. [pPbq/rezhIe]
coat n. (building) [pP/krytiIe]; rendering coat
coat of arms n. [gerp]
coating n. [pP/krytiIe]; glassy coating ; road
coating
cob n. [Pb/maska] ( ,
)
cobalt n. [/kobalt]
cobalt n. attrib. [/kobaltPvyI]
cobble n. [bu/lyzhnik]
coccyx n. [/kopchik]
codex n. (pl. codices) [/kodqks] ( )
coffer n. (archit.: sunken panel) [u/toplenaIa pa/nel]
[kq/son]
coffin n. [grop] [dPmP/vina]
cohesion n. (resistance to separation) [stsqp/leniIe]
[/svazPnPst] (.)
coin n. [mP/neta]; anonymous coin ; cast coin ;
circulated coin / ; clipped coin
( ); commemorative coin
/ ; cup coin (

24

25

) ; faked coin ; genuine coin


; non-circulated coin
; porous coin ; reduced
coin ; struck coin /
( ); trade coin
( ,
); uncirculated coin (, )
(
)
coin adj. [mP/netnyI]
coin grading n. () [P/tsenka (sPstP/IaniIa) mP/nety]
coinage n. [chq/kan] [mP/netnyI chq/kan]
[mP/netnaIa chq/kanka] [mP/netnoIe /delP]
coin-box n. [kP/pilka]
colander n. (big) [dur/shlag], (smaller) [tsq/dilka]
coliseum n. [kPli/zeI]
collapse n. 1 (heap) [za/val] [raz/val]
collapse n. 2 (layer) [sloI razru/sheniIa]
collar n. 1 (type of guard) [/chashka] [pPlu/kruglaIa/garda]
( , )
collar n. 2 (necklace) [Pzhq/relIe]
collar n. 3 (part of harness) [hP/mut] (, )
collar n. 4 (vessel collar) * ()
collection n. 1 (of artifacts) [kP/lektsyIa]
collection n. 2 (of articles, materials, etc.) [/zbornik]
collonette n. [kP/lonka] [/malqnkaIa kP/lonna];
clustered collonnettes pl.
() .
colonisation, Amer. colonization n. [kPlPni/zatsiIa]; Greek Colonisation

colonist n. [kPlP/nist]
colonnade n. [kPlP/nada]; trabeate colonnade or trabeated colonnade
/ ( )
colonnaded adj. [s kPlP/nadPI] . .
colonnette n. [kP/lonka] [/malqnkaIa kP/lonna];
clustered colonnettes pl.
() .
colony n. [kP/loniIa]
colorant n. [kra/sitql]
colosseum n. [kPli/zeI]
colour, Amer. colour n. [tsvet]; added colour ; water-colour

colouring, Amer. coloring n. [P/kraska]
columbarium n. (pl. columbaria) or columbary 1 (vault with niches for urns)
[kPlum/bariI]
columbarium n. (pl. columbaria) or columbary 2 (niche for urns) [kPlum/
bariI]
columbarium n. (pl. columbaria) 3 (for grave goods) *

column n. 1 (archit.) [kP/lonna] (); applied column or attached


column or engaged column ; Corinthian column
; diminished column ;
Doric column ; fluted column
; half column
; Ionic column ; polygonal column
; supporting column ; twin
columns
column n. 2: spinal / vertebral column [hrq/bet] ()
[pPzvP/nochnik] [pPzvP/nochnyI stolp]
columnar adj. [kP/lonnyI] . [s kP/lonnami] . .

columniation n. [raspPlP/zheniIe kP/lon]


[ras-sta/nofka kP/lon] ( )
comb n. 1 (hair) [/grebqn] (); composite comb
comb n. 2 (of a fibula or of a brooch) *
commodity n. [tP/var]
common adj. [/obshchiI]
community n. [/obshchnPst] ( ); ethnic community
; ethno-linguistic community -
; ethno-religious community - ;
monastic community
; religious community
compact adj. [/plotnyI]
compartment n. (of a building) [kPmparti/ment]
[pPmq/shcheniIe]; storage compartment
(-)
compass n. [/kompas]; beam compass
complex n. [/komplqks]; agricultural complex
; cave complex ; fortificational complex
; tomb complex
compluvium n. (pl. compluvia) [kPm/pluviI] (

)
component n. [kPmpP/nent]
composite adj. [/slozhnyI] [sPstav/noI]
composition n.1 (structure) [sP/staf]; composition of clay ; species
composition
composition n. 2 (way of composing) [kPmpP/zitsyIa]; figural composition

concave adj. [/vognutyI]
conch or concha n. [/konha]
conchal adj. [kPnhq/alnyI]
concrete n. [bq/ton]; aerated concrete
concrete v. [bqtP/nirqvat]
condition n. ; conditions of life pl. ; onditions of
manufacture (of coins) pl. / .;
condition of preservation

conduit n. [vPdP/vot] [vPdPprP/vot]


conference n. [kPnfq/rentsyIa]; abstracts of papers presented at
a conference ; held a conference
; preceedings of a conference

conflagration n. [pP/zhar] ()
connection n. [svaz]; in anatomical connection
conservation n. [rqsta/vratsyIa] [kPnsqr/vatsyIa]
conservator n. [rqstP/vratPr]
conserve v. [rqstP/vrirPvat]
consistence n. [kPnsis/tentsyIa]
console n. [kPn/sol]
consolidant n. [kPnsqr/vant] [zakrq/pitql]
consolidate v. (in conservation) [ukrqp/lat] (.)
construction n. 1 (activity) [strP/itelstvP]
construction n. 2 (structure) [pP/stroIka] [kPn/struktsyIa]
[sPPru/zheniIe]; aboveground construction
; brick construction
; burial construction or funeral construction or grave
construction ; orthostate construction
(
); supporting construction ; wattle and
daub construction -

26

27

ontainer n. [sP/sut]; perfume container


; containers ., .
contaminant n. [zagrqz/naIqshchqIe vqshq/stvo]
[/primqs] ()
contamination n. [zagrqz/neniIe]
contemporary with, adj. [PdnPvrq/men-nyI]
[sPvrq/men-nyI] (-)
context n. [kPn/tekst]; archaeological context ;
associated contexts * (
); funerary context ; negative context *
( ); positive
context ; primary
context ; secondary context
convent n. 1 (of nuns) [/zhenskiI mPnas/tyr]
convent n. 2 (uncommon: of monks) [mush/skoI mPnas/tyr]
( )
convex adj. [/vypuklyI]
cooking adj. [/kuhPnyI]
cookingware n. [/kuhPnaIa pP/suda] ., .
copper n. [met]
copper adj. [/mednyI]
coprolite n. [kPprP/lit]
corbel n. [kPn/sol]
corbelled adj. (related to corbelling) [stu/penchqtyI]
[ustup/chqtyI] ( )
corbelling n. (arch consisting of courses of corbels) [stu/penchqtyI
svot] [ustup/chqtyI svot]
cord n. [vq/rofka], (thin) [shpa/gat], (twisted or braided) [shnur]
cord marking n. (ceramic surface treatment) .,
.; (if individual fibers in cord are not visible)
.
cordon n. 1 (on vessel) [/valik]
cordon n. 2 (stringcourse) [kPr/don] (.: )
core n. 1 (general) [sqrtsq/vina] [Iq/dro]
core n. 2 (nucleus) [/nuklqus] [/Iadrishche]; formless core
/ ; globular core /
; Levallois core for flakes ;
Levallois flake-blade core ; Levallois point core
; prismatic core ; pyramidal
core ; tortoise core
core n. 3 (mineral) [ku/sok pP/rody]
core n. 4 (of wall, consisting of rubble mass) [zabu/tofka] ()
core n. 5 (in casting or core-forming glass) [sqr/dechnik] (
); clay core ; sand core

core-formed adj. [f /tehnikq sqr/dechnika] . .
core-forming n. [/tehnika sqr/dechnika]
Corinthian adj. [kP/rinfskiI]
ornelian n. [sqrdP/lik]
ornelian adj. [sqrdP/likPvyI]
cornerstone n. * ()
cornice n. [kar/nis]
corona n. (archit.) [vq/nets] (.)
coroplastic adj. *
corpse n. [u/mershyI], (laying in grave) [pPgrq/bonyI]
correlate v. [kPrq/lirPvat]
correlation n. [kPrq/latsyIa]
correspond to, v. [sPPt/vetstvPvat] (-)
corridor n. [kPri/dor]
corroded adj. [kPrP/zirPvanyI]

corrosion n. [kP/roziIa]; crevice corrosion ; damp


atmospheric corrosion ; general
corrosion ; localized corrosion ;
pitting corrosion / ; underpaint corrosion

corrugation n. [rif/leniIe]; zones of corrugation
corslet or corselet n. 1 (breastplate) [na/grudnik]
corslet or corselet n. 2 (cuirass) [ki/rasa]
cossack n. [ka/zak] [kP/zak]
cossack adj. [ka/zatskiI] [ka/zachiI]
costume n. [kPs/tum]; female costume ; male costume

cotton n. [/hlopPk]
cotton adj. [/hlopkPvyI] [hlop/chatyI]
cotton bud n. [/vatnaIa /palPchka]
cotton wool n. [/vata]
cotton wool n. attrib. [/vatnyI] .; wad of cotton wool
couch n. [/lozhe]
coudire n. [nalP/kotnik]
countermark n. [natchq/kanka]
course n. (in brickwork or masonry) [rat] (); belt / string course
( ); bond course ; footing
/ plinth course ; levelling course ;
heading course ; orthostate course
( );
stretching course
court n. 1 (royal) [dvor] ()
court n. 2 (judicial) [sut]
court n. 3 (of a house) [dvor] (); inner court
courtyard n. [/vnutrqniI dvor]
couter n. [nalP/kotnik]
cove n. (archit.) [/vykrushka]
cover n. 1 (general) * ; funeral cover

cover n. 2 (of a vessel) [/kryshka]; thurible cover
cover v. [nakry/vat] (-) [pqrqkry/vat] () [lq/zhat pP/verh] (-)
covered adj. [/krytyI]
covering n. [pqrq/krytiIe] [gPrizPn/talnPIe
pqrq/krytiIe]; roof covering ; stone covering

coving n. [/svotchqtyI pPtP/lok]


cowrie or cowry n. [/kauri] .
crack n. [/treshchina]; die crack (
); severe striking crack (
)
cracked adj. 1 (broken into pieces) [raz/lomannyI]
cracked adj. 2 (without complete separation of parts) [/tresnufshiI]
crackle n. (on surface of a vessel) [tsek] ., [/treshchiny] .
crackled (covered with a network of fine cracks)
[ras/treskafshyIsa Pt Pg/na] [pP/krytyI /tsekPm]
craft n. [rqmqs/lo]
craftsman n. (pl. craftsmen) [rq/meslqnik]
craftsmanship n. [rqmqs/lo]
craftwork n. [prqd/mety rqmqs/l] .,
[rq/meslqnnyIe iz/deliIa] .,
[prP/duktsyIa rq/meslqnikPf] .
cramp n. (that hold pieces together) [za/zhym] ., [ti/ski] .
craniology n. [kraniP/logiIa]
cranioscopy n. [kraniPskP/piIa]

28

29

crank n. (firing stand) [pPt/stafka na /noshkah] (


) [si/paI] [sq/poIa]
crater n. (pl. crateres) [kra/ter]; amphoroid crater *
; bell crater / (
); calyx-crater
; column crater ; cup-shaped
crater ; lug-handled crater * ; tripod crater * ; volute crater

crawling n. (of glaze) [/zborka] ( )
craze n. (on a surfase of a vessel) [tsek]
crazed adj. (covered with a network of fine cracks)
[ras/treskafshyIsaPtPg/na] [pP/krytyI/tsekPm]
crazing n. (glaze defect) [ras/treskivaniIe] [tsek] (
)
creature n. [fanta/stichqskPIe zhy/votnPIe]
[fanta/stichqskPIe sushchqs/tvo]
[mi/fichqskPIe zhy/votnPIe]
cremated adj. [pqrq/zhzhonyI]
cremation n. [trupPsP/zhzheniIe] [krq/matsyIa]
crenel or crenelle n. [ambra/zura] [bPI/nitsa]
crenellation n. [zup/chatyI para/pet] (
)
crepidoma n. 1 (stilobate and eutynteria) [krq/pida] [pPd/nozhIe]
[PsnP/vaniIe] ( )
crepidoma n. 2 (stereobate) [stqrqP/bat]
crescent n. 1 (shape) * . .
crescent n. 2 (stone tool) [sqg/ment] ( )
crest n. [/grebqn] ( )
crevice n. [/treshchina] [iz/lom]
crib n. [kPr/mushka]
Crimea n. [krym]
Crimean adj. [/krymskiI]
criterion n. (pl. criteria) [kri/teriI]
crocket n. (archit.) [krap]
cromlech n. 1 (stone circle) [/kromlqh]
cromlech n. 2 (dolmen) [dPl/men]
cross n. [krest]; cross potent ; cross on two steps
; Greek cross ; Latin
cross * ; maltise cross
; pectoral cross ; processing cross
; reliquary cross
- - -; underwear
cross
crossbar n. [pPpq/rechnaIa /balka]
[pPpq/rechnyI brus]
crossbeam n. [pPpq/rechnaIa /balka]
crossbow n. [arba/let]
crossbow adj. [arbalqtP/vidnyI] ( )
cross-dating n. [pqrq/krosnaIa dati/rofka]
crossguard n. [gPrizPn/talnPIe pqrq/krestIe]
crossing n. 1 (general) [pqrqsq/cheniIe]
[/mestP pqrqsq/cheniIa]
crossing n. 2 (of naive and transept) [sredP/krestiIe]
cross-inscribed adj. or cross-in-square adj. -
[krqstPvP/kupPlnyI]
crosspiece n. [pPpq/rechnyI elq/ment]
[pPpq/rechina]
cross-shaped adj. [krqstP-Pb/raznyI] (, )
crosstop n. [nq/sushchaIa /balka]

crowbar n. [lom]
crown n. 1 (royal) [kP/rona] () [vq/nets]; crown of corn-ears
; crown of myrtle leaves ;
crown of the Demiourgos ; crown with spikes
; kings crown ; laurel crown
/ ; oak-leaf crown /
; radiate / rayed crown ; rostral crown
; turreted crown
crown n. 2 (top of an arch or a vault) [she/lyga]; arch crown

crown n. 3 (unsupported part of vault) [ras/palupka]
crozier n. [Ie/piskPpskiI zhezl]
cruciate adj. [krqstP/vidnyI]
crucible n. [/tigql] (. )
cruciform adj. [krqstP/vidnyI]
cruet 1 (small glass bottle) [bu/tylPchka]
cruet 2 (for holy water) *
crupper-strap n. o [pPt/hvosnik]
cryoturbation n. [kriPtur/batsiIa]
crypt n. [/kripta] [mPshchehra/nilishche]; hall crypt*
(
); hypostyle crypt ; pillar
crypt * ()
cubiculum n. (pl. cubicula) *
cubitire n. [nalP/kotnik]
Cufic adj. [ku/fichqskiI]
cuirass n. [ki/rasa]
cuish or cuisse or cuissard or cuissart n. [na/bedrqnik]
cult n. [kult]; funeral cult
cult adj. or cultic adj. [/kultPvyI]
cultivation n. [zqmlq/deliIe]; cultivation of grain / cereals
/ ; shifting cultivation or swidden cultivation
ultivator n. [mP/tyga] ( )
culture n. [kul/tura]; archaeological culture ;
genesis of culture ; material culture
; primitive culture ; spiritual culture
; traditional culture
Cuman n. [ku/man] [/polPvqts]
Cuman adj. [ku/manskiI] [pPlP/vetskiI]
cuneiform n. [/klinPpis]
cuneiform adj. [klinP/pisnyI]
cup n. 1 (ancient) [/chashka] [/kubPk] ( ,
); drinking cup ; dropper cup ;
Ionian cup ; semiglobular cup ;
sports cup ; stemless cup
( ); stemmed cup ()

cup n. 2 (modern): coffee cup [/chashka] [kP/feInaIa /chashka];


tea cup [/chashka] [/chaInaIa /chashka]
cupbearer n. [vinP/cherpiI]
cupola n. 1 (domed roof) [/kupol] (); bulbous cupola or onion cupola
; pointed cupola
cupola n. 2 (small structure surmounting a roof) [gla/va] (.)
cup-skyphos n. (pl. cup-skyphoi) - [skifP/kilik]
curator or museum curator n. [hra/nitql]
[mu/zeInyI hra/nitql]
current density n. [/plotnPst /toka]
currycomb n. [skrqb/nitsa]
curtain or curtain wall n. [kur/tina]

30

31

cusp n. (triangular-shaped projection from the inner curve of an arch)


[raskrq/pofka]
custom n. (rite) [P/bychaI] [tra/ditsyIa]; burial custom

cut n. 1 (opening in something) [/vyres]; test cut (in a coin)
( , )
cut n. 2 (vertical side of a trench) [raz/res] [/bortik] ()
cut-and-thrust adj. [/rubqshchiI i /kolushchiI] ( )
cutlass n. [tq/sak]
cutlery marking n. (on glaze) * . (
)
cutting n. (type of decoration) [gravi/rofka], (method of decoration)
[rq/zba]; intaglio cutting ; relief cutting

cyclopean adj. [tsyklP/pichqskiI]


cyma or cymatium n. (pl. cymatia) [kima/tiI]

dado n. 1 (section of pedestal) *


dado n. 2 (lower part of interior wall) * ()
( )
dagger n. [kin/zhal]; crooked / curved dagger ; crooked blade
dagger ; straight dagger ; tanged
dagger ; triangular dagger
dairying n. or dairy cattle breeds n. pl. [mP/lochnoIe
skPtP/votstvP]
dakka n. (platform in mosque) [/dakka] [/dikka]
damaged adj. [pPvrq/zhdonnyI]; damaged in cleaning
( )
damascene n. [na/sechka] ( )
damp adj. [/vlazhnyI] [sy/roI]
darkly toned adj. (oin) * (
)
dart n. [/drotik] ( )
datable adj. [da/tiruIqmyI] [da/tiruIushchiIsa]
( )
date n. [/data]; base date ; foundation date of ()
date v. tr. [da/tirPvat] (-), v. intr. [da/tirPvatsa]
(- ); item dates to (-
)
dateable adj. [da/tiruIqmyI] [da/tiruIushchiIsa]
( )
dating n. 1 (analysis to estimate age) [dati/rofka]; absolute dating
; archaeomagnetic dating
; potassium-argon dating -
; radiocarbon dating ; relative dating
; tree-ring dating
; varve dating

dating n. 2 (chronology) [hrPnP/logiIa]; absolute dating
; relative dating
datum n., often pl.: data [/dannyIe] .; quantitative data for finds

dead or dead body n. [pQgrq/bonnyI] [u/mershyI]; royal


dead /
debitage n. [Pt/hody] . ( )
debris n. 1 (general) [/musPr] ()

debris n. 2 (of stone-treatment) [Ps/kolki] . (, )


decanter n. [gra/fin]
decay n. [tlen]
decayed adj. [razlP/zhyfshyIsa]
deceased adj. [pPgrq/bonnyIe]. [u/mershiIe] .
decline n. [u/padPk]
decolorizer n. [Pbqs/tsvechivaIushchiI a/gent]
[Pbqs/tsvechivaIushchqIe vqshchq/stvo]
decomposition n. [razlP/zheniIe]
decor n. [dq/kor]
decorate v. [ukra/shat]
decoration n. 1 (general) [ukra/sheniIe]; applied decoration
; cap decoration ;
hair decoration
decoration n. 2 (ornament) [Qr/namqnt] [dq/kor]; surface
of the vessel is covered with fine combed decoration
; combed decoration
; cord decoration ; fine combed
decoration ; floral / vegetal decoration
; engraved decoration ; excised
decoration ; geometric decoration
; hatched decoration ; impressed
/ stamped decoration /
( ); incised decoration ; linear decoration
; metope decoration ;
painted decoration ; relief decoration
; rippled / wavy decoration ; rouletted
decoration / ;
scratched decoration
decoration n. 3: interior decoration (archit.)
decorative adj. [dqkPra/tivnyI]
decree n. [dq/kret]; decree for Diophantos ; decree honoring
Diophantos ; honorific decree ;
proxeny decree
deesis n. (pl. deeses) [dqi/sus] [dqi/susnyI chin]
defect n. [dq/fekt] [iz/Ian]; casting defect
defensive adj. [PbPrP/nitqlnyI]
definition n. [Pprqdq/leniIe]
deformation n. [dqfPr/matsyIa]; skull deformation
deformed adj. [dqfPr/mirPvanyI]
degrease v. [Pbqs/zhyrit]
dehydrate v. [Pbqs/vodit]
deionised water n. [dqiPni/zirPvPnaIa vP/da]
deity n. [bPzhe/stvo]; chtonian deity ; dolmen deity

delimitation or demarcation n. [razmqzhq/vaniIe]
demigod n. [pPlu/bok]
denomination n. (of coins) [nPmi/nal] (); coin denomination

dentate stamping n. (ceramic surface treatment)
[Ptpq/chatki /zupchqtPvP /shtampa] ( ); linear
dentate stamping
; rocker dentate stamping
; single point dentate decorations
( / )
denticle n. [zu/bets] (.)
denticulate or denticulated adj. (archit.) [zup/chatyI]
dentil n. (archit.) [su/harik] (.) [zu/bets] (.)
[den/tikul] [den/tikula]
dentils n. pl. (ornam.) [zup/chatyI Pr/namqnt]

32

33

depa amphikypella n. (two-handled drinking cup) *


department n. [/kafedra] ()
deposit n. 1 (natural) [PtlP/zheniIe] [naplastP/vaniIe]
[plast]
deposit n. 2 (cultural) [sloI]; buried deposit ; votive
deposit . ( - )
deposition n. [zalq/ganiIe]
depth n. [glubi/na]; overall depth of a trench
dergah n. (lodge for dervishes) [te/ke] ( )
dervish or dervis n. [/dervish]
desalination n. [vy/salivaniIe]
desalinize v. [vy/salivat]
description n. [Ppi/saniIe]
desiccate v. [prPsu/shit]
design n. 1 (representation) [PfPr/mleniIe]; architectural design
, interior design (archit.)
design n. 2 (ornam. pattern) [Pr/namqnt] [Prnamqn/tatsyIa];
chequered design, Amer. checkered design ; figural
design ; floral design ;
geometrical design ; imbricated design
; incised design
; looped design ;
network design (.); pointed design ;
spiral design ; Sshaped design S- ; design in the base (of a
vessel)
design n. 3 (image) [izPbra/zheniIe]; incised design ;
raised design
destruction n. [/gib ql] (of inanimate object) [razru/sheniIe]
(deliberate) [unichtP/zheniIe]; final destruction

destructive adj. (conserv.) [razru/shaIushchiI] (.)
detail n. [dq/tal]; architectural detail
deteriorate v. [razru/shat]
deterioration n. [razru/sheniIe]
device n. [pri/bor]
devitrify n. [ras-stq/klovyvatsa]
devitrification n. (of glass) [dqvitrifi/katsyIa]
[raskristali/zatsyIa] [ras-stqklP/vaniIe] (
)
diaconicon or diakonikon n. [dIa/konnik]
[/riznitsa] [sa/kristiIa]
[sPsudPhra/nitqlnitsa]
diadem n. [dia/dema]
diameter n. [di/amqtqr]; inner diameter ; outer
diameter
diaper n. *
diatreta n., only sing. [dia/treta]
dice n. [kost] ()
didrachm n. (pl. didrachms) or didrachma (pl. didrachmae or didrachmas)
[di/drahma]
die n. 1 (device) [/shtempql] [shtamp]; bullet die
; die alignment
()
die n. 2 (coin defect): die crack ( );
die cud (
, ); filled die
( ,
)
dig n. 1 (excavation) . [ras/kopki]

dig n. 2 (site of excavation) [ras/kop]


dig v. (past dug, dug) [kP/pat]; dig up
dilecythos n. (pl. dilecythoi) * ()
dilute v. (with something) [razbav/lat] (-)
dinner-plate n. [/melkaIa ta/relka]
dinnerware n. [stP/lovaIa pP/suda]
dinos n. (pl. dinoi) [/dinPs]
dipinto n. (pl. dipinti) [di/pintP] (. )
dipper n. (cup with long handle) [kofsh] [chqr/pak]
dipping n. (glaze application technique) [Pku/naniIe] ( )
dipteral adj. or dipteron n. (archit.) [/dipter] .
diptych n. [/diptih]
dipylon n. [dipi/lon]
direction n. [naprav/leniIe]; cardinal direction
director n. [di/rektPr] [rukPvP/ditql]
[na/ chalnik]; excavation director or field director
dirk n. *
disarticulated adj. (bones) [pqrq/meshqnyI]
[raz /roznqnyI] ( )
discoid or Mousterian discoid n.
discover v. [nahP/dit] [Ptkry/vat]
[is/sledPvPt]
discovery n. [Pt/krytiIe]
dish n. 1 (big) [/bludP]
dish n. 2 (medium) [ta/relka]
dish n. 3 (fine) [/blutse]
disk or disc n. 1 (shape) [disk] ()
disk or disc n. 2 (stone tool) [disk] ( )
diskos n. [/diskPs]
display n. (museum) [qkspP/zitsyIa] ()
dissel-boom n. [/dyshlP]
dissolve v. [rastvP/rat]
distaff n. [/pralka]
distemper n. (paint) [klqIq/vaIa /kraska]
distilled water n. [disti/lirPvPnaIa vP/da]
distyle adj. (archit.) [di/stil] . ( )
ditch n. [ka/nava] [rof]; city ditch ; drainage ditch

divan n. [di/van]
dog tooth or dogtooth n. *

dogleg n. attrib. or doglegged adj. [kri/voI] [i/zognutyI]
dolichocephalic adj. [dPlihP/kran-nyI]
dolmen n. [dPl/men]; portal dolmen
dome n. [/kupPl] ( ); bulbous dome ;
central dome / ; conical dome (of multiple
tiers of muqarnas) * ;
corbelled / stepped dome ; double dome
(
); false dome ; helmet-shaped dome
; maqsura dome * ; melon / pumpkin
/ umbrella dome (
); mihrab dome ;
porch dome (mosque) * ; pendentive dome
; pointed dome ; ribbed dome
; segmented dome ; spherical dome
; subsidiary dome / ;
underside of the dome ; vaulted dome

domed adj. [/kupPlnyI]; domed octagon n.

34

35

lightning drum
dry adj. [su/hoI]
dryad n. [dri/ada]
dry-stone walling n. [/klatka stq/ny /nasuhP]
duct n. [vPdP/vot] [vPdPprP/vot]
dugout n. 1 (canoe) [dPl/blonka] ()
dugout n. 2 (shelter) [zqm/lanka]
dungeon n. 1 (tower) [dPn/zhon]
dungeon n. 2 (catacomb under tower) *
dungeon n. 3 (jail) [tqm/nitsa]
dunting n. * [hP/lodnyI tresk] (
)
dweller n. [/zhytql]
dwelling n. (house) [zhy/lishche]; pile dwelling
dwelling adj. [zhy/loI]
dye n. [/kraska]
dynasty n. [di/nastiIa]; the Julio-Claudian Dynasty ; the Severan dynasty


dome-on-drum n. [/kupPl na bara/bane]
dome-on-squinches n. [/kupPl na /trompah]
domestication n.[dPmqsti/katsyIa][PdP/mashnivanIe];
mans domestication of dog
doming n. [/kupPlnPIe pqrq/krytiIe]
donjon n. [dPn/zhon]
door n. [dver] ., [/dveri] .; beautiful door or holy door or royal
door
doorstep n. [dvqr/noI pP/rok]
doorway n. [dvqr/noI prP/Iom]; stalactite doorway *
dopant n. [lq/giruIushchaIa /primqs]
Dorian n. [dP/riIets]
Doric adj. [dP/riIskiI] (related to the architectonic order)
[dP/richqskiI]
dormer n. [man/sardnPIe P/kno]; arched dormer

dormitory or dorter n. (in monatery) [pPchi/valna] ., [/spalni]


. ( )
dot n. [/tochka]
double-axe n. [dvPI/noI tP/por]
double-edged adj. [PbPIudP/ostryI] [dvulqz/viInyI]
double-handled adj. [dvu/ruchnyI] ()
double-pillared adj. [dvuh/stolpnyI]
double struck part. (coin defect) * . ( ,
)
dove n. (vessel) *
dowel n. 1 (pin for fastening two things together) [shtift]
dowel n. 2 (fastener of stones in masonry) [pi/ron]; lead dowel
; wood dowel
drachm n. (pl. drachms) or drachma n. (pl. drachmae or drachmas) [/drahma]
draft n. [chqr/tosh]
draftsman n. (pl. draftsmen) [hu/dozhnik] ( )
[chqr/tozhnik]
drain n. [vPdP/stok] [/stochnyI /zholPb]
drainage n. [vPdP/stochnaIa sis/tema] [drq/nash]
[kanali/zatsyIa]
drainage adj. [vPdP/stochnyI] [vPdP/sbornyI]
( )
drain-pipe n. [vPdP/stochnaIa tru/ba]
draughts n. pl. [/shashki] ()
draughtsman n. (pl. draughtsmen) [/shashka] ()
draw v. [chqr/tit] [risP/vat]
drawbridge n. [pPd/IomnyI most] [pqrqkid/noI
most]
drawing n. 1 (image) [ri/sunPk] [chqr/tosh]; dimensional
drawing ; line drawing ; line drawing
of inscription ; perspective drawing

drawing n. 2 (of wire) [PvlP/cheniIe] ()
dredge n. [/draga]
drift n. (made by the force of a current) [na/nos] [na/myf]
drill n. [svqr/lo]
drinkbeaker n. [/kubPk dla pit/Ia]
drip n. 1 (of slip) [za/tok] ()
drip n. 2 (archit.) [kPzy/rok] (.)
dromos n. (entrance corridor to a tomb) [/dromPs]
dropper n. (vessel) [/kapqlnik] (); dropper or sprinkler (vessel
shape) *
drum n. [bara/ban] (. ); column drum ;

ear n. (of a vessel) [/uhP] [gPrizPn/talnaIa /ruchka]


()
ear cleaner n. [kPpP/ushka]
earplug n. (of traditional peoples) *
( )
earring n. [sqr/ga]
ear-stud n. [kPltsq/vidnaIa sqr/ga]
earthenware n. [kq/ramika] [kqra/michqskiIe
iz/deliIa] (, 950)
earthwork n. (embankment) [val] [/nasyp]
east n. [vPs/tok]
eastern adj., Amer. east adj. [vPs/tochnyI]; east end (in a church)
()
ecclesiastical adj. [tser/kovnyI]
echinus n. (pl. echini) [e/hin]
economics n. [ekP/nomika]
economy n. [hP/zaIstvP]
edge n. 1 (boundary) [kraI]
edge n. 2 (of a sharp tool) [/lezviIe]; cutting edge (of a metal tool)
, (f a stone tool) ( )
edge n. 3 (of coin) [gurt] ( ); broken edge
; grained edge ;
herring bone edge ; plain edge /
; routh edge / /
edged adj. [zaPs/tronnyI]
edible adj. [sIe/dobnyI]
edifice n. (building) [/zdaniIe] [sPPru/zheniIe]; religious edifice

edition n. [iz/daniIe] [rq/daktsyIa]; second edition
EDTA abbr. (ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid) [tri/lon be] ( )
education n. [Pbu/cheniIe] [PbrazP/vaniIe]
EF abbr. extremely fine (coin grading) ( ,
)
effervescence n. [vydq/leniIe puzyr/kof]
effigy n. (on a tomb = gisant) * (,
)
efflorescence n. (on the surface of an artifact) [/vytsvqty] . (

36

37

)
egg-and-anchor or egg-and-dart or egg-and-tongue n. . [i/onik] .,
[/ovy] .
eggs n. pl. (ornam.) [/ovy] .
egg-shaped adj. (e. g. body of a vessel) [IqItsq/vidnyI] (. )
eggshell n. [skPrlu/pa] [Iq/ichnaIa skPrlu/pa]
Egyptologist n. [Iqgip/tolPk]
Egyptology n. [IqgiptP/logiIa]
ejecta n. [/vybrPs]
elbow n. [/lokPt]
electrolytic adj. [qlqktrPli/tichqskiI]
electrochemical adj. [qlqktrPhi/michqskiI]
electrum [q/lektr] [qlqk/tron] ()
element n. [qlq/ment]; crowning element
; dating element ; floral
element ; structural element /

elevation n. 1 (faade) [fa/sat]; back elevation ; front elevation
; side elevation
elevation n. 2 (drawing) [fasi/rofka]
ell n. 1 (of a building) [kry/lo] ()
ell n. 2 (of a pipe) [kP/lenP] (, )
elongated adj. [udli/nonyI]
elutriation n. o [Pt/muchivPniIe] [prPmy/vaniIe
/gliny]
embalm v. [balza/mirPvat]
embalmed adj. [nabalza/mirPvanyI]
[zabalza/mirPvanyI] [balza/mirPvanyI]
embalming n. [balza/matsyIa] [balza/mirPvaniIe]
embankment n. [/nasyp]
embattlement n. [zup/chatyI para/pet] (
)
emblema n. (pl. emblemata) (figured mosaic panel set into floor or wall mosaics)
* (

)
emboss v. [chq/kanit] ()
embossed part. [chq/kannyI]
embossing n. [chq/kanka] ()
embrasure n. [ambra/zura] [bPI/nitsa]
embroidered adj. [ras/shytyI]
embroidery n. [/vyshyfka] ( )
emperor n. [impq/ratPr]
empire n. [im/periIa]; Roman Empire ; Later Roman
Empire ; Ottoman Empire
emporion or emporium n. (pl. emporia or emporiums) 1 (ancient) [qm/poriI]
emporion n. (pl. emporia) or emporium n. (pl. emporia or emporiums) 2 (medieval and
modern) [/torzhishche] [tPr/govaIa fak/toriIa]
enamel n. [q/mal]; cloisonn enamel ,
[klua/zon-nyI Pr/namqnt]
enameled adj. [pP/krytyI q/malIu]
encaustic n. 1 (paint) [vPskP/vaIa /kraska]
encaustic n. 2 (art of painting) [qnka/ustika]
encolpion n. (pl. encolpia, also encolpions) * c
( )
encrust v. 1 (decorate) [qnkrus/tirPvat]
encrust v. 2 (destroy) [pPkry/vatsa /korkPI]
encrustation n. [qnkrus/tatsyIa]
end n. 1 (extremity) [PkPn/chaniIe] [PkP/nechnPst]
[kP/nets]; hip end or hipped end ; partial-hip end or

partial-hipped end
end n. 2 (detail of cloth) [nakP/nechnik] ( )
end-piece n. 1 (of a staff) [na/vershiIe]
end-piece n. 2 (of a belt) [nakP/nechnik] ()
Eneolithic n. [qnqP/lit]
Eneolithic adj. [qnqPli/tichqskiI]
englyphic adj. [qngli/fichqskiI]
engobe n. [an/gop]
engobed adj. [angP/birPvanyI]
engrave v. [gravirP/vat]
engraved adj. [gravi/rovanyI]
engraving n. [gravi/rofka]; hand-etched engravings ;
rock engraving
enkolpion n. (pl. enkolpia, also enkolpions) * c
( )
enlarged adj. [uvq/lichenyI]
ensemble n. a [an/sambql]
entablature n. [antablq/ment]
entasis n. [qn/tazis]
enthroned part. [na /tronq] . ., [na prq/stolq]
. .; enthroned Christ /
entrance n. [vhot]; false entrance ; monumental entrance
; recessed entrance ; side
entrance ; stairway entrance
entresol n. [antrq/sol] [mqzP/nin]
environs n. pl. [P/kresnPsti]
eolith n. [qP/lit] ( )
Eolithic n. * [qP/lit] ( ,
)
Eolithic adj. [qPli/tichqskiI]
ephebe n. (pl. ephebes) or ephebos n. (pl. epheboi) or ephebus n. (pl. ephebi) [q/feb]
epiblema n. (shawl) * (
)
epichysis n. (pl. epichyses) * ,
,
epiclesis n. (pl. epicleses) [qpi/kleza]
epigrapher n. [qpigra/fist]
epigraphic adj. [qpigra/fichqskiI]
epigraphist n. [qpigra/fist]
epigraphy n. [qpi/grafika]
epiklesis n. (pl. epikleses) [qpi/kleza]
Epi-Palaeolithic n. [qpipalqP/lit]
Epi-Palaeolithic adj. [qpipalqPli/tichqskiI]
epistyle n. a [arhi/traf]
epitaph n. [qpi/tafiIa] epitaph in verse
eponym n. [q/ponim]
eponymic adj. [q/ponimnyI]
epoxy resin [qpP/ksidnaIa smP/la]
equipment n. [invqn/tar] (only modern) [PbP/rudqvaniIe]
[snara/zheniIe]; funeral equipment

era n. [/era]; pre-Petrine era (in Russia) ; Quaternary era


; turn of eras
eraser n. [rq/zinka]
eroded adj. [qrP/dirPvannyI]
erosion n. (natural process) [q/roziIa] [qrPzi/onnyI
prP/tses]
esonarthex n. [/narteks] [/vnutrqniI /narteks] (
)
estate n. [u/satba] [pP/mestIe]; farming estate

38

39

; urban estate
ester n. [/slozhnyI q/fir]
estuary n. [/ustIe] ()
etch v. [vy/travlivat]; etch the surface
etching n. [gravi/rofka]
ethanol n. [qta/nol] [q/tilPvyI spirt]
ether n. [q/fir]
ethnic adj. [qt/nichqskiI]; ethnic consciousness ;
ethnic group ; ethnic particularity
; ethnic territory
ethnicity n. [qt/nichnPst]
ethnoarchaeology n. [qtnParhqP/logiIa]
ethnogenesis n. (pl. ethnogeneses) [qtnPgq/nes]
ethnogenetic adj. [qtnPgqnq/tichqskiI]
ethnographer n. [qt/nograf]
ethnographic adj. [qtnPgra/fichqskiI]; ethnographic group

ethnography n. [qtnP/grafiIa]
ethnological adj. [qtnPlP/gichqskiI]
ethnologist n. [qt/nolPk]
ethnology n. [qtnP/logiIa]
ethnonym n. [qt/nonim]
ethnos n. (pl. ethnoi or ethne) [/etnPs]
ethnosocial adj. [qtnPsPtsi/alnyI]
Etruscan n. [qt/rusk]
Etruscan adj. [qt/russkiI]
etymology n. [qtimP/logiIa]
eulogia (pl. eulogiae) [qv/logiIa]
eustasy n. (pl. eustasies) [qf/staziIa]
eustatic variations pl. [qfsta/tichqskiIe kPlq/baniIa]
euthynteria n. *
Euxine n. [qf/ksin] [pont qf/ksinskiI]
evaluation n. [P/tsenka]; critical evaluation
evangelist n. [Iqvangq/list]
ewer n. [kuf/shin] ()
ex jewelry adv. adj. (coin) * , (
)
exaleiptron n. (pl. exaleiptra) [tua/letnaIa shka/tulka]
examination n. [is/sledPvanIe] [izu/cheniIe]
excavate n. [ras/kapyvat] [Ptkry/vat]
excavation license n. [Pt/krytyI list]
excavation n. . [ras/kopki]; archaeological excavation
; stripping excavation -
excavator n. (person) [arhq/olPk] (,
)
exception n. [isklu/cheniIe]; with exception of (something)
(-)
exedra n. (pl. exedrae) [qk/sedra]
exergue n. [Pb/res] ( ); in
exergue
exhibit n. [qkspP/nat]
exhibition n. [/vystafka]
exomion n. (pl. exomia) or exomis [qk/zomis] ( )
exonarthex n. [qkzP/narteks]
expandable polyurethane foam n. [mPn/tazhnaIa /pena]
expansion n. [qks/pansiIa]
expedition n. [qkspq/ditsyIa] (, )
expedition leader n. [na/chalnik qkspq/ditsyi]
[rukPvP/ditql qkspq/ditsyi]
exploding n. (glaze defect) [fski/paniIe gla/zuri] ()
40

exploration

n. [is/sledPvanIe] [izu/cheniIe]
()
export n. 1 (operation) [/ekspPrt]; Sinopean export

export n. 2 (exported object) [/ekspPrtnPIe iz/deliIe]
[prqd/met /ekspPrta]
exposure n. (photo) [ekspP/zitsyIa] ()
exposure meter n. [qkspP/nomqtqr]
exposition n. [ekspP/zitsyIa] ()
exterior adj. [/vneshniI]
extrados n. (pl. extrados or extradoses) [lop /arki] ( )
extramural adj. [/zagPrPdnyI]
eye n. 1 (human) [glas]
eye n. 2 (in a tool for the handle) [prP/ushyna]
eye n. 3 (of a needle) [ush/ko]
eye n. 4 (lightning aperture in a roof) [fP/nar] (.).
eye-plate n. [na/glaznik]
eye-socket n. [glaz/nitsa]

F
F abbr. fine adj. (coin grading) [hQ/roshyI] ( :
)
fabric n. 1 (textile) [tkan]
fabric n. 2 (clay) [/glina] [/glinqnPIe /testP]
[kqra/michqskPIe /testP] [/testP]; distinctive fabric
; impermeable fabric ; tempered with
soil fabric or tempered with rock fabric
fabric n. 3 (texture) [sP/staf /gliny] [tqk/stura]
fabric n. 4 (production place) [/mestP prPiz/vots-tva]
fabric marking n. (ceramic surface treatment) [Ptpq/chatki /tkani]
( ) .
fabricator n. (used to detach flakes from cores or tools) [Pt/boInik]
[Pt/zhymnik]
faade n. [fa/sat]; rear faade / ; screen faade
; solid / blank / blind faade
face n. 1 (faade) [fa/sat]
face n. 2 (visible part) [/vidimaIa chast] (, )
face n. 3 (of a wall) [/pantsyr] ()
face n. 4 (drawing) [fasi/rofka]
face n. 5: ventral face [/brushkP] ( )
face n. 6 (side of an artifact) [stPrP/na] ()
face-work n. [Pbli/tsovPchnaIa /klatka]
facing n. [Pbli/tsofka] [Pp/klatka] (-); solid / continuous
facing
factor n. [/faktPr]
factory n. 1 (workshop) [mastqr/skaIa]
factory n. 2 (trading post) [fak/toriIa]
faience n. [fa/Ians] [/pasta]; Egyptian faience

faience adj. [fa/IansPvyI]; Egyptian faience
fair adj. (UK coin grading) [fpPl/ne udPvlqtvP/ritqlnPIe]
( :
; )
fall n. [/gibql] [pa/deniIe]
fang n. [klyk]
farmhouse n. [/selskaIa u/sadba]
farming n. [zqmlq/deliIe] (); cereal farming
; crop farming ; fruit farming
41

; livestock farming ; poultry


farming ; stock farming
; subsistence farming ; vegetable
farming
farming adj. [selskPhP/zaIstvqnyI]
farmstead n. [/selskaIa u/satba]
fascia n. [/fas-tsyIa]
fastener n. [zas/toshka]; dress fastener
faun n. [favn]
feast n. [pir]; commemorative feast ; funeral feast
feather n. [pq/ro] ()
feature n. [chqr/ta] [P/sobqnPst] [/priznak]
[/svoIstvP]; dating feature ; typical
feature or distinctive feature

feeder n. [kPr/mushka]
feldspar or felspar n. [pPlq/voI shpat]
femur n. [/bedrqnaIa kost]
fence n. [za/bor] [P/grada]
fencing n. (decorative, of a weapon) [Pkan/tofka] [Pp/klatka]
ferric adj. * . .
ferrous adj. * . .
festoon n. [fqs/ton]
festooned adj. [fqs/tonchqtyI]
fetish n. [fq/tish]
fettling n. (in conservation) [za/chistla shvof] (.)
fibula n. (pl. fibulae or fibulas) 1 (splint bone) [/malaIa
bqr/tsovaIa kost]
fibula n. (pl. fibulae or fibulas) 2 (clasp) [/bibula] ( ); Aucissa fibula
; boat fibula ; bow fibula
; bow-shaped fibula ; rossbow
fibula ;
fibula with bilateral spring ; fibula
with convoluted bow ; fibula with reflexed terminal
,
; fibula with returned foot ;
fibula with terminal knob ornament
; fibula with unilateral spring
; hinge fibula ; inscribed fibula
; La Tene fibula ; leech fibula
; looped foot fibula ;
military fibula ; moulded fibula
; one-piece fibula ; P-shaped
fibula - ; plate fibula -; two-piece fibula
; two-piece fibula ; zoomorphic
fibula
field n. [/pole]; barrow field ; battle field
; in the battle field , but: in the battle fields

field adj. or fieldworking adj. [pPlq/voI]
field notes n. pl. (excavation documents compiled in field)
[pPle/vaIa dPkumqn/tatsyIa]
figure n. 1 (image) [fi/gura]; draped figure ; fertility
figure ; hill figure ;
jamb figure ; orant figure or orans
figure (male) , (female) ; winged figure
figure n. 2 (picture) [ri/sunPk]
figured adj. [fi/gurnyI]
figurine n. [fi/gurka] [statu/etka]
filigree n. [fili/gran] ()

filigree or filigreed adj. . [fili/granyI]


. . [f /tehnike fili/grani] ()
fill n. 1 (of a pit) [zapPl/neniIe]
fill n. 2 (of rubble in between of two faces of a wall) [zabu/tofka]
filler n. [napPl/nitql], (of clay) [PtP/shchitql]
filling n. [zapPl/neniIe] (with friable material) [/zasyp]
film n. 1 (thin coating or sheet) [/plonka] ( ); cling film
() polyethylene film ; stick
film
film n. 2 (photo) [fPtP/plonka] [/plonka]
filming n. [vidqP/sIomka]
filter n. 1 (vessel, big) [dur/shlak] or (smaller) [tsq/dilka]
filter n. 2 (porous material) [/filtqr]; UV filter
find, also finding n. [na/hotka]; archaeological find
; associated finds ; botanical
finds ; chance find ; coin
finds ; grave finds
; malacological finds ;
steological find ; pottery find
; small find ; surface finds

find v. [nahP/dit] [Pbna/ruzhyvat] [Ptrky/vat]


fine adj. 1 (small) [/melkiI] [nqbPl/shovP raz/mera]
fine adj. 2 (good quality) [hP/roshqvP /kachqstva]; fine bronzework
* ; fine pottery or fine ware *

fine adj. 3 (vessel) [/tonkiI] ( )
fine-grained adj. [tPnkPzqr/nistyI] [tPnkP/molPtyI]
fingerprint n. [Ptpe/chatPk /paltsa]
finial n. 1 (archit.) [fi/al] ( , )
finial n. 2 (ornam. endpiece) [na/vershiIe]
finis n. [pri/del] ()
finish hardware or finish n. (of a scabbard) [bute/rol] [/lopast]
()
Finno-Ugrian n. - [finP/ugr]
Finno-Ugrian adj. - [finPu/gorskiI]
fire n. [pP/zhar]; funeral fire
firearm n. [ruch/noIe Pgnq/strelnPIe P/ruzhyIe]
fire-blackened adj. [zakPp/chonyI]
fired adj. [PbP/zhzhonyI]; unevenly fired
fire lighter n. [krq/salP]
fire starter n. [krq/salP]
fireplace n. 1 (of a bonfire) [kPs/trishche] [/mestP kPs/tra]
fireplace n. 2 (indoor) [P/chak]
firer n. [strq/lok]
fire-steel n. [krq/salP] [Pg/nivP] (
); lyre-shaped fire-steel
firestone n. (used to strike a fire) [/kremqn] (
)
firing n. [/obzhyk]; bonfire firing
fishbone n. [/rybnaIa kost] (. )
fishery n. [rybP/lofstvP]
fishery installation n. [rybPlP/vetskPIe P/rudiIe]
[P/rudiIe dla /rybnPI /lovli]
fishgig n. o [PstrP/ga]
fishhook n. [rybP/lovnyI kru/chok]
fish-plate n. [/rybnPIe /bludP]; fish-plate with a cavity in the center

fissure n. [/treshchina]
fitting n. [garni/tura]

42

43

flagon n. [kuf/shin] (, , )
flagstone n. [pli/ta] ()
flail n. [tsep]; battle flail ; single ball flail ; double
ball flail ; 3-ball flail
flake n. (stone tool), also modified flake [Pt/shchep]; biface trimming plate
; bifacial trimming flake
(); discoid flake ; typical Levallois
fake
flaked adj. [ras-slP/ifshyIsa]
flan n. (metal disk to be stamped as a coin) [zagP/tofka],
[kru/zhok] ( ); chipped flan ;
ragged flan ( );
crowded on small flan (
) ( ); full / normal flan
; squared flan /
; wide flan with weak centers
(- )
flange n. 1 (archit.) [/polka] (. )
flange n. 2 (protruding edge of metal artifact) [za/kraina]
flank n. [flank]
flanking adj. [flan/kiruIushchiI]
flare n. (shape) * . ( ); capital flare

flaring adj. (shape) [ras-shy/raIushchiIsa]


flashing n. (glass-making technique) * ( ) ,
,
,

flask n. 1 (general) [fla/kon]; oil flask ; perfume flask

flask n. 2 (flat container) [/flaga] or (small) [/flashka]
flask n. 3 (for laboratory use) [/kolba]
flat adj. [/ploskiI]
flat spot n. (oin defect) * ( :
- ,
)
flat-base or flat-bottom or flat-bottomed adj. [plPskP/don-nyI] ()
flaw n. (imperfection) [dq/fekt] [iz/Ian], (fissure)
[treshchina]; flaw inspection /detection ; flan flaws
( )
flax n. [lon]
flaxen adj. [lnq/noI]
flchette n. [/strelka] ( )
fleet n. [flot]
fleck n. (defect) [/krapina]
fleur-de-lis n. [gqral/dichqskaIa /liliIa]
flight n. (of a staircase) [marsh] ()
flint n. [krq/men]; chipped flint ; flint chipped all over
its surface ; flint worked along
every edge ; flint worked
only on one side
flint adj. [krqm/novyI]
flintknapping n. [ras/kalyvaniIe] [Pbra/botka
/kremna]
floral adj. (vessel) [s ras/titqlnym Pr/namqntPm] .
.
floodplain n. [/poIma] [/poIma rq/ki]
floor n. 1 (surface) [pol]; flagstone floor
; floor of hardened clay ; floor of hardened soil
; living floor ; mosaic

floor
floor n. 2 (storey) [q/tash]; ground floor ; first floor ;
second floor
floral adj. [ras/titqlnyI]
flotation n. o [flP/tatsyIa]
fluorine n. [ftor]
flute n. 1 (music instrument) [/fleIta]
flute n. 2 (of a column) [kane/lur] [lP/zhok]
fluted adj. [kane/lirPvanyI] [s lPzh/kami] . .
fluting n. [kane/lirPvanIe]
foil n. [fP/lga]
folk n. [na/rot] [nasq/leniIe] [/grupa lu/deI];
agricultural folk
font n. [ku/pel]
food n. [/pishcha]; funeral food ; sacrificial food

fossor n. (pl. fossores) *
[strP/itql mP/gil]
foot n. (pl. feet) 1 (human) [stP/pa], (if used for leg) [nP/ga]
foot n. (pl. feet) 2 (bottom of a vessel) [dno] [/dontse] ();
fenestrated foot
foot n. (pl. feet) 3 (stem of a vessel) [/noshka] (); pedestal foot * (footring)
, (high foot)
foot n. (pl. feet) 4 (of a fibula or a brooch) [/noshka] (); returned foot
; solid foot
foot n. (pl. feet) 5 (unit of length) [fut]
footbridge n. [pqshq/hodnyI most]
footing n. [fun/damqnt] [PsnP/vaniIe ste/ny]
footring n. [pPd/don] [kPltsq/voI pPd/don]
footwear n., only sing. [/obuf]
forecourt n. [pq/redniI dvor] [/vneshniI dvor]
( )
forge v. [kP/vat]
forging n. [/kofka]
fork n. [/vilka]
form n. 1 [/forma] ( )
form n. 2 [/forma] ( ); closed form ; open form
a
forming or pottery forming n. [fPr/mofka] ()
formation n. [PbrazP/vaniIe] [fPrmirP/vaniIe]; ethnic
formation
formeret n. [prP/dolnaIa /arka] ( )
fort n. [/krepPst] () [ukrqp/leniIe] [fort];
contour fort ; promontory fort
fortification n. 1 (building) [ukrqp/leniIe] ()
fortification n. 2 (art) [fPrtifi/katsyIa]
fortification or fortificational adj. [krqpPs/noI]
[PbPrP/nitelnyI] [fPrtifikatsy/onnyI]
fortified adj. [ukrqp/lonyI]
fortlet n. [/krepPst] ( )
fortress n. [/krepPst] ()
fortress adj. [krqpPs/noI]
forum n. (pl. fora or forums) [/forum]
fosse n. [rof] ()
fossil n. [Pkamq/nelPst]
fossil adj. [PkPmq/nelyI]
foundation n. 1 (of a building) [fun/damqnt]
foundation n. 2 (of a city) [PsnP/vaniIe] ()
fountain n. [fPn/tan]; ablutions fountain ; drinking
fountain ; public fountain

44

45

four-apsidal adj. [chqtyrohap/sidnyI]


fr. abbr. fair (US coin grading) [pQ/sretstvqnyI] ( :
; )
fracture n. [skol] [iz/lom]; in fracture
fragile adj. [/lomkiI] [/hrupkiI]
fragment n. [frag/ment]; amphora fragment ;
architectural / architectonic fragment ;
ceramic fragments ; lid fragment
; in fragments or fragments of ; rim
fragment ; wall fragment (of a vessel)
()
fragmentary or fragmented adj. [fragmqn/tirPvanyI] .,
[vP frag/mentah] . .
frame n. 1 (of a building) [kar/kas]
frame n. 2 (closed border) [/ramka]
framework n. [kar/kas] [/ferma] [struk/tura]
framing n. [Pbram/leniIe]; framing line ()
free-blowing n. (glass-making technique) [/tehnika svP/
bodnPvP vydu/vaniIa] [svP/bodnPIe vydu/vaniIe]
( )
free-blown adj. (glass artifact) [f /tehnikq
svP/bodnPvP vydu/vaniIa]
free-standing adj. [Pt/delnyI] ( )
fresco n. [/freska]
fresco adj. [/freskPvyI]
fret n. (decorative pattern) [plq/tonka] (
); Greek fret (design)

friable n. [/ryhlyI] [sy/puchiI]


frieze n. [fris] (.); ornamental frieze
frigidarium n. [frigi/dariI]
frit n. [/fritta]; borax frit
frog n. (loop) [pqt/la] ( ); axe frog
() ; dagger frog ()
frontage n. 1 (of a building) [pq/redniI fa/sat]
[/glavnyI fa/sat]
frontage n. 2 (the land between a building and the street) *

frontier n. 1 (borderline) [gra/nitsa]
frontier n. 2 (frontier region) [pPgra/nichIe]
frontier adj. [pPgra/nichnyI] [prigra/nichnyI]
frontlet n. [na/lobnik]
foreground n. [pq/redniI plan]
fruit-stand n. [/vaza dla /fruktPf]
full-length adj. [v rost] [f /polnyI rost] ()
funeral n. 1 (grave) [pPgrq/beniIe] [zahPrP/neniIe]
funeral n. 2 (ceremony) [/pohPrPny] [pPgrq/beniIe]
[pPgrq/balnaIa tsqrq/moniIa]
funeral adj. [pPgrq/balnyI]
funeral drink n. [/zhertvqnPIe pi/tIo]
funeral practice n. [pPgrq/balnaIa /praktika]
funeral repast n. [pP/minki] [/trizna]
funerary adj. [pPgrq/balnyI]
fungal growth n. [raz/vitiIe grip/kovPvP zara/zheniIa]
fungus n. [gri/bok]
funnel n. 1 (general) [vP/ronka]
funnel n. 2 (glass container) * ( )
funnel-shaped adj. [vPrPnkP/vidnyI]
furnace n. [pech]; glass-forming furnace or glass-melting furnace
; iron-smelting furnace ;

G abbr. good (coin grading) [udQvlqtvQ/ritqlnyI] (


:
, )
gable n. 1 (separated from the lower wall by a cornice) [frPn/ton]; curved
gable or round gable ; triangular gable /
; bell gable
gable n. 2 (with no cornice below) [shchi/pets]
gadroon n. [rP/manskiI Pr/namqnt] (
)
gallery n. 1 (archit.) [galq/reIa]
gallery n. 2 (choir) [/hory] .
gallery n. 3 (upper story over the aisle or narthex) [qm/pora] [qm/por]
gallery n. 4 or museum gallery [zal mu/zeIa] [mu/zeInyI zal],
[/vystavPchnyI zal]
galley n. [ga/lera]; war galley
gallipot n. [ap/technyI sP/sut]
gantlet n. [/latnaIa rukP/vitsa]
garden n. [sat]; pleasure garden ; vegetable garden

gargoyle n. [gar/guIla]
garland n. 1 (general) [gir/landa]
garland n. 2 (on vessel) [na/lep], (elongated) [/valik]
garment n. [P/dezhda] [prqd/met P/dezhdy]; upper
garment
garnet n. [gra/nat] ()
garnet adj. [gra/natPvyI] ( )
garret n. [man/sarda]
garrison n. [garni/zon]
garth or cloister garth n. *
gate n. [vP/rota] .; holy gate / gates (in altar screen or iconostasis)
( )
gatehouse n. (fortified structure) [nad/vratnaIa /bashna]
[/bashna s vP/rotami] [vP/rotnaIa /bashna]
[ukrqp/lonnyIe vP/rota]
gateway n. *
gatherer n. [sPbi/ratel]
gathering n. [sPbi/ratqlstvP]
gauze n. [/marla]
gauntlet n. [/latnaIa rukP/vitsa]
gazebo n. (pl. gazebos) [belve/der]
gem n. 1 or gemstone n. 1 (precious stone) [dragP/tsenyI /kamqn]
(, )
gem n. 2 or gemstone n. 2 (semiprecious stone) [poludragP/tsennyI
/kamqn] (, )
gem n. 3 (spoken: cut and polished gemstone) [/gemma]
generation n. [pPkP/leniIe]
genius n. (on a coin) [/geniI] ( e)
Genoese n. (pl. Genoese) [gqnu/ezqts]
Genoese adj. [gqnu/eskiI]
genouillre n. [nakP/lennik]

46

47

metallurgical furnace
fusible adj. [/plafkiI]; easily / readily fusible
fusion n. 1 (act) [/plafka] [plav/leniIe]
[ras plav/leniIe]
fusion n. 2 (anything made by fusing) [splaf]
fust n. [fust]

gens n. (pl. gentes) (patrilineal clan) [rot] or (barbarian tribe)


[/varvarskPIe /plema]
geotextile n. [gqPtqk/stil]
gig n. [PstrP/ga]
gilded adj. [pPzP/lochqnyI]
gilding n. [pPzP/lota]
gilt n. [pPzP/lota]
gilt adj. [pPzP/lochqnyI]
girandole n. [mnPgP/sveshnik]
girder n. [/balka]; supporting girder
girdle n. 1 (belt) [pPrtu/peIa] [pPrtu/peInyI rq/men]
girdle n. 2 (anat.) [/poIas] (); pectoral girdle or shoulder girdle
; pelvic girdle

gisant n. (effigy on a tomb) * (,
)
glaciation n. [Plqdq/neniIe]
glacis n. (pl. glacis or glacises) [/glasis]
gladiator n. [gladi/atPr]
gladiatorial combat n. [gladi/atPrskiI boI]
gladius n. [/gladius] ( )
glass n. 1 (material) [stqk/lo]; blown glass ( / )
; cameo glass ( / )
; cast glass
/ ; changing colour glass * (
, ); colourless glass
; core-formed glass or sand-core glass ( /
) ; cut glass
; diatreta glass ; free-blown glass (
/ ) ; gold-band glass
( / ) ;
intaglio cut glass ; lead glass c
; marvered / reticella glass
; millefiori glass ; mould-blown glass
( / ) ;
Murano glass ; onyx glass *
(
); opaque glass ; relief cut glass
; sagged glass ( / )
; sagging mosaic glass with former molds
; slant-cut glass *
; soda glass ; speckled
glass ; stained glass / ;
transclucent glass ; Venetian glass
; vitreous glass
glass n. 2 (cylindrical vessel without stem and footring) [sta/kan]; cupping glass

glass n. 3 (wine glass, fine) [/rumka]
glass n. 4 (wine glass, big) [bP/kal]
glass adj. [stqk/lanyI]; blown glass . .; mosaic
glass . .
glassblowing n. [stqklP/duvnPIe /delP]
glassware n. [stqk/lanyIe iz/deliIa] .,
[is/deliIa is stqk/la] .
glasswork n. 1 (craft) [stqklP/deliIe]
glasswork n. 2 (artifact) [stqk/lanPIe iz/deliIe]
glassworker n. [stqklP/del]
glassy adj. [glazu/rovanyI]
glaze n. 1 (general: coating) [dqkPra/tivnPIe pP/krytiIe]

( )
glaze n. 2 (clay coating) [lak]; black glaze ; brilliant glaze
; dull glaze ; glaze of poor quality ;
inferior glaze ;
poorly adhered glaze or glaze which badly adheres to the surface of the
vessel
; red glaze ; thick glaze ; thin glaze
; well-adhered glaze
; worn-off glaze
glaze n. 3 (glass coating) [gla/zur] [pP/liva]; base glaze
-; dimpled glaze /
(); glaze applied to ; glaze of
poor quality ; inferior glaze
; poorly adhered glaze
or glaze which badly adheres to the surface of the vessel

; speckled glaze ; thick glaze
; thin glaze ; tough glaze ;
well-adhered glaze
; worn-off glaze
glazed adj. 1 (general: with a coating) *
glazed adj. 2 (with clay coating) * ; black glazed ; red
glazed ; glazed pottery
glazed adj. 3 (with glass coating) [pPliv/noI] [glazu/rovanyI];
glazed pottery /
globular adj. [sharP/vidnyI]
gloss n. 1 (clay) [lak] [/lakPvPIe pP/krytiIe] (); black
gloss ; brown gloss / ; red gloss

gloss n. 2: sickle gloss [zqr/kalnyI blesk]
[/serpovyI blesk] ( ,
)
gloss adj. * ; black gloss ; red gloss
glue n. [kleI]
glue v. [/kleit]
glyptic adj. *
glyptics n. [/gliptika]
goblet n. (general) * : a) (glass or with foot-ring)
[/kubPk], b) (clay, fine) [/rumka], c) (clay, big) [bP/kal]
god n. [bok]; cosmogonic gods ( ); river god
; sky-god ;
sun god
goddess n. [bP/gina]; mother goddess -; sky-goddess

gold n. [/zolPtP]
golden or gold adj. [zPlP/toI]; Golden Fleece
gold-plated adj. [pPzP/lochqnyI]
goldsmith n. [Iuvq/lir] [zlatPkuz/nets]
goldwork n. [iz/deliIa is /zolPta] .,

[zPlP/tyIe is/deliIa] .
goods n. pl. 1 (commodities) [tP/vary]
goods n. pl. 2 (houseware) [/utvar] ., .
goods n. pl. 3: grave goods or funerary goods [pPgrq/balnyI
invqn/tar] ., .
gorgerin n. [Pb/vaska kP/lonny]
gorgon n. [gPr/gona] - [gPr/gona mq/duza]
gorgoneion n. * -
gorytos n. (pl. gorytoi) or gorytus n. (pl. goryta) [gP/rit]
gorytus-cover n. [Pp/klatka gP/rita]
Goth n. [got]

48

49

Gothic n. 1 (related to the Goths) [/gotskiI]


Gothic n. 2 (medieval style) [gP/tichqskiI]
GPS abbr. or Global Positioning System n. *


graecized adj. [elini/zirPvanyI]
graffito n. (pl. graffiti) [gra/fitP] (. ) (
)
Gravettian n. [gra/vet]
grain n. [zqr/no]
granulation n. (design) [zern]
grate or grating n. [rq/shotka]; window grating
grave n. 1 (general) [mP/gila]
grave n. 2 (construction) [mP/gila] ( , ); bi-chambered
grave ; catacomb type grave ;
chambered grave ( ); cist
grave ; Classical grave
; collective grave (
) disturbed grave /
; family grave / ,
(tomb) ; female grave /
/ ; graves of the
same architecture ; horse grave
/ /
; in-ground grave , ;
male grave / /
; monument type grave
; pit grave ( )
; shaft grave /
; shaft-and-chamber grave / ;
shaft-niche grave / ; tile grave
; undercut grave
; undisturbed grave
/ ; urn grave /
/ ; vaulted grave
grave n. 3 (megalithic) [grPb/nitsa] () entrance grave
; gallery grave ; giants grave
; passage grave ; transepted
gallery grave ; wedge-shaped gallery
grave
grave robber n. [gra/bitql] ( )
grave robbery n. [Pgrab/leniIe mP/gil]
[rPzgrab/leniIe mP/gil]
gravel n. [/graviI]
gravestone n. 1 (horizontal) [mP/gilnaIa pli/ta]
gravestone n. 2 (three-dimensional) [nad/grobiIe]
Gravettian n. [gra/vet]
Gravettian adj. [gra/vetskiI] .
gray-clay adj. [sqrP/glinqnyI]
greave n. [/ponPsh] [na/golqnnik]
Greek n. [grek]; ancient Greek
Greek adj. [/grechqskiI]; ancient Greek

greenware n. (unfired ceramic artifact) * ()


[sy/rets]
grid n. 1 [raz/metka] [/setka] ( ); planning grid
; urban grid

grid n. 2 (part of a trench) [kvad/rat] ()


griffin or griffon n. (monster) [gri/fon]

grill or grille n. [rq/shotka] (.), (of a window)


[P/konnaIa rq/shotka]
grindstone n. 1 (for grinding) [/torPchnik]
grindstone n. 2 (for sharpening) [tP/chilnyI /kamqn]
[tP/chilP]
grip n. [zah/vat] [rukP/Iat] ( ); two
handed grip
grit n. [drqs/va]
grog n. [sha/mot]
groin n. *
groom n. [/konuh]
groove n. 1 (simple) [zhqlP/bok]
groove n. 2 (for inserting something) [pas]
groove n. 3 (of a column) [kane/lur]
grooved adj. [s pa/zami] . .
grot n. or grotto n. (pl. grottoes or grottos) [grot]
ground n. 1 (soil) [zqm/la] [/pochva] [grunt]
ground n. 2 (marked area) [plP/shchatka]; parade ground ; press
ground or pressing ground
ground-colour n. [grunt] ()
grouping n. [rasprqdq/leniIe] (); biological groupings

grout n. [ras/tvor]
grouted adj. [na ras/tvorq] . .; grouted with lime

gryphon n. [gri/fon]
guard n. 1 (of a sword) [pqrq/krestIe]
[/garda]; double guard ; heart-shaped guard
; shell patterned guard

guard n. 2 (protective plate) * ( ); cheek guard


(); nose guard ()
guardhouse n. [kara/ulnPIe pPmq/shcheniIe]
[gaupt/vahta]
guilloche n. [plq/tonka] ( )
gun n. [Pgnq/strelnPIe P/ruzhyIe] (,
)
gutta n. (pl. guttae) [/gutta]
gutter n. [/zholPp]; drain gutter ; drainage gutter
; rain gutter
guttus n. (pl. gutti) [/guttus]
gymnasiarch n. (pl. gymnasiarchs) or gymnasiarchos n. (pl. gymnasiarchoi)
[gimnasi/arh]
gymnasium n. (pl. gymnasia or gymnasiums) (ancient) [gim/nasiI]
gynaeceum n. [ginq/keI]
gypsum n. 1 (building material) [ala/bastr] [alq/bastr]
[gips] ()
gypsum n. 2 (fine stone) [ala/bastr] [alq/bastr] [gips]
( )

50

51

H
habitat n. [/mestP prPzhy/vaniIa] [/mestP
Pbi/taniIa] [arq/al]
haft n. 1 (of an axe or spear) [/drefkP] ( )
haft n. 2 (of a knife or dagger) [rukP/Iat] [rukP/Iatka] (
)
haft n. 3 (of a composite stone tool) [Ps/nova] ( )
hairnet n. [/setka dla vP/los]

hairpin n. [gPlP/vnaIa bu/lafka] [/shpilka


dla vP/los]
halberd n. [alq/barda]
half-column n. [polukP/lonna]
half-dome n. [polu/kupPl]
half-figure n. [polufi/gura] [pP/grudnPIe
izPbra/zheniIe]
half-length adj [pP/grudnyI] ()
half-timber or half-timbered adj. [fah/verkPvyI]
half-timbering n. [fah/verk]
hall n. 1 (corridor) [kPri/dor]
hall n. 2 (lobby) [hol]
hall n. 3 (a building used for exhibitions etc.) [zal] (); apsidal hall ;
audience / reception hall ; exhibition hall
; hall of pray or prayer hall ; museum
hall ,
Hallstatt n. (period) [gal/shtat]
Hallstatt adj. [gal/shtatskiI]
halo n. (pl. halos or haloes) [nimp]; in halo
hammam n. (Turkish bath) [ga/mam] [ha/mam]
[tu/retskiIe /bani] .
hammer n. 1 (big, of a blacksmith) [/molPt]; war hammer
hammer n. 2 (small) [mPlP/tok]
hammer-dressed adj. [Pbra/botanyI mPlPt/kom], (stone)
[/tosanyI] ( )
hammered adj. [/kovanyI] [ras/kovanyI]
hammering n. [/kofka]
hammerstone n. [Pt/boInik]
hand n. [kist ru/ki] [ru/ka]
handaxe n. [bi/fas] [ru/bilP] [ruch/noIe ru/bilP]
hand-crafted adj. [ruch/noI ra/boty] . .
hand-forged adj. [ruch/noI /kofki] . .
hand-forming n. [/lepka] ( )
handgrip n. [za/hvat] [rukP/Iat] (, ,
); wire wrapped handgrip
hand-hammered adj. [ruch/noI /kofki] . .
handiwork n. [Pbra/botka]
handle n. 1 (of a weapon) [e/fes] [rukP/Iat] ( ,
); twisted wire-wrap handle
; wooden handle
handle n. 2 (of a tool) [rukP/Iatka] ()
handle n. 3 (of a vessel) [/ruchka] (); arc handle
; arched handle ; basket handle or lug
handle or rudimentary handle -; double handle
; flanged handle ; handle with
asymmetric rib ; handle with central rib
; handle with finger tip
; handle with medial ridge ;
high swung handle * ( ); pulled up
handle ; quadruple handle
; ribbon handle ; strap handle
; subcutaneous / tunnel handle (
); triple handle ; twisted handle
; volute handle ; zoomorphic
handle
handless or handleless adj. (vessel) [bqz/ruchnyI] ()
handmade adj. (vessel) [lqp/noI] ()
handmill n. [zqrnP/torka] () [ruch/naIa
/melnitsa]
handstone n. (upper mobile stone of quern 1) * ()

()
hanger n. or hanger ring n. [kPl/tso dla pPd/veshyvanIa]
[pqt/la dla pPd/veshyvanIa]
hardwood adj. . . [is /tvordPI drqvq/siny]
harem n. [ga/rem]
Harpocrates n. [garpP/krat]
harpoon n. [gar/pun]; Azilian harpoon or Azilian flat harpoon
; unilaterally barbed harpoon
; bilaterally barbed harpoon
harpoon-head n. [nakP/nechnik garpu/na]
hat n. [/shapka] [/shlapa] [gPlPv/noI u/bor]
hauberk n. [kPl/chuga]; scale hauberk
haunch n. 1 (of a vault) [kry/lo /svoda]
haunch n. 2 (of an arch) * ( )
hazarbaf n. *
hazira n. (Moslem tomb contained within an enclosure) [ha/zira] (
, , )
head n. 1 (of a being) [gPlP/va]; head-dress or head gear ;
terracotta head ; head points northwards

head n. 2 (finial) [na/vershiIe]; nail head a) (top of a nail) ,
b) (ornam.) *
( );
head n. 3 (of a fibula or a brooch): head-plate [gP/lofka] ()
head n. 4 (of an iron or bronze weapon) [nakP/nechnik] (
); lance head / /
head n. 5 (archit.): mask head [maska/ron]
header n. (brick in bond) [ty/chok] ( , e)
headland n. [mys] ( , )
headrest n. [pPdgP/lovnik]
headstone n. 1 (horizontal) [mP/gilnaIa pli/ta]
headstone n. 2 (three-dimensional) [nad/grobiIe]
heap n. [/kucha] [za/val] [raz/val]; cinder heap
hearth n. [P/chak] (medieval and modern) [ka/min]
heathen n. [Ia/zychnik] ( , ,
)
Hebrew n. 1 (nation) [Iev/reI] [iu/deI]; ancient Hebrew
Hebrew n. 2 (language) [iv/rit]
Hebrew adj. [Iev/reIskiI] [iu/deIskiI]
hecatomb n. [gqka/tomba]
heelbone n. [/patPchnaIa kost]
heelstone n. [/patPchnyI /kamqn] ()
hegira n. [/hidzhra], [/gedzhra]
height n. [vysP/ta]; have a height of x meters x
hejira n. [/hidzhra], [/gedzhra]
Hellenic adj. [/ellinskiI]
Hellenism n. [qlli/nizm]
Hellenistic adj. also Hellenistical adj. [qllini/sticheskiI];
Early
Hellenistic
;
Late
Hellenistic

hellenized adj. [ellini/zirPvanyI]


Hellenos n. (pl. Hellenoi) [/ellin]
helmet n. or helm n. [shlem]; crested helmet ; scale helmet

hemicycle n. 1 (shape) [pPlu/kruk]
hemicycle n. 2 (in a church) * (
; )
hemi-spherical adj. [polusfq/richqskiI]
henge n. [hendzh]
heraldic adj. [gqral/dichqskiI]

52

53

heraldist n. *
heraldry n. [gq/raldika]
herbarium n. (pl. herbaria) (place in a monastery) [travPhra/nilishche]
herd n. [/stadP]
herder [pas/tuh]
herma n. (pl. hermae or hermai) or herm [/germa] (
)
Hermitage n. (in St. Petersburg) [ermi/tazh]
hermitage n. [skit]
hero n. [gq/roI]; Thracian Hero
herringbone n. (masonry) [/klatka v /Iolku]
hesychasterion n. (pl. hesychasteria) [isiha/steriI]
hew v. [pPt/tosyvat]
hideaway n. [u/bezhyshche] [uk/rytiIe]
hieromartyr n. (he) [/muchqnik], (she) [/muchqnitsa]
hilani n. [hila/ni] ( , )
hillfort n. [gPrP/dishche] ()
hilt n. [q/fes] [rukP/Iat] ( , );
cruciform hilt
; finish hilt
himation n. (pl. himatia) [gi/matiI]
hinge n. [pqt/la] (), (of a fibula) ()
hippodrome n. [ipP/drom]
historian n. [is/torik]; ancient historian
; art historian
history n. [is/toriIa]; ancient history ; art history
; classical history ; history of
mankind ; mediaeval history, Amer. medieval
history ; modern history

hoard n. 1 (hidden) [klat]
hoard n. 2 (wooden gallery) * ( )
hoarding n. (archit.) *

Hodegetria n. (the Wayshower) [Pdi/gitriIa]; the Mother of God Hodegetria


or the Virgin Hodegetria
hoe n. [mP/tyga] ( )
hole n. [Pt/verstiIe]; air hole (that permits passage of air) ; dowel
hole (in ashlar) ; post hole
; prospect hole or prospecting hole ; tenon hole
holed adj. [prP/sverlqnyI] ( ) () [s
Pt/verstiIem] . . ( )
hollow n. [uglub/leniIe]
home n. [dom] [zhy/lishche]; subterranean home
homestead n. [u/satba]
hone n. [Psq/lok]
hook n. [kruk] (fine) [kru/chok]; vine-pruning hook

hoplite n. [/goplit]
horizon n. [gPri/zont]; building horizon
horizontal adj. [gPrizPn/talnyI]
horn n. [rok]; drinking horn ; horns of consecration
()
horonym n. [P/ronim] ( )
horse n. (he) [kon], (she) [/loshat]
horse adj. [/konskiI]
horseman n. (pl. horsemen) [fsad/nik]
horseshoe n. [pPt/kova]
horse trappings n. pl. [/uprazh], [/konskaIa /uprazh]
[/zbruIa], [/konskaIa /zbruIa] ( .)

horticulturalist n. (one who is doing primitive agriculture)


horticulture n. 1 (primitive agriculture) [mP/tyzhnPIe zqmlq/deliIe]
[primi/tivnPIe zqmlq/deliIe]
horticulture n. 2 (cultivating fruits) [sadP/vots-tvP]
house n. 1 (dwelling) [dom] [/zdaniIe]; abbots house ; adobe
house ; apsidal
house ; atrium / court house ; attached
house ; chapter house (
); corridor
house ; country house ; earth-covered
house ; elevational earth-covered house
; gallery house ;
half-timber house ; log house ; long
house n. (
); mortuary house ; private house
; publishing house ; residential / living / dwelling house
; pleasure house ; priest house ;
stepped house / ; timber house
; town house n. ) (residence in a city) , (for one family)
, b) (one of a row of houses connected by common side
walls) * ( ) ;
wattle-and-daub house -
house n. 2 (family line) [dom] (, ); princely house ; ruling
house
house-building n. [dPmPstrP/itqlstvP]
house-church [dP/mashnaIa /tserkPf]
hujra n. (deep niche) [/hudzhra] ( , )
humanities n. pl. [gumani/tarnyIe na/uki]
humerus n. (pl. humeri) [plqchq/vaIa kost]
humus n. [chqrnP/zom] [/gumus]
Hun n. [gun]
Hungarian n. [vengqr]
Hungarian adj. [vqn/gerskiy]
Hunnish, also Hun adj. [/gunskiy]
hunter n. [P/hotnik]; hunter-gatherer
hunting n. [P/hota]
hut n. ( , ): a) (land-based)
[la/chuga] [/hizhyna], b) (subterranean) [zqm/lanka];
mud hut
hyk n. (large mound) [hu/Iuk] (, )
hydria n. (pl. hydriai or hydriae) [/gidriIa]
hydriske n. or hydriskos n. (pl. hydriskoi) [/gidrisk]
hydrogen n. [vPdP/rot]
hydrogen evolution n. [vydq/leniIe vPdP/roda]
hydronym n. [gid/ronim]
hypocaust n. [gipP/kaust]
hypogeum n. (pl. hypogea) or hypogaeum n. (pl. hypogaea) [gipP/geI]
hypostyle n. [gipP/stil] [gipP/stilnyI zal]
hypostyle adj. [gipP/stilnyI]
hypothesis n. (pl. hypotheses) [gi/potqza]
hypothesise, Amer. hypothesize v. [vydvi/gat gi/potqzu]
[prqtpPla/gat]
hypotrachelium n. (pl. hypotrachelia or hypotracheliums) [Pb/vazka
kP/lonny]

54

55

I
icon n. [i/kona] [/obras], (small) [Pbra/zok]; steatite / slate
icon

iconoclasm n. [ikPnP/borchqstvP]
iconoclast n. [ikPnP/borqts]
iconoclast adj. [ikPnP/borchqskiI]
iconography n. [ikPnP/grafiIa]
iconolater n. [ikPnPpPchi/tatql]
iconolatric adj. [ikPnPpPchi/tatqlskiI]
iconolatry n. [ikPnPpPchi/tatqlstvP]
iconostasis n. (pl. iconostases) [ikPnP/stas]
identify v. [Pprqdq/lat]
idol n. [/idPl]
idolater n. [idPlPpP/klonnik]
idolatry n. [idPlPpP/klonstvP]
[idPlPpP/klonnichqstvP]
ikrion n. (pl. ikria) [kPrmP/vaIa ka/Iuta] ( ); half
ikrion
ilium n. (pl. ilia) [pPd/vzdoshnaIa kost]
ill-baked adj. [slabP-PbP/zhzhonyI]
image n. 1 (picture) [izPbra/zheniIe]; full-length image
() ; half-length image ; mirror image
/ ; image in three-quarter pose
; negative image ,
(photo) ; sculptured image
image n. 2 (form of representation) [/obras]; holy image ()
imamzadeh n. (venerated tomb) [imamza/de] ( )
imaret n. [ima/ret] ( )
imbrication n. [chq/shuIchqtyI Pr/namqnt]
immature adj. (glaze) [nqdPras/plavlqnyI] ( ,
)
immersion n. (technique) [Pku/naniIe] ()
immobilize v. (to fix the position as with a splint) [nalP/zhyt /shynu]
(.)
impact n. [vli/IaniIe]
imperial adj. [im/perskiI] [impq/ratPrskiI]
implement n. [P/rudiIe] [P/rudiIe tru/da]; composite
implement ; flint implement
impluvium n. (pl. impluvia) [im/pluviI] (
)
import n. 1 (operation) [/impPrt]; Thracian import

import n. 2 (imported object) o [/impPrtnPIe iz/deliIe]; pottery
imports /
impost n. [pa/ta] ( ) [im/post]
impress or impression n. 1 (negative) [Ptpq/chatqk]; cord impress on
the surface of a vessel ;
grain impression ( ); round stamp-impression

impress or impression n. 2 (concavity produced by pressing) e [vdav/leniIe];
finger impression ; point impression o
e
impress or impression n. 3 (cut, in clay) [na/sechka] ( )
impurities pl. [zagrqz/neniIa] [/primqsi]
in agere adj. [pPd/pornaIa stq/na] [P/pornaIa stq/na]
in antis adj. [/antPvyI] [v /antah]
in echelon n. * (, )
in situ adv. . .
incense burner n. [ka/dilP]
inch n. [duIm]
incised adj. [vrqz/noI], (about a line) [prP/cherchqnyI]
inclination n. 1 (state being inclined) [nak/lon]
inclination n. 2 (of a roof) [skat]

inclusion n. [/primqs] [fklu/cheniIe]


incrust v. [inkru/stirPvat]
incrustation n. [inkru/statsyIa]
incuse adj. [/vychqkanqnyI] [Ptchq/kanqnyI]
indentations pl. (ornam.) [za/rupki] (.)
indeterminate n. [nqPprqdq/laIqmyI]
[nqPprqdq/lonnyI]
index n. [uka/zatql] [/indeks]; cephalic index /

indiction n. [in/dikt]
indigenous adj. [/mesnyI]
individual adj. [Pt/delnyI]
individualized adj. [individu/alnyI]
[individuali/zirPvanyI] ( )

Indo-European adj. [indPIevrP/peIskiI]


industry n. 1 (making of goods) [prPiz/vots-tvP]; glass industry
; iron industry
industry n. 2 or stone industry [/kamqnnaIa indus/triIa]; industry
of flint tools
infantry n. [pq/hota]; heavy infantry ; light infantry

infantryman n. (pl. infantrymen) [pqhP/tinets]


infill n. [zapPl/neniIe], (with friable material) [/zasyp]
infilling n. (surface between the ribs of rib vault) [za/palupka]
infirmary n. [laza/ret], ( ) [lq/chebnitsa]
influence n. [vli/IaniIe]
information n. [infPr/matsyIa]; reliable information or trustworthy
information
infundibulum n. (pl. infundibula) (glass container) * (
)
inglaze adj. [vnutrqgla/zurnyI] [mqzhgla/zurnyI]
( , )
ingot n. [/slitPk]; coin ingot ; bun / bun-shaped ingot *
- ; oxhide ingot
; slab ingot
inhabitant n. [/zhytql]
inhibitor or inhibiter n. [ingi/bitPr] corrosion inhibitor

inhumation n. [trupPpPlP/zheniIe] [ingu/matsyIa];


wealthy inhumation
inkwell n. [chqr/nilnitsa]
inland n. [matq/rik] ., [/vnutrqniIe ra/Iony] .
inlay n. 1 (cut in metal) [na/sechka] ( )
inlay n. 2 (design of contrasting material set into a surface in pieces)
[/vyIqmchqtaIa /tehnika]
inlay n. 3 (intarsia) [in/tarsiIa] ( )
inn n. [pPstP/IalyI dvor]
inner adj. [/vnutrqniI]
inorganic adj. [nqPrga/nichqskiI]
inscribed adj. () [s /natpisIu] . .
inscription n. [/natpis]; building inscription ; burial
/ funeral inscription ; dedicatory / dedicative
inscription ; honorific inscription
; inscription for Xanthos ( ) ; runic
inscription
inset or insert n. (to a bracelet, finger-ring, etc.) [/fstafka]; glass inset
; glass paste inset
insignia or insigne n. (pl. insignia or insignias) [/simvql /vlasti]
[in/signiIa]

56

57

instrument n. [instru/ment]; medical instrument


; instruments .
insula n. (pl. insulae) [/insula] [zhy/loI kvar/tal] (
)
intact adj. [/tselyI] [nqpPvrq/zhdonyI]
intaglio n. [in/talIa]
intarsia n. [in/tarsiIa] ( )
intentional adj. [prqdnP/merqnyI]
inter v. [hPrP/nit] [zahP/ranivat]
intercolumniation n. [interkP/lumniI]
[interkP/lumnium]
interior n. or architectural interior [intq/rIer] (.); historic interior

interior adj. [/vnutrqniI]
interlace n. (decor.) [/kruzhqvP] [kruzhqv/noI mP/tif]
interment n. [pPgrq/beniIe] [zahPrP/neniIe]
internal adj. [/vnutrqniI]; internal space of a house

interpretation n. [intqrprq/tatsyIa]
interrelation or interrelationship n. [svas] [vzaimP/svas]
[vzaimP/deIstviIe]
intersection n. [pqrqsq/cheniIe]
interstice n. [prPmq/zhutPk], (mosaic) *
( )
intervention n. (conserv.) [vmq/shatqlstvP] (.)
intrados n. [/vnutrqnaIa du/ga]
[/vnutrqnaIa pP/verhnPst] (, )
intramural adj. * [f prq/delah] . . ( , ),
[/vnutrqniI] .
intrusive n. (in a layer) [/primqs /sverhu]
inventoried adj. (find) [dPkymqn/tirPvanyI]
[paspPrti/zirPvanyI] ( )
invert n. (vaulting) [Pb/ratnyI svot]
investigation n. [is/sledPvanIe] [izu/cheniIe]
Ionian n. [iP/niIets]
Ionian adj. or Ionic adj. [iP/nichqskiI]
iridescene n. [iri/zatsyIa]
iron n. [zhq/lezP]; cast iron ; pig iron ; rod iron
; wrought iron
( )
iron adj. [zhq/leznyI]
irregular adj. [nq/pravilnyI] .,
[nq/pravilnPI /formy] . .
isba n. [iz/ba]
ischium n. [sq/dalishchnaIa kost]
Islam n. [is/lam] [musul/manstvP]
Islamic adj. [is/lamskiI]
isodomic or isodomous adj. [isP/domnyI]
isodomon or isodomum n. (pl. isodoma) [isP/domnaIa /klatka]
issue n. (publication) [iz/daniIe], (of oins) [/vypusk] [ti/rash]
()
item n. [prqd/met] [veshch] [iz/deliIe], (if excavated)
[na/hotka]; animal style item ;
composite item ; ivory item
; two-piece item
ithyphallic adj. *
ivory n. [slP/novaIa kost]
ivory adj. [is slP/novPI /kosti] . .
iwan n. [aI/van]
Iznik n. attrib. (pottery type and decoration) [iz/nikskiI]
58

[fa/IansPvyI /lustrPvyI]
[fa/IansPvyI s /lustrPvym pP/krytiIem] ( )

J
jacket n. [/kurtka]
jamb n. [kP/sak]
jambeau n. (pl. jambeaux) [/ponPsh] [na/golqnik]
jami or jami masjid n. [sP/bornaIa mq/chet] [/patnichnaIa
mq/chet] [dzha/mi] ( )
janissary or janizary n. (Iany/char)
jar n. [/banka]; erotic jar ; bridge-spouted jar *
; hole-mouthed jar * ( );
piriform jar (); pottery
jar / ; terracotta jar / ;
stirrup jar (
); two-eared jar
javelin n. [/drotik] ()
javelin-head n. [nakP/nechnik /drPtika] [/zhalP]
jaw n. [/chelust]; lower jaw ; upper jaw
jawbone n. [/chqlus/naIa kost] [/chelust]; lower
jawbone ; upper jawbone

jet n. or jet-stone n. [ga/gat]
jet adj. [ga/gatPvyI]
Jew n. 1 (nation) [Iev/reI] [iu/deI]
Jew n. 2 (adherent of Judaism) [iuda/ist]
jewel n. (pl. jewelery, Amer. jewelry) [dragP/tsen-nPst]
[dragP/tsenPIe ukra/sheniIe]
[ukra/sheniIe] [Iuvq/lirnPIe iz/deliIe]; gold sheet
jewelry ; womens jewelry

Jewish adj. [Iqv/reIskiI] [iu/deIskiI]


joggle n. (joint) [shyp] ()
joggled adj. [f shyp] . .
joint n. 1 (anat.) [sus/taf]
joint n. 2 (archit.) [styk] [shof] ( ); tongue and groove joint

journal n. [zhur/nal]; excavation journal
Judaiser n. (in 16th-century Russia) [zhy/dofstvuIushchiI]
Judaism n. [iuda/izm]
jug n. [kuf/shin]; beaked jug * ,
juglet n. [kuf/shynchik]
junction n. (of a handle to vessel) [pri/lep]
jute n. [dzhut]
jute n. attrib. [/dzhutPvyI]

K
kados n. (pl. kadoi) [/kadPs]
kalathos n. (pl. kalathoi) [ka/laf]
kalebas n. (pl. kalebai) [kalq/bas]
kalemdan n. (box for pens, medieval Turkish or Arab) [kalq/mdan] (
)
kalpis n. (pl. kalpides) [kal/pida]
kantharos n. (pl. kantharoi) [kan/far]
kaolin, also kaoline n. [kao/lin]
kapilica or kaplica n. (Turkish thermal bath house) [kapli/dzha]
59

[tqr/malnyIe /bani] .
[/bani na tqr/malnyh is/tochnikah] . ()
Karaite n. [kara/im]
Karaite adj. [kara/imskiI]
keel-shaped adj. [kilq/vidnyI]
keep n. (tower) [dPn/zhon]
Kelt n. [kelt]
Keltic adj. [/keltskiI]
kerameikos n. (pl. kerameikoi) [kq/ramik] ( )
kernos n. (pl. kernoi) [/kernPs]
keshk n. (mud brick building) [keshk] (
)
key n. [kluch]; finger-ring key - -; Greek key
(design)
keystone n. [zam/kovyI /kamqn]; triple keystone /

khan n. 1 (ruler) [han] ()
khan n. 2 (caravansary) [han] (-)
khanate n. [/hanstvP]; Crimean Khanate
khanqah or khanaqah n. (monastery or hostel for sufis or dervishes) [han/ka]
[hana/ka] ( )
Khazar n. [ha/zarin] (. ) [hP/zarin] (.
)
Khazar adj. or Khazarian adj. [ha/zarskiI] [hP/zarskiI]
kiln n. [pech] (); glass-forming kiln or glass-melting
kiln ; lime-baking kiln or lime kiln
; pottery kiln
; wood kiln
kiln spacer n. [si/paI] [sq/poIa] (
)
kin n. [rot] ( )
kinship n. [rPts/tvo] [sis/tema rPts/tva]
king closer n. (in a bond) * (
)
king n. 1 (in Orthodox states) [tsar]
king n. 2 (in Catholic states) [kP/rol]
king-priest n. - [tsar zhrets]
kiosk n. (small pavilion, Turkish) [bq/setka]
kit n. [na/bor] ()
kitchen n. [/kuhna]
kitchen adj. [/kuhPnnyI]
kitchenware n. [/kuhPnnaIa u/tvar], (pottery only)
[/kuhPnnaIa pP/suda]
kithara n. [ki/fara]
kitharode n. [kifa/ret]
kleros n. (pl. kleroi) [kler] [na/del] [/selskaIa
u/satba] ()
kline n. (pl. klinai) [/klina] [/kline] ()
knapping n. [pqr/vichnPIe ras/kalyvanIe]
knee n. [kP/lenP] ( )
knife n. (pl. knives) 1 (metal tool) [nosh]; battle knife ; cobblers knife
; winegrowers knife
knife n. (pl. knives) 2 (stone tool) [nosh]; atypical backed knife
; Audi knife ; backed knife ; flint
knife ; natural backed knife
knob n. 1 (ornam.) [/shyshka] [/shyshqchka] (. )
knob n. 2 (handle) [u/por] - [/ruchka u/por]
knob n. 3 (of a fibula or a brooch) [/vystup] ( ); foot-knob

knobbed inset to bow n. (of a fibula or a brooch)

knurled adj. (coin) * ( )


konak n. (palatial Ottoman Turkish house) [kP/nak] (
)
kora n. (pl. korai) [/kora]
koshk n. (small pavilion, Turkish) [bq/setka]
kothon n. (pl. kothones) [kP/fon]
kotyle n. (pl. kotylai) [kP/tila]
koumiss n. [ku/mys]
kouros n. (pl. kouroi) [/kurPs]
krater n. (pl. krateres) [kra/ter]; amphoroid krater *
; bell krater / (
); calyx-krater
; column krater ; cup-shaped
krater ; lug-handled krater * ; tripod krater * ; volute krater

krateriskos n. (pl. krateriskoi) [kra/terisk]
kubar n. (box for pens, medieval Turkish or Arab) [kalq/mdan] (
)
Kufic adj. [ku/fichqskiI]
kumiss n. [ku/mys]
kurgan n. [kur/gan]
kur n. (desk for Koran) [kur] ( )
kursi n. (kathedra in mosque) [kur/si] (
)
kyathos n. (pl. kyathoi) [ki/af]
kylix n. (pl. kylikes) [/kilik]
kymation n. [ki/matiI]

60

61

L
lab n. [labPra/toriIa]; research lab
label n. [qti/ketka]
label v. [pPt/pisyvat qti/ketki]
laboratory n. [labPra/toriIa]
labrys n. (double headed axe) [/labris] ( )
lachrymatory n. 1 (tear shaped container) *
lachrymatory n. 2 (vessel for collecting tears) [/sloznitsa] (
)
lacuna n. (pl. lacunae) [la/kuna]
lacunar n. 1 (ceiling of sunken panels) [ke/son-nyI pPtP/lok]
lacunar n. 2 (sunken panel) [kq/son] [kase/ton]
ladder n. [/lesnitsa] ()
ladle n. [kofsh] [chqr/pak]
lagoena n. (pl. lagoenae or lagoenas) *
lagynos n. (pl. lagynoi) [la/ginPs]
lake n. [/ozqrP]; oxbow lake
lambrequin n. [lambrq/ken]
laminated adj. [mnPgP/sloInyI] [slP/istyI] (
)
laminations pl. (defect of ceramic) [slP/istPst]
[ras/slaivaniIe] (, )
lamp n. [svq/tilnik] [/lampa]; icon lamp ; oil lamp
(); pottery lamp
lamp n. [fP/nar] ()
lance n. [kP/pIo] ( ) [/pika]
lanceolate or lance-shaped adj. [lantsetP/vidnyI]
landscape n. [lan/shaft]
lane n. [pqrq/ulPk]

lancet n. (window) [/strelchqtPIe Pk/no]


language n. [Iq/zyk] ( ); Finno-Ugrian languages ; Indo-European languages ;
Uralo-Altaic languages -
lantern n. 1 (lamp) [fP/nar] ()
lantern n. 2 (archit.) [fP/nar] (.)
lapidarian adj. [lapi/darnyI]
lapidarium n. (pl. lapidaria or lapidariums) [lapi/dariI]
lapidary n. [/reschik gem]
lapidary adj. [lapi/darnyI]
lapis lazuli n. [/lapis la/zur]
Lapith n. [la/pif]
laquer n. [lak] ( , ); black lacquer ; red
laquer
larder n. [kladP/vaIa] ( )
larnax n. (pl. larnakes) [lar/nak] [tqra/kotPvyI grop]
()
lasso n. [ar/kan] [las/so]
La Tne n. attrib. [la/tenskiI] .
latrine n. [lat/rina] [u/bornaIa]
lattice n. [rq/shotka]
latticework n. 1 (building) [rq/shotki] .,
[rq/shetchqtaIa kPn/struktsyIa] ., .
[rq/shotchqtaIa kPn/struktsyIa]
latticework n. 2 (ornamental) [plq/tonka] [/slozhnyI
mq/andqr]
laura n. (pl. laurai or laurae) [/lavra]
laureate adj. (crowned with laurel) . . [v lav/rovPm vqn/ke]
. [u/venchqnyI lav/rovym vqn/kom]
lay v. [lq/zhat]
layer n. (general) [sloI] [plast]; activity layer or occupation layer
; ashy layer ; burning layer ; cinder
layer ; conflagration layer ; construction
layer , ; cultural layer
; fire layer ; humus layer ; layer
of deconstruction ; layer of destruction ;
pigment layer ; occupation layer
; post-occupational layer ; redeposited
layer ; rubbish layer ; sterile layer
; turf layer ; under layer
layer n. 2 (natural) [naplastP/vaniIe] [naslP/IeniIe]
layer n. 3 (burial) [/Iarus] ()
layout n. [plani/rofka] [raz/metka]; grid layout (of
excavation trench)
leach n. (process of leaching out alkali) [vyshchq/lachivaniIe]
leach v. (remove soluble from) [vyshchq/lachivat]
leach resistant adj. [hi/michqski /stoIkiI]
lead n. 1 (metal) [svi/nets]
lead n. 2 (fishing) [gru/zilP] ( )
lead adj. [svin/tsovyI]
leaf n. (pl. leaves) 1 (thin sheet) [list] [lqpqs/tok]
leaf n. (pl. leaves) 2 (hinged, of door or reliquary) [/stvorka]; door leaf
; gate leaf
leaf-shaped adj. [listP/vidnyI]
lean-to n. 1 (roof) [PdnP/skatnaIa /krysha]
lean-to n. 2 (construction) [na/ves]; double lean-to
leather n. [/kozha]; embossed leather
leather adj. [/kozhqnyI]
lebes n. (pl. lebetes) [/lebqs] [/lebqt]; lebes Gamikos (pl. lebetes
Gamikai)

lectern n. [ana/loI]
ledge n. [us/tup] [za/plechik]; ledge for a lid
; window ledge
ledged adj. [s za/plechikami] . .
leg n. [nP/ga]
legend n. 1 (mythical) [lq/genda]
legend n. 2 (map symbols) [us/lovnyIe PbPzna/cheniIa]
[lq/genda]
legend n. 3 (on a coin) [lq/genda] ( ); broken legend
; obverse legend ; reverse legend
; some legend weakness
(- ); unbroken legend

legion n. [lqgi/on]
legionair or legionary n. [lqgiP/ner]
legionary eagle n. [P/rol lqgi/ona] [lqgi/on-nyI P/rol]
leister n. [PstrP/ga] ( )
lekaina n. (pl. lekainai) or lekane n. (pl. lekanai) or lekanis n. (pl. lekanides)
[lq/kana]
lekythos n. (pl. lekythoi) [lq/kif]; shouldered lekythos
; squat lekythos
length n. [dli/na]; overall length
lens n. pl., or camera lens [PbIek/tif] [PbIek/tif
fPtPapa/rata]; fisheye lens ; long-focus lens
; wide-angle lens
Levallois n. [lqvalu/a]
Levalloisian adj. [lqvalu/askiI]
level n. 1 (positon) [/urPvqn]; technological level
level n. 2 (device) [nivq/lir]; spirit level ()
levelling, Amer. leveling n. (of a surface) [nivqli/rofka] .,
[nivqli/rovPchnyIe ra/boty] .
levigated adj. [Pt/muchqnyI] ( )
libation n. [vPzli/IaniIe]
libation tank * , ,
lid n. (of a vessel) [/kryshka]; face lid * (
)
lierne n. [li/erna] ( ,
)
life-style n. [/obras /zhyzni]
lifting n. (of an artifact from trench) *
ligature n. (joined letters) [liga/tura]; in ligature
light meter n. [qkspP/nomqtqr]
light-armed adj. [lqhkPvP-Pru/zhonnyI]
light-clay adj. [svqtlP/glinqnyI]
lighthouse n. [ma/Iak]
limace n. [li/mas] [dvPI/noIe Pstri/Io] ( )
limande n. [li/mant] [IazykP/vidnPIe ru/bilP]
limb n. [kP/nechnPst] ( ); lower limb
; upper limb ; the upper limbs folded on
the chest
lime n. [/izvqst]; burnt lime or caustic lime or quick lime
; slaked lime
lime adj. [izvqst/kovyI]
limestone n. [izvqs/nak]; limestone crumb
line n. 1 (drawn) [/liniIa]; in a line ; incised line ;
tip line -; sinuous / wavy line
line n. 2 (of objects) [rat]
Linear A n. (script) [li/neInoIe pis/mo a]
Linear B n. (script) [li/neInoIe pis/mo be]
linenfold n. * ()

62

63

lucernaria n. * (
)
lug n. (of a vessel) [u/por] [/vystup] [/uhP] (
)
lug-handle n. - [/ruchka u/por]; U-shaped lug-handle
luminaria n. * (
)
lunate n. (stone tool) *
lunette n. [lu/net] [lu/neta] ( )
lunula n. (pl. lunulae) [/lunula]
lunular adj. . . [f /formq pPlu/mesqtsa]
lustre, Amer. luster n. [/lustqr] [/lustqr]
lusterware n. ., . [kq/ramika s /lustrPm]
lydion n. (pl. lydia) [/lidiI]
lynchet n. or strip lynchet [lin/shet] [/pochvqnaIa
tq/rasa] ( ); negative lynchet
; positive lynchet

link n. 1 (relation) [svas]


link n. 2 (of a chain) [zvq/no]
lintel n. 1 (horizontal beam) [/pritPlka] [pqrq/mychka]
lintel n. 2 (of architrave) [/balka] ( )
lintel n. 3 (megalithic) [gPrizPn/talnaIa pli/ta] ()
lip n. 1 (of a vessel) [kraI] () [gu/ba] [za/kraina];
crenelated lip ; flattened lip ; rounded
lip
lip n. 2 (on metal artifact) [za/kraina]
lip-plate n. [na/gubnik]
lissoir n. [lP/shchilP]
list n. [/spisPk] [/opis]
lists n. 1 (fence of stakes) [chqstP/kol] ( )
lists n. 2 (fenced area) * /
littoral n. [pPbq/rezhIe]; Black Sea littoral ; northern
Black Sea littoral
liturgical adj. [bPgPslu/zhebnyI] [litur/gich q skiI]
livestock n. [skot]; domesticated livestock
living adj. [zhy/loI]
loam n. c [/supqs]; clay loam
lobby n. [vqsti/bul] [fP/Ie] [hol]
local adj. [/mesnyI] [lP/kalnyI]; local product

localisation, Amer. localization n. [lPkali/zatsyIa] (
)
localise, Amer. localize v. [lPkalizP/vat]
[Pprqdq/lit mestPpPlP/zheniIe]
locality or location n. [pPlP/zheniIe]
[mestPnahPzh/deniIe] [mestPpPlP/zheniIe]
[lPkali/zatsyIa]
lock n. [za/mok]
loculus n. (pl. loculi) [pPd/boI] [pPd/boInaIa mP/gila] (
)
loess n. [los]
loft n. (in a church) . [/hory]
log n. [kP/loda] [brq/vno]
log n. attrib. [brq/venchqtyI] .; log cabin

loggia n. [/lodzhyIa] ( )
longbow n. * [bPl/shoI luk] ( , 180 )
longhouse n. [/dlinnyI dom] (
); apsidal longhouse
longitudinal adj. [prP/dolnyI]
loomweight n. [gru/zilP] ( )
loop n. 1 (general) [pqt/la] () (fine) [pq/telka]
loop n. 2 (of a buckle) [kPl/tso] ()
loop-hand n. [pqtlq/vidnaIa /ruchka]
loophole n. [bPI/nitsa]
lorica n. (pl. loricae) [/pantsyr] ()
lost wax method n. [/metPt pP/ter qnPvP /voska]
[li/tIo pP vPskP/voI mP/deli]
[li/tIo pP vypla/vlaqmPI mP/deli]
louterion n. (pl. louteria) [lu/teriI]
loutrophoros n. (pl. loutrophoroi) [lutrP/for]
louver or louvre n. (open turret or lantern) * [a/zhurnaIa /bashqnka]
( , , )
louver-board n. [na/lichnik]
lozenge adj. [rPm/bichqskiI] [rPmbP/vidnyI] (
)
lucarne [lu/karna] [sluhP/voIe Pk/no]

mace n. [bula/va] ( ); disk mace ; pear-shaped


mace ; spheroid mace ; spiked
ball mace
macehead n. [bula/va] (, ); cone-shaped macehead
; flanged macehead ; star-shaped
mace
machicolation n. [mashyku/li] ., . [navqs/nye

bPI/nitsy] .; box machicolation * (
, ); concealed machicolation
* ( );
continuous machicolation * ( ,
)
macrolithic n. [makrP/lit]
madafa n. (Arabic house or room for guests) [mada/fa] (
)
madrasa or madrasah or madrassa n. [medre/se]
maenad n. [mq/nada]
magazine n. (storage) [sklat] ( )
magnesium n. [/magniI]
magnification n. [uvqli/cheniIe];magnification x 3
; magnification x 6
magnetometer n. [magnitP/metr]
Magyar n. [vengr] () [mad/Iar]
Magyar adj. [vqn/gerskiI] () [mad/IarskiI]
mail n. (flexible armour) [/gipkiI dPs/peh]
[pPd/vizhnyI dPs/peh]; chain mail ; coat of mail
; ring mail ; scale mail
majolica n. [ma/Iolika]
malkaf n. [mal/kaf] ( ,
)
Mamluk adj. [mamq/lukskII] [mam/lukskII]
Mamluks pl. [mamq/lukI] [mam/lukI]
mammoth n. [/mamPnt]
man-at-arms n. (pl. men-at-arms) [tqzhqlPvP
Pru/zhonyI vsad/nik]
mandible n. [/nizhnaIa /chelust]
manger n. [kPr/mushka]
mansion n. [u/satba]

64

65

manual labor n. [ruch/noI trut]


manuballista n. (pl. manuballistae) (hand-ballista, or Roman crossbow)
[ruch/naIa ba/lista] ( )
manubrium n. [rukP/Iatka] ()
manufacture n. [prPiz/vots-tvP] [izgPtPv/leniIe];
manufacture of pottery
manufacture v. [/delat] [prPizvP/dit]
[izgP/tavlivat]
map n. [/karta]; archaeological / archaeology map ;
relief map or raised relief map ; topographic map

map v. [sni/mat] () [kartPgra/firqvat]
mapping n. 1 (discipline) [kartP/grafiIa]
mapping n. 2 (operation) [kartPgra/firqvaniIe]; aerial mapping

maqsura n. [mak/sura]
marble n. [/mramPr]; Hymettian marble *
( ); Prokonnesos marble
; structural marble ()

marble adj. [/mramPrnyI]


marble-clad adj. [Pt/delanyI /mramPrPm]
mark n. [/metka] [znak]; cup mark or cup-and-ring mark
( ); makers mark
; mint mark / ; privy mark (on
a coin) ( ,
, ); tool marks

marker n. 1 (felt-tipped pen) [/marker] [flP/mastqr]
marker n. 2 (sign) [/metka] [znak]: grave marker
market n. [/rynPk]; overseas market
marqad n. [nad/grobiIe] ()
martyr n. (he) [/muchqnik], (she) [/muchqnitsa]; great martyr (he)
, (she) ; holy martyr (he) ,
(she)
martyrdom n. [/muchqnichqstvP]
martyrium n. (pl. martyria) [mar/tiriI]
martyrology n. [marti/rolPk]
marver n. (flat slab) [ka/talnaIa pli/ta]
mashrabiyya n. [mashrabi/Ia] [musharabi/Ia] (
)
masjid m. (mosque) [mq/chet] (, ,
)
mask n. [/maska]; death mask ; theatre / theater mask

masonry n. [/klatka]; ashlar masonry
; brick masonry ;
coursed masonry ; cyclopean masonry
; dehumidified / dehydrated / desiccated / dry masonry
; dry rubble masonry
; dressed masonry ; herringbone
masonry ; masonry mortared with
soil
; polygonal masonry ; random
/ uncoursed masonry ( );
rubble masonry ; rusticated masonry ; stone
masonry
masonry n. attrib. [is /klatki] . .: masonry dome
massif n. [/gornyI ma/sif]
mastaba or mastabah n. [masta/ba]

mastos n. (pl. mastoi) [/mastPs]


material n. [matqr/Ial]; additional material (in ceramic) (
); archaeological material
; bonding material (conserv.)
(.); building / structural material ;
conservation material ; decorative material
; irreversible material ;
primary building material ; raw
material ; reversible material ; tempering
material
matrilineage n. [matrili/neInaIa sis/tema rPts/tva]
matrilineal adj. [matrili/neInyI]
matrix n. (pl. matrices or matrixes) [/matritsa]; clay matrix
/
matt v. [ma/tirqvat]
matter n. [/primqs] [fklu/cheniIe]
mattock n. [mP/tyga]
mausoleum n. [mavzP/leI]
maxilia n. [/verhnaIa /chelust]
mazar n. (Moslem mausoleum or shrine) [ma/zar]
mazer n. (drinking) [/kubPk] (big, open-shape) [/chasha] (
)
meander n. 1 (Greek key) [mqandqr] [mq/andrPvyI
Pr/namqnt]
meander n. 2 (river bend) [iz/luchina]
measure adj. [izmq/reniIe] [/mera]; tape measure
measure v. [izmq/rat]
measurements n. pl. [raz/mery]
measuring adj. [/mernyI] [izmq/ritqlnyI]
medallion n. [mqda/lIon] (., ., ); devotional
medallion ; double-sided medallion
; reliquary medallion -;
underwear medallion
medieval or mediaeval adj. [srqdnqvq/kovyI]; early medieval
; late medieval
mediocre adj. (UK coin grading) [pQ/sretstvqnyI] (
: )
medrese n. (pl. medreses) (Islamic seminary) [medre/se] .;
zhyndzhyrly / zinjirli medrese -
megalith n. [mqga/lit]
megalithic adj. [mqgali/tichqskiI]
megaron n. (pl. megara) [mqga/ron]
mekteb n. [mekte/be]
meltable adj. [/plafkiI]
melter n. [/tigql] (. )
melting n. [/plafka] [plav/leniIe]
[ras plav/leniIe]
memoria n .*

memorial n. [mqmPri/al]
memorial adj. [mqmPri/alnyI]
memorium n. (pl. memoria) [mq/moriI]
Menaia n. [mi/neIa]
menhir n. [mqn/gir]; statue menhir -
menorah n. [mq/nora] [sqmi/sveshnik]
mensa n. (pl. mensae or mensas) 1 (upper surface of altar table) [/mensa]
[prq/stolnaIa dP/ska]
mensa n. (pl. mensae or mensas) 2 (shelf covering the grave in arcosolium)
[zaklad/naIa pli/ta] ( )
merlon n. [zu/bets] ( ) [mqr/lon]

66

67

mescit n. (mosque) [mq/chet] (, ,


)
Mesolithic n. [mqzP/lit]
Mesolithic adj. [mqzali/tichqskiI]
metal n. [mq/tal]; base metals ; ferrous metals
; filler metal ; non-ferrous metals
; precious metals
metal adj. [mqta/lichqskiI]; one-piece metal
metallurgy n. [mqtalur/giIa]
metalware n. [iz/deliIa iz mq/tala] .
metalworker n. [/slesar]
metalworking n. [Pbra/botka mq/tala]
metatarsus n. [/plusna]
metope n. [mq/top] ., [mq/topa] .
mica sparkles n. pl. [sludq/nyIe /blostki]
microburin n. [mikrPrq/zets]
microlith or microlithic n. [mikrPli/tichqskPIe P/rudiIe]
[mikrP/lit]
microlithic adj. [mikrPli/tichqskiI]
midden n. (refuse heap) [/musPrnaIa /kucha] [sloI
/musPra]
midrib n. (on bronze weapon) [nqr/vura] ( )
migration n. [mi/gratsiIa] [pqrqsq/leniIe]; Great
Migration ; seasonal migration
/
mihrab n. [mih/rap]
mile n. [/mila]
Milesian adj. [mi/letskiI]
militia n. [PpPl/cheniIe]
mill n. [/melnitsa]; hand mill ()
millennium n. (pl. millennia) [tysqchq/letiIe]
millstone n. [/zhornPf] (. ) ()
mimbar n. [min/bar]
minaret n. [mina/ret]; free-standing minaret * ,

minbar n. [min/bar]
mine n. 1 (excavation to extract minerals from earth) [/shahta]; flint mine
; iron mine
mine n. 2 (narrow passage or tunnel) [las]
mineralization n. [minqrali/zatsyIa]
mineralized adj. [minqrali/zovanyI]; the object is completely
mineralized ; the object is partially
mineralized
minster n. * ( ) ( )
mint n. [mP/netnyI dvor]; mint error
mintage n. 1 (minting coins) [chq/kan] [mP/netnyI chq/kan]
[mP/netnaIa chq/kanka]
. [mP/netnPe /delP]
mintage n. 2 (the cost of minting money) [/stoimPst
mP/netnPI chq/kanki]
mintage n. 3 (the impression made on a coin) [izPbra/zheniIe
na mP/netq]
mintmaster n. [mP/netnyI /master]
mirror n. [/zerkalP]; looped mirror
mirror finish n. (of a blade weapon) [zqr/kalnaIa
pP/verhnPst] (, )
mistreatment n. [plP/haIa Pbra/botka]
[nq/vernaIa tqhnP/logiIa]
Mixhellenos n. (pl. Mixhellenoi) [miks/elin]
moat n. [rof]

modiolus
modillion n. [mPdul/Ion] [mPdil/Ion]
modiolus n. (pl. modioli) [mPdi/olus] ()
Mohammedan adj. [magPmq/tanskiI]
molar n. [mP/lar] ()
mold n. 1 (hollow form or matrix) [/forma] ( );
casting mold ; closed mold () ;
composite mold (in which several different shapes are produced in one
cycle) ; one-part / one-piece mold
/ ; open mold () ; three-part
/ three-piece mold ; two-part / two-piece mold

mold n., Amer. 2 (archit.: embellishment in strip form) [Pb/lom]
[mu/lur] [/profil]
mold-blowing n. (glass-making technique) [/tehnika
vydu/vaniIa f /formq] [vydu/vaniIe f /formq] (
)
mold-blown adj. (glass artifact) [f /tehnikq vydu/vaniIa
f /formq]
molded adj., Amer. 1 (of metal) [li/toI] [Pt/lityI]
molded adj., Amer. 2 (of plastic material) [lqp/noI] ()
molding n., Amer. 1 (metalworking) [li/tIo] [Pt/lifka]
molding n., Amer. 2 (archit.: embellishment in strip form made of a structural material)
[Pb/lom] [mu/lur] [/profil]; concave
molding ; hood molding *
molding n., Amer. 3 (archit.: embellishment in strip form made of plastic materials)
[/lepka] [lqp/nina]; cable molding
; ornamental molding
moldmade adj. [izgP/tovlqnyI f /formq]
mollusc, Amer. mollusk n. [mP/lusk]
molybdoboullos n. (pl. molybdoboulloi) [mPlivdP/vul]
monasterial adj. [mPnP/styrskiI]
monastery n. 1 (as a type of archaeological sites) [mPna/styr] (
); Buddhist monastery ; cave
monastery ; Christian monastery
;monastery outside the city walls
monastery n. 2 (where monks live) [mush/skoI mPna/styr]
monastic or monastical adj. [mPnP/styrskiI] (relating to a monastery)
[mP/nashqskiI] (relating to monks)
Mongoloid n. [mPngP/loid]
Mongoloid adj. [mPngP/loidnyI]
monk n. [mP/nah]
monochrome adj. [mPnP/hromnyI] [PdnP/tsvetnyI]
monogram n. [mPnP/grama]
monograph n. [mPnP/grafiIa]
monopteral adj. [mPnP/pter] .
monotheism n. [mPnPte/izm]
monster n. [mi/fichqskPIe zhi/votnPIe]
[mi/fichqskPIe sushchq/stvo]
[fanta/stichqskPIe zhi/votnPIe]
[fanta/stichqskPIe sushchq/stvo] [chu/dovishche]
[monstr]; monster bird ; monster fish
; sea-monster /
monstrance n. [darP/nositsa]
monument n. [/pamqtnik] ( ); grave /
funeral / funerary / sepulchral monument /

monumental n. 1 (of a monument) *


monumental n. 2 (impressive) [mPnumqn/talnyI] ()
Moorish adj. [mavri/tanskiI]

68

69

mopboard n. [/plintus]
morningstar n. [mPrgqn/shtern] [/utrqnaIa zvqz/da]
mortar n. 1 (vessel) c [/stupa]
mortar n. 2 (building) [ras/tvor]; air-setting mortar
; bonding mortar ;
cement mortar ; lime-based mortar or lime mortar
; mud mortar
mortared with part., or with mortar n. [na ras/tvorq] . .
mortise n. [pas]
mortuary enclosure n. [pPgrq/balnaIa P/grada]
mortuary practice n. [pPgrq/balnaIa /praktika]
mosaic n. [mP/zaika]; artistic glass mosaic or glass mosaic
; chip mosaic * ; mirror mosaic
; pebble mosaic ; pictorial mosaic *
; floor mosaic
; vitreous mosaic ;
wall mosaic /
mosaic adj. [mPza/ichnyI]
mosaicist n. * (-)
Moslem n. [musul/manin]
Moslem adj. [musul/manskiI]
mosque n. [mq/chet]; columned mosque ; congregational
mosque or Friday mosque (
, ); iwan mosque ; Ottoman domed
mosque (type) -
motif n. [mP/tif]; animal motif (
); bird, boat and sun-disc motif
; cross motif ; decorative motif
/ /
mould n. 1 (hollow form or matrix) [/forma] ( ); casting
mould ; closed mould () ;
composite mould (in which several different shapes are produced in one
cycle) ; one-part / one-piece mould
/ ; open mould () ; three-part
/ three-piece mould ; two-part / two-piece mould

mould n. 2 (archit.: embellishment in strip form) [Pb/lom] [mu/lur]
[/profil]
mould-blowing n. (glass-making technique) [/tehnika
vydu/vaniIa f /formq] [vydu/vaniIe f /formq] (
)
mould-blown adj. (glass artifact) [f /tehnikq

vydu/vaniIa f /formq]
moulded adj. 1 (of metal) [li/toI] [Pt/lityI]
moulded adj. 2 (of plastic material) [lqp/noI] ()
moulding n. 1 (metalworking) [li/tIo] [Pt/lifka]
moulding n. 2 (archit.: embellishment in strip form made of a structural material)
[Pb/lom] [mu/lur] [/profil]; concave moulding
; hood moulding
moulding n. 3 (archit.: embellishment in strip form made of plastic materials)
[/lqpka] [lqp/nina]; cable moulding ;
ornamental moulding
mouldmade adj. [izgP/tovlqnyI f /formq]
mound n. [/nasyp]; barrow mound ; burial mound
; burnt mound
mount n. 1 (an object to which another is affixed) [Pp/rava]
mount n. 2 (endpiece of a belt) [nakP/nechnik rqm/nIa]; belt
mount
mountain n. [gP/ra]
mountain pass n. [pqrq/val] [/gornyI prP/hot]

mounting n. (of a ring, holding a gem in place) [zhukP/vina] ()


mourn v. () [sPvqr/shat /triznu]
Mousterian n. [mus/tIe]
Mousterian adj. [mus/tIerskiI]
mouth n. (of a vessel) [/ustIe] ()
mouthpieces n. pl. (part of horse bits) [/gryzla]
MS abbr. mint state n. (coin grading) [idq/alnyI]
[/shtempqlnyI] ( ,
)
mud-brick n. [syr/tsovyI kir/pich]
muezzin n. [mue/dzin]
mug n. [/krushka]
Mughals pl. [mP/goly] [vq/likiIe mP/goly]
Muhammadan or Muhammedan adj. [magPmq/tanskiI]
mullion n. [impost] ( , )
mulqaf n. [mal/kaf] ( ,
)
multicoloured, Amer. multicolored adj. [pPli/hromnyI]
[mnPgP/tsvetnyI]
multi-layered adj. [mnPgP/sloInyI]
multi-storey, Amer. multi-story or multistory adj. [mnPgPe/tazhnyI]
mummified adj. [mumifi/tsyrPvanyI]
mummy n. [/mumiIa]
muqarnas n. pl. [mu/karny]
mural n. [na/stennaIa /rospis] [sten/naIa
/rospis] ()
mural adj. (of a wall) [na/stennyI] [sten/noI]
musalla n. [musa/la] (
)
museum n. [mu/zeI]; museum of arts

museum n. attrib. [mu/zeInyI] .; museum registration book

musket n. [mush/ket]
Muslim n. [musul/manin]
Muslim adj. [musul/manskiI]
mutule n. a [/mutula]
muzzleloading adj. . [zarq/zhaIqmI s /dula]
myth n. [mif]
mythical adj. c [mi/fichqskiI] (of or existing in myth)
[fanta/stichqskiI]; mythical beast
mythological adj. [mifPlP/gichqskiI]; mythological beast

mythology n. [mifP/logiIa]

70

71

N
nacre n. [pqrla/mutqr]
nacred or nacreous adj. [pqrla/mutrPvyI]
naiad n. (pl. naiades or naiads) [na/Iada]
nail n. [gvozd]; flat headed nail * ;
nob nail * ()
naiskos n. (pl. naiskoi) [/naisk]
naos n. (pl. naoi) [/naos]
narthex n. [/narteks] [/narfik] [prit/vor]; inner
narthex , ( );
outer narthex
nation n. [na/rot]
natural adj. [Ies/testvqnyI]

naturalism n. [natura/lizm]
nature n. [pri/roda] [ha/raktqr] (, )
nave n. [tsen/tralnyI nef]; central nave (only in mosque)
( )
navigation n. [mPrq/plavanIe] [navi/gatsyIa]; circle
navigation
navy n. [flot] ()
neck n. (of a vessel) [/gorlP] [/sheIka] (); conical neck
; funnel-shaped neck ; narrow
neck ; wide neck ; swans neck S-
/ (.)
neck-amphora n. (pl. neck-amphorae)
neck-hoop n. *
necking n. (of a column) [Pb/vaska kP/lony]
necklace n. [Pzhq/relIe]; paste-set necklace
necklet n. [/sheInPIe ukra/sheniIe] [/grivna]
neck-piece n. [/sheInPIe ukra/sheniIe]
neck-ring n. [/grivna] (); neck-ring terminating in animal heads

necropolis n. (pl. necropoleis or necropolises) [nqk/ropql]; necropolis
outside the city walls
needle n. 1 (sewing tool) [ig/la] [i/golka] ()
needle n. 2 (glass vessel) * ( )
needle case or needle holder n. [i/golnitsa] ( )
negative n. (photo) [nqga/tif]
neighbourhood, Amer. neighborhood n. [Pk/resnPsti] .
Neolithic n. [nqP/lit]; aceramic Neolithic
Neolithic adj. [nqPli/tichqskiI]; Neolithic revolution

nestoris n. (pl. nestores) * ,


, ()
net n. [set] [/setka]; fishing net p
next to, adj. c [/smezhnyI] [pri/stroIqnyI]
nib n. [pq/ro] ( )
niche n. [/nisha]; altar niche ; stalactitic / stalactite niche
; three-quarter niche
niello n. (pl. nielli or niellos) [chern] (.)
nimbate adj. [v /nimbq] . ., [Pkru/zhonnyI
/nimbPm] .
nimbus n.( pl. nimbi or nimbuses) [nimp]
nipple n. (on the bottom of red slip plate) * (
, , )
nodule n. [zhql/vak] ()
nominal n. (of coin) [nPmi/nal] [mP/netnyI nPmi/nal]
nomisma n. (pl. nomismata) [nP/misma] [nP/mizma]
nomad n. [kP/chevnik] [nP/mat]
nomadism n. [kP/chevnichqstvP] [nPma/dizm]
[kPchq/voI /obras /zhyzni]
non-circulated adj. [nq /vypushchqnyI v Pbra/shcheniIe]
( )
non-datable or non-dateable adj. [nqda/tiruIqmyI]
[nqda/tiruIushchiIsa]
non-destructive adj. (conserv.) [nqrazru/shaIushchiI] (.)
Norman n. [nPr/man]
Norman adj. 1 (ethnic) [nPr/manskiI]
Norman adj. 2 (style of architecure) [nPr/manskiI]
(. )
north n. [/sevqr]
north-east, Amer. northeast n. - [sevqrPvPs/tok]
north-eastern, Amer. northeastern adj. - [sevqrPvPs/tochnyI]

northern, Amer. north adj. [/sevqrnyI]


north-west, Amer. northwest n. - [sevqrP/zapat]
north-western, Amer. northwestern adj. - [sevqrP/zapadnyI]
notching n. (ceramic surface treatment) [na/sechki] . ( )
noseband n. [na/nosnik] ( )
noummos n. (pl. noummoi) [/numiI]
nozzle n. [/nosik] (); elongated nozzle
nucleus n. [/nuklqus] [/Iadrishche]
nude adj. [Pbna/zhonnyI]
number n. [kP/lichqstvP]
numismatic adj. [numizma/tichqskiI]
numismatics n. [numiz/matika]
numismatist n. [numiz/mat]
nummus n. (pl. nummi) [/numiI]
nun n. [mP/nahina]
nunnery n. [/zhenskiI mPna/styr]
nymphaeum n. (pl. nymphaea) or nympheum n. (pl. nymphea) or nymphaion n. (pl.
nymphaia) [nim/feI]

72

73

O
obelisk n. [Pbq/lisk]
object n. 1 (of a study) [Pb/Iekt] [prqd/met] ()
object n. 2 (artifact) [veshch] [prqd/met] [na/hotka]
[iz/deliIe]; clay object ; cultic object
; the object is completely mineralized
; the object is partially mineralized

objective n. (photo) [PbIek/tif]
obol n. (pl. obols) or obolos or obolus n. (both pl. oboli) [P/bol]; Charons obol

observation n. [nablu/deniIe]
obsidian n. [Ppsidi/an]
obsidian adj. [Ppsidi/anPvyI]; obsidian dating

obverse n. [/avqrs]
ocak n. (fireplace, in Turkish architecture) [P/dzhak] ()
ochre, Amer. ocher n. [/ohra]
ocherous or ochery adj. [/ohrqnyI] [/ohrPvyI]
[/ohrqnyI], (colour) [/ohristyI]
octaconch n. [Pkta/konh]
octastyle adj. (eight-column) [vPsmikP/lonnyI]
oculus n. (pl. oculi) [Ppa/Ion] ( , )
odeum n. (pl. odea) [Pdq/on]
oenochoa n. (pl. oenochoae) [PInP/hoIa]
off center adj. (coin) * ( )
offering n. (of goods) (of beings)
[zhertvPprinP/sheniIe]; votive offering

ogee n. [gu/sok] (.)


oikistes n. [oI/kist]
oil-colour n. [/maslqnaIa /kraska]
oillamp n. [svq/tilnik] ()
oil-paint n. [/maslqnaIa /kraska]
oinochoe n. (pl. oinochoai or oinochoes) [oInP/hoIa]
oligarchy n. o [Pli/garhiIa]
olpe n. (pl. olpai or olpes) [/olpa]
omphalos n. (pl. omphali) (centre of earth) [Pm/fal]
one-piece adj. [/tselnyI]

one-story adj. [PdnPq/tazhnyI]


onglaze adj. (paint) [nPdgla/zurnyI] ( )
once-fire n. (in pottery-making) [PdnP/kratnyI /obzhyk] (
)
opacifier n. (in making opaque glass) [glu/shitql] ( ,
)
opaque adj. (glass) [glu/hoI] ( ), [/matovyI]
[nqprP/zrachnyI] [/tusklyI]
opening n. [prP/Iom]; window opening
openwork n. 1 (single aperture) [/prorqz]
openwork n. 2 (ornam.) [a/zhurnyI]
opisthodome or opisthodomos or opisthodomus n. (pl. opisthodomes)
[Ppis/todPm] ( )
oppidum n. (pl. oppida) [/krepPst] ( )
[/opidum] (. )
opus africanum n. (pl. opera africana) * ,
,

opus albarium n. (pl. opera albaria) * (
,
)
opus Alexandrinum n. (pl. opera Alexandrina) * /
(, )
opus angelicum n. (pl. opera angelica) *
opus antiquum n. (pl. opera antiqua) n. [/varvarskaIa /klatka]
[irqgu/larnaIa /klatka]
[nqrqgu/larnaIa /klatka] ( )
opus arenatum n. (pl. opera arenata) *
opus barbaricum n. (pl. opera barbarica) (pebble mosaic)
[/galqchnaIa mP/zaika]
opus caementicium n., only sing. 1 (concrete) [/rimskiI bq/ton]
opus caementicium n., only sing. 2 (walls made of concrete) [bq/tonnaIa
stq/na] ( )
opus ciclopico n. (pl. opera ciclopica) [tsyklP/pichqskaIa /klatka]
opus craticium n. (pl. opera craticia) (half-timber construction) [fah/verk]
opus doliare n. [klatka is PbP/zhzhonPvP kirpi/cha]
[kir/pichnaIa /klatka] ( ,
)
opus empleqtum n. (pl. opera empleqta) *

opus figlinum n. (pl. opera figlina) * (
, )
opus gallicum n. (pl. opera gallica) [lPsh/kovaIa pqrq/vaska]
opus incertum n. (pl. opera incerta) 1 (rubblework) [/butPvaIa /klatka]
opus incertum n. (pl. opera incerta) 2 (mosaics) * /

opus insertum n. (pl. opera inserta) (isodumum) [isP/domnaIa /klatka]
opus intestinum n. (pl. intestina opera) [dqrq/vannyI kar/kas]
opus isodomum n. (pl. opera isodoma) [isP/domnaIa /klatka]
opus lapili n. * ,
( )
opus latericium n. (pl. opera latericia) or opus lateritium (pl. opera lateritia) 1 (original,
of adobe) [/klatka is nqPbP/zhzhonPvP
kirpi/cha] [syr/tsovaIa /klatka] ()
opus latericium n. (pl. opera latericia) or opus lateritium (pl. opera lateritia) 2 (later,
interchangeable with opus testaceum)
[klatka is PbP/zhzhonPvP kirpi/cha] [kir/pichnaIa
/klatka] ( , )
opus latericium n. (pl. opera latericia) or opus lateritium (pl. opera lateritia) 3
(masonry of roof tiles) [chqrq/pichnaIa /klatka] (

, )
opus listatum n. (pl. opera listata) *
()
opus lithostratum n. (pl. opera lithostrata) [/kamqnnaIa
Pbli/tsofka]
opus marmoratum n. (pl. opera marmorata) *

opus mixtum n. (pl. opera mixta) 1 (general) [/opus /mikstum]
[/tehnika /opus /mikstum]
[/klatka f /tehnikq /opus /mikstum]
[/smeshanaIa /klatka]
opus mixtum n. (pl. opera mixta) 2 or opus reticulatum mixtum (pl. opera reticulata
mixta) *
opus musivum n. (pl. opera musiva) [na/stennaIa mP/zaika]
opus pelasgicum n. (pl. opera pelasgica) [tsyklP/pichqskaIa
/klatka]
opus poligonale n. (pl. opera poligonale) [tsyklP/pichqskaIa
/klatka]
opus pseudoisodomum (pl. opera pseudoisodoma)
[psqvdPisP/domnaIa /klatka]
opus quadratum n. (pl. opera quadrata) 1 (masonry) *
/
opus quadratum n. (pl. opera quadrata) 2 (mosaic) [kvad/ratnaIa
mP/zaika] ( )
opus quasi-reticulatum n. (pl. opera quasi-reticulata)*
,
opus reticulatum n. (pl. opera reticulata) 1 (masonry) [retiku/lat] (

); opus reticulatum mixtum (pl. opera reticulata mixta) *

opus reticulatum n. (pl. opera reticulata) 2 (mosaic) * (
)
opus revinctum n. (pl. opera revincta) 1 (technique) *
/ ( )
opus revinctum n. (pl. opera revincta) 2 (hole) [Pt/verstiIe
dla pi/rona]
opus Romanum n. (pl. opera Romana) [/kvadrPvaIa /klatka]
opus scutulam n. (pl. opera scutula) * (
)
opus sectile n. (pl. opera sectilia) [pla/stinPchnaIa mP/zaika]
[/shtuchnaIa mP/zaika] (
);
opus sectile marmoreum (pl. opera sectilia marmorea) /

opus segmentatum n. (pl. opera segmentata) *

opus signinum n. (pl. opera signina) 1 (lime mixed with pounded brick or potsherds)
[tsq/manka]
opus signinum n. (pl. opera signina) 2 (pavement) * ()
opus siliceum n. (pl. opera silicea) [tsyklP/pichqskaIa /klatka]
opus spicatum n. (pl. opera spicata) [/klatka /IolPchkPI]
[/klatka v /Iolku]
opus tectorium n. (pl. opera tectoria) [shtuka/turka] (,
)
opus tesselatum n. (pl. opera tesselata) [na/bornaIa mP/zaika]
( ,
)
opus testaceum n. (pl. opera testacea) [/klatka is
PbP/zhzhonPvP kirpi/cha] [kir/pichnaIa /klatka] (
, )

74

75

opus vermiculatum n. (pl. opera vermiculata) *


(
,
)
opus vittatum n. (pl. opera vittata) or opus vittatum mixtum (pl. opera vittata mixta)
* ();
opus vittatum mixtum A *
, 1:1; opus vittatum mixtum *
, 1:1;
opus vittatum simplex *
orans n. (pl. orantes) or orant or orante (female) [P/ranta], (male) [P/rant]
orarion or orarium n. (pl. oraria) (ecclesiastical) [P/rar]
oratory n. (place for prayer) [mP/lelna] [ka/pela]
orb n. [dqr/zhava] ()
orchard n. [sat]
orchestra n. (part of ancient theater) [Pr/hestra]
order n. (archit.) [/ordqr]; architectural order ; classical
orders ; composite order /
; Corinthian order ; Doric order
/ ; Gothic order ; Ionic order
/ ; mixed order ; Tuscan
order
ore n. [ru/da]
organic adj. [Prga/nichqskiI]
oriel n. 1 (bay window) [fP/nar] (.)
oriel n. 2 (projecting upper story) [/erker]
orient v. [Prqn/tirqvat]
Orient n. [vPs/tok] ( - )
Oriental adj. [vPs/tochnyI] ( - )
orientation n. 1 (position) [Prqn/tatsyIa]; orientation of burial structure
; orientation of inhumations

orientation n. 2 or coin orientation [PriIen/tatsyIa]
[sPPtnP/sheniIe P/seI] (); coin orientation /
( 180 ); medal orientation
/ ( 0 )
origin n. [prPishPzh/deniIe]; ethnic origin ;
of Milesian origin
ornament n. 1 (design) [Pr/namqnt]; checked ornament
; clearly-cut ornament
; combed ornament
; cord ornament ; cruciate / cruciform
ornament ; floral ornament
; gauged ornament
; leaf ornament ; linear ornament
; openwork ornament ; ornament
of dots ; ornament of petals
; ornaments of alternating with
... ...; relief ornament ;
schematic ornament ; stroke-shaped ornament
; tongue ornament
ornament n. 2 (personal decoration) [ukra/sheniIe]; anchor ornament
(, ,
); temple ornament
ornamental adj. [Prnamqn/talnyI]
ornamentation n. [Pr/namqnt]; pierced ornamentation or pointed
ornamentation
ornamented adj. [Prnamqn/tirPvanyI]
ornate adj. [bP/gatP Prnamqn/tirPvanyI]
ornate v. [ukra/shat]

ornithomorphic adj. [PrnitP/morfnyI]


Orthodox adj. [pravP/slavnyI]
Orthodoxy d. [pravP/slaviIe]
orthostat n. (vertical element of trilith) [PrtP/stat] (
)
orthostate n. (lowest course of masonry) [PrtP/stat] [PrfP/stat]
( )
orthostate or orthostatic adj. [PrfP/statnyI] [PrtP/statnyI]
orthostyle n. [PrtP/stil] ( )
ossuary n. [Psu/ariI]
ostensorium n. (pl. ostensoria) or ostensory n. [darP/nositsa]
osteological adj. [PstqPlP/gichqskiI]
osteology n. [PstqP/logiIa]
ostracism n. [Pstra/kizm]
ostracon n. (pl. ostraa) or ostrakon n. (pl. ostraka) [Pstra/kon]
otherworld n. [mir i/noI]
Ottoman n. [Ps/man] - [/turPk Ps/man]
Ottoman adj. [Ps/manskiI] [tu/retskiI] ()
outbuilding n. [/fligql]
outcrop n. [/vyhPdy] ., [/vyhPt na pP/verhnPst] .
(, , )
outer adj. [/vneshniI]
outhouse n. (outbuilding) [/fligql]
outside the city (walls) (a structure located there) [/zagPrPdnyI]
outward adj. [/vneshniI] [/vidimyI]
outward appearance n. [/vneshniI vit]
outwash n. - [/vodnP-lqdni/kovPIe PtlP/zheniIe]
outwork n. (minor fortification) [pqrqdP/voIe ukrqp/leniIe]
ovaloid n. [P/valnPIe P/rudiIe]
ovate adj. [IqItsq/vidnyI]
oven n. [pech] ( )
overfired adj. [pqrq/zhzhonyI]
overglaze n. 1 (outer coat of glaze) [/vneshniI sloI gla/zuri]
[ftP/roI sloI gla/zuri]
overglaze n. 2 (decoration applied over a glaze) [nadgla/zurnaIa
/rospis]
overglaze adj. [nadgla/zurnyI]
overlay v. [pqrqkry/vat] (-) [lq/zhat pP/verh]
(-)
overseas adj. [za/morskiI]
overstrike n. [pqrqchq/kanka]
oxbow n. [hP/mut]
oxidation n. [Pkis/leniIe]
oxide n. [Pk/sit] [/okisql]; copper oxide ; silver oxide

76

77

P
pagan n. [Iq/zychnik]
pagan adj. [Iq/zychqskiI]
paganism n. [Iq/zychqstvP]
pagoda n. [/pagPda]
pail n. [vqd/ro]
paint n. [/kraska]; brush paint ; inorganic paint
; mineral paint ; organic paint

paintbrush n. [kist] (, )
painted adj. . [raspis/noI] . . [s /rospisami]
painting n. [/zhyvPpis] [ri/sunPk] [/rospis];

figural painting or figural scene of painting ;


fresco painting ; negative painting
; polychrome painting ; rock paintings
or cave paintings: a) (art) , b) (particular pieces)
; underglaze painting ; vase
painting
pair of compasses n. [/tsyrkul]
palace n. [dvP/rets]; caesars palace ;
czars palace ; khans palace or palace of the khans
; kings / royal palace ; private
palace
palaeo- pref. - [palqP]
palaeoanthropic adj., also paleanthropic or paleoanthropic *

palaeoanthropologic (Amer. paleoanthropologic) or palaeoanthropological


(Amer.
paleoanthropological)
adj.

[palqPantrPpPlP/giIhqskiI]
palaeoanthropologist , Amer. paleoanthropologist n. [palqPantrP/polPk]
palaeoanthropology, Amer. paleoanthropology n. [palqPantrPpP/logiIa]
palaeoanthropus n. (pl. palaeoanthropi), Amer. paleoanthropus n. (pl. paleoanthropi)
[palqP/antrPp]
palaeobiological, Amer. paleobiological adj. [palqPbiPlP/gichqskiI]
palaeobiologist, Amer. paleobiologist n. [palqPbi/olPk]
palaeobiology, Amer. paleobiology n. [palqPbiP/logiIa]
palaeobotanical, Amer. paleobotanical adj. [palqPbPta/ni chqskiI]
palaeobotanist (Amer. paleobotanist) or palaeobotanicist (Amer. paleobotanicist) n.
[palqPbP/tanik]
palaeobotany, Amer. paleobotany n. [palqPbP/tanika]
palaeoclimatic, Amer. paleoclimatic adj. [palqPklima/tichqskiI]
palaeoclimatologist , Amer. paleoclimatologist n. [palqPklima/tolPk]
palaeoclimatology, Amer. paleoclimatology n. [palqPklimatP/logiIa]
palaeographer, Amer. paleographer n. *
palaeographic (Amer. paleographic) or palaeographical (Amer. paleographical) adj.
[palqPgra/fichqskiI]
palaeography, Amer. paleography n. [palqP/grafiIa]
Palaeolithic, Amer. Paleolithic n. 1 (period), [palqP/lit]; Lower Palaeolithic
; Middle Palaeolithic ; Upper
Palaeolithic
palaeolithic, Amer. paleolithic n. 2 (stone implement)
[palqPli/tichqskPIe /kamqnnPIe P/rudiIe]
Palaeolithic,Amer.Paleolithicadj.[palqPli/tichqskiI];LowerPalaeolithic
; Middle Palaeolithic ;
Upper Palaeolithic
palaeomagnetic (Amer. paleomagnetic) or palaeomagnetical (Amer. paleomagnetical)
adj. [palqPmag/nitnyI]
palaeomagnetism, Amer. paleomagnetism n. [palqPmagnq/tizm]
palaeomagnetist (Amer. paleomagnetist) or palaeomagnetologist (Amer.
paleomagnetologist) n. [palqPmagnq/tolPk]
palaeomagnetology, Amer. paleomagnetology n.
[palqPmag/nitnyI /metPt] [palqPmagnqtP/logiIa]
palaeontologic (Amer. paleontologic) or palaeontological (Amer. paleontological) adj.
[palqPntPlP/gichqskiI]
palaeontologist, Amer. paleontologist n. [palqPn/tolPk]
palaeontology, Amer. paleontology n. [palqPntP/logiIa]
palaeopathological,
Amer.
paleopathological
adj.

[palqPpatPlP/gichqskiI]; palaeopathological lesion

palaeopathology, Amer. paleopathology n. [palqPpatP/logiIa]


palaeoserology, Amer. paleoserology n. [palqPsqrP/logiIa]
palaeozoologic (Amer. paleozoologic) or palaeozoological (Amer. paleozoological)

adj. [palqPzPPlP/gichqskiI]
palaeozoologist, Amer. paleozoologist n. [palqPzP/olPk]
palaeozoology, Amer. paleozoology n. [palqPzPP/logiIa]
palaestra n. (pl. palaestrae or palaestras) or palestra n. (pl. palestrae or palestras)
[pa/lestra]
palaestrite n. [pales/trit]
palatial adj. [dvPr/tsovyI] (.)
paleo- pref., Amer. - [palqP] (.: palaeo-)
palisade or palisading or stake palisade n. [chqstP/kol] [pali/sat]
pallette n. [na/plechnik] ( )
pallisade n. [chqstP/kol] [pali/sat]
palmette n. [pal/meta] [pal/metka]
palstave n. [pal/shtap]
palynologic or palynological adj. [palinPlP/gichqskiI]
palynology n. [palinP/logiIa]
pan n. 1 or cooking pan or frying pan [skPvPrP/da]
[skPvP/rotka]
pan n. 2 (small hand-tool) [sP/vok]
pane n. or window pane * [P/kon-nPIe stqk/lo] (
, )
panel n. 1 (flat piece) [pa/nel]
panel n. 2 (of a door) [fi/lonka]
panel n. 3 (of a buckle) [shchi/tok] ()
pan-Hellenic n. [pan-/elinskiI]
panoply n. [pa/nopliIa]
pantheism n. [pante/izm]
pantheon n. [pante/on]
Pantocrator n. [panta/kratPr]; Christ Pantocrator
paper n. 1 (material) [bu/maga]; absorbent paper ;
filter paper ; plotting / square / squared paper

paper n. 2 (conference) [dP/klat]; paper presented at a conference
; present a paper of
paper n. 3 (article) [sta/tIa] ( )
papyrus n. (pl. papyri or papyruses) [pa/pirus]
parapet n. [para/pet]
parastas n. (pl. parastades) (anta) [para/stat] ()
parcellae n. pl. [par/tsely]
parchment n. [pqr/gament]
participate v. [prini/mat u/chastiIe] [u/chastvqvat]
particle n. a [chas/titsa]; particle of mica a
parvis n. (of a church) [/papqrt]
passage n. [prP/hot]; pedestrian passage
passageway [kPri/dor] [prP/hot]
paste n. 1 (mixture) [/pasta]; non-translucent glass paste

paste n. 2 (structure) [tqks/tura]
paste n. 3: ceramic paste (); coarse
grained paste () ; fine grained
paste / () ; medium grained
paste ()
pastophorion or pastophorium n. (pl. pastophoria) [pastP/foriI]
pastoralist n. [skPtP/vot]; nomadic pastoralist -

pastoralism n. [skPtP/vots-tvP]
pasture n. [/pasbishche]; mountain pasture
pte n. [tqks/tura]
patella n. [kP/len-naIa /chashqchka]
patera n. (pl. paterai or paterae) [pa/tera]; patera unbilicata * ,

78

79

,
(unbilicata)
patina n. 1 (greenish layer on the surface of copper or bronze) [/patina]; artificial
patina ; benign patina ;
natural patina ; noble patina ;
porcelainized patina ; wild patina
patina n. 2 (a plate that is used to hold the host during the celebration of the Eucharist)
[/zhertvqnitsa] ( )
patinated or patined adj. [patini/rPvanyI]
[pP/krytyI /patinPI]
patrilineage n. [patrili/neInaIa sis/tema rPts/tva]
patrilineal adj. [patrili/neInyI]
pattern n. 1 (ornam.) [Pr/namqnt] ( );
arch pattern ; chequered pattern, Amer. checkered
pattern ; decorative pattern
; honeycomb patterns ; net pattern
; scaly pattern ; stairs-shaped pattern
; step pattern ; string
patterns ; wavy pattern
pattern n. 2 (element) [qlq/ment] (., ); floral / vegetal
pattern ; geometric pattern
; linear pattern
pauldron n. [na/plechnik] ( )
pavement n. 1 (general) [/vymPstka]
pavement n. 2 (of a street, high quality) [mPstP/vaIa]; mosaic pavement

paving n. [/vymPstka]; brick paving ; flagstone paving

pebble n. [/galka]; worked pebble
pebble adj. [/galqchnyI]
Pecheneg n. [pqchq/neg]
Pecheneg adj. [pqchq/nezhskiI]
pectoral n. [pqktP/ral]
peculiarity n. [P/sobqnPst]; local particularity
pedestal n. [pPsta/ment] [pIqde/stal]
pediment n. [frPn/ton]; blind / false pediment ; bonnetscroll / goose-neck / scrolled / swan-neck / swan-necked pediment *
( S- ); bowshaped pediment ; broken-apex / open / open-topped
pediment / ; broken-base / open-bed
pediment * ; Gothic pediment
; pilastered pediment ; segmental
pediment *
pedimental or pedimented adj. [s frPn/tonPm] . .
peeling n. (defect of glaze) [Pt/slaivaniIe] [PtslP/IeniIe]
[Pt/skok] ()
peg n. [kol] ()
pelike n. (pl. pelikai) [/pelika]
peltast n. [pel/tast]
pelvis n. [tas] (.)
pen n. 1 (point for writing) [pq/ro] ( )
pen n. 2 (ball-pen) p [/ruchka] ( )
pencil n. [karan/dash]
pendant n. [pPd/veska] [pri/veska]; Christian pendant
; devotional pendant
; Egyptian faience pendant
; figural pendant
; gemstone pendant ; jingling
pendant ; lunar pendant
; - medallion pendant; pendant in

openwork ; phallic pendant ;


temple pendant
pendentive n. [/parus] (.) [panda/tif]
peninsula n. [pPlu/ostrPf]
penknife n. [pqrP/chinyI nosh]
pentanoummos n. (pl. pentanoummoi) or pentanummus (pl. pentanummi)
[pqnta/numiI]
people n. (ethnic) [na/rot]; farming people ; pastoral
people ; traditional people
( ); people of Timber
Grave culture or Timber Grave people

peplos or peplus n. [/peplPs]
perforator n. [prP/kolka] ( ); typical perforator

pergola n. [/pqrgola]
peribolos n. [pqri/bol]; Classical funerary peribolos *

period n. 1 (interval) [pq/riqt] (); fallowing period

period n. 2 (historical) [pq/riqt] [/vrema] [q/poha];
Archaic period ; Boreal
period ; Classical period -
-
; Flavian period ; Early
Byzantine period ; Early Classical period
; Formative / Pre-Classic period
/ ; Golden Horde period
; Great Migration period ;
Hellenistic period ; La Tne period
; Late Byzantine period
; Late Classical period ; Late Glacial
period ; Medieval period ;
Middle Byzantine period ; Mousterian
period ; Postglacial period
; Pre-Boreal period ; Prehistori period
; Roman Imperial period
( ) ; sub-Atlantic period
; sub-Boreal period
periplus n. (pl. peripli) [pq/ripl]
peripteral adj. [pqri/pter] .
perished n. [razlP/zhyvshyIsa]
peristalith n. [/kamqnnPIe kPl/tso] [pqrista/lit]
( )
peristylar adj. [pqri/stilnyI]
peristyle n. [pqri/stil]
pestle n. [pest]
petasos or petasus n. (broad-brimmed hat) [/petPs] (
)
petroglyph n. [pq/troglif]
petroglyphic adj. [pqtrPgli/fichqskiI]
pew n. [ska/mIa] ( )
pewter n. [PlP/vanIstyI /splav] [splaf /olPva]
pewter adj. * [is PlP/vanIstPvP /splava] . .
phalanx n. (pl. phalanges) [fa/langa]
phalera n. (pl. phalerae) [fa/lar]
phallic n. [fa/lichqskiI]
phase n. [/faza]
phenomenon n. (pl. phenomena) [fqnP/men]
phiala n. (pl. phialae) or phiale or phial . [fia/la] . [fi/al]

80

81

phoederatus n. (pl. phoederati) [fqdq/rat] (. )


Phoenician n. [fini/kiIets]
Phoenician adj. [fini/kiIskiI]
phoideratos n. (pl. phoideratoi) [fqdq/rat] (. )
phormiskos n. (pl. phormiskoi) * (, )
photo n. [fPtP/grafiIa] (); photo courtesy of
(-)
photograph n. [fPtP/grafiIa] ()
photography n. [fPtPgra/firPvaniIe] [fPtP/grafiIa]
[fPtP/sIomka]; aerial photography
photosensitivity n. [svetPchu/stvitqlnPst]
phylactery n. 1 (amulet) [amu/let] [obq/rek] [talis/man]
phylactery n. 2 (tefillin) [tq/filin] [filak/teriI] (
, )
pick n. 1 (stone tool) [pik] ( )
pick n. 2 (iron) [kir/ka]
pick v. (break up by means of a pick) [kirkP/vat]
[prPkirkP/vat]
picture n. 1 (image) [izPbra/zheniIe]
picture n. 2 (photo) [fPtP/grafiIa] (); take picture of
(- )
picture n. 3 (illustration) [ilus/tratsyIa] [ri/sunPk]
piece n. 1 (specimen) [/shtuka]
piece n. 2 (fragment) [ku/sok]
piece n. 3 (part of something) [dq/tal]; knee piece ; one piece
; two piece
piece n. 4 (stone tool) [P/rudiIe] [P/rudiIe tru/da] (,
); denticulate piece ;
double truncated piece ; knifeshaped piece ; notched piece
; piece with concave retouched truncation
; piece with continuous retouch on one edge
; piece with continuous retouch on two edges
; piece with convex retouched
truncation ; piece with heavy
alternating retouch ; piece with light
alternating retouch ; piece
with bifacial retouch ; piece with
heavy abrupt retouch ;
piece with light abrupt retouch ;
piece with oblique retouched truncation
; piece retouched on ventral surface
; piece with straight retouched truncation
; scaled piece

pier n. 1 (support) [u/stoI] [P/pora]; crossing pier *

pier n. 2 (pillar) [stolp] [kP/lonna] (); clustered pier
or pier with colonnettes ( ), composite
pier * ( ,
, ); drum pier ; polygonal
pier
pier n. 3 (of a bridge) [byk] [u/stoI] ()
pier n. 4 (buttress) [kPntqr/fors]
pier n. 5 (between two doors or windows) [prP/stenPk]
pier n. 6 (platform built for getting access to ships) [pirs] [/pristan]
pier-and-door partition n. [pPlifi/ron] ( ,
; )
pigment n. (applied on a surface) [/kraska], (coloring matter) [kra/sitql]
pike n. [/pika]

pilaster n. [pi/lastqr] ., [pi/lastra] .; pilaster strip


pilgrims hostel n. [strannPpri/imnyI dom] .
[strannPpri/imnyIq pa/laty] .
pillar n. 1 (stone or wooden) () [kP/lonna] [stolp];
support pillar
pillar n. 2 (of soil) [/tselik]
pilum n. (pl. pila) [/pilum] ( )
pin n. 1 (detail of cloth) [bu/lafka]; hair pin
; hammer-shaped pin
pin n. 2 (of a fibula or a brooch) [ig/la] [i/golka] )
pin n. 3 (of a mechanism) [/shpilka] ( )
pin n. 4 (supporting axis) [shtift]
pinax n. (pl. pinakes) [/pinaks]
pinchbar n. [lom]
pinhole n. (in glaze) [na/kol] [prP/kol] ( )
pinholing n. (in glaze) [na/koly] . [prP/koly] . (
)
pinnacle n. [pi/nakl] [PstrPkP/nechnaIa /bashqnka]
pintadera n. [pinta/dera]
pipe n. 1 (technical) [tru/ba]; pottery pipe ; water pipe

pipe n. 2 (smoking) [/trupka]; blow pipe (in glass-making) ;
pottery pipe ; tobacco pipe
pipework n. [/truby] ., [sis/tema trup] .
pise n. (rammed clay and small pebbles forming a wall) *
pishtaq n. (projecting portal) [pqsh/tak]
pit n. [/Iama], (small) [uglub/leniIe]; casting pits (for bronze statues)
; cess pit ; entrance pit
; grain pit , ; grave
pit ; household pit ; plunderers pit
; treasure pit
pit n. 2 (of a grave) or entrance pit n. [vhPd/naIa /Iama]
pitcher n. [kuf/shin]; wine pitcher
pithos n. (pl. pithoi) [/pifPs]; storage pithos
pit-house n. [zqm/lanka]
pitting n. 1 (corrosion) [/tochqchnaIa kP/roziIa]; heavy / severe
pitting
pitting n. 2 (in glaze) [na/koly] . [prP/koly] . (
)
pix n. 1 (a container in which wafers for the Eucharist are kept) [kPf/chek]
[kPf/chezhqts] [ki/voriI] ( )
pix n. 2 (a container in which the Eucharist is carried to the sick)
[darPhra/nitqlnitsa]
place n. [/mestP]; burial place ; production place
; trading place ; work place
plafond n. [pla/fon] ( )
plain n. [rav/nina]; flood plain
plain adj. [/ploskiI]
plan n. [plan]; floor plan or ground plan (, ); greekcross plan ( ); orthogonal
plan ; threepart ground plan
plane of cleavage n. [/ploskPst ras/kalyvanIa]
planer n. [/skobql]
planning n. [plani/rofka]; orthogonal planning
; urban planning
planta pedis n. [klqI/mo v /vide stup/ni] ( )
plaque n. [nashyv/naIa /blashka]
plaster n. [shtuka/turka] (, , );
plaster of Paris or Paris plaster ; gypsum plaster

82

83

; mud plaster
plastered adj. [Pshtuka/turqnyI]
plastering n. 1 (with plaster) [Pshtuka/turivaniIe]
plastering n. 2 (with clay or lime) [Pb/maska]
plastic n. (on a vessel) [na/lep]
plate n. 1 (dish, big) [/bludP], (small) [ta/relka], (very fine)
[/blutse]; fish plate ; footed plate
; pictoral plate ; Ionian plate

plate n. 2 (sheet) [plas/tina]; pectoral plate ; spacer plate
( )
plate n. 3 (applied to one side of an artifact) [na/klatka]
plate n. 4 (bent around an artifact) [Pp/klatka]
plate n. 5 (applied to hard backing) [na/klatka] [plas/tina]
plate n. 6 (applied to soft backing, badge) [/blaha] [/blashka]
()
plate n. 7 (in a book) [tab/litsa] ( )
plate n. 8 (of a brooch) [shchi/tok] (); cast integral plate
; catch plate , ();
elongated catch plate ; with disk for catch-plate

plateau n. (pl. plateaux or plateaus) [pla/to]
plated adj. [pla/stinchqtyI]
platform n. [plat/forma] [plP/shchatka]; stricking platform
; tower platform
platter n. [/bludP]
plectron n. (pl. plectrons) or plectrum (pl. plectrums or plectra) [plqk/tron]
( )
Pleistocene n. [plqIstP/tsen]
Pleistocene adj. [q/pohi plqIstP/tsena] . .
[plqIstP/tsenPvyI] .
plektron n. (pl. plektra) [plqk/tron] ( )
plemochoe n. (pl. plemochoai) [plqmP/hoIa]
plinth n. 1 (of a column, statue, vase) [plint]
plinth n. 2 (square brick) [/plinfa]
plique-a-jour n. [pqrqgP/rotchqtaIa q/mal]
plot n. (of arable land) [na/del] [u/chastPk]
plough, Amer. plow n. [pluk], (wooden) [sP/ha]
ploughshare, Amer. plowshare n. 1 (of metal plough) [pluk]
[nakP/nechnik /pluga] ( )
ploughshare, Amer. plowshare 2 (of wooden plough) [sPsh/nik]
plumb bob n. [Pt/ves] ()
plume n. [pq/ro] ()
plummet n. [Pt/ves] ()
plunderer n. [gra/bitql]
plywood n. [fa/nera]
plywood n. attrib. [fa/nernyI]
pocketknife n. [pqrP/chinyI nosh]
podium n. (pl. podia or podiums) [/podium]
point n. 1 (place) [punkt]; datum point ; zero point
; reference point (in mapping)
point n. 2 (dot) [/tochka]
point n. 3 (end of blade) [Pstri/Io] ( )
point n. 4 (stone tool) [Pstri/Io] [PstrPkP/nechnik]
[nakP/nechnik] ( ); atypical shouldered
point ; Aurignacian split base bone
point ; Azilian
point ; barbed point
; bifacial point, foliate point
; bone point with a single beveled base

; bone point with


double beveled base ;
Chtelperron / Chtelperronian point ;
atypical Chtelperron / Chtelperronian point
; Font-Yves point -; Gravette
/ Gravetteian point ; atypical Gravette / Gravettian
point ; micro-Gravette point or microGravettian point ; humped back blade or gibbous point
; laurel leaf or laurel leaf point
; Magdalenian forked base bone
point ; Mousterian
point ; elongated Mousterian point
; retouched Levallois point
; pseudo-Levallois point
- ; shouldered point
; spear point (); tanged / stemmed
point ; tanged-andbarbed point ; Tayac point
; typical shouldered (Solutrean) point
; unificial point
; Vachons point ; willow leaf or
willow leaf point
pointed adj. [PstrPkP/nechnyI], (vessel) [PstrP/donnyI]
()
pointed-base adj. (vessel) [PstrP/donnyI] ()
pointill n. [puan/sonnyI] ()
pole n. 1 (post) [stolp]
pole n. 2 (staff) [zhezl]
pole-arms n. pl. [drqf/kovPIe P/ruzhyIe] . (,
, , )
poletop n. [na/vershyIe] [na/vershyIe /zhezla]
poleyn n. [nakP/lennik]
polis n. (pl. poleis) [/polis]
polished adj. [lP/shchonyI]; black polished ; carefully
polished ; unnaturally polished (coin) *
( ,
)
polisher n. [lP/shchilP]
polishing n. (of a vessel) [lP/shcheniIe]
pollen analysis n. - [/sporPpyltsq/voI a/nalis]
Polovcian n. [/polPvqts]
Polovcian adj. [pPlP/vetskiI]
polycandelon n. [lampadP/for]
polychrome or polychromatic adj. [pPli/hromnyI]
polyhedron n. (stone tool) [mnPgP/granik] ( )
polytheism n. [pPlite/izm]
polythyron n. (pl. polythyra) [pPlifi/ron] ( ,
; )
pommel n. 1 (of a sword) [na/vershyIe mq/cha]; antenna (pl. antennae)
pommel ; plain knob
pommel
pommel n. 2 (raised front part of a saddle) [pq/rednaIa /luka] ()
Pontian n. [pPn/tiIqts]
Pontic adj. [pPn/tiIskiI]
Pontus n., also Pontos 1 (state) [pont] ()
Pontus n., also Pontos 2 (sea) [pont] (); Pontus Axinus or Pontos
Axeinos ; Pontus Euxinus or Pontos Euxeinos

pool n. 1 (reservoir) [ba/seIn] ()


pool n. 2 (baptismal) [ku/pel]

84

85

pop or glaze pop or popout n. sing. (glaze defect) [/vykPlka] ( )


poppy-head n. [krqstP/tsvet] [flq/ron]
porcelain n. [far/for]
porcelain n. attrib. [far/forPvyI]
porch n. 1 (general) [kryl/tso]
porch n. 2 (of a church) [/papqrt]
pore n. [/pora]
porous adj. [/poristyI]; fine porous
port n. [port]; sally port (in a fortress)
( )
port adj. [pPr/tovyI]; port facility
portal n. [pPr/tal]; arched portal ; recessed portal
; sculptured portal *
Porte n. [/porta] ( ); Ottoman Porte or Sublime Porte
or High Porte /
portico n. (pl. porticoes or porticos) [/portik]; colonnaded portico *
; octastyle portico ; pedimented
portico
porticullis n. [kata/rakta]
[fPrtifikatsy/onnaIa rq/shotka]
portrait n. [pPr/tret]; intaglio portrait
; sculptured portrait
portraiture n. (collectively) * ;
imperial portaiture .
position n. [pPlP/zheniIe]; in sitting position
post n. 1 (pillar) [stolp] ( ); angle post

post n. 2 (position) [post]; trading post
post- pref. - [posle] - [post]
postcranial adj. [pPstkrani/alnyI]
postern n. [bPkP/voI vhot]
post-hole n. [stPlbP/vaIa]
pot n. 1 (general) [gPr/shok]; face pot * ; spout
and bridge pot ; square-mouthed pot

pot n. 2 (big, with vertical walls) [kas/trula]
pot n. 3 (large) [kPr/chaga]; cooking pot
pot v. [fPrmP/vat /glinu]
potsherd n. [chqrq/pok] [Pb/lomPk sP/suda]
potter n. [gPn/char]
pottery n. 1 or pottery shop [kqra/michqskaIa mastqr/skaIa]
pottery n. 2 (wares) [gPn/charnyIe iz/deliIa] ., (vessels only)
[gPn/charnyIe sP/sudy] ., .,
[gPn/charnaIa pP/suda] ., [gPn/charnaIa
kq/ramika] .; black-figured pottery / ;
coil pottery ; Corinthian
pottery ; fine pottery ; hand-made
pottery ; household pottery ; linear pottery
- ; moulded pottery
; painted pottery ; painted black-figured
pottery ; painted red-figured pottery
; plain burnished pottery /
; pottery making ;
pottery with string patterns ; redfigured pottery / ; relief pottery
; wheel-made pottery or wheel-turned pottery

pottery adj. [gPn/charnyI]
pouring n. (glaze application technique) [pPli/vaniIe] (
)

powder off v. (about glaze layer) [Psy/patsa] ( )


pr. abbr. poor adj. (coin grading) * ( )
pre- pref. - [pre], - [dP]
preceding adj. [prqt/shestvuIushchiI]
pre-Christian adj. [dPhristi/anskiI]
precious adj. [dragP/tsennyI]
precipitate (chemistry) v. tr. [Psazh/dat], v. intr. [Psazh/datsa]
(.)
prehistoric adj. [dPistP/richqskiI] [pervP/bytnyI]
prehistory n. [pqrvP/bytnPst]
[pqrvP/bytnyI pq/riqt] [pqrvP/bytnPIe /vrema]
pre-Islamic adj. [dPis/lamskiI]
prenucleus n. [prq/nuklqus]
[pPdgP/tovlqnyI /nuklqus]
presbytery n. 1 (in Orthodox churches corresponds to bema) [prqzbi/teriI]
( )
presbytery n. 2 (in Western churches - in the central part of choir)
[prqzbi/teriI] ( )
preservation n. [sP/hrannPst] [sPstP/IaniIe] (,
); coin preservation ; condition of
preservation or preservation state
preserve v. [sPhra/natsa] [hra/nitsa]
preserve n. [zapP/vednik]
pressure flaking n. [Ptzhym/naIa /retush]
prevail v. [prqPbla/dat]
pre-wall n. [pqrqdP/vaIa ste/na]
prewetting n. [prqdva/ritqlnPIe uvlazh/neniIe]
prickspur n. * ()
prie-dieu n. (pl. prie-dieux or prie-dieus or prie-dieu)
[ska/meIqchka dla mP/litvy] ( )
priest n. 1 (pagan) [zhrets]
priest n. 2 (Christian) [svq/shchenik]
priming n. [grunt] ()
prison n. [tur/ma], (dark, underground) [tqm/nitsa]
probe n. (excavation tool) [zond] [shchup]
proceedings of a conference n. pl. [matqr/Ialy kPnfq/rentsyi]
processional banner n. [hP/rugv]
prochous n. (pl. prochoi) [/prohus]
product n. [prP/dukt], ( ) [prPiz/vots-tvP]:
local product ( );
half-finished product or semi-finished product
production n. [prPiz/vots-tvP]; local production or home production
or domestic production ; production of bronzes

; pottery production
profane adj. [prP/fannyI]
profile n. 1 (general) [/profil]; complete profile ; incomplete
profile
profile n. 2 (archit.) [arhitqk/turnyI Pb/lom]
profiled adj. [prPfi/lirPvanyI]
promontory n. [mys] ( , )
pronaos n. (pl. pronaoi) [prP/naPs]
propylaeum n. (pl. propylaea) [prPpi/lei] ., [prPpi/lon] .
propylon n. (pl. propyla) [prPpi/lon] ., [prPpi/lei] .
proscenium n. (pl. proscenia) [prP/skeniI]
prosperity n. [sPstP/IatqlnPst] [bP/gats-tvP]
prostas n. (pl. prostades) 1 (antechamber) [prP/stat] ()
prostas n. (pl. prostades) 2 (area included between parastades) [prP/stat]
( / )

86

87

prostasis n. (pl. prostases) (archit.) [prP/stasis]


prostyle n. [prP/stil]
proteichisma n. [prPteI/hizma]
prothesis n. (pl. protheses) 1 (room) [prP/tezis] [prP/tesis]
prothesis n. (pl. protheses) 2 (table) [/zhertvqnik] ( )
protohistory n. [prPtPistP/richqskiI pq/riot]
protoma n. (pl. protomae) [prP/toma]
proxenos n. (pl. proxenoi) [prP/ksen]
proxeny n. [prP/kseniIa];proxeny for a citizen of Sinope
; proxeny for so-and-so citizen of Sinope
-
prytaneum or prytaneion n. (pl. prytanea) [prita/neI]
psalium n. (pl. psalia) [/psaliI]
psephism n. (pl. psephisms) or psephisma (pl. psephismata or psephismas)
[psq/fizm] [psq/fizma]
pseudo- pref. - [psevdP]
pseudodipteral adj. [psqvdPdi/pternyI]
pseudodipteros n. (archit.) [psqvdPdi/pter]
pseudoisodomum n. (pl. pseudoisodoma) [psqvdPisP/domnaIa
/klatka]
pseudoisodomum n. attrib. (pl. pseudoisodoma) [psqvdPisP/domnyI]
pseudo-microburin n. - [psevdPmikrPrq/zets]
pseudoperipteral adj. [psqvdPpqri/pter] .
psykter n. (pl. psykteres) [/psikter]
pubis n. [lPp/kovaIa kost]
public adj. [Pp/shchestvqnyI]
pull down v. [snP/sit] ()
pulpit n. 1 (in Orthodox church) [am/von]
pulpit n. 2 (in Catholic church) [/kafqdra] ( )
punch n. 1 (tool) [prP/kolka]; double pointed punch
punch n. 2: punch of finger [paltse/voI za/shchep]
[paltse/voI za/zhym]
puncheon n. [chq/kan] ()
punctation n. (holes drilled through the vessel wall to repair cracks) * c
( )
punty n. [pPnti/Ia]
purification n. [Pb/rat Pchi/shcheniIa]
purified clay n. [Pt/muchqnaIa /glina]
push-plane or push-plate n. [/skobql] ( )
pylon n. [pi/lon]
pyramid n. [pira/mida]; stepped pyramid
pyre n. or funeral pyre [pPgrq/balnyI kPs/tor], (site)
( , )
pyx n. 1 (a container in which wafers for the Eucharist are kept) [kPf/chek]
[kPf/chezhqts] [ki/voriI] ( )
pyx n. 2 (a container in which the Eucharist is carried to the sick)
[darPhra/nitqlnitsa]
pyxis n. (pl. pyxides or pyxidae) [pik/sida]; globular pyxis
; lidded pyxis ; pointed pyxis

quantification n. [kP/lichqstvqnyI a/nalis]


quantity n. [kP/lichqstvP]
quarrystone n. [but] [/butPvyI /kamqn]
quarter n. (district) [kvar/tal]; abbots quarters ; residential
/ dwelling / living quarter
quartz n. [kvarts]
quartzose adj. [/kvartsqvyI]
qasr n. (Umayyad palace) [kasr] ( - )
Quaternary adj. [chqtvqr/tichnyI]
quatrefoil n. [chqtyroh/lisnik]
queen closer n. (in a bond) * - (
)
quern n. 1 (small or primitive hand mill) [zqrnP/torka] (
); rotary quern
( ,
); saddle quern (
:
)
quern n. 2 (lower stone of quern 1) * () ()
quernstone n. [/zhornPf] (. ) ()
qibla n. [/kybla]
qubba n. (domed mausoleum) [ku/ba] [gum/bat] (
)
quicklime n. [nqga/shonaIa /izvqst]
quillon n. [pqrq/krestIe]
quincunx n. [chqtyroh/stolpnyI
krqstPvP/kupPlnyI hram]
Quipchaq n. [kip/chak] [/polPvqts]
Quipchaq adj. [kip/chakskiI] [pPlP/vetskiI]
quiver n. [kPl/chan]
qumqum n. * ()
quoin n. 1 (exterior angle of building) *
quoin n. 2 (keystone) [zam/kovyI /kamqn]

qabr n. (Moslem grave) [kabr] ( )


qasaba n. (Arabian citadel) [kas/ba] ( )
quadra n. (pl. quadrae) [kvadr]
quadrant n. (part of a trench) [kvad/rat] ()
quadrant method n. (of excavation) [/sektPrnyI /metPt] ()
quadriporticus n. * .

rabotage n. [za/chistka] ( )
race n. [/rasa]; Australoid race ; Caucasoid race
; Negroid race
racial affinity n. [/rasPvyI tip]
raclette n. [rak/let] ( )
radiocarbon adj. [radiPuglq/rodnyI]; radiocarbon analysis

radiometric assay n. [radiPmqt/richqskiI]
radius n. [luchq/vaIa kost]
rafter n. [strP/pilP]
railing n. . [pq/rila]
rainbow toning n. (on a coin) [/raduzhnyI P/kras] (
)
raking light n. [nqprq/moIe Psvq/shcheniIe] .
[kP/syIq lu/chi] .; under raking light
rammed adj. [utram/bovanyI]
ramp n. [skat] [u/klon] [na/klon] [/pandus];
approach ramp
rampart n. [val] [krqpPs/noI val]
rank n. p [rank]
rapier n. [ra/pira]; tangless rapier * ( )
razor n. [/britva]
read v. (obtain data from a device) [sni/mat] ( )

88

89

receiver n. (of a fibula or a brooch) [pri/Iomnik] ()


receptacles n. pl. [/tara] .
recess n. (archit.) [uglub/leniIe] [/nisha]
recessed adj. (archit.) [u/toplqnyI] [pqrspqk/tivnyI]
(.)
reconnaissance n. or fieldwalking reconnaissance [raz/vetka]
[arhqPlP/gichqskaIa raz/vetka]
reconstruction n. [rqkPn/struktsyIa]
record n. . [/zapisi]
record v. [fik/sirqvPt]
recording n. [fik/satsyIa]; condition recording
/
recover v. [ras/kapyvat]
rectangle n. (stone tool) [prqmPu/golnik] ( )
red-figure or red-figured adj. [krasnPfi/gurnyI]
red-on-black adj. [krasnPfi/gurnyI]
red-slip n. attrib., or red-slipped adj. [krasnP/lakPvyI]
reduce v. (deoxidize) [vPsta/navlivat] (.)
reduction n. (deoxidization) [vPstanP/vleniIe] (.)
reed or reeding n. 1 (archit.) *
reeding n. 2 (numismatics) or edge reeding [/gurtPvaIa na/sechka]
[na/sechka na /gurtq] ()
refectory n. [/trapqznaIa]
refuge n. [u/bezhyshche] [uk/rytiIe]
region n. [ra/Ion]; Black Sea region ; frontier region
/ ; Transarpathian
region ; Transcaucasian region
register n. (in painting) [rq/gistqr] ()
reglet n. (archit.) [/taga] [gurt]
regula n. [/regula]
related adj. [/svazanyI] ( ) [/bliskiI]
[/rots/tvqnyI] (-)
relation to n. [svas] ( -) [PtnP/sheniIe] ( -)
reliability n. [sPstP/IatqlnPst] ()
[dPstP/vernPst]; stratigraphic reliability

relic n. [rq/likviIa]
relics n. pl. [/moshchi]; holy / sacred relics / /

relief n. (archit.) [rq/lIef] (.); bas relief or low relief


; crushed relief * ,
;
demi / half-relief * ,
; false relief ;
grave relief ; haut relief or high relief
; hollow relief, also sunk / concave relief
; incised relief ; in relief . .
.
religious practice [rqligi/oznaIa /praktika]
[/kultPvaIa /praktika]
reliquary n. [kPf/chek] [rqlik/variI], (
-)
remain v. [sPhra/natsa]
remains n. pl. 1 (of being) [Ps/tanki]; disarticulated remains

; faunal remains ; skeletal
remain
remains n. pl. 2 (of material) [Ps/tatki]; organic remains e
; remains of a building ; vegetal remains

removal n. (conserv.) [P/chistka] (.); method of removal


[/metPt P/chistki] [/sposPp P/chistki]
remove v.1 (finds from a grave) [sni/mat] ( )
remove v. 2 (eliminate) [uda/lat] ()
rendering n. (coat) [Pb/maska]
replica n. [/replika]
report n. [Pt/chot]; 2000 report 2000 .
repouss n. [shtam/povanyI Pr/namqnt]
[prPshtam/povanyI Pr/namqnt] ( )
representation n. 1 (image) [izPbra/zheniIe] [/obras]
representation n. 2: proportional representation () [sPPtnP/sheniIe]
reprint n. [rq/print] [rq/printnPIe iz/daniIe]
rerebrace n. [na/plechnik] ( )
research n. [is/sledqvaniIe] [izu/cheniIe]; field research
; laboratory research ,
(with use of devices)
researcher n. [is/sledqvatql]
resemblance n. [/shots-tvP]; bear resemblance to

reservoir n. [rqzqrvu/ar] [/IomkPst]; rain reservoir
( ); water
reservoir
resident n. [/zhytql]
residential adj. [zhy/loI]
residual n. 1 (in a layer) [/primqs /snizu]
residual n. 2 (type of layer) *
(, )
resonator n. (vessel) [gPlPs/nik]
respond n. (archit.) *
restore v. [rqstav/rirqvat]
restoration n. [rqstav/ratsyIa]
restrike n. [pqrqchq/kanka]
restrike v. (inflected: restruck) [pqrqchq/kanivat] ()
retouch n. [rq/tush] [ftP/richnaIa Pbra/botka]; abrupt
retouch ; alternating retouch ;
bifacial retouch ; heavy retouch
; light retouch ; retouch on ventral surface
; secondary retouch
retouched adj. [rqtu/shyrqvanyI]
retrochoir * ( ,
- )
reuse n. [ftP/richnPIe is/polzPvaniIe]
[pP/ftornPIe is/polzPvaniIe]
reused adj. [ftP/richnP is/polzPvanyI]
[pP/ftornP is/polzPvanyI]
reverse n. [/revqrs]
revetment n. [krq/pida] [pPt/pornaIa stq/na]
[P/pornaIa stq/na]
rhomboid n. (stone tool) [romp] ( )
rhyton n. (pl. rhyta) [ri/ton]
riad n. (Arabic archit.: walled garden) [ri/at] (-,
)
rib n. 1 (anat. and ornam.) [rqb/ro] (. .)
rib n. 2 (structural) [rqb/ro] (); horizontal rib
; vertical rib ; reinforcing rib
rib n. 3 or cross rib (of Gothic vault) [nqr/vura] [gurt]; diagonal
rib ; longitudinal rib or ridge rib
; primary rib (
); reinforcing rib ; transverse rib

90

91

ribat n. (fort, in Moslem architecture) [ri/bat] (, )


ribbed adj. [rq/berchqtyI]
ribbing n. (technique) [kane/lirPvanIe] ( ,
)
riddle n. [/sitP]
rider n. [/fsadnik]
ridge n. 1 (mountain) [hrq/bet] ()
ridge n. 2 (roof) [/ohlupqn] [kP/nok] ( )
ridge n. 3 (on a vessel) [rq/bro] ()
ridge n. 4: stop ridge (of an axe) [/patka] [pPpq/rechnaIa
pqrq/mychka] ()
rim n. [/venchik] [vq/nets]; angled rim ;
beaded rim ; crenelated rim
/ ; cut rim ; everted rim, also
incurved rim or inturned rim or inward-slanting rim or turned-in
rim ; flat rim * ; flattened rim
; funnel-shaped rim
; inverted rim, also out-turned rim or turnedout rim or turned outwards rim ; profiled
rim ; rolled rim *
; rounded rim ; smooth rim *
; S-profiled rim S- ; straight rim

rim-disk n. [shy/rokiI /ploskiI /venchik]
ring n. 1 (form) [kPl/tso] (); dashed ring / ;
dotted ring / ; hanger ring
(-, , ); tree
rings
ring n. 2 or finger-ring [kPl/tso] [/perstqn]; gemstone ring
; signet ring or seal ring -
ring n. 3: temple-ring [vi/sochnPIe kPl/tso]
ring-foot n. [kPltse/voI pPd/don]
ring-stemmed adj. [na vy/sokPI /noshkq] . .
rinse v. [prPmy/vat]
rip v. (with pick) [kirkP/vat] [ra/botat kir/koI]
ripple n. ( ) [rqb/ro]
rippled adj. [rq/berchqtyI]
rite n. [Pb/rat]; burial rite or funeral rite ; rite of
transition
ritual n. [ritu/al]
ritual adj. [ritu/alnyI]; ritual breaking of objects

ritualism n. [Pb/radnPst]; funeral ritualism -

rivaq or riwaq n. (Arabic archit.: arcade or portico open on at least one side)
[ri/vak] ( : , )
river bed n. [/ruslP rq/ki]
rivet n. [za/klopka]
rivetted adj. . [/klopanyI] . . [s za/klopkami]
.
road n. [dP/roga] [put]; access / approach road
; division road ; monastery road

roadbed n. [dP/rozhnPIe pPlPt/no]
robber n. or grave robber [gra/bitql] ( )
rock n. 1 (mass of hard mineral matter) [ska/la] [/kamqn];
sedimentary rock or stratified rock
rock n. 2 (type of mineral) [pP/roda] (); flint rock (to start fire)
( , )
rock crystal n. [/gornyI hrus/tal]

rock crystal adj. [is /gornPvP hrusta/la] . .


rod n. 1 (staff) [zhezl]
rod n. 2 (bar) [/sterzhqn]
rod n. 3 or measuring rod [metqr] [sklad/noI metqr]
rod n. 4 or graduated levelling / measuring rod [li/neIka] [/reIka]
()
rod-forming n. (in glass-making) [navi/vaniIe]
[na/kruchivaniIe] (

)
Roman n. [/rimlqnin]
Roman adj. [/rimskiI]
Romanesque adj. [rP/manskiI]
Rome n. [rim]
roof n. [/krysha] [/krovla]; bell roof ;
dome roof ; flat roof ; gable / saddle
/ saddleback roof / ; hip / hipped roof
/ ; hip-and-valley roof *

( , );
hipped-gable roof or jerkin head roof ; imperial
roof * ; mansard roof
; monitor roof / ; ogee roof /
; pavillion roof ; pent / shed roof or
lean-to roof ; pitched roof * (
); pyramidal tower roof ; roof of
storey, Amer. roof of story or storey roof, Amer. story roof
(); sawtooth rooth / ; vaulted roof

roof adj. [/krovqlnyI]
room n. [pPmq/shcheniIe], (living or office) [/komnata]; cave
room ; dining room ; economic room or
household room ; living room or dwelling
room ; roofed room
; service room ; storage room
, (in Kievan Rus) ; subterranean room
, (in Kievan Rus)
rope n. [vq/rofka]
rosette n. [rP/zetka]
rostrum n. (pl. rostrums or rostra) 1 (podium) [/podium]
rostrum n. (pl. rostrums or rostra) 2 (prow) [/rostra] .,
[/rostrum] . ( )
rotation n. [PriIen/tatsyIa] [sPPtnP/shenie P/seI]
(); coin rotation / (
180 ); medal rotation / (
0 )
rotting n. [tlen]
rotunda n. [rP/tonda]
roulette n. (toothed disc used to make impressions) [/zupchqtyI shtamp]
rouletting n. (on a vessel) . [kPltse/vyIe na/sechki]
round-bottom or round-bottomed adj. [kruglP/donnyI] ()
roundlet n. *
route n. [put]; pilgrimage route ; sea route
; trade / trading route
row n. 1 [rat]; row of graves ()
row n. 2 (in Russian iconostasis) [chin] ( ); Deesis row
; festival row ; patriarchs row
; prophets row ; sovereign row

royal adj. [/tsarskiI], (in medieval Europe) [kPrP/lefskiI]

92

93

sabre, Amer. saber n. [/sabla]


sacral adj. (relating to sacred rites) [sa/kralnyI]
sacralization n. [sakrali/zatsyIa]
sacred adj. [sa/kralnyI]
sacrifice n. [zhqrtvPprinP/sheniIe]; bloodless sacrifice
(); bloody sacrifice
( ); sacrifice of animals ;
sacrificing horses site

sacrificial adj. [/zhertvqnyI]


sacristy n. [/riznitsa] / [dIa/konik]
[sa/kristiIa] [sPsudPhra/nitqlnitsa]
sacrum n. [krq/stets]
saddle n. [sqd/lo]
saddle n. [sq/delnyI]
sagae n. [/drotik] ( )
sagaris n. [/sagaris]
sagged n. attrib. (glass artifact) [f /tehnikq prq/sofki] . .
sagging n. (glass-making technique) [/tehnika prq/sofki] (
)
sail n. [/parus] ()
sakkos n. (pl. sakkoi) [/sakos] ( )
salt n. [sol]; soluble salt
salt-cellar n. [sP/lonka]
salt-mining n. [dP/bycha /soli] [solq/noI /promysql]
sample n. [Pbra/zets]
sample v. [brat Pbras/tsy]
sanctuary n. 1 (sacred place) [svq/tilishche]
sanctuary n. 2 (part of a Christian church around the altar ) [al/tarnaIa
chast] [al/tar] ( , );
main sanctuary *
sanctum n. (pl. sancta or sanctums) [svq/tilishche]
sand n. [pq/sok]
sand n. [pq/sok]

sandy adj. [pq/shchanyI]


sandal n. [san/daliI]
sand-core n. attrib. (glass artifact) [f /tehnikq sqr/dechnika]
. .
sarcophagus n. (pl. sarcophagi) [sarkP/fak] ( ); treetrunk sarcophagus ()
Sarmatian n. [sar/mat]
Sarmatian adj. [sar/matskiI]
Sassanid, also Sassanian or Sassanide n. [sasa/nidy] .
Sassanid, also Sassanian or Sassanide adj. c [sasa/nitskiI]
satyr n. [sa/tir]
sauceboat n. [/sousnik] ( )
saucepan n. [kas/trula]
saucer n. [/blutse]
Sauromatian n. [savrP/mat]
Sauromatian adj. [savrP/matskiI]
Savior n. [spas] [spa/sitql]
saw n. [pi/la]
scabbard n. [/nozhny] . ( )
scabbard-end n. [butq/rol] [/lopast] ()
scale n. 1 (measuring instrument) [vq/sy] . (); spring scale

scale n. 2 (standard) [mash/tap]
scale n. 3 (indicator) [mash/tabnaIa li/neIka]
scale n. 4 (plate) [plas/tina] [chq/shuIka] ()
scale or scaly adj. [chq/shuIchqtyI]
scalpel n. [/skalpel]
scapula n. [lP/patka] ()
scar n. (on a coin) [skol] ( )
scarab n. [skara/beI]
scarify n. (with pick) [kirkP/vat] [ra/botat kir/koI]
sceleton n. 1 (of a being) [skq/let]
sceleton n. 2 (of a construction) [kar/kas]
scene n. 1 (stage) [/s-tsena]
scene n. 2 (in a Greek theater) [skene]
scene n. 3 (visual) [/s-tsena] (); hunting scene
sceptre, Amer. scepter n. [/skipqtqr]
scheme n. [/shema]; Hippodamean scheme
scholar n. (specialist in a branch of knowledge) [is/sledqvatql]
[u/chonyI]
science n. [na/uka] ( ); auxiliary science
() ; auxiliary sciences of history

scientist n. [is/sledqvatql] [u/chonyI] (
)
scimitar n., also scimiter or scimetar [sham/sher] [skimi/tar]
( ); crooked scimitar *
Sciot adj. [/hiPsskiI]
scissors n. pl. [/nozhnitsy] ( )
scoop n. [kofsh] [chqr/pak]
scotia n. [/skotsyIa]
scraper n. 1: athletes scraper [/strigil]
scraper n. 2 (stone tool): side scraper [skrqb/lo]; caned scraper
; concave side-scraper ; convergent concave
side-scraper ; convergent
convex side-scraper ;
convergent straight side-scraper
; double biconcave side-scraper
- ; double biconvex side-scraper -
; double convex-concave side scraper -

94

95

rubble n. [but] [/butPvyI /kamqn]


rubble adj. [/butPvyI] ., [is /butPvPvP /kamna]
. .
rubblework n. [/butPvaIa /klatka]; rubblework mortared with soil
() ()
()
ruin n., often pl.: ruins [ru/iny] ., [raz/valiny] .
ruined adj. [raz/rushqnyI]
ruler n. [li/neIka] ()
rune n. p [/runa]
runic adj. p [ru/nichqskiI]
running n. (glaze defect) [na/toki] . ( )
running dog n. [Pr/namqnt /tipa bq/gushchaIa vPl/na]
Rus n. [rus]; Ancient / Old Rus ; Kievan Rus
Russian n.1 (language) [/ruskiI] ()
Russian n. 2 (ethnicity) [/ruskiI] (.); ancient Russian
Russian n. 3 (citizenship) [rP/siIskiI]
rusticated adj. . . [v rust] . [rus/tovanyI]
rustication n. 1 (technique) [rust]
rustication n. 2 (masonry) [rus/tovanaIa /klatka]
rustic work n. [rus/tovanaIa /klatka] [rust]
[rus/tofka] [/rustik]

; double straight side-scraper ; double


straight-concave side-scraper ; sidescraper with abrupt retouch ; side-scraper
with alternate retouch ; sidescraper with bifacial retouch ;
side-scraper with retouch on ventral face ;
side-scraper with thinned back ; single
convex side-scraper - ; single strait sidescraper ; straight convex side-scraper
; transverse concave side-scraper
; transverse convex side-scraper
; transverse straight side-scraper
scraper n. 3 (stone tool): end-scraper [skrq/bok] (. ); atypical
carinate end-scraper
; atypical end-scraper on blade
; atypical end-scraper ; borerend scraper -; carinate end scraper
; circular end-scraper
; core-shaped scraper ; double endscraper ; end-scraper on Aurignacian blade
; end-scraper on blade
; end-scraper on flake ; end-scraper on
retouched blade ; end-scraper
on truncated blade ; fan-shaped endscraper ; flat endscraper with nose or atypical nosed scraper ;
ogival end-scape ; thick-nosed scraper
; thumbnail end-scraper ; typical endscraper
scratched adj. 1 (defected) [pPtsa/rapanyI] .
[s tsa/rapinami] . .
scratched adj. 2 (inscription or image made in this way) [prPtsa/rapanyI]
screen n. 1 (general) [ek/ran]
screen n. 2 or altar screen or choir screen [al/tarnaIa prqg/rada]
[prqdal/tarnaIa prqg/rada]
screen n. 3 (coarse sieve) [/grohPt] [/sitP]
script n. (style of writing of an inscription) [shrift] (); syllabary /
syllabic script
srciptorium n. (pl. scriptoria or scriptoriums) [skrip/toriI]
scroll n. 1 (ornament) [vP/luta] [zavi/tok]
scroll n. 2 (roll of parchment) c [/svitPk]; the Dead Sea Scrolls

scrollwork n. * (
, )
sculptor n. [/skulptqr]
sculpture n. [skulp/tura] [izva/IaniIe]; architectural
sculpture ; painted sculpture
; portrait sculpture
; relief sculpture / (
; round sculpture or sculpture in the round ;
sepulchral sculpture /
sculptured n. [skulp/turnyI]
Scyth n. [skif]
Scyth adj. [/skifskiI]
scythe n. [kP/sa]
scythe v. [kP/sit]
Scythian n. [skif]; Late Scythian
Scythian adj. [/skifskiI]; Late Scythian
Scythic adj. [/skifskiI]
seal n. [pq/chat]; cylinder seal ; hanging seal

/ ; impression seal * - (
); scaraboid seal *
; stamp seal
seam n. [shof]; casting seam
season n. [sq/zon]
secateurs n. c [sq/katPr]
second burning n. [ftP/richnyI /obzhyk] ( )
section n. (drawing) [raz/res] [sq/cheniIe]; cross section or
transverse section ; in
section ; longitudinal section

see n. 1 (official seat) or bishops see [/kafqdra] ()
[diP/tses]; Holy see ;
see n. 2 (pulpit) [prq/stol] ()
sedentary life n. [P/sedlyI /obras /zhyzni]
sediment n. [PtlP/zheniIe] (); lacustrine sediment

segment n. (stone tool) [sqg/ment] ( )


Seldjuk or Seldjuq or Seljuk or Seljuq n. (related to the tribe) [sql/dzhuk],
(related to the dynasty) [sql/dzhuk] ( ); Seldjuk
/ Seldjuq / Seljuk / Seljuq Turk -
Seldjuk or Seldjuq or Seljuk or Seljuq n. attrib. [sql/dzhukskiI]
Seljukid n. [sqldzhu/kit]
Seljukid n. attrib. [sqldzhu/kitskiI]
semibasement n. [/tsokPlnyI q/tazh]
semidome n. [pPlu/kupPl]
semiglobular n. [pPlusfq/richqskiI]
seminomadic adj. [pPlukPchq/voI]
semi-pediment n. [pPlufrPn/ton]
semivault n. [pPlu/svot]
semivaulted adj. [pPlu/svotchqtyI]
sennit n. [plq/teniIe] [plq/tonka]
separate adj. [Pt/delnyI]
sepulchral adj. 1 (related to grave) [grPb/nichnyI]
[pPgrq/balnyI]
sepulchral adj. 2 (related to sacred reliecs) *
sepulchre, Amer. sepulcher n. [usy/palnitsa] [grPb/nitsa]
seraglio n. [sq/ral]
seriation n. (of objects) [qvPlutsy/onnyI rat] ()
service n. [/sluzhba]
sestertius n. (pl. sestertia) [sqs/tertsyI]
set n. 1 (things of the same kind) [na/bor]; belt set
; bridle set y ; drinking set (,
, ,
); import set ; toilet set
( ,
, )
set n. 2: funeral set [pPgrq/balnyI invqn/tar]
set n. 3 (of objects at one place within a trench) [skPp/leniIe] ()
settled life n. [P/sedlyI /obras /zhyzni]
settlement n. [pPsq/leniIe]; permanent settlement
settler n. [pPsq/lenqts]
sgraffito n. (pl. sgraffiti) [/tehnika zgra/fitP]
[/tehnika gra/fitP] [zgra/fitP] (. )
[gra/fitP] (. )
shack n. [/hizhyna]
shaft n. 1: column shaft [stvol] () [fust]
shaft n. 2 (wooden stem of a weapon) [/drefkP]; shaft straightener or shaft
wrench
shaft n. 3 (handle) [chqrq/nok] (. )

96

97

shaft n. 4 (tang of a speartip or arrowhead) [chqrq/shok] (. )


shaft n. 5 (well) [kP/lodqts]; prospect shaft or prospecting shaft
shaft n. 6 (of a grave) [vhPd/naIa /Iama] (, ,
)
shaft adj. (tanged arrowhead or speartip) [chqrqsh/kovyI]
shaft-hole n. [prP/ushina]
shale n. [/slanets]
shaly adj. [/slantsqvyI]
shamanism n. [shama/nizm]
shape n. (of a vessel) [/forma] (); closed shape ; open
shape ; shape development
shaped adj. . . [f /formq]; L-shaped -; S-shaped S
shard n. [chqrq/pok] (. ); basal sherd ();
body sherd
sharia or shariah n. [shari/at]
sharpener n. or pencil sharpener [tP/chilka]
shears n. pl. [/nozhnitsy] (); grass shears c
sheath n. 1 (general) [fut/lar] [chq/hol]
sheath n. 2 (for a sword or a dagger) . [/nozhny]
shed n. [sa/raI] [hP/zaIstvqnnPIe pPmq/shcheniIe]
sheet n. 1 (thin plate) [list]
sheet n. 2 (form) [/kartPchka] [list] [/forma]; context
sheet ; inventory / registration sheet

shelf n. [/polka]
shelf life n. [srok hra/neniIa]
shell n. 1 (of an animal) [/pantsyr] ()
shell n. 2 (of a mollusk) [/rakPvina]
shell n. 3: eggshell [skPrlu/pa]
shell stamping n. (ceramic surface treatment) [Ptpq/chatki /
rakPviny] ., [dqkP/rirqvanIe
Ptpq/chatkami /rakPviny] ( );
linear shell stamping
; rocker shell stamping
; single point shell decorations
( / )
shelter n. 1 (refuge) [u/bezhyshche] [u/krytiIe]; rock shelter

shelter n. 2 (awning) [na/ves]
sherd n. [chqrq/pok] (. )
shield n. [shchit]; figure-of-eight shield
shinbone n. [bPl/shaIa bqr/tsovaIa kost]
shino n. [/sinP] ( )
ship n., f. [kP/rabl]; sailing ship
shipwreck n. 1 (event) [kPrablqkru/sheniIe]
shipwreck n. 2 (site) [/mestP kPrablqkru/sheniIa]
shipwright n. [kPra/bqlshchik]
[kPra/bqlnyh del /mastqr]
shivering n. (defect of glaze) [Pt/slaivaniIe] [PtslP/IeniIe]
[Pt/skok] ()
shooter n. [strq/lok]
shop n. 1 (modern) [maga/zin]
shop n. 2 (ancient) [/lafka]
shore n. [/berqk] [pPbq/rezhIe]; eastern shores

shot n. (powder and bullet) [za/rat]; sling shot ; slung shot


(weapon)
shoulder n. 1 (anat.) [plq/cho]
shoulder n. 2 (of a vessel) [/plechikP] ()

shoulder n. 3 (archit.) [za/plechik] ( )


shoulder n. 4 (the angle between the face and flank of a bastion) [plq/cho
basti/ona]
shoulderbone n. [lP/patka] (.)
shoulders of blade n. pl. [pa/ta klin/ka] .
shovel n. [lP/pata] [sPf/kovaIa lP/pata]
showbox or showcase n. [vit/rina]; museum showcase ;
permanent showcase
showpiece n. [qkspP/nat]
showroom n. [/vystavPchnyI zal]
shred n. [chqrq/pok] (pl. )
shrine n. 1 (general) [svq/tynIa] [/mestP pPklP/neniIa]
shrine n. 2 (reliquary) [kPf/chek] [rqlik/variI],
( -)
shrine n. 3 (coffin with relics) [/raka]
shroud n. [/savan]
shuttering n. [P/palupka]
shuttle n. [chql/nok] ( )
sickle n. [serp]
side n. 1 (general) [stPrP/na]; anvil side ; punch side ; qibla side

side n. 2 (of a vault) [lP/tok] [shchq/ka] (. ) ( )
side n. 3 (of a vessel) [/stenka] ()
side-street n. [pqrq/ulPk] [bPkP/vaIa /ulitsa]
siding n. 1 (of stones or bricks) [Pbli/tsofka] ( )
[Pbli/tsovPchnaIa /klatka] (-)
[Pb/klatka]
siding n. 2 (of boards or panels) [Pp/shyfka] ( )
siege n. [P/sada]
sieve n. [/sitP]
sieve v. [prP/seivat]
sieving n. [prP/seivanIe]
sigillata n. [sigi/lata] [/tera sigi/lata]
sigillographic adj. [sfragis/tichqskiI],
[sigilPgra/fichqskiI]
sigillography n. [sfra/gistika], [sigilP/grafiIa]
sign n. [znak]; conventional signs or map signs ( )
signet n. [pq/chat]
silica gel n. [sikika/gel] [krqmnq/gel] ()
sill n. [pP/rok]; window sill
silt n. [il]; primary silt .
silver n. [sqrqb/ro]; base silver ; patchy silver
/
silver adj. [sq/rebrqnyI]
silvered adj. [pPsqrq/bronyI]
silver-gilt adj. [sq/rebrqnyI s pPzP/lotPI]
silvering n. c [sqrq/breniIe]
silverware n. . [sq/rebrqnyIe iz/deliIa]
. [iz/deliIa is sqrq/bra]
sima n. 1 (drain gutter under a cornice) [/sima] (
)
sima n. 2 (uppermost moulding in a cornice) [/sima] (
, )
similar adj. (to) [pP/dobnyI] (-) [pP/hozhyI] (
-)
similarity n. [/shots-tvP]
simpulum (pl. simpula) or simpuvium (pl. simpuvia) c [sim/pulum] (c
)
single-fire n. (in pottery-making) [PdnP/kratnyI /obzhyk] (
)

98

99

single-handled adj. [PdnP/ruchnyI] ()


sink v. (past sank, sunk) (dig in) [fpus/kat] (
-)
sinker n. [gru/zilP] ( )
siren n. 1 (Greek mythology) [si/rena]
siren n. 2 (on a glazed bowl or in Russian mythology) [/sirin]
site n. 1 (monument) [/pamqtnik] ( );
archaeological site ; Byzantine site
; burial site ; ceremonial
site ; site of fire
site n. 2 (place) [/mestP] [u/chastqk]
situation n. [pPlP/zheniIe]; the situation of bones within grave

situla n. (pl. situlae) [/situla]
size n. [raz/mer]
skeleton n. 1 (of a being) [skq/let], (remains) [kPs/tak]; articulated
skeleton ; disarticulated
skeleton
skeleton n. 2 (archit.) [kar/kas]
skeuomorph n. or skeuomorphic adj. [skqvP/morfnyI] . (
)
skeuophylakion n. (pl. skeuophylakia) [skqvPfilaki/on]
sketch n. [zari/sofka]
skewback n. (of an arch) * [kP/saIa pq/ta] ( :
)
skull n. [/cherqp]
skyphos n. (pl. skyphoi) [/skifPs]
slab n. [pli/ta]; covering slab ; facing slab
; inscribed slab ; inset slab
(, ); porthole slab
; rubble slab ; septal slab *

slabbed adj. [/plitnyI] [/plitPvyI]
slag n. [shlak]
slash-and-burn n. - [pPt/sechnP-Pgnq/voIe zqmlq/
deliIe] [pPtsech/nPIe zqmlq/deliIe]
slate n. (metamorphic rock used for making fine articles) [] ( );
slate from Ovruch n. [/ovruchskiI /slanqts]
Slav n. [slavq/nin]; East Slavs
slave n. [rap]
slavery n. [/rapstvP] [rabPvla/deniIe]
Slavonic adj. [sla/vanskiI]; East Slavonic
sleeve n. [ru/kaf] (); antler sleeve
slide n. 1 (photo) [slaIt]
slide n. 2: hair slide [za/kolka] [za/kolka dla vP/los]
sling n. 1 (weapon) [pra/shcha]
sling n. 2 (looped rope) [/perqvas]; back sling (
); two-hand broadsword back sling

slip n. [lak] [/lakPvPIe pP/krytiIe] (); black slip
; brown slip ; red slip
; slip of poor quality ; slip which badly adheres
to the surface of the vessel
; worn-off slip
slip adj. [pP/krytyI /lakPm]; black slip ; brown slip
; red slip
sliver n. [Ps/kolPk]
smalto n. (pl. smalti or smaltos) [/smalta] ( ,
)
smelter n. [pla/vilnaIa pech] ( );

bloomery smelter
smelting n. [/plafka] [/vyplafka] ( )
smoother n. [lP/shchilP]
smoothing n. [za/glazhyvaniIe]; smoothing of vessel surfaces

snakestone n. [Psq/lok]
soak v. [za/machivat]
soaking n. [vy/machivanIe] (.)
social adj. [sPtsy/alnyI] [Pp/shchestvqnyI]
social group n. [sPtsy/alnaIa /grupa]
society n. [/opshchqstvP]; nomadic society ; settled hunting
and gathering society ;
herding society (,
); horticultural society *
; nonurban society ;
peasant society *
socio-economic or socioeconomic adj. - [sPtsy/alnP-qkPnP/
michqskiI] [/sotsyP-qkPnP/michqskiI]
socio-political adj. - [Pp/shchestvqnP-pPli/tichqskiI]
- [sPtsy/alnP-pPli/tichqskiI]
socket n. [/ftulka]
socketed adj. [/ftulchqtyI]; socketed chisel ; socketed
instrument ; socketed tool or socketed implement

socle n. 1 (of a building) [/tsokPl]
socle n. 2 (of a column) [/tsokPl] [/baza] ()
sod v. [dorn]
sod adj. [dqr/novyI]
soffit n. [sP/fit] (.)
soft adj. (coin) * c (
)
soft-mud process n. (of forming bricks)
( )
soil n. [zqm/la] [/pochva] [grunt]; fossil soil or buried
soil ; loamy soil ; virgin soil
( )
soil analysis n. [/pochvqnyI a/nalis]
solder n. [pri/poI]; hard solder ; soft solder
solder v. [paI/at] ( )
soldering n. [paIka] ( )
sole n. [stup/na]
solea n. e [sPlq/Ia]
solleret n. [/latnyI bash/mak]
soluble adj. [rastvP/rimyI]
solum n. (pl. sola) (stone coffin) [/kamqnnyI grop] (
, )
solution n. [ras/tvor] (.); alcohol-water solution -
; diluted solution
Solutrean n. [sPlu/tre]
Solutrean adj. [sPlu/treIskiI]
solvent n. (chemistry) [rastvP/ritql]
soot n. [/kopPt] [na/gar]
soup-plate n. [glu/bokaIa ta/relka]
source n. (of water or knowledge) [is/tochnik] ( ); primary
source ()
south n. [Iuk]
south-east, Amer. southeast n. - [IugPvPs/tok]
south-eastern, Amer. southeastern adj. - [IugPvPs/tochnyI]
southern, Amer. south adj.
south-west, Amer. southwest n. - [IugP/zapat]

100

101

south-western, Amer. southwestern adj. - [IugP/zapadnyI]


space n. [prP/stranstvP] [/mestP]; cult space
/ ; funerary space ; interior
space (.); private space ; public space
/ ; the space outside the wall
()
spacer n. [prP/klatka]
spade n. [lP/pata] [shtykP/vaIa lP/pata]
spall n. [skol]
span n. (archit.) [prP/lot]; arch span
spandrel n. [/pazuha] ( )
Spas n. [/spas]
spatial distribution /
( )
spatula n. 1 (modern tool) [/shpatql]
spatula n. 2 (Stone Age tool) [/spatula]
spear n. [kP/pIo] [/pika]; composite fish spear ;
fish spear ; spear thrower ; throwing spear

spear-head or spearhead n. or spear-tip n. [nakP/nechnik kP/pIa]
() [gP/lofka kP/pIa]
spear-thrower n. [kPpIqmq/talka]
specimen n. [qkzqm/plar]
speck or speckle n. (in glaze or glass) [/krapinka] [/mushka]
( , )
spectrographic analysis n. [spqk/tralnyI a/nalis]
[spqktrPgra/fichqskiI a/nalis]
spherical adj. [sfq/richqskiI]
spheroid n. [sfq/roit]
sphinx n. (pl. sphinxes) [sfinks]
sphragistic adj. [sfragis/tichqskiI]
sphragistics n. [sfra/gistika]
spike n. [shyp]
spilling n. (of slip or glaze) [za/tok] ()
spindle n. [vqrqtq/no]
spindle whorl [/praslP] [/praslitse]
spine n. [pPzvP/nochnik] [hrq/bet] ()
[pPzvP/nochnyI stolp]
spiraliform adj. [spiralq/vidnyI] [spi/ralnyI]
spire n. [shpil]
splay n. (of a doorway) [skos] ( )
splint n. 1 (device used to prevent motion) [/shyna] (
)
splint n. 2 or splinter [Ps/kolPk]
spoil n. (archeol.) [Pt/val]
spoon n. [/loshka]; ear spoon ; incense spoon ;
medical spoon ; toy spoon

spout n. 1 (open) [slif] ()
spout n. 2 (closed) [/nosik] ()
spouted adj. 1 (if with an open spout) . . [sP /slivPm]
spouted adj. 2 (if with a closed spout) . . [s /nosikPm]
spraying n. (glaze application technique) [nanq/seniIe /kistIu]
( )
spring n. 1 (metal device) [pruzhyna]
spring n. 2 (of an arch or vault) [PsnP/vaniIe] ( )
springer n. (of an arch or vault) [/patPvyI /kamqn] ( );
cross springer ( ); gable springer
( )
sprue or casting sprue n. (waste piece of metal) [litnik] (

)
spur n. [/shpora]
squadron n. 1 (cavalry unit) [qska/dron]
squadron n. 2 (naval unit) [qs/kadra]
square n. [/ploshchqt]; main square
; market square ; trading square
; urban square
squeeze n. [qstam/pash] [/ot-tisk]
squinch n. [tromp]; muqarnas squinch *
stabilization n. (conserv.) [stabili/zatsyIa] (.)
stadium n. 1 (arena) [stadi/on]
stadium n. 2 (ancient unit of measure) c [/stadiI]
staff n. 1 (personnel) . [sP/trudniki]
staff n. 2 (documents) . [mater/Ialy] ( )
staff n. 3 (finial) [na/vershyIe]
staff n. 4: graduated levelling / measuring staff [/reIka] [li/neIka]
()
stain n. (in glass-making) [pig/ment]
staircase n. [/lesnitsa] (); spiral staircase
stairway n. [marsh] ()
stake n. [kol]
stalactites n. pl. (decorative projections at stalactite vaults, niches, etc.)
[mu/karny] [mu/karnasy] [stalak/tity]
(.)
stamnos n. (pl. stamnoi) [/stamnPs]
stamp n. [klqI/mo] [shtamp]; amphora stamp ;
anepigraphic stamp / ;
englyphic stamp englyphic stamp; negative stamp
(); relief stamp ()
stamp and drag n. (shell impressed decoration) *
( )
stand n. [pPt/stafka]; cooking stand ; incense stand
; icon lamp stand ; ring stand (of vessel)
; torch stand
standing n. attrib. (image) [v rost] .
starch n. [krah/mal]
state of preservation [sP/hrannPst] [sPstP/IaniIe]
[/stepqn sP/hrannPsti] (, );
excellent state of preservation
station n. 1 (stone age site) [stP/Ianka]
station n. 2: total station [qlqk/tron-nyI tahq/omqtqr]
( )
statuary n. [skulp/tura] ( )
statuary adj. [statu/arnyI]; statuary group
statue n. [/statuIa] [izva/IaniIe]; half-statue ;
honorific portrait statue or honorific statue
(-)
statue-ring n. * (- )
statuette n. [statu/etka]
statumen n. * ( )
status n. [pPlP/zheniIe] [/status]; social status /

steatite n. [stqa/tit]
steatite adj. [stqa/titPvyI]
steel n. 1 (alloy) [stal]; stainless steel
steel n. 2: fire-steel [krq/salP] [Pg/nivP] (
); lyre-shaped fire-steel

steel adj. [stal/noI]; stainless steel . .


steelyard n. [ry/chazhnyI bqz/men]

102

103

stele n. (pl. stelae or steles) or stela [/stela]; funeral stele or grave stele
/ ; painted stele
stem n. (of a vessel) [/noshka] (); ring stem
stemware n. * . ( )
step n. (of a stircase) [stu/pen] [stu/penka]; entrance step
step-ladder n. [strq/manka]
stereobate n. [sterqP/bat]
sternum n. [/grudina]
stick n. [zhezl] [trost] [/posPh] [/palka]; digging
stick -; shooting stick (for firearm)
, (for a musket)
stilt n. 1 (firing) [si/paI] [sq/poIa] (
)
stilt n. 2 (holding a building) [/svaIa]
stipple n. (painting) [/toch qchnyI ri/sunPk]
stirrup n. [/strema]
stoa n. (pl. stoas or stoae) [/stoIa] (-)
stock n. (of antiquities) [kruk /drevnPsteI]
stockade n. [chqstP/kol]
stockyard n. [/skotnyI dvor]
stole n. 1 (of a priest, worn over both shoulders) [Iepitra/hil]
stole n. 2 (of a deacon, worn over the left shoulder) [P/rar]
stomion n. (pl. stomia) [/stomiqn] (
, )
stone n. [/kamqn]; abutment stone / ; broken /
crushed stone ; building stone ; dressed
stone or hewn stone ; grinding stone: a) (for grinding)
, b) (for sharpening) ; pebble
stone ; polyhedral stone (tool) ( );
precious stone ; rough stone ;
rune stone ; semiprecious stone
; standing / upright stone (megalithic)
; sling stone ; undressed stone
/ ( ); unprocessed stone
; wedge stone / (
); worked stone

stone adj. [/kamqnnyI]; stone carved
stone-carving n. [/kamennaIa rqz/ba]
stonemason n. [/kamqnshchik]
stone-slabbed adj. [Pbli/tsovanyI /kamnem]
stone-walling n. [/klatka stq/ny]; dry-stone walling
stoneware n. [/kamqnaIa /masa], ; fine
stoneware .; simple stoneware
., .
stonework n. [/kamqnnaIa /klatka]
storage n. 1 (space for storing) [hra/nilishche]; museum storage
; storage pond or storage pool
storage n. 2 (act or state of storing) [hra/neniIe]; recommended storage

storehouse n. [sklat]
storeroom n. 1 (household) [kladP/vaIa], (in Kievan Rus) [pPt/klet]
[klet]
storeroom n. 2 (museum) [hra/nilishche]
storey, Amer. story n. [q/tash]; basement storey
stove n. [pech] ( )
stove-bench n. [lq/zhanka] ()
strainer n. (smaller) [tsq/dilka], (bigger) [dur/shlak]
strap n. [rq/men]
strap-end n. [nakP/nechnik rqm/na]

strategos n. (pl. strategoi) or strategus n. (pl. stratigi) (Hellenic) [stra/tek],


(Byzantine) [stra/tik]
stratification n. 1 (of a society) [stratifi/katsyIa]; social stratification

stratification n. 2 (layered configuration) [naplastP/vaniIe]
[zalq/ganiIe]
stratigraphic adj. [stratigra/fichqskiI]
stratigraphical sequence n. [stratigra/fichqskaIa
pP/sledqvatqlnPst]
stratigraphic spit n. [stratigra/fichqskiI /Iarus]
stratigraphy n. [strati/grafiIa]; horizontal stratigraphy

stratum n. (pl. strata or stratums) [plast] [sloI]


streak n. (thin layer between two layers) [prP/sloIka], (in marble)
[prP/zhylka]
street n. [/ulitsa]; longitudinal street ; main street
; transverse street
stretcher n. 1 (litter) [nP/silki] .
stretcher n. 2 (brick in a bond) [lP/zhok] ( e)
strigil n. [/strigil] ()
strike n. (in making coins) [u/dar] ( ); normal strike
; flat strike (
); even flat strike (
, ); uneven
flat strike ( ,
); uneven strike with flat areas
( ,
)
string n. [bq/chofka]
stringcourse n. [kPr/don] [pPIq/sok] (.)
strip method n. (of excavation) [ras/kopki na pqrq/val]
- [strip /met Pt]
stronghold n. [ukrqp/leniIe] [P/pornyI punkt]
strophion n. (pl. strophia) [/strofiI] ()
structural member n. (archit.) [strukturP-Pbra/zuIushchaIa
dq/tal] [nq/sushchaIa dq/tal]
[chast kar/kasa]
structure n. 1 (complex) [struk/tura] [sP/staf]; ethnic structure
; social structure
structure n. 2 (construction) [sP-Pru/zheniIe]; bearing / supporting
structure / ; bearing-wall structure
; burial / funeral / funerary / tomb
structure ; cyclopean structure
; fortification structure o
; megalithic structure
; residential structure
stucco n. (pl. stuccoes or stuccos), also stuc [stuk] ( )
studded adj. (decoration on ceramic) *
(
)
study n. [is/sledqvanIe] [izu/cheniIe]; archaeological
study ; Jewish Studies ;
laboratory study ; Medieval Studies
; Oriental Studies
style n. [stil] (); animal style or beast-style ;
archtectural style ; building style /
; Corinthian style / ; Doric
style / ; Ionic style / ;
rainbow style (of mosaic) * ,
, ; Scythian beast-style or Scythic beast-

104

105

style
stylised, Amer. stylized adj. [stili/zovanyI]
stylobate n. [stilP/bat]
stylus n. (pl. styli or styluses) or writing stylus [stil] ( )
sub-adults pl. *
sub-ethnic adj. [sube/tnichqskiI]
subject n. [prqd/met] ()
subsidence n. [prP/satka]
substratum n. (pl. substrata or substratums) [sup/strat]; ethnic substrate

subterranean adj. [pPd/zemnyI]
sudatorium n. (pl. sudatoria) or sudatory n. [pa/rilna]
sulphur n. [/sera]
Sumer n. [shu/mer] ()
Sumerian n. [shu/mer] ()
Sumerian adj. [shu/merskiI]
sun-dial n. c . [/solnqchnyIe cha/sy]
sunken adj. [u/toplqnyI]
supervisor n. 1 (general) [rukPvP/ditql] [na/chalnik];
site supervisor
supervisor n. 2 (departamental) [na/uchnyI rukPvP/ditql]
support n. 1 (archit., general) [P/pora]
support n. 2 (mobile) [pPt/porka]
support adj. or supporting [P/pornyI] [nq/sushchiI]
surbase n. * ( , . .)
surface n. [pP/verhnPst]; coarse surface ()
(); corrugated surface
(., ); dull surface (glaze defect)
(: ); exterior surface of
a vessel ; flake surface or surface of cleavage
; ground surface ; old
ground surface or original surface ;
outer surface of a vessel ; smoothed surface
(); soiled surface
; ventral surface
( ); worn surface
surface contamination n. [zagrez/neniIe pP/verhnPsti]
survey n. [is/sledqvanIe] [/ochqrk]; archaeological
survey () ; resistivity survey
()
swab n. (conserv.) [tam/pon]
swastika n. [/svastika]
sweep v. [mes/ti] [pPdmq/tat]
sword n. 1 (general) [mech]; antenna sword or antenna-hilted sword
; arming / war sword ; carps
tongue sword ; flame sword or flaming kris sword
; hand-and-a-half sword
; leaf blade sword or leaf-shaped sword
; short-tanged sword * (
); single-hand sword ; tangless sword *
( ); two-hand sword or two-handed sword

sword n. 2 (thin, late medieval, like of a musketeer) [/shpaga]
swordsman n. (pl. swordsmen) [/mechnik]
symbol n. [/simvPl]; astral symbol ; deity symbol
; Evangelist symbols (
, - , , ); map
symbols or plan symbols ( )
symbolic adj. [simvP/lichqskiI]
symbolism n. [simvP/lizm]

synagogue n. [sina/goga]
syncretism n. [sinkrq/tizm]
synthronon n. (pl. synthronoi) or synthronos (pl. synthronoi) or synthronus (pl.
synthroni) [sin/tron]
system n. [sis/tema]; air-handling system (in museum)
( ); descent system
; drainage system
; environmental monitoring system (in museum)
( ); kinship system ; Global
Positioning System

; political system
; public water system
; support / supporting system
; sewerage / sewer system ;
water supply system or water system

106

107

T
tabernacle n. (portable altar) c [/skiniIa]
tabhane n. (hostel for dervishes) [tapha/ne] (
)
table n. [stol]; communion table or Lords table or holy table
; libation table * ( )
tablinum n. (pl. tablina) [tab/linum]
tableware n. [stP/lovaIa kq/ramika] [stP/lovaIa
pP/suda]
taenia n. (pl. taeniae or taenias) (archit.) [/teniIa]
talisman n. [talis/man]; holy talisman /
talon n. (archit.) [kablu/chok] (.)
tang n. 1 (that fits into a handle or shaft) [chqrq/shok]
[hvPstP/vik] [hvPstP/vaIa chast]
tang n. 2 (tip) [/zhalP] [Pstri/Io]
tang adj. or tanged adj. [chqrqsh/kovyI]
tankard n. [/krushka]
tape n. [/lenta]; adhesive tape ; measuring tape: a)
(simple) (), b) (with a rail)
tarnish n. attrib. [/bloklyI] [/tusklyI] .
tarsus n. [prqt/plusna]
Tartar or Tatar n. [ta/tarin]; Crimean Tartar or Crimean Tatar
[/krymskiI ta/tarin]
Tartar or Tatar or Tatarian or Tataric adj. [ta/tarskiI]; Crimean Tartar or
Crimean Tatar - [krymskPta/tarskiI]
Tartary or Tatary n. [ta/tariIa]
tassel n. (of a sword) [tqm/lak]
Taurian n. [tavr]
Taurian adj. [/tavrskiI]
Tayacian n. [te/Iak]
Tayacian adj. [te/IakskiI]
team n. [qkspq/ditsIya] ( )
technique n. [/tehnika] (); cameo glass technique /
( ); champelev technique
; coiling technique - ; coreformed technique or sand-core technique (glass making)
(); dipped enamel technique
; encaustic technique
; firing technique ; glass-making
technique ; golden bands technique
; hot forming

technique (in glass-making) ; inlaid technique


; opus mixtum technique a ; sgraffito
technique / / ;
with technique
technology n. [/tehnika] ( ); building
technology
tefillin n. [tq/filin] [filak/teriI] (
, )
tekke n. (lodge for dervishes) [te/ke] ( )
tell n. (large mound) [tel] (, )
temenos n. (pl. temenoi) [/temqnPs]
temper n. 1 (general) [/primqs] [fklu/cheniIe]
[dPbav/leniIe]; sand-temper
temper n. 2 (in clay) [PtP/shchitql]
tempering n. (in pottery-making) [dPbav/leniIe] (
); grit tempering ; straw-tempering

tempera n. [/tempqrnaIa /tehnika] [/tempera]
tempered adj. (steel) [zaka/lonyI]
temple n. 1 (building) [hram] (c); temple in antis or temple with ant
or templum in antis (pl. templa in antis) ; mortuary
temple ; multi-storey temple, Amer. multistory
temple ()
temple n. 2 (pagan sacred place) [/kapishche]
temple-boy n. [garpP/krat]
templon n. (pl. templa) [temp/lon]
tendril n. [zavi/tok]
tenia n. (archit.) [/teniIa]
tenon n. [shyp] ( )
tent n. [pa/latka]
tepe n. (large mound) [te/pe] (, )
tepee n. [sha/lash] [vig/vam]
tepidarium n. (pl. tepidarii) [tqpi/dariI]
term n. (word or group of words having a particular meaning) [/termin];
archaeological term ; consertvation term
/
terminus ante quem [/verhnqIa hrPnPlP/gichqskaIa
gra/nitsa]
terminus post quem [/nizhnqIa hrPnPlP/gichqskaIa
gra/nitsa]
terrace n. [tq/rasa]; alluvial terrace ; river terrace
; rock terrace
terra cotta or terracotta n. [tqra/kota]; architectonic terracotta

terra sigillata n. [sigi/lata] [/tera sigi/lata]


terret n. [tq/ret] ( ,
)
tessera n. (pl. tesserae) 1 (token) [tq/sera]
tessera n. (pl. tesserae) 2 (used in making mosaics) [/smalta]
[mz/] [/kubik mP/zaiki]
test n. [a/nalis], (chemistry) [/proba] [test];chloride presence test
; fluorine test
tetradrachm n. (pl. tetradrachms) or tetradrachmon n. (pl. tetradrachma)
[tetra/drahma]
tetraconch n. [tetra/konh]
textile n. [tkan]; geo textile
texture n. (of clay or other material) [tqks/tura]
thalassocracy n. [talassP/kratiIa]
thalweg n. [/talvek]
theatre, Amer. theater n. [tq/atqr]

theodolite n. [tqPdP/lit]
thermae n. pl. [/termy]
thermoluminescence n. [tqrmPlumini/stsentsyIa], (as a method
of study) [tqrmPlumini/stsentnyI /metPt];
thermoluminescence dating
thermoluminescent
adj.

[tqrmPlumini/stsentnyI];
thermoluminescent method
thickness n. [tPlshchi/na]
thimble n. [na/porstqk]
thing n. [veshch]
tholos n. (pl. tholoi) [/tolPs] [/folPs]
thorax n. [grud/naIa /kletka]
thorn n. (of an arrow) [chqrq/shok] ()
Thracian n. [fra/kiIets]
Thracian adj. [fra/kiIskiI]
three-aisled adj. [troh/nefnyI]
three-apsidal adj. [trohap/sidnyI]
three-handled adj. [troh/ruchnyI] ()
threshold n. [pP/rok]
throne n. [tron] [prq/stol]
thurible n. [ka/dilP] [ku/rilnitsa] ()
thursos n. (pl. thursoi) [tirs] ( )
thymele n. [fi/mela]
thymiaterion n. (pl. thymiateria) [ku/rilnitsa] ( )
thyrsus n. (pl. thyrsi) [tirs] ( )
tiara n. [ti/ara]
tibia n. [bPl/shaIa bqr/tsovaIa kost]
tier n. 1 (in a building or theater) [/Iarus] ( ); three-tiered

tier n. 2 (in a grave, of buried persons) [/Iarus] ()


tier n. 3 (line) [rat]
tier n. 4 (of icons, in iconostasis) [chin] ( )
tierceron n. [tIerse/ron] ( )
tile n. 1 (to cover roofs) [chqrq/pitsa]; box tile c; gable
/ ridge tile ; glazed tile
; roof tile
tile n. 2 (to cover walls) [izra/zets] [/kafel]; glazed tile
/ ; Iznik tile

tile adj. 1 (related to roof tile) [chqrq/pichnyI]
tile adj. 2 (related to wall tile) [/kafqlnyI] [izras/tsovyI]
tiling or tilework n. [Pbli/tsofka /plitkPI]
[Pt/delka /plitkPI]; decorative tilework /
; Iznik tilework / ; mosaic
tilework
timbrel n. [/bubqn] [tim/pan]
time n. [/vrema]; formation time of (-); early
historic times
timber n. 1 (beam) [/balka]
timber n. 2 (building wood) . [brqv/no] (. ), (pl. also) . [les]
( )
timber lacing n. [brq/venchqtaIa s/nova]
[brq/venchqtyI kar/kas] ()
timbrel n. [tim/pan] ()
timpanum n. (pl. timpana or timpanums) [tim/pan] (.)
tin n. 1 (element) [/olPvP]
tin n. 2 or tin plate [zhest]
tin adj. (of tin 1) [PlP/vanyI], (of tin 2) [zhqstq/noI]
tinderbox n. [/trutnitsa] ( )
tip n. 1 (head of an iron or bronze weapon) [nakP/nechnik] (

108

109

)
tip n. 2 (edge) [kraI] ()
toe n. 1 (general) [bash/mak]
toe n. 2 (of a fibula or a brooch) * ()
toilet n. [tua/let]
token n. [zhq/ton]
toluene or toluol n. [tPlu/ol]
tomb n. [grPb/nitsa] [mP/gila] ( ); arched
tomb ; architectonic tomb
; beehive tomb
; bilobate tomb ; chamber tomb
; collective tomb ; family tomb
; horse-tomb
; keel-vaulted tomb ;
loculus tomb (pl. loculi tombs) ; rock-cut tomb or rock
tomb ; shaft-andchamber tomb / ; tholos tomb ;
tri-lobate tomb
tombstone n. 1 (covering) [mP/gilnaIa pli/ta]
[nad/grobnaIa pli/ta]
tombstone n. 2 (symbolic or / and inscribed) [nad/grobiIe]
[/pamqtnik] [nad/grobnyI /kamqn]; uninscribed
tombstone
tondo n. (pl. tondi) [/tondP]
tongs n. pl. [shchip/tsy] ()
tongue n. 1 (of a big bell) [Iq/zyk] ()
tongue n. 2 (of a buckle or a small bell) [Iqzy/chok] ()
tool n. 1 (modern) [instru/ment]; tools

tool n. 2 (ancient) [P/rudiIe] [P/rudiIe tru/da]; bone tool


; cutting tool ;
metal tool ; plane tool (for polishing wooden
articles) ; variant tools
tool n. 3 (in stone age) [/kamqnnPIe P/rudiIe]; blade tool
; chopping tool ; composite tool ;
core tool ; denticulate tool ; endnoched tool ; flake tool ;
flint tool ; notched tool ;
pebble tool ; pressure flaking tool ; retouched
tool or tool with retouch ;
stemmed tool ; stone tool
tooled adj. (conserv.) [sP slq/dami mqha/nichqskPI
Pbra/botki] (.) . .; fraudulently tooled (coin) (
, )
tooth n. (pl. teeth) 1 (of a being) [zup]; ante mortem tooth loss *

tooth n. (pl. teeth) 2 (of a tool) [zu/bets] ()
toothed adj. [/zupchqtyI]
topographic or topographical adj. [tPpPgra/fichqskiI]
topography n. [tPpP/grafiIa]
toponym n. [tP/ponim]
toponymic or toponymical adj. [tPpPni/michqskiI]
toponymy n. [tPpP/nimiIa]
topsoil n. [/verhniI sloI] [sloI /dorna]
[dqr/novyI sloI] [/pervyI shtyk]
[/verhniI shtyk]
torch n. [/fakql]; welding torch
toreutics n. [tP/reftika]
torque n. [/grivna] (), (West European) [/torkvqs]; torque

torsade n. (motif) [tPr/sada] ( , ,


); double torsade (
)
torus n. (pl. tori) [tor] [/torus]
totemism n. [tPtq/mizm]
tough adj. (glaze) [/vaskiI] ( )
tower n. [/bashna]; angle / corner / flanking tower /
; bell tower ; buttress tower ; clock
tower ; crossing tower ; fire
tower ; fortified tower c ; front tower
; frontal tower (of church) (); hollow tower
; interval tower *
( ); solid tower
; stepped / terraced tower ; temple tower (of
the Assyrians and Babylonians) (-);
tower of Babel ; tower of winds ;
wall tower * ( ); wind tower (for
ventilation)
town n. [/gorPt] (); cave town
toy n. [ig/rushka]
trabeated or trabeate adj. * / ( )
trabeation n. * /
trabecula (pl. trabeculae) *
trace n. [slet]; traces of habitation ; traces of
handiwork ; traces of the original leather strip (on a
buckle) ( ); traces of turning (on the surface of a
vessel) ( ,
); with traces of (something) (-)
tracery n. [a/zhurnyI u/zor] ( )
[ri/sunchqtyI pqrq/plot]; bar tracery *
; plate tracery *

trade n. [tPr/govla] ( ); overseas trade ;
transit trade
trade adj. [tPr/govyI]
trade-mark n. (on pottery) [tPr/govaIa /marka] ( )
trading n. [tPr/govla] ( )
trading adj. [tPr/govyI]
tradition n. [tra/ditsyIa]; building tradition ; local
tradition
trammel, Amer. beam trammel n. [shtangqn/tsyrkul]
tranchet n. [tran/she]; Mousterian tranchet
transenna n. 1 (lattice) [/kamqnnaIa rq/shotka]
transenna n. 2 (screen) [/kamqnnyI qk/ran]
transept n. [tran/sept]
transhumance n. [Pt/gon-nPIe skPtP/vots-tvP]
translucent adj. [prP/svechivaIushchiIsa] ( )
transom n. 1 (crossbar above a door) * (
)
transom n. 2 (small window over the door or another window) *

transom n. 3 (lintel) [pqrq/mychka] ( )
transparency n. or colour transparency [prP/zrachnPst]
trapeze n. (stone tool) [tra/petsyIa] ( )
trassology n. [trasP/logiIa] [trasPlP/gichqskiI
/metPt]
trassological adj. [trasPlP/gichqskiI]
trave n. 1 (crossbeam) [pPpq/rechnaIa /balka]
trave n. 2 (section of a ceiling) *
treasure n. (accumulated value) [sP/krovishche]; buried treasure

110

111

treatment n. 1 (general) o [Pbra/botka]; conservation treatment


.; irreversible treatment *
; reversible treatment *

treatment n. 2 (of stone) [ras/kalyvanIe] [Pbra/botka
/kamna]
tree-trunk n. [kP/loda]
trefoil n. [tri/lisnik]
trellis n. [shpa/lera] [trql/Iash] (
)
trelliswork n. 1 (latticelike structure) . [rq/shotka]
[rq/shotchqtaIa kPn/struktsyIa]
trelliswork n. 2 (ornamental) [plq/tonka] [/slozhnyI
mq/andqr]
trench n. 1 (general) [tran/sheIa]; bedding trench or construction trench or
foundation trench
trench n. 2 or excavation trench [ras/kop]
trepanning n. [trqpa/natsyIa]
triad n. [tri/ada]; Scythian triade c
triangle n. 1 (stone tool) [trqu/golnik] ( ); notched triangle

triangle n. 2 (for drawing) [trqu/golnik] ()
triangle n. 3: relieving triangle n. (megalihic) * (
)
triangular adj. [trqu/golnyI]
tribal adj. [plqmqn/noI]; tribal chief
; tribal nobility ; tribal
union
tribe n. [/plema]
tribune n. (upper story over an aisle) *
tributary n. (person) [dan/nik]
tribute n. [dan]
triclinium n. (pl. triclinia) (room) [tri/kliniI] ()
triclinium n. (pl. triclinia) (couch) [tri/kliniI] ()
triconch n. [tri/konh]
trident n. [trq/zubqts]
tridrachm n. (pl. tridrachms) or tridrachmon n. (pl. tridrachma)
[tri/drahma]
triforium n. (pl. triforia) or triforium passage [tri/foriI]
triglyph n. [tri/glif]
triklinon n. (pl. triklinoi) 1 (room) [tri/kliniI] ()
triklinon n. (pl. triklinoi) 2 (couch) [tri/kliniI] ()
trilith or trilithon n. [tri/lit] ( - 3
)
trim n. or trim work n. [Pt/delka] ( )
tripod n. 1 (stand) [trq/noga] [trq/nozhnik]; firing tripod

tripod n. 2 (three-legged vessel) [sP/sut na troh /noshkah]
triptych n. [/triptih]
trochilus n. (pl. trochili) [trP/hil]
Trompettenkanne n. *
( )
troops n. pl. . [Pt/rady] . [/voIskP]
trough n. [kPr/mushka]
trowel n. [mastq/rok]
Troy n. [/troIa]
trua (pl. truae) or trulla (pl. trullae) [shu/mofka] (); trulla vinaria
/
truncated conical adj. - [usq/chonnP-kP/nichqskiI]
trunnion n. [/vystup] ( )

truss n. (support structure) [kar/kas] [/ferma]


tube n. 1 (pipe) [tru/ba], (small) [/trupka];kohl tube *

tube n. 2 (container with screw cap for holding pastes or semiliquids) [/tubik]
tube n. 3: test tube [prP/birka]
tumbler n. [sta/kan]
tumulus n. (pl. tumuli) [kur/gan] [/tumulus] (
)
tunic n. [tu/nika]
turbe or turbeh n. [tur/be]
turf n. [dorn]
turf adj. [dqr/novyI]
Turkic n. [/turPk]
Turkic adj. [/turkskiI]
turn of centuries n. [ru/besh vq/kof]; at the turn of 1500
XV-XVI .
turn of eras n. [ru/besh er]
turret n. [/bashqnka]; ridge turret *
tusk n. [/bivqn]; worked tusk

tutulus n. (pl. tutuli) (hairstyle) ( )


tweezers n. [pin/tset]
twine n. [bq/chofka]
twisted adj. [vi/toI]
two-chambered adj. [dvuh/kamqrnyI]
two-handled adj. [dvu/ruchnyI] ()
two-pillared adj. [dvuh/stolpnyI]
two-story adj. [dvuhq/tazhnyI]
tympanon n. or tympanum n. (pl. tympana or tympanums) [tim/pan] (.)
type n. [tip]; bone type ; grave type ;
iconographic type ; in the iconographic type
Hodegetria ; ornamental type
; the Someone(s) type x x (); type of soil
typical adj. [ti/pichnyI]
typological adj. [tipPlP/gichqskiI]
typology n. [tipP/logiIa]

112

113

U
ulna n. [lPktq/vaIa kost]
umbo n. [um/bon]
unburnished adj. 1 (of pottery) [nqlP/shchonyI]
unburnished adj. 2 (of metals) [/tusklyI] ( )
uncirculated adj. (, ) (

)
uncleaned n. [nq/chishchqnyI]
uncover v. [nahP/dit] [Ptkry/vat] [ras/kapyvat]
undatable adj. [nqda/tiruIqmyI] [nqda/tiruIushchiIsa]
undecorated adj. [nqPrnamqn/tirPvanyI]
under-covering n. [pPt/stilka]
undercut n. [pPt/boI]
underfired n. [nqdP/zhzhonyI]
underglaze n. [pPdgla/zurnaIa /kraska]
[pPdgla/zurnaIa /rospis]
underglaze adj. [pPdgla/zurnyI]
underground adj. [pPd/zemnyI], ( ) [grun/tovyI]
underpainting n. (mosaics) * ()

underworld n. [pPd/zemnyI mir]


unearth v. [Ptkry/vat] [ras/kapyvat]
unglazed adj. [nqglazu/rovanyI]
unguentarium n. (pl. unguentaria) [ungvqn/tariI]
unicorn n. [IqdinP/rok]
unit n. (division of quantity) [Iqdi/nitsa]; measuring unit ;
stratigraphhic unit or unit of stratigraphy
; unit of weight
unmelted adj. [nqras/plavlqnyI]
Urartean n. [u/rart]
Urartean adj. [u/rartskiI]
Urartu n. [u/rartu]
urbanism n. [gradPstrP/itqlstvP]
urfirnis n. * ( )
urn n. [/urna]; biconical urn ; cinerary urn
; collared urn ; encrusted urn
; face urn ; globular urn ;
overhanging-rim urn ; pail-shaped urn

urnfield n. [/polq pPgrq/balnyh urn]
[/polq pPgrq/beniI]
US abbr. (unit of stratigraphy) . [stratigra/fichqskaIa
Iqdi/nitsa] . [kPn/tekst]
U-shaped adj. [pPtkovP/vidnyI]
utensils n. [/utvar]; church utensils
UV-light abbr. ultraviolet light n. [ultrafiP/letPvPIe
Psvq/shcheniIe]

valley n. [dP/lina]; hanging valley ; river vally



valuable adj. [dragP/tsennyI]
valve n. [/stvorka]; valve of shell ; door valve
vambrace n. [/naruchqn] [/poruchqn] [pP/ruchIe]
(, )
variation n. [vari/atsyIa], (in typology) ()
varnish n. [lak] ( )
vase n. 1 (container) [sP/sut]; face vase ; libation vase *
( ); ornate vase
; plane vase ; plastic vase: a) (with cordons)
, b) (figured)
vase n. 2 (type of vessel) [/vaza]; Corinthian vase ; polychrome
vase ; strainer vase * - (
)
vase painter n. [vazP/pisqts]
vase-painting n. [/vazPpis]; Greek vase painting
vault 1 (ceiling) [svot]; barrel vault or tunnel vault ;
cavetto vault ; cloister / cloistered vault
; corbel / corbelled vault / ; cross
vault or groin / groined vault ; fan vault ;
Gothic vault ; horseshoe vault ;
ogive vault ; rib / ribbed vault /
/ ; net vault / ; stalactitic /
stalactite vault ; stellar vault ;
trough vault
vault n. 2 (grave) [sklep]; corbelled vault
; underground vault
vaulted adj. [/svotchqtyI] . [sP

[/svotchqtym pqrq/krytiIqm] . .; barrel-vaulted



vaulting n. [/svot/chqtPIe pqrq/krytiIe]; arched vaulting
; architrave vaulting ;
corbel vaulting /
veneer n. [fa/nera]
veneer n. attrib. [fa/nernyI]
Venetian n. [vqnqtsy/anqts]
Venetian adj. [vqnqtsy/anskiI]
vent n. (in cannon or rifle barrel) [za/palnPIe Pt/verstiIe]
vermiculatum n. * ,

vertebra n. (pl. vertebrae) [pPzvP/nok]; cervical vertebra ;
dorsal vertebra ; lumbar vertebra
; thoracic vertebra
vertical adj. [vqrti/kalnyI]
vessel n. 1 (vase) [sP/sut]; aquarelle vessel ;
banded vessel ; black-figured vessel or black-onred vessel ; broad-shouldered vessel
; broken vessel ; clay vessel
; closed vessel or closed-shape vessel
; clover-leaf intersection vessel ; cosmetic
vessel ; decorated vessel
; deep vessel ; drinking vessel ; flat
vessel: a) (low) , b) or flat-bottomed vessel
( ); food vessel
; footed vessel ; hand-made
vessel ; high vessel ; ill-baked vessel
; inventoried vessel
; liturgical vessel
or ecclesiastical vessel ,
; monochrome vessel ;
mould-made vessel ; native vessel
; one-handled vessel ; open
vessel or open-shape vessel a;
partly burnished vessel ; perfume vessel
; Pergamene vessel ; plain vessel
; plain vessel (
); polychrome vessel ; pottery vessel
; red-figured vessels or red-on-black vessels
; ribbed vessel ; round-bottomed vessel
or vessel with rounded bottom ; sand-core fabric
vessel () ;
spindle vessel ; storage vessel
(-); straight sided vessel
; thick-walled vessel ; thinly
potted vessel ; thin-walled
vessel ; three-handled vessel ;
toilet vessel ; transport vessel ; truncoconical vessel - ; two-handled
vessel ; unglazed painted vessel
; unglazed
vessel ; vessel
with applied relieves ; vessel with flaring
sides ; vessel with footring or vessel
with footring base or vessel with ring-foot or vessel with base-ring
; vessel with glaze splashed on the outside
; vessel with pointed
bottom ; vessel with slip spilling over the rim
; vessel with vertical handles

114

115

waggon, Amer. wagon n. [chqtyrohkP/losnaIa pP/voska]


[chqtyrohkP/losnaIa kPlqs/nitsa]
waist n. (of a vessel) [pqrq/hvat] ()
waisted adj. (vessel) [s pqrq/hvatPm] ()
wake n. . [pP/minki]
walky-talky n. [kPrPtkP/volnPvaIa radiP/stantsyIa]

walk n. (passage) [prP/hot]; parapet walk *


; covered paraper walk *
; upper walk (atop a fortress
wall) ( )

walkway n. [prP/hot] [dP/roshka]
wall n. 1 [stq/na]; advanced wall ; abbey wall
/ ; adobe wall
; apsidal wall * (
); bearing wall ; blind wall ; curtain
wall: a) or enclosure wall , b) (non-load-bearing exterior wall of
a building) ; buttressed / counterfort retaining wall
/ ; defensive / fortification wall
; division wall or partition wall ;
dry stone wall
; exterior wall ; fortified wall
or fortress wall ; fortificational
wall / ; furring walls
; iconostasis wall ; planting
wall ; quibla wall *
(); retaining wall or terrace wall /
/ ; support / supporting wall: ) (carrier) , b)
(revetment) / /
wall n. 2 (small or thick or of a vessel) [/stenka]; corrugated wall
(, )
wall n. 3 (of an excavation trench) [bort] ()
walled adj. [Pbnq/sonnyI /stenami]
[Pkru/zhonnyI /stenami]
wall-painting n. [na/sten-naIa /rospis]
wall-plaster n. ., . [shtuka/turka] (, ,
)
wall-plastering n. [shtuka/turka] ., . ()
wanderings n. pl. (in primitive societies) . [sq/zon-nyIe
mi/gratsyi] . [sq/zon-nyIe pqrqkP/chofki]
waqf n. (Islamic charitable endowment) [/vakuf]
ward n. (yard) [dvor]; inner yard ; outer ward

ware n. 1 or wares n. pl. (general) . [iz/deliIa] .,
. [/utvar] ( ,
c :
silverware, earthenware, glassware); exported wares
; functional ware ; glass ware
; gouged ware ; imported
wares ; laboratory ware
; liturgical ware ,
; terra cotta wares
( )
ware n. 2 or wares n. pl. or ceramic ware n. or ceramic wares n. pl.
., . [kq/ramika] . [kqra/michqskiIe
iz/deliIa] ., . [pP/suda] . [sP/sudy];
black-on-red ware ; building ware
; burnished ware ; coarse ware
() ; corded ware or cord-marked
ware ; fabric-marked ware ;
figural painting ware ; fine ware
*
; glazed ware
(.) ;
hand-made ware ; house ware ;
imported ware

116

117

; vessel with vertical sides


; wheel-made vessel
vessel n. 2 (ship) c [/sudnP] [kP/rabql]
vestibule n. 1 (of a church) [prit/vor]
vestibule n. 2 (of a secular building) [pq/rednaIa] [vqsti/bul]
vestry n. [/riznitsa]
VF abbr. very fine (coin grading) [/ochqn hP/roshqq] (
: , )
VG abbr. very good (US coin grading) [fpQl/ne
udQvlqtvP/ritqlnQIe] ( :
; )
viaduct n. [via/duk]
vial . . [fi/al] . [fia/la]
vicinity n. . [P/kresnPsti]
video n. or video shooting n. [vidqP/sIomka]
view n. 1 (general) [vit]; aerial view , ;
lose view ; cross-sectional view ; cutaway
view ; distant view
( ); exterior view ; front view ; full
/ general view ; historic view ; lateral / side
view ; plane view ; rooftop view ;
street view ; view / viewed from above ; view
/viewed from below ; view / viewed from (something)
(-)
view n. 2 (projected image) [prP/ektsyIa]; angled view ;
elevated / elevation view ; horizontal view
; oblique view ; side view
; taken from an oblique view
Viking n. [/viking]
Viking adj. *
villa n. [/villa] [/selskaIa u/satba] ()
vineyard n. [vinP/gradnik]
Virgin n.: the Virgin Mary [/deva ma/riIa], [bPgP/matqr];
the Blessed Virgin or the Holy Virgin ; the
Orant / orant Virgin ; the Virgin Hodegetria
; Virgin Vlachernitissa
viscosity n. [/vaskPst]
visor or vizor n. [za/bralP]
vitrine n. [vi/trina]; museum vitrine
volatile adj. (chemistry) [lq/tuchiI] [/bystrP
ispa/raIushchiIsa]
volt n. (archit.) [/volta]
volute n. 1 (decorative) [vP/luta] [zavi/tok] ()
volute n. 2 (part of vessel): applied volute [u/por] - [/ruchka u/por]
[pPtkovP/vidnyI na/lep]
votive adj. [vP/tivnyI]
voussoir n. [klinP/vidnyI /kamqn]
[/klinchqtyI /kamqn] ( );
joggled voussoirs pl. * (
) .

; impressed ware ; Iznik ware



; local ware
; lustre ware ; monochrome glaze ware
; mould-made ware or moulded ware
; painted ware ;
polychrome glaze ware ; polychrome
painted ware
; pit-comb ware - ;
polychrome ware ; red-figured ware or red-onblack ware ; sigillata ware or sigillated
ware ; smoothed ware
; stroke ornamented ware ; terra cotta ware (); transport
ware ; under-glaze painted
ware ; wheel-made ware

warehouse n. [sklat]
warfare n. [vP/Ien-nPIe /delP]
warlord n. [vP/Ien-nyI vosht]
warlordism n. [vP/Ien-naIa dqmP/kratiIa]
warrior saint n. [svq/toI /voin] [svq/toI vP/itql]
washbowl n. (sink) [/van-na] ( )
washing n. [prPmy/vaniIe] [prP/myfka]; deep washing

waste n. 1 (materials left after using something) [/musPr] .,
[Pt/hody] .; construction waste ; industrial waste

waste n. 2 (defective articles) [brak] ., .
[bra/kovanyIe iz/deliIa]; ceramic waste
waster n. (artifact) [brak] ., [bra/kovanPIe
iz/deliIe]
watch n. (clock) . [cha/sy] ()
watchtower n. [dP/zornaIa /bashna]
[stPrPzhq/vaIa /bashna]
water run-off n. (device to send rainwater from the roof) [vPdP-Pt/vot]
[Pt/lif] ( )
water-colour, Amer. water-color n. [akva/relnaIa /kraska]
waterpipe n. 1 (tube) [vPdP/vot] [vPdPprP/vodnaIa
tru/ba]
waterpipe n. 2 (system) [vPdPprP/vot]
wattle n. (construction) [plq/ten]
wattle and daub adj. - [kar/kasnP stPlbP/voI] (
)
wavy adj. [vPl/nistyI]
way n. 1 (route) [put]
way n. 2 (passage) [prP/hot]
weapon n. ., . [P/ruzhyIe]; ceremonial weapon
; combat weapon ; cutting weapon
; thrusting weapon ; cut and thrust weapons
() ; impact weapon
; throwing weapon
weaponry n. [vP-Pru/zheniIe]; bladed weaponry
wear away / off v. (inflected: wore, worn): v. tr. [sti/rat], v. intr.
[sti/ratsa]
weather n. (of glass) [kP/roziIa] ()
weathering n. (of glass or metal) [q/roziIa] [kP/roziIa], (of rocks)
[vy/vetrivaniIe]
webbing n. (the vault surface between the ribs of a rib vault) [za/palupka]
wedge-shaped adj. [klinP/vidnyI] [/klinchqtyI]

weight n. 1 (measure) [ves]


weight n. 2 (measuring unit) [/gira]
well n. (shaft) [kP/lodqts]; draw well ; light well

well centered adj. [hPrP/sho tsqn/trirPvanyI] ( :


)
west n. [/zapat]
western, Amer. west adj. [/zapadnyI]
westwork n. [vest/verk]
wet adj. [/vlazhnyI] [/mokryI] [sy/roI]
wheel n. 1 (of a vehicle) [kPlq/so]; grinding wheel
wheel n. 2 or potters wheel [gPn/charnyI kruk]
wheelbarrow n. [/tachka]
wheel-made adj. [kru/zhalnyI] ( )
whetstone n. [Psq/lok]
whip n. [plet] [na/gaIka]
whiteware n. [fa/Ians] ()
wicket n. [ka/litka]
width n. 1 (general) [shyri/na]
width n. 2 (archit.) [shnur] ()
window n. [Pk/no]; arched window or arch-shaped window ;
bay window (.); bulls-eye window or oeil-de-boeuf
window * ( ,
,
); dormer window
; double-glazed window ;
folding window ; glazed window ;
observation window ; rose window (
); stained glass window
; tracery window or lancet window
; triple-glazed windows
windowpane n. [P/kon-nPIe stqk/lo]
windowsill n. [pPdP/konnik]
winery n. [vinPda/vilna] [tara/pan]
wine-siphon n. (ancient glass vessel) * (
, ,
)
wineskin n. [bur/duk] [meh]
wing n. 1 (general) [kry/lo] ( )
wing n. 2 (of a fibula or a brooch) [bPkP/voI /vystup] (
)
wire n. [/provPlka]; wire wrapped

wood n. [/derqvP], (building material) . [les] ()
woodcarving n. [rqz/ba pP /derqvu]
wooden, Amer. wood adj. [derq/vanyI]; one-piece wood

work n. [ra/bota] [trut]; agricultural work


; construction works ; defensive work

worked adj. . [Pbra/botanyI] . .
[sP slq/dami Pbra/botki]
working n. (of stone) [ras/kalyvaniIe] [Pbra/botka
/kamna] ( )
workmanship n. 1 (skill and quality) [mastqr/stvo] ()
[ra/bota]
workmanship n. 2 (work) [rqmqs/lo]
workshop n. 1 (production) [mastqr/skaIa]; blacksmith workshop
; coroplast workshop *
; pottery-making workshop

118

119

workshop n. 2 (university or international) [sqmi/nar]


[prak/tichqskPIe za/natiIe]
worship n. [rq/ligiIa] () [pPklP/neniIe] ( -); ancestor worship
; nature worship

wrapping or wrap n. [Pp/lotka] [Pb/motka]; cord wrapping
; leather wrapping ; spiral wrap
; wire wrapping ;
wreath n. [vq/nok]; funeral wreath /
wrist n. [ku/lak]
wristband n. [kistq/voI bras/let]
wristguard n. (archers) [naru/kavnik] ( )

X
xenodochium n. (pl. xenodochia) [ksqnPdPhi/on]
[pPstP/IalyI dvor] ( )
xoanon n. (pl. xoana) [ksPa/non]
xylene or xylol n [ksi/lol]

Y
yard n. 1 (enclosed area) [dvor], (small) [/dvorik]
yard n. 2 (unit of length) [Iart]
yataghan or yatagan or ataghan n. [Iqta/gan]
yoke n. [Iqr/mo] [hP/mut]
yurt n. [/Iurta]

Z
zanana n. (womens quarters in a palace or house) [zqna/na]
[zana/na] ( , )
zawiya n. (in Islam: place where a holy man both lived and was buried) [zavi/Ia]
( , )
ziggurat n. [ziku/rat]
zinc n. [tsynk]
zinc n. attrib. [/tsynkPvyI]
ziyada n. [ziIa/da] ( )
zone n. [/zona]; burial zone or funerary zone * (
); zone of contacts ; frontier
zone
zoomorphic adj. [zP-P/morfnyI]
zulla n. 1 (Arabic: shaded area) [zu/la] ( ,
)
zulla n. 2 (covered part of mosque) [zu/la] (
)

120

121

Russian alphabet

122

Part II. Russian-English Dictionary


II. -

. . abacus [xbqkqs] (pl. abaci or abacuses)


. abbey [xbI] (monastery)
. ablaq [xblxk] (alternating light and dark courses of masonry, in Islamic archit.)
. abrasive [qbreIsIv]
. apse [xps] or apsis [xpsIs] (pl. apsides); . . apsidal adj.
. absorbent [qbsLbqnt]
. aventurine [qvenCq"rin] or aventurin [qvenCq"rIn]
. anvil side [xnvIl sQId] or obverse [PbvE:s]
. agate [xgqt] n.
. agate [xgqt] adj.
. hagiasma [hxgiesmq] or holy water font [hqVli wLtq fPnt]
. agora [xgqrq] (pl. agorae or agoras)
. agoranomos ["xgqrqnqVmqs] (pl. agoranomoi)
. adytum [adItqm] (pl. adyta)
. openwork [qupqn,wE:k] or ajour [qGWrJ]
. azimuth [xzImqT]
. iwan [aIvqn]
. acanthus [qkxnTqs] (pl. acanthi or acanthuses); /
acanthus leath
a . 1 () aqueduct [xkwIdAkt] or water channel [wLtq Cxnl] or
water pipe [wLtq paIp]
a . 2 ( ) aqueduct [xkwIdAkt]
. aceramic [qsIrxmik]
. acinaces ["qsInxses] (Scythian sword)
. Accad or Akkad [xkxd]
. Accadian Akkadian [qkeIdIqn]
. acrylic [qkrIlIk] n. (acrylic resin)
. acrylic [qkrIlIk] n. attrib.; acrylic resin
. acrolithic ["xkrqlITIk] n.
. acropolis [qkrPpqlIs]
. acroterion ["xkrqtJrJqn] (pl. acroteria) or acroterium ["xkrqtJrJqm]
(pl. acroteria) or acroter [xkrPtq]
. axonometry [,xksqnPmqtri] or axonometric projection
["xksqnPmqtrIk prqGekSqn] or perspective drawing [pqspektIv
drLIN]; cutaway view
. 1 () alabastron [xlqbRstrqn] (pl. alabastra) or alabasrtum
[xlqbRstrqm] (pl. alabastra)
. 2 () alabaster [xlqbRstq] or gypsum [GIpsqm]
. Alan [xlqn]
. Alanic [xlqnIk]
. halberd [hxlbWd]
. 1 () alabastron [xlqbRstrqn] (pl. alabastra) or alabasrtum
[xlqbRstrqm] (pl. alabastra)
. 2 () alabaster [xlqbRstq] or gypsum [GIpsqm]
. alabaster [xlqbRstq] n. attrib.
. alignment [qlaInmqnt] (megalithic)
. alluvium [qlHviqm] (pl. alluvia or alluviums)
. altar rail [Lltq reIl] or altar screen [Lltq skrJn] or chancel
barrier [CRnsql bxrIq] or choir screen [kwaIq skrJn]
. () chancel [tSRnsql] or east end [Jst end] or sanctuary
[sxNkCuqri]
. 1 ( ) altar [Lltq] or communion table [kqmjHnjqn
teIbql] or Lords table [lLdz teIbql] or holy table [hqVli teIbql];
inscribed altar; funerary altar;
sculptured altar
. 2 ( ) chancel [tSRnsql] or east end [Jst end]
. almandine [xlmqndain] or almandite [xlmqndait]

. barn [bRn]
. crenel [krenql] or crenelle [krInql] or embrasure [ImbreIZq]
. ambo [xmbqV] or pulpit [pVlpIt] (in Orthodox church)
. ( ) ampulla [xmpulq] (pl. ampullae)
. amulet [xmjVlIt], also phylactery [faIlektqri]
. amphiglyphon [xmfIglifqn] (pl. amphiglypha)
. amphictyony n. [xmfIktJqnJ];
inter-city amphictyony
. analemma [,xnqlemq] (pl. analemmata or analemmas) (archit.) or
analemma wall [,xnqlemq wLl]
. amphiprostyle [xmfIprqVstaIl] n.
. amphiprostyle [xmfIprqVstaIl] adj.
. ( ) amphistylar
[xmfIstaIlq] adj.
. amphitheatre, Amer. amphitheater [xmfITIqtq]
. amphora [xmfqrq] (pl. amphorae or amphoras);
wine amphora; neck-amphora
(pl. neck-amphorae); amphora
with double handles; amphora
with zones of corrugation; stamped amphora;
amphora with conical body;
waisted amphora;
amphora with running dog corrugation;
grooved amphora; pointed
amphora; panathenaic amphora; pseudo-panathenaic amphora;
transport amphora; globular amphora
. amphoriskos [xmfPrIskqs] (pl. amphoriskoi)
. * plug for amphora or amphora plug
. analemma ["xnq'lemq] (pl. analemmata or analemmas) (archit.) or
analemma wall ["xnqlemq wLl]
. analysis [qnxlIsIs] or test [test]; quantification
["kwPntIfikeISqn]; soil analysis [sPIl qnxlIsIs];
radiometric assay;
radiocarbon analysis;
spectrographic analysis n. [spektrq,grxfik qnxlqsIs]; pollen analysis [pPlqn qnxlqsIs];
statistical analysis; phosphate analysis;
fluorine test
. analogy [qnxlqGi]; c by analogy with;
draw analogy
. lectern [lektqn]
. anatomic ["xnqtOmik] or anatomical ["xnqtOmIkql];
anatomical age;
. . in anatomical connection / connexion;
() individuals in anatomical connection
/ connexion
. anaerobic or anerobic ["xnqrqVbIk]
. angobe or engobe [qngqVb]; angobed or engobed
. angobed or engobed [qngqVbd]
. andron [xndrqn]
. notched tool [nPCt tHl]
a . ( ) ensemble [PnsPmbql]
. . anta [xntq] (pl. antae); () in antis
. entablature [entxblqCq]; entablature
having no frieze
. anthelion [xnTJlJqn] (pl. anthelia or anthelions)
. anthemion [xnTJmJqn] (pl. anthemia)
. antefix [xntJfiks] (pl. antefixes or antefixa)
. ancient historian [eInSqnt hIstLrIqn]

124

125

. Classical period [klxsIkql pIqriqd] or antiquity [xntIkwIti] (period


when ancient Greece and Roma existed)
. 1 (-) lassical [klxsIkql] (related to ancient Greece
or Rome)
. 2 () ancient [eInSqnt]
. (.) in antis [In xntqs] adv. adj.
. entresol [PntresPl]
. Anthropogenic period ["xnTrqpqVGqnIk pIqriqd]
. physical anthropology [fIzIkql ,xnTrqpPlqGi]
. anthropomorphic ["xnTrqpqVmLfIk]
. annulets [xnjulIts]
. * line of rooms / yards / halls (located along one axis or arc and connected
with doorways)
. analemma ["xnqlemq] (pl. analemmata or analemmas) (archit.) or
analemma wall ["xnqlemq wLl]
. anepigraphic [xnepIgrqfIk]
. appadana [xpqdxnx]
. apoikia [qpPIkJq] (pl. apoikias)
. apotropaic amulet [q,pqtrqVpaIk xmjVlIt]
. approach ramp [qprqVC rxmp]
. apse [xps] (pl. apses) or apsis [xpsIs] (pl. apsides); . .
apsidal adj.
. semicircle of apse [semi,sE:kql qv xps] or apsidal
semicircle [xpsIdql semi,sE:kql]
. ( ) apsidiole [xpsIdJqVl]
. arabesque ["xrqbesk] only sing. (design)
. arba [Rbq] (Tatar cart)
. crossbow [krPsbqV]
. habitat [hxbItxt]
. aryballos ["eqriqbxlqs] (pl. aryballoi)
. arch [RC]; / ( )
chancel arch; shouldered
arch; convex arch; triangular arch;
bifoliolate arch;
false arch or blind arch; / ogee arch or
keel arch; flying buttress; * arch
shaped like a bow drawn from 3, 5, or 7 centres; basket
handle arch; multifoliolate arch;
, / skew arch;
parabolic arch; ( ) intersecting
arches; hanging arch; horseshoe
arch; stilted arch;
supporting arch; Roman / true arch;
/ / radiated / round arch or semicircular arch; traverse / transverse arch;
formeret or principal arch; pentafoliolate
arch; relieving / unloading arch;
ribbed arch; segmental arch;
depressed arch; pointed arch, (
) lancet arch; corbel arch;
trefoil arch; triumphal arch;
Tudor arch; quatrefoil arch;
four-centre arch;
tented arch
. arcade [RkeId] or arcading [RkeIdIN];
blind arcade; arcade of five columns
. lasso [lqsH] (pl. lassos or lassoes)
. arcosolium [RkPsPlIqm] (pl. arcosolia)
. blind arcade [blaInd RkeId]
. flying buttress [flaIIN bAtrqs] or arc-boutant [RbHtRn] (pl. arcs-boutants)

. arcosolium [RkPsPlIqm] (pl. arcosolia)


. armilla [Rrmilq] (pl. armillae or armillas)
. Armenian [RmJnjqn]
. Armenian [RmJnjqn]
. arched [RCt]
a . artesonado
. artefact or artifact [RtIfxkt];
fragmentary artifact
. ancient-like [eInSqnt laIk] or archaic [RkeI-Ik]; -
something seeming to be archaic
- archaeo-, Amer. archeo- [RkJqV]
. archaeoastronomy, Amer. archeoastronomy ["RkJqVqstrPnqmi]
. archaeobotany, Amer. archeobotany ["RkiqbPtqni]
. archaeozoology, Amer. archeozoology ["RkiqzHPlqGi]
. archaeologist, Amer. archeologist ["RkIPlqGIst], ( )
excavator [ekskqveItq] or field archaeologist [fJld ,RkIPlqGIst]
. archaeological, Amer. archeological [,RkiqlPGIkql];
. archaeological evidence
. archaeology, Amer. archeology [,RkIPlqGi];
- classical archaeology;
archaeological study made not in the field;
prehistoric archaeology; maritime / marine / underwater
archaeology; field / fieldworking archaeology
. archivolt [RkqvPlt]
. architect [RkItekt]
. architecture [RkItekCq] or architectonics sing. ["RkItektPnIks];
() Crusader architecture;
secular architecture; palatial
architecture; Islamic architecture; wattle-and-daub architecture;
fortificational architecture;
ritual architecture; domed architecture;
monumental architecture;
Ottoman architecture
. architectonics sing. [,RkItektPnIks] (structural design)
. architectonic ["RkItektPnIk] or architectural ["RkItekCqrql];
architectonic member;
architectural design
. architrave [RkItreIv] or epistyle [,epIstaIl]
. askos [Rskqs] (pl. askoi)
. Assyrian [qsIrIqn] (person)
. Assyrian [qsIrIqn] (thing)
. Assyria [qsIrIq]
a . azulejo
. 1 (.) astragal [xstrqgql]
. 2 () knucklebone [nAkqlbqVn]
. astynomos [qstInqmqs] (pl. astynomoi)
. atypical [qtIpIkql]
. Atlas [xtlqs]
. atlas [xtlqs]
. attribute [xtrIbjHt]; () morphological
attributes (of a vessel)
. atrium [xtriqm] (pl. atria or atriums)
. attic [xtIk] (part of classical facade)
. Attic [xtIk]
. acetone [xsq,tOn]
. acetonic ["xsqtPnIk]
. Acheulian or Acheulean [qSLlJqn]
. Acheulian or Acheulean [qSLlJeqn]
. aerobic [eqrqVbIk]

126

127

. () bab (gate, in Moslem architecture)


. () baba (pl. baby or babas) or kurgan obelisk [kVrgRn PbqlIsk]
or kurgan stela [kVrgRn stJlq] (stone anthropomorphic statue installed
atop a kurgan)
. () bagh (garden, in Moslem architecture)
. 1 ( ) base [beIs] (of statue or a center of
organization); archaeological base
. 2 () socle [sPkl] (of a column)
. () bazaar or bazar [bqzR]
. basilica [bqzIlIkq]; domed basilica;
basilica-like church without aisles;
basilica with two aisles; longitudinal
basilica; basilican church
. basilican [bqzIlIkqn]
. balbal or kurgan obelisk [kVrgRn PbqlIsk] or kurgan stela [kVrgRn
stJlq] (stone anthropomorphic statue installed atop a kurgan)
. 1 () beam [bJm] or girder [gE:dq]; carrying beam or
crosstop or supporting beam or supporting girder;
crossbar or crossbeam or trave
. 2 () lintel [lIntl] (of architrave)
. 3 () gully [gAlI] or ravine
. balcony [bxlkqni]
. baldachin [bLldqkIn] or baldachino [bLldqkJnqV]
. ballista [bqlIstq] (pl. ballistae); hand ballista or
manuballista (pl. manuballistae) (Roman crossbow)
. balustrade ["bxlqstreId]
. balsamarium ["bLlsqmxrIqm] (pl. balsamaria)
. embalming [ImbRmIN]
. embalm [ImbRm]
. volute [vqljHt] or scroll [skrqVl] (side part of Ionic capital)
. baluster [bxlqstq]
. 1 . ( ) baths [bRTs], Amer. bathhouse [bRThaVs];
public baths
. 2 () dome [dqVm] or cupola [kjHpqlq]
. jar [GR]; cupping glass
. baptistery or baptistry [bxptIstqri] or baptisterium ["bxptIstJrJqn]
(pl. baptisteria)
. ( .) drum [drAm]; column drum;
lightning drum
. barbican [bRbIkqn]
. barbotine [bRbqtaIn]
. bas-relief [bxsrI,lJf] or low relief [lqV rIlJf]
. bartizan [bRtIzxn]
. 1 ( ) fine embossing [faIn ImbPsIN]
. 2 ( ) fine icon-case [faIn aIkPn keIs]
. 1 (, , ) basin [beIsn] (of a river or a sea or a fountain)
. 2 () pool [pHl]
. bastion [bxstIqn]
. turret [tArIt]; ridge turret;
pinnacle
. bashlyk or pointed cap [pPIntId kxp] (of nomads)
. tower [tauq]; solid tower;
tower of winds; buttress tower;
crossing tower;
hollow tower; clock tower; tower

of Babel; wind tower (for ventilation);


/ watchtower; c fortified tower;
gatehouse; front tower; /
angle / corner / flanking tower;
() frontal tower (of church); tower with clock on it;
stepped tower or terraced tower
. 1: spring scale [sprIN skeIl]
. 2: steelyard [stJljRd]
. () handless [hxndlqs] or handleless [hxndl-lqs] (vessel)
. belvedere [belvIdIq] or gazebo [gqzJbqV] (pl. gazebos)
. bema [bJmq]
. benzotriazole ["benzLtrJqzLl]
. benzotriazolic ["benzLtrJqzLlik]
. bentonite [bentq,nJt]
. 1 () bank [bxNk] or side [saId] (of a river)
. 2 () shore [SL] or coast [kqVst]
. birch bark [bWC bRk]; birch bark (inscribed)
. berm [bWm] (level space separating two areas)
. kiosk [kJPsk] or koshk [kJPSk] (small pavilion, Turkish)
. aceramic [qsIrxmik]
. unpillared [AnpIlqd] (having neither pillars nor columns)
. concrete [kPnkrJt] n.; aerated concrete
. concrete [kPnkrJt] adj.
. concrete [kPnkrJt] v.
. string [strIN] or twine [twaIn]
. Bible [baIbl]
. biblical or Biblical [bIblIkql]
. tusk [tAsk]; worked tusk
. biconical [baIkPnIkql]
. bilingual [baIlINgwql] (inscription) n.
. billon [bIlqn] n.
. billon [bIlqn] n. attrib.
. bimetallic ["baImItxlIk]
. bandage [bxndIG]; gauze bandage;
crepe bandage
biological group ["baIqVlOGIkql grHp]
. biocidal ["baIqsIdql]
. biocide [baIq,saId]
. biritual [baIrICuql]
. (. ) bead [bJd] (fine)
. biface [baIfeIs]
. Annunciation [q,nAnsIeISqn]
.: sickle gloss [sikql glOs]
. block [blPk] or ( ) ashlar [xSlq]; cluster of
rooms; impost block
. platter [plxtq] or plate [pleIt] or dish [dIS] (both big);
footed plate; Ionian plate;
pictoral plate; fish-plate;
fish-plate with a cavity in the center
. saucer [sLsq] or (small) plate [pleIt] or (small) dish [dIS]
. badge [bxG]; shield boss (decorative)
. (small) badge [bxG]; / plate or appliqu
(for sewing on a cloth) or plaque or sewing badge
. god [gPd]; sky-god; sun god;
river god; ( ) cosmogonic gods
. goddess [gPdIs]; - mother goddess;
sky-goddess
. the Mother of God [DJ mADq qv gPd], also
the Virgin; : a) (
) the Mother of God of Blachernai, b) (

128

129

. aerial photography [eqriql fqtPgrqfi]

filter paper
. bunchuk or standard [stxndqd] (used by the nomads)
. wineskin [waInskIn]
. brown-slip [braVn slIp]
. (. ) 1 () bead [bJd]; bead of
opaque glass; bead of nontranslucent
glass; melon bead; glass shard
bead; - spool-shaped bead;
globular bead
. 2 (. ) bead and reel [bJd qnd rJl] (ornam.)
. rubble [rAbql] or quarrystone [kwPrIstqVn] or rough stone [rAf stqVn]
. chape [CeIp] or scabbard-end [sjxbqd end] or finish hardware [fInIS
hRdweq] or finish [fInIS] (of a scabbard)
. rubble [rAbql]
. bottle [bPtl]
. cruet [krHit] (small glass bottle)
. cove [kqVv] or inlet [Inlet] or bay [beI]
. bust [bAst]; portrait bust

) the Virgin Vlachernitissa or the


Vlachernitissa (the Blesser); the Mother of
God Hodegetria or the Virgin Hodegetria (the Wayshower);
the Orant or the orant Virgin
. liturgical [lItE:GIkql]
. deity [dJIti]; dolmen deity;
sky-god; river god; sun god;
chtonian deity
. loophole [lHphqVl] or embrasure [ImbreIZq] or crenel [krenql] or
crenelle [krInel]; machicolation
. 1 () wine glass [waIn glRs] (with truncated-conical body)
. 2 () goblet [gPblIt]
. ball [bLl] (throwing stone)
. () bolt [bqVlt] (of a crossbow)
. bombylion [bPmbaIlIqn] (pl. bombylia)
. () wall [wLl] (of an excavation trench)
. () rim [rIm] (vertical or not expressed)
. barrel [bxrql] (container)
., . waste [weIst] or waster [weIstq] (defective articles);
ceramic flaw / waste
. bracelet [breIslIt]; jemstone bracelet;
toothed bracelet; wristband;
armband; leg band (decoration);
expandable / adjustable bracelet
. * drinking bowl (with low footring and hinged conical lid)
. sample [sRmpql]
. brachycephalic ["brxkIsqfxlIk]
. log [lPg] n. attrib.
. log [lPg] or timber [tImbq]
. razor [reIzq]
. baulk, Amer. balk [bLk]; main / central baulk
. bromine [brqVmJn]
. bronze [brPnz]
. bronze [brPnz]
. bronzesmith [brPnz,smIT]
. bronzework [brPnzwE:k] or production of bronzes
. beam [bJm] or bar [bR]; carrier bar;
crossbar or crossbeam, ( ) transom
. ( ) ventral face [ventrql feIs] or ventral surface [ventrql
sE:fIs]
. timbrel [tImbrql]
. (. ) 1 () small closed bell [smLl
klqVzd bel]
. (. ) 2 () sleigh bell [sleI bel]
. bucraneum [bjHkrxnJqm] (pl. bucranea), also bucrane
[bjHkrxn]
. mace [meIs], (, ) mace head [meIs hed];
flanged macehead; spiked ball
mace; pear-shaped mace;
disk mace; star-shaped mace;
cone-shaped macehead; spheroid mace
. 1 () pin [pIn] (for cloth); hairpin;
hammer-shaped pin
. 2 () safety pin [seIfti pIn]
., boule [bHlJ] (council in a Greek city-state)
. bouleuterion ["bHlHtirJqn] (pl. bouleuteria)
. () bulla [bVlq] (pl. bullae) or hanging seal [hxNIN sJl]
. cobble [kPbql]
. paper [peIpq]; plotting paper or square / squared
paper; absorbent paper;

. Babylon [bxbIlOn]
. Babylonia [bxbIlqVnIq]
. Babylonian [bxbIlqVnIqn] adj.
. Babylonian [bxbIlqVnIqn] n.
. vase [vRz] (large open vessel); fruit-stand;
Corinthian vase; Megarian bowl;
polychrome vase
. vase painter [vRz peIntq]
. vase-painting [vRz peIntIN]
. waqf (Islamic charitable endowment)
. waqf n. attrib.
. Bacchus [bxkqs]
. bacchant [bxkqnt] (pl. bacchants or bacchantes) (she)
. bacchant [bxkqnt] (pl. bacchants or bacchantes) (he)
. bacchantic [bxkqntIk]
. earthwork [E:TwE:k]; bulwark or rampart
. ( ) cordon [kLdn] or raised border [reIzd bLdq] or garland [gRlqnd]
or band [bxnd] (on a vessel), ( ) collar [kOlq] (on a vessel)
. hip end [hIp end] or hipped end [hIpt end]
. ( ) washbowl [wPSbqVl] (sink)
. barbarian [bRbeqriqn]
. barbarian [bRbeqriqn];
barbarian in its style and execution
. variation ["veqrieISqn]; . (-) variation in
(something)
. cotton wool ["kPtnwul]
. cotton wool ["kPtnwul] n. attrib.; cotton bud;
wad of cotton wool
e . impress [Impres] or impression [ImpreSqn] (concavity produced by
pressing); finger impression; o e
point impression
. bucket [bAkIt] or pail [peIl]
. 1 () century [senCqri]
. 2 ( ) Age [eIG]; Bronze Age;
Iron Age; Stone Age;
Aeneolithic or Eneolithic; Copper Age;
Early Iron Age; . Middle Ages
. great martyr [greIt mRtq] (he)

130

131

. great martyr [greIt mRtq] (she)


. 1 () Magyar [mxgjR]
. 2 () Hungarian [hANgeqriqn]
.1 () Magyar [mxgjR]
. 2 () Hungarian [hANgeqriqn]
. 1. (.) corona [kqrqVnq] (archit.)
. 2 () crown [kraVn] (royal); oak-leaf
crown; laurel crown;
radiate / rayed crown; kings crown
. 3 () rim [rIm] (of vessel) (. : )
. 4 ( .) timber frame [tImbq freIm] (horizontal, wooden
architecture)
. Venetian [vInJSqn]
. Venetian [vInJSqn]; ( )
marvered / reticella glass
. broom made of twigs [brHm meId qv twIgz] or brush made of twigs [brAS
meId qv twIgz]
. wreath [rJT]; . . laureate adj. (crowned with
laurel); crown of corn-ears;
crown of myrtle leaves; funeral wreath
. rim [rIm]; / crenelated rim;
funnel-shaped rim; everted rim,
also incurved rim or inturned rim or inward-slanting rim or turned-in rim;
rounded rim;
beaded rim; angled rim;
inverted rim, also out-turned rim or turned-out rim or turned
outwards rim; straight rim;
profiled rim; cut rim;
flattened rim;
rim-disk; S- S-profiled rim
. spindle [spIndl]
. rope [rqVp] or cord [kLd]
. vertical [vE:tIkql]
. Upper Palaeolithic [Apq ,pxliqVlITIk], Amer. Upper
Paleolithic
. upper [Apq]; upper garment
. (.) apex [eIpeks]
. weight [weIt]
. westwork [westwE:k]
. antechamber [xntI,CeImbq] or anteroom [xntI,rum] or lobby [lPbi]
or vestibule [vestIbjHl]
. 1 () scale [skeIl] (weighing)
. 2 () balance [bxlqns] (weighing)
. Old Testament [qVld testqmqnt]
. thing [TIN] or object [PbGIkt]; c ritually
damaged item
. interrelationship ["IntqrIleISqnSIp] or interrelation ["IntqrIleISqn] or
interconnection ["IntqkqnekSqn]
. viaduct [vaIqdAkt]
. appearance [qpIqrqns] (outward aspect) or view [vjH] (of something);
plane view; cross-sectional view;
close-up (of something);
aerial view; rooftop view; street view;
lateral / side view; view / viewed from above;
view /viewed from below; (-) view / viewed
from (something); front view; exterior view or
outward appearance; ( )
visual appearance of the object; full / general view
. video camera [vIdiqV "kxmqrq] or camcorder [kxm"kLdq]
. filming [fIlmIN] or video [vIdiqV] or camera shooting [kxmqrq

SHtIN] or video shooting [vIdiqV SHtIN]


. visible [vIZIbql] or outward [aVtwqd]
. Byzantine [bIzxntaIn]
. Byzantine [bIzxntaIn]
. Byzantium [bIzxntIqm]
. Viking [vaIkIN]
. fork [fLk]
. villa [vIlq]
. bema [bJmq]
. Gothic pediment [gPTIk pedImqnt]
. vineyard [vInjqd]
. winery [waInqri]
. cupbearer [kAp ,beqrq]
. twisted [twIstId]
. ( ) stained glass window [steInd glRs wIndqV]
. showbox [SqVbPks] or showcase [SqVkeIs] or vitrine [vitrJn];
museum showcase; permanent showcase
. marvered glass [mRvqd glRs] or reticella glass [rItIsqlq glRs]
. ( ) inclusion [InklHZqn] or matter [mxtq] (in clay)
. damp [dxmp] or wet [wet] adj.
. impact [Impxkt] or influence [Influqns]
. (.) intervention ["IntqvenSqn] (conserv.)
. exterior [IkstIqriq] or outer [aVtq] or outward [aVtwqd];
exterior surface of a vessel or outer surface of a vessel
. interior [IntIqriq] or internal [IntE:nl] or inner [Inq]
. inglaze ["IngleIz]
. concave [,kPnkeIv]
. running water [rAnIN wLtq]
. 1 ( ) water pipe, Amer. waterpipe [wLtq ,paIp] (tube)
or conduit [kOndjuIt] or duct [dAkt]
. 2 . aqueduct [xkwIdAkt] or water pipe, Amer. waterpipe
[wLtq ,paIp] (system)
. hydrogen [haIdrqGqn]; hydrogen evolution
. rain reservoir [reIn rezqvwR]
. 1 ( ) rain [reIn] (to collect rain water)
. 2 ( ) drainage [dreInIG] (to collect drain water)
. drain gutter [dreIn gAtq] or drain [dreIn]
. water reservoir [wLtq rezqvwR] or storage pond [stLrIG
pPnd] or storage pool [stLrIG pHl]
. warlordism [wLlLdIZm]
. warfare [wLfeq]
. chieftain [CJftIn]; warlord; tribal chief
. chiefdom [CJfdqm]
. hill [hIl]
. libation [laIbeISqn]
. age [eIG] (time in life or existence); ()
dental age; radiocarbon age;
the age at death
. wavy [weIvi]; wavy line
. wheelless cart [wJlqs kRt]
. () drawing [drLIN] (of wire)
. volt [vqVlt] (archit.)
. volute [vqljHt] or scroll [skrqVl]
. weaponry [wepqnri] or armour, Amer. armor [Rmq];
defensive armour; full suit of armour;
knightly armour
. funnel [fAnl]
. funnel-shaped [fAnl SeIpt]
. gate [geIt] sing.
. gate leaf [geIt ,lJf]

132

133

. 1 ( ) rebuild ["rJbIld] or reconstruct


["rJkqnstrAkt]
. 2 (.) reduce [rIdjHs] (deoxidize)
. 1 ( ) rebuilding ["rJbIldIN] or reconstruction
["rJkqnstrAkSqn] or renovation ["renqVveISqn]
. 2 (.) reduction [rIdAkSqn] (deoxidization)
. 1 ( ) east [Jst]
. 2 ( - ) Orient [Lriqnt]
. specialist in Oriental Studies [speSqlIst In "Lrientl stAdiz] or one who
is doing Oriental Studies
. Oriental Studies ["Lrientl stAdiz] or Orientalism ["LrientqlIzqm]
(as scholarly knowledge)
. East Slavonic [Jst slqvPnIk]
. 1 ( ) eastern [Jstqn], Amer. east [Jst]
. 2 ( - ) Oriental ["Lrientl]
. octagon [Pktqgqn] or octagonal bay under dome;
octagon raised on a square bay
. octastyle [OktqstaIl] (eight-column)
. votive [vqVtIv]
. ( -) sink [sINk] (past sank, sunk) (dig in)
. sunk [sANk] (past part. of sink); the
building is sunk into
. incised [InsaIzd]
. 1 () time [taIm]; (-) formation time
(of something)
. 2 ( ) period [pIqriqd] or age [eIG];
Flavian period; early historic times;
La Tne period; Mousterian period;
Roman Age / period; prehistory;
. :
. () full-length ["fulleNT] adj. or
standing [stxndIN] n. attrib. (image)
. ( ) timber joint [tImbq GLInt];
* timber joint with projecting ends;
dovetail halving (joint without projecting ends)
. horseman [hLsmqn] (pl. horsemen) or rider [raIdq];
man-at-arms (pl. men-at-arms);
Thracian Hero
. () exploding [IksplqVdIN] (glaze defect)
. auxiliary [LgzIljqri]; ()
auxiliary science;
auxiliary sciences of history
. 1 () gem [Gem] or gemstone [GemstqVn] (used as an insert)
. 2 ( ) inset [Inset] or insert [InsE:t] (to a bracelet, finger-ring,
etc.); glass paste inset; glass inset
. butt [bAt] (weight fitted onto spear-shaft for balance)
. reuse [rJjHz]
. reused [rJjHzd] adj.
. socket [sPkIt]
. socketed [sPkItId]
. entrance [entrqns]; archway; side entrance,
( ) postern; false entrance;
monumental entrance;
stairway entrance; recessed entrance
. ejecta [IGektq] (soil thrown out when constructing pit-house, dromos, etc.)
. weathering [weDqrIN]
. effervescence ["efqvesns]
. . ( ) blowing
[blqVIN] (glass-making technique); mouldblowing, Amer. mold-blowing; free-blowing;

() . . blown adj.;
() . . mouldblown, Amer. mold-blown adj.; ()
. . free-blown adj.
. ( ) pop [pPp] or glaze pop [gleIz pPp] or popout
[pPpaVt] (glaze defect)
. cavetto [kqvetqV] (pl. cavetti or cavettos) (concave molding with a
cross section that approximates a quarter circle) or cove or coving (archit.);
* cavetto with protruding lower apex;
* cavetto with protruding upper apex
. ( ) brattice [brxtIs]
. (.) soaking [sqVkIN]
. pavement [peIvmqnt] or paving [peIvIN];
flagstone paving;
brick paving
. ( ) smelting [smeltIN]
. shaft straightener [SRft streItnq] or shaft wrench [SRft renC];
arrow straightener
. convex [,kPnveks]
. cultivation [,kAltIveISqn]; poultry
farming; cultivation of grain / cereals or
cereal farming; vegetable farming;
cattle-breeding; fruit farming
. cut [kAt] (opening or incision made by cutting); cuts
near the shoulders of blade
. cut in rock [kAt In rPk] or cut in bedrock [kAt In bedrPk]
. desalination ["dIsxlqn,aIz]
. desalinize ["dIsxlqnIzeISqn]
. of high artistic quality [qv haI RtIstIk kwPlIti]
. 1 () height [haIt]; ... to have a height
of meters
. 2 () hill [hIl]
. exhibition ["eksIbISqn]
. open-air burial ["qVpqn eq beriql]
. 1 (., ) boss [bPs] (ornam.)
. 2 ( ) projection [prqGekSqn] or protrusion
[prqtrHZqn], ( ) trunnion
[trAnjqn]; solid tower
. 3 ( ) knob [nPb] (on a fibula or brooch);
wing; toe; footknob; knobbed insert to bow
. etch [eC]; etch the surface
. 1 () exit [eksIt]; ( ) sally port (in a fortress)
. 2 . (, , ) outcrop
[aVtkrPp]
. ( ) efflorescence ["eflLresqns] sing.
(on the surface of an artifact)
. 1 ( ) incuse [InkjHz]
. 2 ( - ) struck [strAk]
past (coin)
. embroidery [ImbrLIdqri]
. leach [lJC] (process of leaching out alkali)
[lJC] leach (remove soluble from)
. dent [dent]
. adhesive [qdhJsIv] or binder [baIndq] (binding agent)
. ( ) tough [tAf] (glaze)
. viscosity [vIskOsItI]

134

135

. gawit [gWwIt] (room annexed to the western wall, in Armenian church)


. jet [Get] or jet-stone [GetstqVn]
. galley [gxli]; war galley
. gallery [gxlqri]; tiered balcony (like in Roman theatre)
. pebble [pebql]
. pebble [pebql] or pebble stone [pebql stqVn]
. Hallstatt [hLl,stxt] (period)
. Hallstatt [hLl,stxt]
., . ( ) hammam (Turkish bath)
. gargoyle [gRgOIl]
. guard [gRd] or quillon [kwIlPn] (of a sword); double guard;
shell patterned guard;
collar (of a sword)
. harem [hRrim]
. garrison [gxrIsqn]
. fitting [fItIN]; belt set
. Harpocrates [hRpPkrqtis] or temple-boy [tempql bPI]
. harpoon [hRpHn]; Azilian (flat) harpoon;
unilaterally barbed harpoon;
bilaterally barbed harpoon
. causeway [kLzweI]
. nail [neIl], () tack [txk]
. hecatomb [hekqtqVm]
. engraved gem [IngreIvqd Gem] or engraved gemstone [IngreIvqd
GemstqVn] (cameo or intaglio); glass gem
. Genoese ["GqnqVJz] (pl. Genoese)
. Genoese ["GqnqVJz]
. hill figure ["hIl fIgq]
. geomagnetic ["dzJqVmxgnetIk]
. geo textile or geotextile ["GJqVtekstaIl]
. heraldry [herqldri]; heraldist
. heraldic [herxldIk]
. blazon [bleIzqn] or coat of arms ["kqVt qv Rmz] sing., or arms [Rmz] pl.
. herma [hE:mq] (pl. hermae or hermai) or herm [hE:m]
. 1 () death [deT]
. 2 ( ) destruction [dIstrAkSqn];
final destruction
. 3 () fall [fel] (of a state)
. hydriskos [haIdrIskqs] (pl. hydriskoi)
. hydria [haIdriq] (pl. hydrai or hydrae)
. hydronym [haIdrqV,nIm]
. himation [hImxtJPn] (pl. himatia)
. gymnasiarch [GImneIzJ,Rk] (pl. gymnasiarchs) or gymnasiarchos
[GImneIzJ,Rkqs] (pl.gymnasiarchoi)
. gymnasium [GImneIziqm] (pl. gymnasia or gymnasiums) (ancient)
. gynaeceum ["gaInIkiqm]
. hypogeum ["haIpqVGJqm] (pl. hypogea) or hypogaeum ["haIpqVGJqm]
(pl. hypogaea)
. hypocaust ["haIpqVkLst]
. hypostyle ["haIpqVstaIl] n.
. hypostyle ["haIpqVstaIl] adj.
. hypothesis [haIpPTIsIs] (pl. hypotheses);
hypothesise, Amer. hypothesize
. gypsum [GIpsqm] or alabaster or alebaster [xlqbRstq] or Paris plaster
[pxrIs plRstq] or plaster of Paris [plRstqr qv pxrIs]
. gypsum [GIpsqm] or alabaster or alebaster [xlqbRstq] or Paris
plaster [pxrIs plRstq] n. attrib.

. garland [gRlqnd] or festoon [festHn]


. weight [weIt] (measuring unit)
. (.) 1 () dome [dqVm], () cupola [kjHpqlq]
. (.) 2 ( ) cupola [kjHpqlq] (decorative
finish of a dome)
. gladiator [glxdieItq]
. gladiatorial ["glxdiqtLrIql]; gladiatorial
combat
. ( ) gladius [glxdiqs] (pl. gladii)
. eye-socket [aI sQkIt]
. glazed [gleIzqd] or glassy [glRsi]
. glaze [gleIz] (glass coating); / overglaze
(outer coat of glaze); tough glaze;
glaze applied to ; - base
glaze;
inferior glaze; glaze of poor quality;
speckled glaze; /
dimpled glaze; thick glaze; thin glaze;
glaze which badly
adheres to the surface of the vessel; worn-off glaze
. glacis [glxsIs] (pl. glacis or glacises)
. 1 () clay [kleI] (material); ( )
argil; ball clay; baked clay;
o elutriated clay or purified clay;
perfectly-elutriated clay or well-floated clay;
impermeable clay; friable clay;
ill-baked clay; flaky clay;
tempered with soil clay or tempered with rock clay;
untempered clay
. 2 (, ) fabric [fxbrIk] (structure of a vessel) or
claybody [kleI,bPdI]
. clay [kleI] n. attrib.
. adobe [qdqVbi] or wattle-and-daub [wPtl qnd dLb] n. attrib.
. glyptics [glIptIks]
. depth [depT]; ( ) deposition depth
(of a layer or context); overall depth of a trench
. 1 (, ) blind [blaInd] (carving, arch)
. 2 () opaque [qVpeIk] or non-translucent [,nPn trxnzlHsqnt] or
non-transparent ["nPn trxnspxrqnt]
. ( , ) opacifier
[qV,pesqfaIq] (in making opaque glass)
. (, ) bezel [bezql] or mount [maVnt] (of a pendant, earring, etc.)
- . L-shaped [qlSeIpt] adj.
. * wooden box under oven (Slavonic)
. head [hed] (of a being);
head points northwards
. 1 () head-plate [hed pleIt] or head [hed] (of fibula or brooch)
. 2 ( ) lance head [lRns hed] or spear-head
[spIqhed] or spear-tip [spIq tIp]
. 3: terracotta head [,terqkPtq hed]
. cephalic index [sIfxlIk Indeks]
. head-dress [hed-dres] or hat [hxt] or head gear [hedgIq]
. resonator [rezqneItq] (vessel or space immured within a wall to resonate
or lighten the structure)
. potter [pPtq]
. pottery [pPtqri] (of baked clay)
. hoplite [hPplaIt]
. mountain [maVntIn]
. ( ) glazing bar [gleIzIN bR]
. burnt [bE:nt] or burned [bE:nd] (not completely) or charred [CRd]

136

137

. haut relief [qVt rIlJf] or high relief [haI rIlJf]


. horizon [hqraIzqn]; living floor;
building horizon
. horizontal ["hPrIzPntl]
. gorgoneion or Gorgoneion ["gLgqniIqn]
. gorytos [gLrItqs] (pl. gorytoi) or gorytus [gLrItqs] (pl. goryta) (case for
bow and arrows)
. neck [nek]; funnel-shaped neck;
conical neck; narrow neck; wide neck
. metallurgical furnace [,mItqlWGIkql fE:nIs]
. mining surface [maInIN sE:fIs] or excavation surface
["ekskqveISqn sE:fIs]
. rock crystal [rOk krIstql]; . . rock
crystal adj.
. () city [sIti], () town [taVn]; - city-state;
- fortress city; cave town
. * site of fortified settlement or city-site [sIti saIt] or abandoned city
[qbxndqnd sIti]; hillfort;
contour fort; promontory fort
. city [sIti] n. attrib.
. ( ) burgher [bWgq]
. pot [pPt];
pot with white incrustation (Kizil-Koba culture);
cooking pot
. state [steIt]; *state related somehow to ancient
Greece or/and Rome
. Goth [gPT]
. Gothic [gPTIk] (style)
. Gothic [gPTIk] (related to the Goths)
. crimps [krImps] (ornam.; Islamic art)
. () grave robber [greIv rPbq] or plunderer [plAndqrq]
. mine [maIn] or plunderers mine
[plAndqrqz maIn] (made by robbers to get access to grave)
. Gravettian [grqvetJqn] n.
. Gravettian [grqvetJqn] adj.
. gravel [grxvql]
. engraved [IngreIvqd] or etched [etSqd]
. engrave [IngreIv]
. engraving [IngreIvIN] or etching [etSIN] or cutting [kAtIN];
( ) ameo glass (technique);
relief cutting; hand-etched engravings;
intaglio cutting
. urbanism [E:bqnIzm] or urban architecture [E:bqn
RkItekCq]
. () garnet [gRnIt] n.
. ( ) garnet [gRnIt] adj.
. decanter [dIkxntq]
. (. ) 1 ( ) graffito [grxfJtqV]
(pl. graffiti)
. (. ) 2 ( ) sgraffito [zgrRfJtqV] (pl.
sgraffiti) or sgraffito technique [zgrRfJtqV teknJk]
. 1 () comb [kqVm]; composite comb
. 2 () crest [krest] (of a helmet)
. (.) combed decoration [kqVmbqd "dekqreISqn];
fine combed decoration
. Greek [grJk] n.
- . Greek and Roman [grJk qnd rqVmqn] or Graeco-Roman
["grekqVrqVmqn]
. Greek [grJk] adj.
. fungal [fANgql]; fungal growth

. fungus [fANgqs]
. 1 () torque [tLk] or neck-ring [nekrIN] or necklet [neklIt] (neck
decoration in the form of a circle with unclosed ends);
neck-ring terminating in animal heads
. 2 () grivna or money ingot [mAnI INgqt] (Slavonic)
. * room for ordinary warriors (Slavonic)
. griffin or gryphon or griffon [grIfqn] (monster)
. coffin [kPfIn] or casket [kRskIt]; (
) solum (pl. sola) (stone coffin);
larnax n. (pl. larnakes)
. 1 () tomb [tHm] or sepulchre, Amer. sepulcher [sepqlkq];
keel-vaulted tomb;
chamber tomb; architectonic
tomb; rockcut tomb or rock tomb; shaft grave;
shaft-niche grave;
shaft-and-chamber tomb; . :
. 2 ( ) chamber [CeImbq] (in a kurgan); side
chamber; main chamber
. 3 () grave [greIv] (megalithic);
gallery grave; giants grave;
entrance grave; wedgeshaped gallery grave; passage grave;
transepted gallery grave
. grot [grPt] (pl. grots) or grotto [grPtqV] (pl. grottoes or grottos)
. () screen [skrJn] (coarse sieve)
. breastbone [brestbqVn] or sternum [stE:nqm] (pl. sterna or sternums)
. thorax [TLrxks] (pl. thoraces or thoraxes)
. 1 ( ) sinker [sINkq]
. 2 ( ) lead [led] or lead weight [led weIt]
. 3 ( ) loomweight [lHmweIt]
. 1 () soil [sPIl] or ground [graVnd]; buried soil
(surface from which the depth of the main burial in the kurgan is calculated)
. 2 () priming [praImIN] or ground-colour [graVnd kAlq] or
background [bxkgraVnd]
. ( ) underground [AndqgraVnd] (without mound)
. mouthpieces [maVTpJsIz] (part of horse bits)
. ( ) lip [lIp] (of a rim)
. promenade [,prPmqnRd] (Slavonic)
. ( ) qubba (domed mausoleum)
. humus [hjHmqs]
. Hun [hAn]
. Hun [hAn] or Hunnish [hAnIS]
. 1 () rib [rIb] or cross rib [krPs rIb] (of Gothic vault)
. 2 () reglet [reglIt] (archit.)
. 3 ( ) edge [eG] (of coin); /
plain edge; / / routh edge;
grained edge;
herring bone edge; broken edge
. (.) ogee [qVGJ]
. ( ) glass-forming kiln [glRs,fLmIN kIln] or glassforming furnace [glRs,fLmIN fWnIs] or glass-melting kiln [glRs,meltIN
kIln] or glass-melting furnace [glRs,meltIN fWnIs]
. ( ) hot glass forming [hOt glRs fLmIN]
or hot working [hOt,wWkIN]
. (. ) gutta [gAtq] (pl. guttae)
. guttus [gAtqs] (pl. gutti) (feeding bottle)

138

139

. ( ) press ground [pres graund] or pressing ground [presIN


graund]
. dakka (platform in mosque)
. data [deItq] (pl. of datum), ( ) account;
stratigraphy (as a source of data)
. tribute [trIbjHt]
. tributary [trIbjVtqri] (person)
. monstrance [mPnstrqns] or ostensorium [,PstensLrJqm] (pl.
ostensoria) or ostensory [Pstensqri]
. pyx or pix [pIks] (a container in which the Eucharist is
carried to the sick)
. date [deIt]; (-) foundation date (of);
base date
. (-) . (- ) date to
[deIt]; (- ) item dates to
. 1 ( ) dating [deItIN] or chronology
[krqnPlqGi]; absolute dating or absolute
chronology; relative dating or relative
chronology; cross-dating
. 2 (): archaeomagnetic dating;

tree-ring dating; -
potassium-argon dating;
varve dating;
obsidian dating; radiocarbon dating;
thermoluminescence dating
. (
) datable or dateable [deItqbql]
. dacha [dxSq]
. door [dL]
. 1 ( ) yard [jRd] or courtyard [kLtjRd];
courtyard or inner yard;
( ) forecourt; backyard;
cloister; churchyard
. 2 () bailey [beIli] or ward [wLd]; () outer ward or
outer bailey; () inner ward or inner bailey
. 3 ( ) farm [fRm], () estate [IsteIt] or manor [mxnq]
. 4 (): * complex of buildings for trading and storing
goods or row of stalls (Slavonic); mint;
inn or xenodochium (pl. xenodochia) (Greek or Roman);
farm-yard or stockyard
. 5 () court [kLt] (royal)
. palace [pxlIs]; caesars palace;
kings / royal palace; khans
palace or palace of the khans; czars palace;
private palace
- . palatial garden [pqleISql gRdqn] adj. or palatial and
garden [pqleISql qnd gRdqn] (related to palace with gardens)
. (.) palatial [pqleISql]
. double-edged ["dAbql eGd]
. () double-handled ["dAblhxndlqd] or two-handled
[,tHhxndlqd]
. bi-apsidal [baIxpsIdql]
. two-chambered ["tHCeImbqd]
. double-pillared [dAbql pIlqd] or two-pillared [tH pIlqd]
. two piece [,tH pJs]
. two-storey, Amer. two-story [tH stLri]

. ( ) devitrification
[dJvItrqfaIkxISqn] (of glass)
. deionised water [dJ,aIqnaIzqd wLtq]
. deesis [dJJses] (pl. deeses)
. decor [deIkL] or decoration [,dekqreISqn]
. decorative [dekqrqtIv]; decorative
design
. decree [dIkrJ]; decree for Diophantos;
decree honoring Diophantos; honorific
decree; proxeny decree
. . dentil [dentIl]
. dervish [dWvIS], also dervis [dWvIs]
. () wood [wVd], () timber [tImbq] (building)
. wooden [wVdn], Amer. wood [wVd]
. 1 () realm [relm] or state [steIt] or power [paVq]
. 2 () orb [Lb]
. sod [sPd] or turf [tE:f]; sod block
. * decorated panel above a door
. detail [dJteIl] or piece [pJs] or part [pRt];
architectural detail or architectonic member;
crowning element;
structural element;
structural member
. citadel [sItqdql] (Slavonic art)
. defect [dJfekt] n. or chip [CIp] or flaw [flL] (imperfection);
casting defects or casting voids
. flaw inspection [flL InspekSqn] or flaw detection [flL
dItekSqn]
. deformation ["dJfLmeISqn]; skull
deformation
. deformed [dIfLmd]
. activity [xktIvIti];
agricultural activity; building activities
. sod [sPd] or turf [tE:f]
. ( ) ami or jami [Gami] or jami masjid [Gami masjid]
(Friday mosque)
. jute [GHt] n.
. jute [GHt] n. attrib.
. diadem [daIqdem]
. diaconicon or diakonikon [,daIqkPnIkPn] or sacristy [sxkrIsti] or
vestry [vestri]
. diameter [daIxmItq]; outer diameter;
inner diameter
. diatreta ["daIqtrJt] only sing.
. didrachm ["dJdrxkm] (pl. didrachms) or didrachma ["dJdrxkmq] (pl.
didrachmae or didrachmas)
. dakka (platform in mosque)
. dynasty [dInqstI]; - the Julio-Claudian
Dynasty; the Severan dynasty
. dinos [daInqs] (pl. dinoi)
. (. ) dipinto [dIpIntqV] (pl. dipinti: painted writings on a vessel)
. dipteral [dIptqrql] adj. or dipteron [dIptqrPn] n. (archit.)
. diptych [dIptIk]
. 1 ( ) disc, Amer. disk [dIsk] (flat circular object)
. 2 ( ) disc, Amer. disk [dIsk] (stone tool);
convex disc
. discoid [dIskOId] or disc-shaped, Amer. disk-shaped [dIsk SeIpt]
. diskos [dIskqs] (Eucharist plate)
. distilled water [distild wLtq]
. ( ) distyle [dIstaIl] adj. (archit.)

140

141

. length [leNT]; overall length


. 1 (. ) ( , , ) bottom
[bPtqm] (of a structure that has no vaulting, e. g. pit)
. 2 (. ) () bottom [bPtqm] or base [beIs] (of a vessel);
fenestrated foot; globular / rounded base;
conoidal / pointed base; flat base
- . pre- [prJ]
e . (., ) inclusion [InklHZqn] (into fabric),
) tempering [tempqrIN] (in potterymaking); grit tempering; strawtempering
. pre-Islamic ["prJIzlxmIk]
. prehistoric ["prJhIstPrIk]
. paper [peIpq]; paper presented
at a conference; () present a paper (of)
. [vxli] valley; hanging valley;
river vally
. dolichocephalic [dOlIkqVkefxlIk]
. adze, Amer. adz [xdz]
. dolmen [dPlmen]; portal dolmen
. 1 () house [haVs] (dwelling); log house;
elevational earth-covered
house; gallery house;
adobe house; town house (residence
in a city); timber house; longhouse;
abbots house; priest house;
pleasure house; residential / living / dwelling house; wattle-and-daub house; corridor house;
country house; pilgrims hostel;
/ ; stepped house;
half-timber house; earth-covered house;
private house
. 2 (, ) house [haVs] (family line); princely house;
ruling house
. mortuary house [mLCuqri haVs]
. coffin [kPfIn] or casket [kRskIt]
. house-building [haVs bIldIN]
. () bottom [bPtqm] or base [beIs] (of a vessel)
. donjon [dPnGqn] or keep [kJp] or dungeon [dAnGqn]
. Dorian [dPrIqn]
. Doric [dPrIk]
. Doric [dPrIk] (related to the architectonic order only)
. road [rqVd]; division road;
monastery road; access road or approach road
. roadbed [rqVdbed]
. * make supplementary investigation / excavation
. . armour, Amer. armor [Rmq]; ring
mail; chain mail; plate /
plated armour; - ( ) splint
armour; full suit of armour; knightly
armour; ceremonial armour;
scale armour or scale hauberk
. reliability [rI"laIqbIlIti];
stratigraphic reliability
. pre-Christian ["prJkrIsCqn]
. dredge [dreG]
. 1 () treasure [treZq]
. 2 () jewel [GHql] (pl. jewelry)
. valuable [vxljuqbql] or precious [preSqs]
. drachma [drxkmq] (pl. drachmae or drachmas) or drachm [drxm]

. shaft [SRft] (of arrow or spear), ( ) haft [hRft]


. ancient Russian [eInSqnt rASqn]
. ancient [eInSqnt]
. 1 () antiquity [xntIkwIti];
Classical antiquity; extreme antiquity
. 2 () antique [xntJk], ( .) antiquities [xntIkwItiz]
(objects); / Classical antiquities;
prehistoric antiquities
., . grit [grIt]
. dryad [draIxd]
. dromos [drPmqs] or corridor [kPrIdL] (underground gallery / passageway
leading to a burial chamber)
. 1 ( ) dart [dRt] (for a catapult)
. 2 () javelin [GxvqlIn]
. 3 ( ) sagae [sRgx] (stone tool)
. ( ) arc handle [Rk hxndl]
. colander [kAlqndq] or filter [fIltq] or strainer [streInq] (of bigger size,
cf. )
. chimney [CImni]
. (.) bulge [bAlG] (on a pillar, column, etc. in Slavonic archit.)
. dissel-boom [dIsql "bHm]
. diaconicon or diakonikon ["daIqkPnIkPn] or sacristy [sxkrIsti] or
vestry [vestri]
. inch [InC]

142

143

. Gospel [gPspql] or evangel ["JvxnGql]


. evangelist [IvxnGIlIst]
. Hebrew [hJbrH] or Jew [GH]; ancient Hebrew
. Hebrew [hJbrH] or Jewish [GHIS]
. Caucasian [kLkeIziqn] (racial)
. Egyptologist ["JGIptOlqGist]
. Egyptology ["JGIptOlqGi]
. () unit [jHnIt]; administrative
unit; weighing unit;
measuring unit;
monetary unit; unit of stratigraphy or US
. unicorn [jHnIkLn]
. stole [stqVl] (of an Orthodox priest, worn over both shoulders)
. natural [nxCqrql]

. (. ) ( ) caltrop [kxltrqp] or spiked caltrop [spaIkt


kxltrqp]

. 1 ( ) javelin-head [GxvqlIn hed]


. 2 () tip [tIp] or tang [txN]
. brazier [breIziq]
. pole [pqVl] or rod [rPd] or staff [stRf] or stick [stIk];
crozier; baton de commandment
. () nodule [nPdjHl] (of stone)
., . iron [aIqn]; rod
iron; ( ) wrought iron;

pig iron
. iron [aIqn]; . . ferrous;
. . ferric adj.
. groove [grHv]
. 1 () sacrifice [sxkrIfaIs] or offering [PfqrIN]
. 2 () victim [vIktIm] (offered as a sacrifice)
. 1 () altar [Lltq] (pagan)
. 2 ( ) prothesis [prPTIsIs] (pl. protheses) or
communion table [kqmjHnjqn teIbql] (where bread and wine are being
prepated for the liturgy)
. 1 ( ) prothesis [prPTIsIs] (pl. protheses) or
communion table [kqmjHnjqn teIbql] (where bread and wine are being
prepated for the liturgy)
. 2 ( ) paten [peItqn] or patin
[pxtIn] or patina [pxtInq] (a plate that is used to hold the host during the
celebration of the Eucharist)
. sacrificial ["sxkrIfISql]; funeral food
. sacrifice [sxkrIfaIs] or offering [PfqrIN];

bloodless
sacrifice;

sacrifice of animals; bloody


sacrifice; sacrifice of a human being
. tin [tIn] or tin plate [tIn pleIt]
. token [tqVkqn]
. gutter [gAtq]; rain gutter;
drainage gutter; drain
. (. ) 1 (): (, ) quernstone
[kwqnstqVn] (lower immobile stone of quern), (, )
handstone [hxndstqVn] (upper mobile stone of quern)
. (. ) 2 () millstone [mIlstqVn]
., . painting [peIntIN] (art)
. livestock farming [laIvstPk fRmIN]
. animal [xnImql]; wild animal;
domestic animal; domesticated
animal;
monster; sea-monster
. Judaiser [GHdeIzq] (in 16th-century Russia)
. dwelling [dwelIN]; portable dwelling
. dwelling [dwelIN] or living [lIvIN] or residential [,rezIdenSql]
. dweller [dwelq] or inhabitant [InhxbItqnt] or resident [rezIdqnt]
. priest [prJst] (pagan)
. mounting [maVntIN] or mount [maVnt] or setting [setIN] or bezel
[bezql] (for a jewel)

. fence [fens]
. visor or vizor [vaIzq]
. core [kL] or fill [fIl] (of wall, consisting of rubble mass);
rubble mass obstructing entrance pit
. heap [hJp] or collapse [kqlxps]
. tendril [tendrIl] or scroll [skrqVl]
. zawiya (in Islam: place where a holy man both lived and was buried)
. smoothing [smHDIN];
smoothing of vessel surfaces
. extramural ["ekstrqmjqVrql] or outside the city (walls) [aVtsaId Dq
sIti wLlz] (a structure located there)
. blank [blxNk] or half-finished product ["hRf fInISt prPdAkt] or semifinished product ["semifInISt prPdAkt]
. contamination [kqn"txmIneISqn], () impurities [ImpjuqrItiz]

pl.; surface contamination


. contaminant [kqntxmInqnt]
. bolt [bqVlt] or clasp [klRsp] (as for a door / lock)
. covered with topsoil [kAvqd wID tPpsOIl]
. 1 () seizers [sJzqs] or clamp [klxmp] or clinch [klInC] or cramp
[krxmp] (tool)
. 2: punch of finger [pAnC qv fINgq]
. tempered [tempqd] (steel)
. stone barrier [stqVn bxriq] (vertical slabs covering the entrance into a grave)
. rivet [rIvIt]; rivetted
. hair slide [heq slaId], Amer. barrette [bxret]
. * zakomara or semicircular / ogee top section of a wall corresponding to
the interior vault (Russian archit.)
. fire-blackened [faIqblxkqnd]
. flange [flxnG] or lip [lIp] (protruding edge of metal artifact)
. consolidant [kqnsPlIdent]
. hall [hLl] (large room or building for public gathering);
exhibition hall or gallery or showroom; hypostyle;
museum gallery / hall;
audience / reception hall; apsidal hall;
chapter house; hall of pray or
prayer hall
. deposition ["depqzISqn]; stratification (configuration
of layers)
. bay [beI] or gulf [gAlf]
. carefully polished [keqfqli pPlISt] or carefully burnished [keqfqli
bE:nISt]
. soak [sqVk]
. castle [kRsql]; consuls castle
. lock [lPk]
. overseas ["qVvqsJz]
. ( , ) zanana (womens quarters in a
palace or house)
. edged [eGqd] or sharpened [SRpqnd]
. west [west]
. western [westqn], Amer. west [west]
. infilling [InfIlIN] or webbing [webIN] (surface between the ribs of a
rib vault)
. shoulder [SqVldq] (archit.) or ledge [leG]
. preserve [prIzE:v]; archaeological
preserve
. infill [InfIl] or filling [fIlIN] or fill [fIl]
. ( ) aggregate [xgrIgIt] (rushed stone, gravel, or
sand added to cement to make concrete)
. fill (with) [fIl] or infill [InfIl]
. bolt [bqVlt] (fastening bar)
. carpus [kRpqs]
. sketch [skeC]
. (.) indentation [,IndenteISqn] (ornam.)
. clasp [klRsp] or fastener [fRsqnq]; dress fastener
. 1 () building [bIldIN] (process)
. 2 () buildings [bIldINz] (urban area);
urban buildings
. infill [InfIl] or filling [fIlIN] (of friable material);
filling made to level a surface
. 1 ( ) running [rAnIN] n., only sing., also drip [drIp]
or spilling [spIlIN] (slip or glaze defect)
. 2 () spilling [spIlIN] (soil deposited by flowing water along sides of
pits, dugouts, etc.)
. abraded [qbreIdId]

144

145

. funeral [fjHnqrql]; funeral food;


funeral service or requiem
. (, , ) grip [grIp] or handgrip
[hxndgrIp]
. bury [beri] or inter [IntE:]
. burial [beriql] or funeral [fjHnqrql] or interment [IntE:mqnt];
( ) burial no.
was found associated with (artifacts);
open-air burial; secondary burial;
* burial made long time after the death;
in-ground burial; childs burial;
female grave;
cist grave;
burial in tree-trunk sarcophagus (pl. sarcophagi) or tree-trunk burial;
()
jar burial; urn grave;
horses burial; /
inhumated burial; /
cremated burial; main burial
or primary burial;
supine burial or extended burial;
prone burial; burial in
sitting position; (
) crouched burial;
( ) contracted burial; /
horses burial or horse grave;
male grave;
flexed burial; collective / family grave
/ tomb; undisturbed grave;
twin burial; burial covered by
tumulus / kurgan / barrow; disturbed grave
. blacken [blxkqn]
. 1 ( ) cleaning [klJnIN] (in trench), (
) rabotage
. 2: ( ) fettling [fetlIN] (in
conservation)
. ( ) * finger pinch decoration (on ceramic)
. clean [klJn] (masonry, grave, etc.)
. clasp [klRsp] or lock clasp [lPk klRsp]
. link [lINk] (of a chain)
. belfry [belfri] or bell-tower [bel tQVq]; wall
belfry (in the form of a wall with apertures for bells);
tower belfry (in the form of a tower with apertures for bells in
the highest tier)
. house [haVs] or building [bIldIN] or edifice [edIfIs];
residential structure; cult space or religious edifice;
public building / space; private
space; five-headed building
. agriculture [xgrI"kAlCq] or cultivation ["kAltIveISqn] or ()
farming [fRmIN]; / horticulture
(primitive agriculture); subsistence farming;
crop farming; -
slash-and-burn agriculture or shifting cultivation or
swidden cultivation
. agriculturist [xgrI,kAlCqrIst] or agriculturalist [xgrI"kAlCqrqlIst]
or cultivator ["kAltIveItq] or farmer [fRmq];
horticulturalist (one who is doing primitive agriculture)
. (-) digging stick [dIgIN stIk]
. pit-house [pIt haVs] or subterranean home [,sAbtqreIniqn hqVm] or
dugout [dAgaVt] or hut [hAt] (subterranean)

. ( , ) zanana (womens quarters in a


palace or house)
. 1 () mirror [mIrq]; mirror with
side handle; looped mirror
. 2 ( , ) cavetto [kqvetqV]
(upper part of avetto vault or a dome)
. grain [greIn]
. () handmill [hxndmIl], () quern [kwWn];
( ,
) rotary quern; (
:
) saddle quern
. granulation ["grxnjHleISqn] (ornam.)
. ( ) ziyada
. ziggurat [zIgHrxt] or temple tower [tempql taVq]
. goldsmith [gqVld,smIT]
. sign [saIn] or mark [mRk]; mint mark;
( , ,
) privy mark (on a coin);
grave marker; ( ) cup mark or cup-andring mark
. architecture [RkItekCq] or architectonics sing. ["RkItektOnIks];
e o ritual architecture
. ash [xS] or cinder [sIndq]
. ashy [xSi]
. gold [gqVld]
. gold [gqVld] or golden [gqVldqn]; Golden Fleece
. gilding [gIldIN] or gilt [gIlt]; golden bands
technique
. cinder heap [sIndq hJp] or burnt mound [bE:nt maVnd]
. zone [zqVn]; residential area or dwelling area;
zone of contacts; work place
. probe [prqVb] (excavation tool)
. zoomorphic [zHqmLfIk]
. tooth [tHT] (pl. teeth)
. dressing axe, Amer. dressing ax [dresIN xks]
. 1 () tooth [tHT] (of a tool)
. 2 (.) dentil [dentIl] or denticle [dentIkl]
. 3 ( ) merlon [mWlqn]
. toothed [tu:Tt], (.) denticulate [dentIkjuleIt] or denticulated
[dentIkjuleItId] (archit.)
. 1 ( , ) zulla (Arabic:
shaded area)
. 2 ( ) zulla (covered
part of mosque)

146

147

. Hebrew [hJbrH] (language)


. 1 () needle [nJdl]
. 2 () pin [pIn] (of a fibula or brooch)
. needle case [nJdl keIs] or needle holder [nJdl hqVldq]
. toy [tPI]
. idol [aIdl]
. idolater [aIdPlqtq]
. idolatry [aIdPlqtri]
. isba or izba [Izba] or log hut [lOg hAt] (Slavonic); * isba with chimney;
* isba with stove having no chimney
. statue [stxCH] or sculpture [skAlpCq]

. lime [laIm]; limestone crumb


. limestone [laImstqVn]
. lime [laIm]; slaked lime; /
burnt lime or caustic lime or quick lime
. issue [ISH] or edition [IdISqn]; first edition;
second edition; reprint
. publishing house [pAblISIN haVs]
. 1 () item [aItqm] or object [PbGIkt] or artefact / artifact
[RtIfxkt]; waster; twopiece item; animal style item;
worked tusk; clay object;
worked stone; ivory item;
local product; roundlet;
carving (object); composite item;
glasswork (item); jewel (pl. jewelry)
., . 2 ( ) ware [weq], (
.) wares [weqz], ( c :
pottery (ware);
dipped enamel ware; bronzes or bronzework
or bronze ware; silverware;
gold sheet jewelry;
goldwork; ceramics
(artifacts); metalware;
silverware;
gouged ware; local products or local
ware; imported wares or imports;
basketry n. (wares); ()
simple stoneware; glass ware;
() fine stoneware; terra cotta
wares; functional ware;
exported wares or exports
. break [breIk] (place where atifact is broken) or crevice [krevIs] or fracture
[frxkCq]; in fracture
. meander [mixndq] (river bend)
. measure [meZq] or dimension [daImenSqn];
three-dimensional
. measuring [meZqrIN]
. measure [meZq] (something) or take measure [teIk meZq] (of something)
. ( ) Iznik n. attrib. (pottery type
and decoration)
. () abrasion [qbreIZqn]
. 1 (general) picture [pIkCq] or image [ImIG];
raised design; mirror image;
() full-length image;
image in three-quarter pose; -
gorgoneion or Gorgoneion; ()
rock art or rock carving; negative image;
half-figure or half-length image;
sculptured image; perspective
drawing; incised design
. 2 ( ) mintage [mIntIG] (the impression made on a coin)
. tile [taIl] (to cover walls); glazed tile
. tile [taIl] (related to wall tile)
. chip [CIp] or flaw [flL] (imperfection)
. study [stAdi] or investigation [In,vestIgeISqn] or exploration
["eksplqreISqn] or examination [Ig"zxmIneISqn]
. icon [aIkPn]; steatite / slate icon
. iconoclast [aIkPnqklxst]
. iconoclastic [aI"kPnqklxstIk]
. iconoclasm [aIkPnqklxzm]

. iconographic ["aIkqnPgrqfIk]
. iconography ["aIkqnPgrqfi]
. iconographer ["aIkqnPgrqfq]
. iconolater ["aIkqnPlxtq]
. iconolatric ["aIkqnPlxtrIk]
. iconolatry ["aIkqnPlxtri]
. iconostasis ["aIkqnPstqsIs] (pl. iconostases), also iconostasis wall;
* iconostatsis of advanced type having complicated
hierarchical structure
. silt [sIlt]
. figure [fIgq] or picture [pIkCq] or illustration [,IlqstreISqn]
., . ( ) imamzadeh (venerated tomb)
., . ( ) imaret
. empire [em"paIq]; Ottoman Empire;
Later Roman Empire; Roman Empire
. import [ImpLt]; Thracian
import
. 1 ( ) impost [ImpqVst]
. 2 ( , )
mullion [mAljqn]
., . impressed ware [Imprest weq]
. museum registration book [mju:zJqm ,reGIstreISqn bVk]
. equipment [IkwIpmqnt] or tools pl. [tHlz] or instruments pl.
[InstrVmqnts]; grave goods or funeral
equipment or funeral set; accompaniments
(to a burial)
. inhibitor or inhibiter [InhIbItq]; corrosion inhibitor
. inhumation ["Inhju:meISqn]
. ( ) * impression of coin (made in ancient or medieval
period, often as decoration)
. indiction [IndIkSqn]
. Indo-European [IndqV"juqrqpI:qn]
. industry [Indqstri]; industry of flint tools
. encrustation or incrustation ["InkrAsteISqn]
. encrust or incrust [InkrAst]
. alien [eIliqn] (belonging to another race / confession, in czarist Russia)
. insignia [InsIgniq] or insigne [InsIgni] (pl. insignia or insignias)
. instrument [InstrVmqnt] or tool [tHl];
socketed instrument
. ( ) insula [InsjVlx] (pl. insulae)
. intaglio [IntRliqV]; intaglio portrait
. ( ) intarsia [IntRsiq]
. intercolumniation ["IntqkqlRmnJeISqn]
. interpretation [In"tE:prIteISqn]
. interior [IntIqriq] or interior space [IntIqriq speIs]
. information ["InfqmeISqn]; reliable
information or trustworthy information
. Ionian [aIqVnIqn]
. Ionian [aIqVnIqn]
. egg-and-anchor ["egqndxNkq] or egg-and-dart ["egqnd-dRt] or egg-andtongue ["egqndtAN]
. Ionic [aIPnIk] (related to the architectonic order only)
. hippodrome [hIpqdrqVm]
. iridescene ["IrIdesqns]
. isar or medieval fortification ["mediJvql "fLtIfIkeISqn] (on the southern coast
of the Crimea only)
. hesychasterion (pl. hesychasteria)
. exception [IksepSqn]; (-) with exception
(of something)
. artificial ["RtIfISql]

148

149

. art [Rt]; - applied art;


monumental art;
funerary art; jewelry art
. art historian [Rt hIstLrIqn]
. art history [Rt hIstqri]
. Islam [IslRm]
. Islamic [IslxmIk]
. isodomic [:IsO:dLmIk] or isodomous [IsOdqmqs]
. study [stAdi] or investigation [In"vestIgeISqn] or exploration
["eksplqreISqn] or examination [Ig"zxmIneISen];
archaeological study, () archaeological survey;
() resistivity
survey; laboratory research or laboratory
study or laboratory analysis (in contrast to field research);
field research or field study or field survey
. scholar [skPlq], ( )
scientist [saIqntIst]; ancient historian
. () abrasion [qbreIZqn]
. historian [hIstLrIqn]; ancient historian
. history [hIstqri]; lassical history;
ancient history;
modern history; mediaeval history,
Amer. medieval history; history of mankind
. 1 ( ) source [sLs]; written
source or primary source
. 2 () source [sLs] or spring [sprIN]
. Judaism [GhdeI-Izqm]
. Jewish Studies [GHIS stAdIz]
. Jew [GH] (adherent of Judaism)
. Hebrew [hJbrH] or Jew [GH]
. Hebrew [hJbrH] or Jewish [GHIS]

. (.) talon [txlqn] (archit.); * talon with


convex curve down; * talon with convex curve up
. ( ) qabr (Moslem grave)
. cavalryman [kxvqlrimqn] (pl. cavalrymen)
. cavalry [kxvqlri]
. ( ) air pocket [Fq pPkIt] (in ceramic)
. thurible [TjHqrIbl] or censer [sensq]
. kados [kxdqs] (pl. kadoi)
. cossack [kPsxk]
. barracks [bxrqks] pl.
. casemate [keIsmeIt] or cell [sel]
. fire tower [faIq taVq]
. kalathos [kxlxTqs] (pl. kalathoi)
. kalebas [kxlebqs] (pl. kalebai)
. ( ) kalemdan (box for pens, medieval Turkish or Arab)
. ridge tile [rIG taIl]
. wicket [wIkIt]; ( ) sally port (in a
fortress)
. () calotte [kqlPt] (of shield boss)
. caldarium [kxldqrIqm] (pl. caldaria or caldariums)
. tracing paper [treIsIN ,peIpq]
. kalpis [kxlpIs] (pl. kalpides)
. () stoneware [steVnwFq]
. stone [stqVn] adj.
., . () simple stoneware [sImpql steVnwFq]

. stonemason [stqVn,meIsqn] or bricklayer [brIk,leIq]


. 1 ( ) stone [stqVn] n.; rubble or quarrystone
or rough stone; precious stone;
capstone or keystone or quoin; /
wedge stone or voussoir; /
facing slab / stone; throwing stone (for
sling or catapult); gravestone or headstone or
tombstone; () unprocessed stone;
/ ( ) undressed / unhewn
stone;
() worked stone; / ( )
dressed / hewn stone; / abutment stone, (
) springer (of an arch or vault); bright
stones used in jewelry (not as valuable as precious or semiprecious stones);
semiprecious stone; sling
stone; () heelstone;
rune stone; baetulus (pl. baetuli) or baetyl
(pl. baetyls) or baetylus (pl. baetyli); building
stone; grindstone or grinding stone (for sharpening)
. 2 () rock [rPk]
. 1 () room [rHm]; cell [sel] (in prison)
. 2 () chamber [CeImbq] (of grave); burial
chamber or grave chamber or funeral / funerary chamber or tomb chamber;
side chamber; main chamber
. 3 () camera [kxmqrq]
. 4: ( ) stacking
chamber [stxkIN CeImbq]
. research lab [rIsE:C lxb] (for pottery analysis)
. cameo [kxmi-qV] (pl. cameos)
. hearth [hRT] (medieval and modern)
. ( ) sea grass [sJ grRs] (often used as bedding in graves)
. ( ) campanile ["kxmpqnJli]
. ditch [dIC] or gutter [gAtq]; drainage ditch
. 1 () canal [kqnxl]; drainage canal;
irrigative canal
. 2 () channel [Cxnl]
. sewerage system [sjHqrIG sIstIm] or sewer system [sjHq sIstIm]
or canalization ["kxnqlaIzeISqn] or drainage [dreInIG]
. andelabrum ["kxndIlRbrqm] (pl. andelabra; .
)
. 1 () fluting [flHtIN] (of a column)
. 2 ( , ) ribbing [rIbIN]
(glass and ceramic technique)
. ( ) fluted [flHtId]
. flute [flHt], also groove [grHv] or channel [Cxnl] (of a column)
. canon [kxnqn] (tradition)
. kantharos [kxnTxrqs] (pl. kantharoi) or cantharos [kxnTxrqs] (pl.
cantharoi)
. china clay [CaInq kleI] or kaolin, also kaoline [keIqlIn]
. chapel [Cxpql] or oratory [PrqtPrJ] (part of a bigger Catholic or
Anglican church)
. () dropper [drOpq] or dropper cup [drOpq kAp]
. capital [kxpItl] (of a column); capital in antis;
Arabian capital; Doric
capital; ( ) scalloped
/ Winchester capital; Ionic capital;
block / cubic / cushion capital;
() palm capital; () bell capital;
stiff leaf capital;

150

151

water leaf capital;


parastade capital; Corinthian capital;
foliate / foliated / leaf capital;
( , ) crocket capital;
side capital; ( )
figured / historiated capital
. ( )
chapter house [CxptqhaVs]
. * pagan sacred place or pagan temple [peIgqn tempql] (Slavonic; usually
with wooden gable roof, fireplace and idols)
., . ( ) kapilica or kaplica (Turkish
thermal bath house)
- . caravanserai [,kxrqvxnsqraI] or caravansary ["kxrqvxnsqri]
. Karaite [keqrqaIt] n.
. Karaite [keqrqaIt] adj.
. pencil [pensql]
. caryatid ["kxrixtId]
. frame [freIm] or framework [freImwE:k] or skeleton [skelItqn] (archit.) or
truss [trAs] () timber lacing
- . wattle-and-daub [wPtl qnd dLb]
. cornice [kLnIs]; upper cornice (like in entablature);
intermediate cornice
. map [mxp]; archaeological / archaeology map;
relief map or raised relief map;
topographic map
. map [mxp]
. mapping [mxpIN]
. card [kRd] or sheet [SJt]; inventory /
registration sheet; context sheet;
sample card
. cartouch [katHS]
. carchesium (pl. carchesia)
. ( ) qasaba (Arabian citadel)
. cascade [kxskeId]
. ( - ) qasr (Umayyad palace)
. . () caisson [keIsqn] or lacunar [lqkjHnq]
. pot [pPt] or saucepan [sLspxn]
. 1 () . catacomb [kxtqkHm] (Roman)
. 2 () catacomb [kxtqkHm] or chambered grave [CeImbqd
greIv] (barbarian: consists of entrance pit, burial chamber, and sometimes
dromos); underground catacomb (without mound);
multi-chamber catacomb;
under-kurgan catacomb
. catacomb [kxtqkHm]
. catalyst [kxtqlIst]
. catalytic ["kxtqlItIk]
. catapult [kxtqpAlt]
. ( ) cataract [kxtqrxkt] or porticullis
[pLtkAlIs]
. cathedral [kqTJdrql]
. cowrie or cowry [kauri]
/ . onditions of manufacture [kqndISqn qv
"mxnjqfxkCq] pl. (of coins)
. 1 () pulpit [pVlpIt] or see [sJ] (in Catholic church)
. 2 () department [dIpRtmqnt] (at a university)
. () * major church in a city or its part with no parish (Orthodoxy)
. tile [taIl] (to cover walls); glazed tile
. tile [taIl] (related to wall tile)
. cabin [kxbIn] (room in a ship); ( )
ikrion (pl. ikria)

. ashlar [xSlq] or quadra [kwPdrx] (pl. quadrae)


. * excavation trench ["ekskqveISqn trenC] or grid [grId] or quadrant
[kwPdrqnt] (part of a dig, usually square, 2x2, 5x5 or 10x10 m)
. 1 (.) cross in square [krPs In skweq] (ornam.)
. 2 (.) * tetraconch [,tetrqkPnC] or quatrefoil church [kLtq,fPIl
CE:C]
. 3 () clover-leaf intersection vessel [klqVvqlJf ,IntqsekSqn vesql]
. quarter [kwLtq] or block [blPk]; living quarter or
residential quarter or dwelling quarter
. quartz [kwLts]
. quartzose [kwLt,sOs]
. * vessel for storing and serving kvass (with disk-shaped body, flaring neck,
and handle)
. 1 ( ) Kelt [kelt] or Celt [selt]
. 2 () celt [selt] (socketed axe)
. Keltic [keltIk] or Celtic [seltIk]
. cell [sel] (monastic)
. cenotaph [senqtRf]
. centaur [sentL]
. box tile [bPks taIl]
. ( ) kerameikos (pl. kerameikoi)
. 1 () ceramic [sIrxmIk] or ceramics [sIrxmIks]
. 2 () earthenware [E:Tqnweq] or ceramics [sIrxmIks] or
ceramic wares [sIrxmIk weqz]; architectural
ceramics; glazed ware;
pottery; mould-made ware or
moulded ware or moulded pottery;
coil pottery; Iznik ware; /
pottery imports or imported ware;
/ coarse ware;
smoothed ware;
lustre-ware;
polychrome painted ware;
relief pottery; figural
painting ware; pottery with string
patterns; Corinthian pottery;
red-figured ware or red-on-black ware;
wheel-made ware / pottery or wheel-turned pottery;
hand-made ware / pottery; - linear pottery;
polished / burnished ceramics or polished / burnished
ware; local pottery; -
stroke ornamented ware; burial
pottery or burial ware; glazed ware;
painted ware or painted pottery;
painted red-figured pottery;
painted black-figured pottery; /
plain burnished pottery; tableware;
building ware (bricks, pipes, and tiles);
transport ware; fabric-marked ware;
black-figured pottery;
corded ware or cord-marked ware; -
dotted-and-combed ware or pit-comb ware
. ceramic [sIrxmIk]; clay (already
prepared for pottery-making) or body
. kernos [kE:nqs] (pl. kernoi)
. caisson [keIsqn] or lacunar [lqkjHnq]
. * having caissons (ornam.)
. kyathos [kaIqTqs] (pl. kyathoi)
. kibitka or Scythian wagon [sIDIqn wxgqn]
. 1 ( ) ciborium [sIbLrJqm] (pl. ciboria)

152

153

or pyx, also pix [pIks] (receptacle for holding the consecrated wafers of
the Eucharist)
. 2 ( ) ciborium [sIbLrJqm] (pl. ciboria) or
canopy [kxnqpi] (placed over an altar)
. keel-shaped [kJl,SeIpt]
. kylix [kaIlIks] (pl. kylikes) or calix [kxlIks] (pl. calicis)
. cyma [sJmq] or cymatium [sJmeISqm] (pl. cymatia) or kymation
[kJmeISqn]
. Cimmerian [sImirJqn]
. Cimmerian [sImirJqn]
. dagger [dxgq]; * dagger with side
projections; * dagger with cuts at
the shoudlers of blade; crooked blade dagger;
crooked / curved dagger; straight
dagger; triangular dagger;
tanged dagger
. icon case [aIkPn keIs] or icon cabinet [aIkPn keIbInIt] or icon stand [aIkPn
stxnd] (in Orthodoxy)
. cippus [sipqs] (pl. cippi)
. Quipchaq [kwIpCak]
. Quipchaq [kwIpCak]
. ( ) boiling [bOIlIN] (to remove
soluble salts)
. cuirass [kwIrxs] or corselet or corslet [kLslIt]
. pick [pIk]
. scarify [skeqrIfaI] or rip [rIp]
. brick [brIk]; sun-dried brick;
glazed brick; brick with
slant side surface and rounded corner (to be used in brickwork of different
architectonic members); sun-baked
brick; burned brick;
adobe or mud brick (mud-brick) or raw brick;
. . brick [brIk] or brickwork
[brIkwE:k]
. acid [xsId]; formic acid;
sulphuric acid; hydrochloric acid;
sulfami acid; acetic acid
. acid-proof [xsIdprHf]
. slung shot [slAN SPt]
. () paintbrush [peIntbrAS] or brush [brAS] (very fine)
. 1 () paintbrush [peIntbrAS] or brush [brAS];
glass bristle brush
. 2 () hand [hxnd]
. cithara [siTqrq] or kithara [kiTqrq]
. kitharode [kiTqrqVd]
. hoard [hLd], also buried treasure [berId treZq]
. 1 () masonry [meIsqnri] (of stones); rubble
masonry or rubblework; / /
irregular masonry; isodomon / isodomum
(pl. isodoma) or isodomic masonry; stone masonry or
stonework; /
ashlar masonry or ashlar;
dehumidified / dehydrated / desiccated / dry
masonry; herringbone masonry;
bonded lining;
opus mixtum (pl. opera mixta);
/ masonry mortared with
soil, () rubblework mortared with soil;
dressed masonry; arching (masonry);
blockwork or stone-walling; dry-stone walling;

( ) random / uncoursed
masonry; face-work or siding;
polygonal masonry; pseudoisodomum
(pl. pseudoisodoma) or pseudoisodomic masonry; coursed
masonry; rustication or rustic work;
cyclopean masonry (. : opus - )
. 2 ( ) stonework [stqVn,wE:k] or
stone masonry [stqVn meIsqnri] (Black Sea classification):
( ) * masonry with two sides for
demonstration; two-face masonry;
( ) * two-course masonry
(repetition of two-course sequence); (
); * two-face masonry without rubble core;
(, ) irregular masonry
or rubblework; (
)
* (masonry of) flatwise courses of rubble slabs; (
) isodomic masonry;
herringbone (masonry); ,
( , ,
, ) * masonry
with alternating courses of vertical / upright and horizontal / flatwise
ashlars; (
) * masonry with alternating headers
and stretchers on each course (like Flemish bond in brickwork);
( ) * (masonry of)
stretcher courses or running / stretcher bond (of ashlars);
( ) random / uncoursed masonry (of ashlars);
( ) * masonry with
one side for demonstration; one-face masonry;
( ,
) * one-course masonry (courses can be the same or
different, but without system in their alteration); (
) * masonry of uprigh ashlars or courses
of vertical slabs; (
, , ) * masonry of
uprigh (put on edge) ashlars in which headers and wide sides alternate;
(,
) polygonal masonry; (
) * (masonry of) flatwise courses;
( ) pseudoisodomic masonry;
( ) coursed masonry;
( ) * three-course masonry (repetition
of three-course sequence); (
) * two-face masonry with rubble core; (
) * (masonry of) header courses or
header bond (of ashlars)
. 3: brick masonry or brickwork; /
Flemish bond; decorative brickwork;
herringbone brickwork;
bonded brickwork; running /stretcher
bond; arching (masonry); facework or siding; * bond having each stone framed
with bricks from every side (. : opus - )
. storage room [stLrIG rVm] or storeroom [stLrVm] or larder [lRdq]
. classification ["klxsIfIkeISqn]
. classify [klxsIfaI]
. classicism [klxsIsIzqm]
. glue [glH]
. glue [glH]

154

155

. (. ) stamp [stxmp]; amphora stamp;


planta pedis; /
anepigraphic stamp;
makers mark; () relief stamp;
() negative stamp;
englyphic stamp
. kleros [klxrqs] (pl. kleroi)
. clepsydra [klepsIdrq] (pl. clepsydrae or clepsydras)
. 1 () storeroom [stLrVm] (in isba or nearby)
. 2 ( ) * part of isba with no heating
. 3 () * construction of rows of timber frames placed one on another
. rivetted [rIvItqd]
. cleaver [klJvq]; flake-cleaver
. wedge [weG]
., . kline (pl. klinai)
. wedge-shaped [weG,SeIpt] or sphenoid [sfJnPId] or cuneiform
[kjHnIfLm]
. blade [bleId] (of a weapon); kriss blade;
serrated blade; curved blade;
double edge blade;
rat-tale tang blade;
full tang blade;
broad blade
. cuneiform [kjHnIfLm] n.
. cuneiform [kjHnIfLm] adj. (related to writing)
. wedge-shaped [weG,SeIpt] or sphenoid [sfJnPId] or cuneiform
[kjHnIfLm]
., . kline (pl. klinai)
. clergy [klE:Gi]
. clergyman [klE:Gimqn] (pl. clergymen)
. cloisonn [klqwRzOneI] or cloisonn enamel [klqwRzPneI Inxmql]
or cloisons pl. [klqwRzPnz]
. cloister [klOIstq]
. fang [fxN]
( ) . bec [bek] (stone tool);
alternate burinated bec
. key [kJ]; - finger-ring key
. cobalt [kqVbLlt] n.
. cobalt [kqVbLlt] n. attrib.
. forge [fLG]
. carpet [kRpIt]
. forging [fLGIN] or hammering [hxmqrIN]
. 1 ( -) reliquary [relIkwqri] or shrine
[SrQIn] or casket [kRskIt]
. 2 ( ) ciborium [sIbLrJqm] (pl. ciboria) or
pyx, also pix [pIks] (receptacle for holding the consecrated wafers of the
Eucharist)
. 1 ( ) dipper [dIpq] or ladle [ledl] or scoop [skHp]
. 2 ( ) * boat-haped bowl (for drinking and serving liquids, with one
or two handles)
. ( ) codex [kqVdeks] (pl. codices)
. leather [leDq]; embossed leather
. leather [leDq]
. cossack [kPsxk]
. (.) drip [drIp] (archit.)
. (.) * semicircular or ogee top section of a wall (with no relation to
the interior vaulting) (Russian archit.)
. stake [steIk], () peg [peg]
. flask [flRsk] (for laboratory use)
. knee cap or kneecap [nJkxp] or patella [pqtelq]

. 1 (.) knee [nJ]


. 2 (, ) ell [el] (bend of a pipe)
. 1 () chariot [Cxriqt] or cart [kRt];
funeral cart
. 2 () waggon, Amer. wagon [wxgqn];
funeral wagon
. wheel [wJl] (of a vehicle)
. coliseum ["kOlIsJqm]
. colosseum ["kOlqsJqm]
. quantity [kwPntIti] or number [nAmbq];
quantitative data for finds
. collection [kqlekSqn]
. 1 () log [lPg] or tree-trunk [trJ trANk]
. 2 () tree-trunk sarcophagus [trJ trANk sRkPfqgqs] (pl. sarcophagi)
. 1 ( ) well [wel]; draw well
. 2 () shaft [SRft] (trench); light well
. 3 ( ) excavation shaft ["ekskqveISqn SRft] (when
excavating kurgan)
. bell [bel]
. bell-shaped [bel SeIpt]
. bell-tower [bel taVq], ( ) belfry
[belfri]
. * fine open bell [faIn qVpqn bel] or campanula ["kxmpxnjulq]
. colonisation, Amer. colonization ["kPlqnaIzeISqn];
Greek Colonisation
. colonist [kPlqnIst]
. colony [kPlqni], ( ) daughter city (of) [dLtq sIti]
. ( ) colonette or colonnette ["kPlqnet]
. 1 () column [kPlqm]; twin columns;
Doric column; Ionic
column;
fluted column; Corinthian
column; colonette or colonnette;
( ) apteral (columniation);
supporting column; polygonal column
/ pier; / ( ) columniation;
rostral column (with shaft decorated with images of
prows of ships); . . ( ) columnar
adj.; diminished column
. 2 () pillar [pIlq] or pier [pIq];
()
clustered pier or pier with colonnettes or clustered colonnettes;
( , , )
composite pier
. colonnade ["kPlqneId]; . . colonnaded adj.
. columnar [kqlPmnq]
. cap [kxp] (headdress); Phrygian cap
. * earring a with big hollow bead
. 1 ( ) columbarium
["kPlqmbFqrIqm] (pl. columbaria) or columbary [kPlqmbqrI] (vault with
niches for urns)
. 2 ( ) columbarium ["kPlqmbFqrIqm] (pl.
columbaria) or columbary [kPlqmbqrI] (niche for urns)
. quiver [kwIvq]
. 1 () ring [rIN]; tree rings;
( ) peristalith; hanger
or hanger ring; dashed ring; dotted
ring
. 2 () ring [rIN] or finger-ring [fINgq rIN];
temple ring; gemstone ring

156

157

. 3 () loop [lHp] (of a buckle)


. (of) ring mail [rIN meIl]; ring mail
. (of) chain mail [CeIn meIl]; chain mail
. mail [meIl] or chain mail [CeIn meIl] or mail armour, Amer. mail armor
[meIl Rmq] or hauberk [hLbE:k]
. room [rHm]; living room; roofed
room; ( ) room with through
passage; bed chamber
. compass [kAmpqs]
. compartment [kqmpRtmqnt] (of a building)
. assemblage [qsemblIG] or complex [kPmpleks] or association
[q,seVsIeISqn] (of finds); closed assemblage
or genuine / close association; ceramic /
pottery assemblage; / vessel assemblage;
complex of monastic caves;
open assemblage / association;
cave complex; buried deposit or
funeral assemblage or tomb complex;
agricultural complex; faunal assemblage;
fortificational complex
. compluvium [kqmplHvjqm] (pl. compluvia)
. component [kqmpqVnqnt]
. breeds of horses [brJdz qv hLsIz] pl.
. ( ) limb [lIm];
the upper limbs folded on the chest; upper
limb; lower limb
. 1 ( ) * sculptured ending of a ridge beam
. 2 ( ) ridge [rIG] or ridge beam [rIG bJm] or ridge board
[rIG bLd] (of a roof)
. consolidant [kqnsPlIdent]
. conservation ["kPnsqveISqn]; backfilling
. consistence [kqnsIstqns]
. horse [hLs]; . horse chain
. corbel [kLbql] or bracket [brxkIt] or console [kPnsqVl] or cantilever
[kxntIlJvq]
. construction [kqnstrAkSqn]; -
wattle-and-daub construction; / bearing
/ supporting structure; latticework (building);
vaulted construction
. ( ) context [kPntekst] or stratigraphhic
unit ["strqtIgrqfIk jHnIt] or unit of stratigraphy [jHnIt qv strqtIgrqfi];
archaeological context;
secondary context; primary context;
funerary context
. buttress [bAtrqs], also abamurus [,xbqmjurqs]
. conference [kPnfqrqns]; held a conference;
abstracts of papers presented at a
conference; preceedings of a conference
. concha [kPNkq] or conch [kPnC]
. conchal [kPNkql]
. groom [grHm]
. dig [dIg] (past: dug, dug)
. coin-box [kPIn bPks] or money box [mAni bPks] or savings bank
[seIvINz bxNk] (container)
. soot [sVt]
. ear cleaner [Iq klJnq]
. coprolite [kOprqlaIt]
. coccyx [kPksIks]
. spear thrower [spIq TrqVq] or atlatl [RtlRtl]
. lance [lRns] or spear [spIq]; throwing spear

. kora [kPrq] (pl. korai)


. shipwright [SIp-raIt]
. shipwreck [SIp-rek] (event)
. ship f. [SIp]; sailing ship
. Koran or Quran [kLrRn]
. 1 (.: ) cordon [kLdn] or stringcourse [,strINkLs]
. 2 ( ) * mid-cornice ["mIdkLnIs]
. basket [bRskIt]
. corridor [kPrIdL] or passageway [pxsIGweI]
. Corinthian [kqrInTiqn] (related to Corinth and of the architectural
order)
. crib [krIb] or feeder [fJdq] or manger [meInGq] or trough [trPf]
. box [bPks] (usually small and fragile)
. 1 ( ) yoke [jqVk] (across a persons shoulders)
. 2 () arm [Rm] (of steelyard);
scaled arm
. crown [kraVn]; turreted crown;
crown with spikes; crown of the Demiourgos;
oak-leaf crown;
laurel crown; radiate / rayed crown;
rostral crown; kings crown
. coroplastic art [,kPrqVplxstIk Rt]
. walky-talky [wLkJ-tLkJ]
. correlate [kPrIlIt]
. correlation ["kPrIleISqn]
. corroded [kqrqVdId]
. corrosion [kqrqVZqn], () weather [weDq] or weathering
[weDqrIN] (of glass or metal); damp
atmospheric corrosion; underpaint corrosion;
localized corrosion;
heavy / severe pitting; general corrosion;
/ pitting or pitting corrosion;
crevice corrosion
. large pot [lRG pPt]
. basin [beIsqn] (elongated, for washing or feeding animals)
. scythe [saID]
. scythe [saID]
. Catholic church [kxTqlIk CWC] (building)
. bonfire [bPnfaIq]; pyre or funeral pyre or funeral fire
. * grave for secondary burial of bones
. 1 () * grave for buring bones
. 2 ( ) * shelf for placing bones (in a vault)
. fireplace [faIqpleIs] (of a bonfire)
. raking light [reIkIN laIt] sing.; . . under
raking light
. 1 ( ) bone [bqVn]; femur or thigh bone;
shinbone or tibia;
upper jawbone; temporal bone;
occipital bone; calcined bones;
sphenoid bone; tarsal bones;
skeletal bones; pubis; frontal bone;
ulna; radius;
fibula, splint bone; lower jawbone;
nasal bone; hip bone or ilium (pl. ilia);
humerus (pl. humeri); metacarpal bone;
calcaneum (pl. calcanea) or calcaneus (pl. calcanei) or
heelbone; ethmoid bone; ischium;
cheek bone or zygomatic bone; parietal
bone
. 2 ( ): long bones; short bones;

158

159

flat bones; irregular bones


. 3: animal bone; (. )
fishbone; /
articulated bones / skeleton;

disarticulated bones / remains / skeleton;
human bone
. 4 () dice [daIs]
. 5: ivory [aIvqri]
. costume [kPstjVm]; female costume;
male costume
. skeleton [skelItqn] (of a dead person)
. jamb [Gxm]
. cauldron or caldron [kLldrqn]; rivetted cauldron;
ribbed cauldron; all-cast cauldron
. kotyle [kLtaIl] (pl. kotylai)
. construction trench [kqnstrAkSqn trenC] or foundation trench
[faVndeISqn trenC] or bedding trench [bedIN trenC]
. kothon [kLTqn] (pl. kothones)
. roaming [rqVmIN] or wandering [wPndqrIN];
seasonal migration or wanderings (in primitive societies)
. nomad [nqVmxd]
. nomadic [nqVmxdIk]
. felt bedding [felt bedIN]
. crocket [krPkIt] (archit.)
. 1 () tip [tIp] or edge [eG] or border [bLdq]
. 2 () lip [lIp] (of a vessel rim); rounded lip;
crenelated lip; flattened lip
. craniology ["kreIniPlqGi]
. cranioscopy ["kreIniPskqpi]
. fleck [flek] (defect), ( , ) speck
[spek] or speckle [spekql] (in glaze or glass)
. colorant [kAlqrqnt] or pigment [pIgmqnt]
. paint [peInt] or dye [daI] or pigment [pIgmqnt];
water-colour, Amer. water-color; encaustic;
distemper (painting); oil-colour, Amer. oilcolor or oil-paint; mineral paint;
( ) added paint or added colour;
inorganic paint; organic paint;
underglaze n.
. red clay [red kleI]
. red slip [red slIp] or red-slipped [red slIpd], also red gloss [red
glPs] or red glazed [red gleIzd] or red lacquered [red lxkqd]
. red-on-black [red Pn blxk] or red-figure [red fIgq] or redfigured [red fIgqd]
( ) . * front corner of isba (located diagonally from oven)
. krater [kreItq] (pl. krateres) or crater [kreItq] (pl. crateres);
amphoroid crater / krater;
/ bell crater / krater;
calyx crater / krater;
volute crater / krater;
column crater / krater; - lug-handled crater
/ krater; tripod crater / krater;
cup-shaped crater / krater
. krateriskos ["kreItqrIskqs] (pl. krateriskoi)
. starch [stRC]
. cremation [krImeISqn]
. 1 () flint [flInt]; chipped flint;
flint chipped all over its surface;
flint worked along every

edge; flint worked


only on one side
. 2 ( ) firestone [faIq,stqVn] (used to strike a fire)
. kremlin [kremlIn] or citadel [sItqdql] (Slavonic art)
. () silica gel [sIlIkq Gel]
. flint [flInt] adj.
. 1 (, ) base [beIs] (of a building) or crepidoma
[,krepIdqVmq]
. 2 ( ) revetment [rIvetmqnt]
. fortress [fLtrIs] or fortification [,fLtIfIkeISqn]
. 1 () fort [fLt]
. 2 ( ) fortlet [fLtlIt]
. 3 () fortress [fLtrIs]
. 4 ( ) oppidum [PpIdqm] (pl. oppida)
. fire lighter [faIq laItq] or fire starter [faIq stRtq] or fire-steel [faIq stJl]
(piece of metal for starting fire with striking against flint);
lyre-shaped fire-steel
. cross [krPs]; - - -
reliquary cross; cross on two
steps; ( )
Latin cross; ( ) maltise
cross; pectoral cross; underwear
cross; cross potent;
processing cross; Greek cross
. sacrum [seIkrqm] (pl. sacra)
. cruciate [krHSIeIt] or cruciform [krHsIfLm]
- . cross-in-square [krPs In skweq] or cross-inscribed [krPs
InskraIbd] or quincunx [kwInkANks]
.1 () cross-shaped [krPs SeIpt]
. 2 () greek-cross plan [grJk krPs plxn]
. (.) poppy-head [pPpi hed] (archit.)
. baptistery [bxptIstqri] or baptistry [bxptIstri] or baptisterium
[,bxptIstIqriqm] (building)
. cryoturbation [kraIqtE:beISqn]
. crypt [krIpt]
. criterion [kraItIqriqn] (pl. critera)
. bloom [blHm] (of metal)
. roof [rHf]
. roof [rHf] or roof covering [rHf kAvqrIN]
. () arris [xrIs] (pl. arris or arrises) or edge [eG];
cutting edge (of metal tool)
. cromlech [krPmlek]
. bracket [brxkIt]
. circle [sE:kql]; wheel or potters wheel;
concentric circles; stock of antiquities;
dotted ring; dashed ring;
grinding wheel
. () round-bottom [raVnd bPtqm] or round-bottomed [raVnd
bPtqmd] (vessel)
. wheel-made [wJl meId] or wheel-turned [wJl tE:nd]
. (.) interlace [,IntqleIs] or interlacement [,IntqleIsmqnt] (decor.)
. mug [mAg]
. 1 ( ) wing [wIN] (in various senses); haunch
. 2 ( ) bay [beI] or wing [wIN] or ell [el] (all - section of a
building)
. porch [pLC]
. Crimea [kraImiq]
. Crimean [kraImIqn]
. Crimean Tartar or Crimean Tatar [kraImIqn tRtq]
- . Crimean Tartar or Crimean Tatar [kraImIqn tRtq]

160

161

. covered [kAvqd]
. roof [rHf] or roof covering [rHf kAvqrIN]; /
hip / hipped roof; / gable / saddle
/ saddleback roof; ogee roof; /
monitor roof; dome roof;
mansard roof; pent roof or shed roof or leanto roof or lean-to; sawtooth rooth;
pyramidal tower roof; flat roof;
hipped-gable roof or jerkin head roof; vaulted
roof; pavillion roof; () roof of
storey, Amer. roof of story or storey roof, Amer. story roof
. lid [lId] or over [kAvq] (of a container or a box);
thurible cover
. hook [hVk]; fishhook
. xenodochium [,zenqdLkiqm] (pl. xenodochia)
. xylene [zaI,lIn] or xylol [zaI,lPl]
. xoanon [zPeInqn] (pl. xoana)
. ( ) qubba (domed mausoleum)
. 1 ( , ) cup [kAp];
Ionian cup; drinking cup;
( ) stemless cup;
stemmed cup; sports cup;
semiglobular cup
. 2 (, ) beaker [bJkq]; funnel
beaker; long-neck beaker;
stoneware beaker; bell beaker;
drink beaker or drinkbeaker; ()
protruding foot beaker
. 3 ( ) goblet
[gPblIt]
. 4 (, ) mazer [meIzq]
. jug [GAg] or pitcher [pICq], () ewer [jHq], (,
, ) flagon [flxgqn]; wine pitcher
. juglet [GAglIt]
. blacksmith [blxk,smIT]
. blacksmith workshop [blxksmIT wWkSOp]
. wrist [rIst]
. * neck pendant or neck decoration
. cult [kAlt]; funeral cult; ancestor
worship; nature worship
. cult [kAlt]
. 1 culture [kAlCq]; spiritual culture;
traditional culture; material
culture; primitive culture
. 2: archaeological culture ["RkiqlPGIkql
kAlCq]; Zarubintsy culture;
Catacomb Grave culture; c- SaltovMayak culture; Timber Grave culture;
Chernjakhov culture; Pit Grave culture
. 3: . cereals [sIqriqlz] (plants)
. cultural characteristic / attribution of a site
. genesis of culture [GqnIsIs qv kAlCq]
. Quman or Cuman [kjHmqn]
. Quman or Cuman [kjHmqn]
. * jug [GAg] (with narrow-neck, long spout, lid and elegant handle; used for
holding wine or water, in Moslem cultures)
. kumyss or koumiss [kHmIs] (fermented milk of a mare or camel)
. font [fPnt] or pool [pHl] (baptismal)
. dome [dqVm] or ( ) cupola [kjHpqlq];
vaulted dome; underside of the dome;

/ central dome; /
subsidiary dome; maqsura dome;
dome-on-drum; pendentive dome;
dome-on-squinches;
porch dome (mosque); mihrab dome;
dome with a lantern; bulbous / onion
cupola / dome; false dome; ribbed
dome; pointed cupola / dome;
spherical dome; three domes placed one on another
(usually with a lantern); (
) melon / pumpkin / umbrella
dome; corbelled / stepped dome;
helmet-shaped dome
. domed [dqVmd]
. curvature [kE:vqCq] (deliberate, of rectilinear part of a building or a
column used to escape optical distortions)
. tumulus [tjHmjVlqs] (pl. tumuli) or (
) kurgan [kVrgRn] or ( ) barrow [bxrqV];
saucer barrow; double barrow or
twin barrows; disc barrow; long
barrow; cairn; bell barrow;
round barrow; bowl barrow
. ( ) kur (desk for Koran)
. * of barrows / tumuli / kurgans; accumulation of
barrowes / kurgans or group of barrows / kurgans
. parade courtyard [pqreId kLtjRd] (in a palace, usually medieval)
. 1 () censer [sensq] or thymiaterion [,TaImieItJriqm] (pl.
thymiateria) (pagan)
. 2 () thurible [TjHqrIbl] or censer [sensq] or incense
stand [Insens stxnd] (Christian)
. kouros [kHrqs] (pl. kouroi)
. ( ) kursi
(kathedra in mosque)
. curtain wall [wLl] or curtain [kE:tn] or enclosure wall [InklqVZq wLl]
. jacket [GxkIt]
. (. ) piece [pJs] or fragment [frxgment]
. Cufic or Kufic [kjHfIk]
. kitchen [kICIn]
. kitchen [kICIn] or cooking [kVkIN]
. qibla [kIblq]

162

163

. laboratory [lqbPrqtri] or lab [lxb]


. labrys [lqxbrqs] (double headed axe)
. shop [SPp] (ancient)
. laura [lLrq] (pl. laurai or laurae) (monastery of separate hermitages or cells)
. camp [kxmp]
. lagynos [lqgGaInqs] (pl. lagynoi)
. * pectoral amulet-holder
. boat-shaped [bqVt SeIpt]
. () sailing boat [seIlIN bqVt], () sailing ship [seIlIN SIp] f.
. mine [maIn] (narrow passage, tunnel); plunderers mine
. 1 ( ) varnish [vRnIS] or lacquer [lxkq]
. 2 ( ) slip [slIp], lacquer or gloss or glaze; brown
slip; brown slip, . brown gloss; red
slip, . red gloss or red lacquer; black slip, . black gloss
or black lacquer; slip of poor quality;

poorly adhered glaze or glaze which badly adheres to the surface of the
vessel;
well-adhered glaze; diluted clay;
worn-off slip
. 3 (.: ) ware with slip coating; red slip
ware; black slip ware
. lacuna [lqkjHnq] (pl. lacunae)
. lambrequin [lxmbqkIn]
. lamp [lxmp]
. icon lamp [aIkPn lxmp]
. polycandelon ["pPlikxndqlqn] or icon lamp stand [aIkPn lxmp stxnd]
. landscape [lxndskeIp]
. lanceolate [lRnsIqleIt] or lance-shaped [lRns SeIpt]
. lapidarium ["lxpIdqriqm] (pl. lapidaria or lapidariums)
. lapidary [lxpIdqri] or lapidarian [lx"pIdQrJqn]
. Lapith [lxpIT]
. larnax [lR"naks] (pl. larnakes)
. La Tne period [lq ten pIqriqd] n.
. La Tne [lq ten] n. attrib.
. solleret [sPlqret]
. latrine [lqtrJn]
. lebes [lebqs] (pl. lebetes); lebes Gamikos (pl.
lebetes Gamikai)
. Levallois [lqvRlwR]
. Levalloisian ["levqlPIziqn]
. white priming [waIt praImIN] or white ground-colour [waIt graVnd kAlq]
. 1 () legend [leGqnd] (myth)
. 2 ( ) legend [leGqnd] or map symbols [mxp
sImbqlz]
. 3 ( ) legend [leGqnd]; obverse legend;
unbroken legend; reverse legend;
(- )
some legend weakness; broken legend
. legion [lJGqn]
. legionary [lJGqnqri] or legionair ["lJGqneq]
/ . doping agent [dqVpIN eIGqnt]
. light-armed [laIt :Rmd]
. easily fusible [JzIli fjHzIbql] or readily fusible [redIli fjHzIbql]
. 1 () stove-bench [stqVv benC]
. 2 ( ) shelf [Self] (in a grave, for placing dead bodies or cinerary urns)
. lay (past: laid, laid); (-) cover [kAvq] (something)
. edge [eG] (sharpened side)
. lekaina [lekqInq] (pl. lekainai) or lekane [lekeIn] (pl. lekanai) or lekanis
[lekeInIs] (pl. lekanides)
. lekythos [lekaITqs] (pl. lekythoi); squat lekuthos;
shouldered lekythos
. 1 ( ) ploughshare, Amer. plowshare [plaVSeq]
. 2 ( ) wooden tile [wVdn taIl]
. band [bxnd] or tape [teIp]; / adhesive tape or stick film
. 1 ( ) hand-forming [hxnd fLmIN] (of a vessel)
. 2 () moulding, Amer. molding [mqVldIN] (archit.: embellishment in
strip form made of plastic materials); ornamental
moulding, Amer. ornamental molding
. (.) moulding, Amer. molding [mqVldIN] (of plaster, concrete or
other finishing material)
. 1 () handmade ["hxndmeId] (vessel)
. 2 () moulded, Amer. molded [mqVldId] (of plaster,
concrete or other finishing material)
. (.) hand-made ware ["hxndmeId weq]
. 1 () staircase [steqkeIs]; spiral staircase

. 2 () ladder [lxdq]
. ( ) volatile [vPlqtaIl] (chemistry)
. () infirmary [InfWmqri] (monasterial)
. flax [flxks]
. loess [lqVIs]
. ligature [lIgqCq]; in ligature
. lydion [laIdiqn] (pl. lydia)
. pilaster strip [pIlxstq strIp]
. limande [lImxnd] (pointed)
. limace [lImeInd]
. 1 () ruler [rHlq]
. 2 () graduated levelling rod [grxGueItId levqlIN rPd] or
graduated levelling staff [grxGueItId levqlIN stRf] or graduated
measuring rod [grxGueItId meZqrIN rPd] or graduated measuring staff
[grxGueItId meZqrIN stRf]
. 3 () scale [skeIl] (calibrated rod, used when taking pictures)
. Linear A [lInIq eI] (script)
. Linear B [lInIq bJ] (script)
. ( , ) lynchet
[lInCqt] or strip lynchet [strIp lInCqt]; ()
negative lynchet; ( ) positive lynchet
. 1 () blade [bleId] (of spear or lance)
. 2 ( ) sheet [SJt]
. leaf-shaped [lJf:SeIpt]
. ( ) sprue [sprH] or casting sprue
[kRstIN sprH] (waste piece of metal)
. liturgical [lItE:GIkql]
. () casting [kRstIN] or moulding, Amer. molding [mqVldIN]
(metalworking); / lost wax
method
. lierne [liE:n]
. ( ) extrados [ekstrqdPs] (pl. extrados or extradoses)
. stage [steIG] (part of proscenium most close to spectators where the actors stood)
. loggia [lPGiq]
. boat [bqVt]
. ankle [xNkql]
. ravine [rqvJn] or gully [gAli]
. spoon [spHn]; spoon for cosmetics;
incense spoon; medical spoon;
ear spoon
. 1 ( , ) stretcher [streCq] (brick in bond)
. 2 () flute [flHt], also groove [grHv] or channel [Cxnl] (of a
column)
. 1 () locality [lqVkxlIti] or location [lqVkeISqn]
. 2 ( ) localisation, Amer. localization ["lqVkqlaIzeISqn]
. localise, Amer. localize [lqVkqlaIz]
. local [lqVkql] or indigenous [IndIGqnqs]
. elbow [elbqV]
. crowbar [krqVbR] or pinchbar [pInCbR]
. fragile [frxGaIl]
. 1 () chape [CeIp] or scabbard-end [sjxbqd end]
. 2 ( ) vane [veIn] (of an arrowhead)
. 3 () blade [bleId] (of an oar)
. 1 spade [speId]
. 2 shovel [SAvql]
. 1 () scapula [skxpjVlq] or shoulderbone [SqVldqbqVn]
. 2: * projection from the outside of an apse
. 3 . pilaster strip [pIlxstq strIp]
. ( ) side [saId] (of a vault)
. polishing [pPlISIN] or burnishing [bE:nISIN] (of a vessel)

164

165

. polished [pPlISt] or burnished [bE:nISt] (vessel)


. lissoir [lIswaIq] or smoother [smHDq] or polisher [pPlISq]
. bow [bqV]; ( 180 ) longbow;
sigma-shaped bow; / composite bow
. 1: pommel [pAmql] (raised front part of a saddle)
. 2: cantle [kxntql] (raised rear part of a saddle)
. (.) bulbous [bAlbqs] (archit.)
. * lunar-shaped item [lHnq SeIpt aItqm] or lunular item [lHnjqlR
aItqm]; lunar pendant;
lunar earring
. lunula [lHnjqlq] (pl. lunulae)
. louterion [laVtIqriqn] (pl. louteria)
. loutrophoros [lHtrLfq,rqs] (pl. loutrophoroi)
. bow-shaped [bqV:SeIpt]
. archer [RCq] or bowman [bqVmqn] (pl. bowmen)
. bow [bqV] (of a fibula or brooch)
. flaxen [flxksqn]
.* clay ladle [:kleI :leIdl] (for pouring molten metal)
. lucarne [lHkRn]
. . lunette [lHnet]
. lustre, Amer. luster [lAstq]

. mausoleum ["mLsqlJqm]
. Moorish [mHrIS]
. magnesium [mxgnJzIqm]
. magnetometer ["mxgnqtOmItq]
. Mohammedan [mqVhxmIdqn] or Muhammadan or
Muhammedan [mVhxmIdqn]
. madafa (Arabic house or room for guests)
. Magdalenian period ["mxgdqliniqn pIqriqd]
. Magdalenian ["mxgdqliniqn]
. mazar (Moslem mausoleum or shrine)
. majolica [mqjPlIkq]
. macrolithic ["mxkrqVlITIk]
. maqsura
. * having a few storeys
. Mamluk [mxmlHk] or Mameluk or Mameluke
[mxmqlHk] n.
. Mamluk [mxmlHk] or Mameluk or
Mameluke [mxmqlHk] adj.
. mammoth [mxmqT]
. attic [xtIk] or garret [gxrIt]
. marker [mRkq] or marker pen [mRkq pen]
. gauze [gLz] n.
. gauze [gLz] adj.
. martyrium [mRtqriqm] (pl. martyria)
. martyrology ["mRtqrPlqGh]
. () flight [flaIt] or stairway [steqweI]
. mask [mRsk]; death mask; theatre
mask, Amer. theater mask
. mask head [mRsk hed] (archit.)
. butter churn [bAtq ,CWn]
. 1 () array [qreI]
. 2 massif [mxsJf]
. 3 ( ) large area [lRG eqriq]; -
mountainous area of forests; area of forests and steppes
. mastaba or mastabah [mRstqbq]

. () artisan ["RtIzxn]; bronzesmith


. trowel [traVql]
. workshop [wE:kSPp], also factory;
pottery or pottery shop or pottery-making
workshop;
coroplast workshop
. mastos [mRstqs] (pl. mastoi)
. scale [skeIl] (reference standard)
. material [mqtIqriql], ( ) staff [stRf];
archaeological material;
frequent finds; proceedings (of a
conference); irreversible material;
reversible material;
primary building material; decorative material;
surface finds;
conservation material; (.) bonding
material (conserv.); structural / building material
. 1 ( ) virgin soil [vE:Gin sOIl], ( )
bedrock [bedrPk]
. 2 ( ) inland [Inlqnd]
. matt [mxt]
. matting agent [mxtIN eIGqnt]
. opaque [qpeIk]
. matrilineal ["mxtrqlaIniql]
. matrix [meItrIks] (pl. matrices)
. machicolation n. sing. ["mxCIkqVleISqn] n. sing.
. mashrabiyya
. lighthouse [laIthaVs]
. meander [mixndq] or Greek fret [grJk fret] or Greek key [grJk kJ];
() latticework [lxtIswWk] or trelliswork
[trelIswWk] (ornam.)
. megalith [megqlIT]
. megalithic ["megqlITIk]
. megaron [megqrPn] (pl. megara)
. medallion [midxliqn]; double-sided
medallion; - medallion pendant; reliquary medallion; underwear
medallion; * c (
) encolpion (pl. encolpia, also encolpions) or enkolpion (pl. enkolpia,
also enkolpions)
. Medieval Studies ["mediJvql stAdiz]
. copper [kPpq]
., . madrasa or madrasah or madrassa or medrese (Islamic
seminary); - zhyndzhyrly / zinjirli medrese
., . copper [kPpq]
. ( , ) inglaze [In:gleIz]
. Mesolithic ["mezqlITIk]
. Mesolithic ["mezqlITIk]
. entresol [entresPl]
., . mekteb
. fine porous [faIn pLrqs]
. mill [mIl]; rotary quern;
handmill
. memorial [mImLriql] n.
. memorial [mImLriql] adj.
. memorium [mImLriqm] (pl. memoria) or commemorative church
[kqmemqrqtIv CE:C] or memorial church [mImLriql CE:C]
. maenad [mJnxd]
. menhir [menhIq]
. menorah [mqnLrq]

166

167

. mensa [mensq] (pl. mensae or mensas) (upper surface of altar table)


. merlon [mE:lqn]
. measuring [meZqrIN]
. sweep [swJp] (past: swept, swept)
. local [lqVkql] or indigenous [IndIGqnqs]
. place [pleIs] or site [saIt]; synthronon (pl. synthronoi) or
synthronos (pl. synthronoi) or synthronus (pl. synthroni);
fireplace (of bonfire); shipwreck (site);
handle attachment;
/ habitat; burial place;
place where produced or production place or fabric
. locality [lqVkxlIti];
location (of a site)
. metal [metl] n.; / precious metal;
base metal; filler metal;
non-ferrous metal; ferrous metal
. metallurgy [mItxlqGi]; metallurgy of
non-ferrous metals; iron industry or metallurgy of
ferrous metals
. mark [mRk]; benchmark (on a
stone slab); benhmark (on a roof tile)
. cameo glass technique [kxmIqV glRs teknJk] or
cameo cutting [kxmIqV kAtIN]
. method of removal [meTqd qv rImHvql] (conserv.)
. lost wax method [lOst wxks meTqd]
. . metope [metqpi]
. 1 ( ) meter [mJtq]
. 2 measuring rod [meZqrIN rPd]
. 3 () scale [skeIl] (calibrated rod, used when taking pictures)
. 1 () wineskin [waInskIn]
2 . ( ) bellows [belqVz] pl.
. sword [sLd]; arming sword or war sword; twohand sword or two-handed sword; carps tongue
sword; sword having no metal
pommel;
antenna sword or antenna-hilted sword;
flame sword or flaming kris sword; leaf
blade sword or leaf-shaped sword; single-hand sword;
hand-and-a-half sword
. 1 ( ) mosque [mPsk]: a) (
, , ) masjid or mescit,
b) / ( , ) ami or jami
or jami masjid or congregational mosque or Friday mosque
. 2 (.): iwan mosque; columned
mosque; - Ottoman domed mosque
(archit. type)
. ( ) swordsman [sLdzmqn] (pl. swordsmen)
. migration; seasonal migrations or wanderings (in
primitive societies)
. microlith ["maIkrqVlIT] or microlithic [,maIkrqVlITIk]
. microlithic ["maIkrqVlITIk]
. micro borer ["maIkrqVbLrq]
. microburin ["maIkrqVbjuqrIn]
. Mixhellenos [mIkselJnqs] (pl. Mixhellenoi)
. Milesian [maIlJZqn]
., . millefiori glass [mIlqfIPri glRs]
. plotting paper [plPtIN peIpq] or square paper [skweq peIpq] or
squared paper [skweqd peIpq]
. minaret ["mInqret]; round (in cross-section)
minaret; square (in cross-section) minaret

. minbar [mInbR] or mimbar [mImbR]


. Menaia [mqnxq] (book of liturgies for all days of year)
. mineralization ["mInqrqlaIzeISqn]
. mineralized ["mInqrqlaIzd];
the object is completely mineralized;
the object is partially mineralized
. world [wE:ld]; the beyond; otherworld;
underworld
. bowl [bqVl] (for food) or basin [beIsqn] (fine, for food); pottery bowl

. myth [mIT]
c . mythical [mITIkql]; . monster
. mythological [,mITqlOGIkql];
mythological beast
. mythology [mITPlqGi]
. mihrab [mJrqb]
. ( ) polyhedral stone [,pPlIhedrql stqVn] or
polyhedron ["pPlIhJdrqn] (stone tool)
. candelabrum ["kxndIlRbrqm] (pl. candelabra;
) or girandole
[GIrqndPl] or chandelier ["SxndqlIq]
. 1 () multi-layered ["mAltIleIq]
. 2 ( ) laminated [lxmIneItId]
. multicoloured, Amer. multicolored [mAlti,kAlqd]
. multi-storey, Amer. multi-story or multistory ["mAltIstLri]
. multitier [:mAltItIW]
. grave [greIv]; arched tomb; ,
grave without mound or in-ground grave or pit grave or
underground grave; bi-chambered grave or bilobate
tomb; childs grave;
chambered grave;
catacomb type grave;
horse-tomb or horse grave;
monument type grave;
ledged grave (having ledges in walls for placing covering slabs);
( ) grooved grave (having
grooves in walls for placing covering slabs);
horse-tomb; graves of the
same architecture; grave with slabs facing its walls;
undercut grave, ( ) loculus (pl.
loculi) or loculus tomb (pl. loculi tombs); trilobate tomb; tile grave; shaft
grave; shaft-niche grave;
shaft-and-chamber grave / tomb
. cemetery [semItri] (ancient); cemetery
without mounds; cemetery of (barbarian)
catacombs; barrow cemetery or barrow field;
roadside cemetery
. modillion [mPdIliqn]
. modiolus [mPdIqlqs] (pl. modioli) (vessel)
. mosaic [mqVzeI-Ik]; pebble mosaic;
mirror mosaic;
vitreous mosaic; chip mosaic;
/ pictorial mosaic;
floor mosaic; / wall mosaic;
mosaic tilework; (artistic)
glass mosaic; figural scene of mosaic (. :
opus - )
. mosaic [mqVzeI-Ik]; abaculus
[qbxkjqlqs] (pl. abaculi) or tessera (pl. tesserae) (used in making mosaics)

168

169

. wet [wet]
. chapel [Cxpql] or oratory [PrqtPrJ] (a place for prayer)
. molybdoboullos ["mqlIbdqbVlqs] (pl. molybdoboulloi) (hanging seal)
. mollusc, Amer. mollusk [mPlqsk]
. hammer [hxmq] (big, of a blacksmith)
. hammer [hxmq] (small)
. monasterial ["mPnqstJriql] or monastic [mqnxstIk] or
monastical [mqnxstIkql] (relating to a monastery)
. 1 (. ) monastery [mPnqstri] (a type of archaeological
sites); Buddhist monastery;
monastery outside the city walls; cave
monastery; Christian monastery or abbey
. 2 monastery [mPnqstri] (where monks live)
. 3 nunnery [nAnqri] or convent [kPnvqnt]
. monk [mANk]
. nun [nAn]
. monastic [mqnxstIk] or monastical [mqnxstIkql] (relating to monks)
. Mongoloid [mPNgqloid]
. Mongoloid [mPNgqloid]
. coin [kOIn] n.; anonymous coin; /
( ) struck coin;
(
) ex jewelry adv. adj. (coin);
cup coin;
cast coin; - coin in the shape of a dolphin;
- arrowhead coin (pl. arrowhead coins / money);
reduced coin;
non-circulated coin; (, )
(
) uncirculated coin;
() coin grading; /
commemorative coin; faked coin;
genuine coin; / circulated coin;
( ,
) trade coin
. coin [kOIn] adj.; coinage
or mintage; nominal of coin;
coin circulation; type of coins;
( ) flan flaws
. monogram [mPnqgrxm]
. monograph [mPnqgrRf]
. monopteral [mPnqptqrql] adj.
. monotheism [mPnqVTJIzqm]
. monochrome [mPnqkrqVm]
. expandable polyurethane foam [Ikspxndqbql pP,lijHrqTxn fqVm]
monumental ["mOnjqmentql] (impressive)
. ( ) morningstar ["mLnIN stR] (weapon)
. navigation ["nxvIgeISqn]
. bridge [brIG]; arch bridge; drawbridge
. pavement [peIvmqnt] (of a street, high quality)
. motif [mqVtJf]; decorative motif;
( ) animal motif;
interlace or interlacement; bird,
boat and sun-disc motif; ornamental type
. mattock [mxtqk], ( ) hoe [hqV], (
) ultivator [kAltIveItq]
. ( ) * air / gas bubbles (in glass)
. crypt [krIpt]
. relics [relIks]; holy / sacred relics
. marble [mRbql] n.; Prokonnesos marble

. marble [mRbql] adj.; ()


structural marbles
. Mughals
. museum [mjHzJqm];
museum of arts
. museum [mjHzJqm] n. attrib.
. muqarnas or stalactites [stxlqktaIt] (Islamic art)
. ( .) mould, Amer. mold [mqVld] or moulding, Amer. molding
[mqVldIN] (archit.: embellishment in strip form)
. mummified [mAmIfaId]
. mummy [mAmi]
. Murano glass [mjHrxnqV glRs]
. musalla (large open space, in Islamic architecture)
., . (.) debris [debrJ] or waste [weIst] (materials left after using
something); industrial waste;
construction waste
. Mousterian [mHstIriqn]
. Mousterian [mHstIriqn]
. Islam [IslRm]
. Muslim [mVzlIm], also Moslem [mPzlIm]
. Muslim [mVzlIm], also Moslem [mPzlIm]
. muezzin [mHezIn]
a . mutule [mjHCHl]
. martyr [mRtq] (he)
. martyr [mRtq] (she)
. martyrdom [mRtqdqm]
. mashrabiyya
. ( , ) speck [spek] or speckle [spekql] (in glaze
or glass)
. musket [mAskIt]
. 1 () bathhouse [bRThaVs]
. 2 () * special room in bathhouse for washing only (not for sweat baths)
. 1 ( , ) headland [hedlqnd] or promontory
[prPmqntqri]
. 2 ( ) cape [keIp]
. arsenic [RsqnIk]
. arsenic [RsqnIk]

170

171

. embalmed [ImbRmd]
. cuisse [kwIs] or cuish [kwIS] or cuissard [kwIsRd] or cuissart
[kwIsRt]
. observation ["PbzqveISqn]
. 1 () set [set]; import set;
drinking set; toilet set;
belt set; y bridle set
. 2 ( ) kit [kIt]
. end-piece [end pJs] or finial [fIniql] or head [hed] or staff [stRf];
poletop; ,
pommel or finish hilt (of a sword or of a dagger); /
antenna pommel (pl. antennae);
plain knob pommel
. shelter [Seltq] or lean-to [lJn tH] (light construction); double
lean-to; shelter (of rock)
. ( ) rod-forming [rPd,fLmIN] (in glass-making)
. navigation ["nxvIgeISqn]
. whip [wIp]
., . soot [sVt]

. eye-plate [aI pleIt]


. greave [grJvz] or jambeau [GxmbqV] (pl. jambeaux)
. breastplate / breast-plate [brestpleIt] or corslet / corselet [kLslIt] or
pectoral plate [pektqrql pleIt]
. lip-plate [lIp pleIt]
. onglaze [Pn,gleIz] or overglaze [qVvq,gleIz]
. tombstone [tHmstqVn] or gravestone [greIvstqVn] or headstone
[hedstqVn] (three-dimensional); uninscribed
tombstone
. burial [beriql] adj., or funeral [fjHnqrql] adj., or grave [greIv]
n. attrib.
. plot [plPt] (of arable land)
. inscription [InskrIpSqn]; ( ) inscription for Xanthos;
() uninscribed; inscribed;
* inscription set into the wall; burial / funeral
inscription; dedicatory / dedicative inscription;
honorific inscription, also honorable inscription;
runic inscription; building
inscription
. countermark ["kaVntqmRk]
. aboveground [qbAv"graund] (building)
. naiskos [nRIskPs] (pl. naiskoi)
. () casing [keIsIN] (glass-making technique);
* casing with coloured background glass and colourless overlay glass;
* casing that covers the whole vessel, with colourless
backgorund glass and coloured overlay glass; * casing
that covers a part of vessel
. plate [pleIt] or appliqu [qplJkeI] (applied to one side of an artifact);
belt mount
. inclination ["InklIneISqn] (state being inclined)
. inclined [InklaInd]
. anvil [xnvIl]
. ( ) pinhole [pInhqVl] (in glaze); .
pinholing n. sing. or pitting n. sing. (in glaze)
. knee cap [nJ kxp] or knee piece [nJ pJs] or genouillre ["GJnqVIliri]
or poleyn [pqVleIn]
. 1 ( ) point [pOInt] (of a stone or
bone tool); willow leaf or willow leaf point;
Magdalenian forked
base bone point;
Aurignacian split base bone point;
bone point with double beveled base;
bone point with a single beveled base;
laurel leaf or laurel leaf point;
harpoon-head; spear point;
shouldered point;
typical shouldered (Solutrean) point
. 2 ( ) head [hed] or tip [tIp] (of metal
weapon); javelin-head;
spear-head or spear-tip; arrowhead;
socketed arrowhead;
tanged arrowhead or stemmed arrowhead or barbed arrowhead;
bilobate / two-vane arrowhead;
triangular / three-vane / trilobate
arrowhead; four-vane
arrowhead; three-edged arrowhead;
four-aged arrowhead
. 3 ( ) end [end] or end-piece [end pJs] (of a belt or
strap); belt-end; strap-end
. ( ) rod-forming [rPd"fLmIN] (in

glass-making)
. plastic [plxstIk] or application ["xplIkeISqn] or ( )
cordon [kLdn] or garland [gRlqnd] or band [bxnd] (all on vessels);
U-shaped lug-handle or applied volute (on a vessel)
. casing [keIsIN] or louver-board [lHvq bLd]; door
casing; window casing
. frontlet [frAntlIt]
. (.) immobilize [ImqVbqlaIz] (to fix the position as with
a splint)
. cubitire [kHbitJq] or coudire [kHdJq] or couter [kHtq]
. bowcase [bqVkeIs]
. () alluvium [qlHviqm] (pl. alluvia or alluviums) or drift [drIft] (made
by the force of a current);
. ( ) brush application [brAS "xplIkeISqn]
or spraying [spreI-IN] (glaze application technique)
. alluvium [qlHviqm] (pl. alluvia or alluviums) or drift [drIft] (made by the
force of a current); . primary silt sing.
. 1 ( ) noseband [nqVzbxnd]
. 2 ( ) nose guard [nqVzgRd]
. naos [nxPs] (pl. naoi), ( ) cella [selq] (pl. cellae)
. thimble [TImbql] or finger cap [fINgq kxp]
. 1 () layer [leIq] or deposit [dIpPzIt] (natural)
. 2 ( ) stratification ["strxtIfIkeISqn]
. 1 ( ) pallette [pxlIt] or pauldron [pLldrqn] or
besageur [bIseIZE:]
. 2 ( ) rerebrace [rirxbrRs]
. () filler [fIlq] (of clay)
. direction [dIrekSqn]
. people [pJpql] or nation [neISqn]; farming
people;
traditional people; pastoral people
. narthex [nRTeks], ( ) inner narthex
[Inq nRTeks]
. ( ) bracer [breIsq] or wristguard [rIstgRd]
(archers)
. (, ) vambrace
[vxmbrRs]
., . population ["pPpjVleISqn];
agricultural folk
. 1 ( ) inlay [InleI] or damascene [dxmqsJn]
. 2 ( ) impression [ImpreSqn] (cut in surface of a vessel);
. ( ) notching (ceramic surface treatment);
. rouletting
. 3 ( ) cutting [kAtIN] (decoration on glass
vessel);
. 4: () reeding [rJdIN]
or edge reeding [eG rJdIN] (numismatics)
., . rock paintings [rPk peIntINz] pl., or cave
paintings pl. [keIv peIntINz]
. mound [maVnd] or embankment [ImbxNkment] or earthwork [E:TwE:k]

or bank [bxNk] or bulwark [bVlwqk]; barrow
mound; ( ,
) mounds of the barrow (made during secondary
burials to form a general mound); burial mound
. ( ) running [rAnIN] n., only sing. (glaze defect)
. naturalism [nxCqrqlIzqm]
. ( ) science [saIqns];
. humanities
. find [faInd] or discover [dIskAvq] or uncover [AnkAvq]
. () * casing that covers a part of vessel (glass-making technique)

172

173

. find [faInd]; archaeological find;


small find; 2000 find
from 2000 season; associated finds;
grave finds; pottery finds;
coin finds;
malacological finds;
botanical finds; steological find;
chance find
. chief [CJf] or boss [bPs]; site supervisor;
excavation director or field director or site
supervisor
. appliqu [qplJkeI]
. () cheek guard [CJk,gRd]
. naiad [naIxd] (pl. naiades or naiads)
. negative [negqtIv] or negative image [negqtIv ImIG] (photo)
. unglazed [AngleIzd]
. non-datable or non-dateable
[nPndeItqbql] or undatable [AndeItqbql]
. ( ) underfired [,AndqfaIqd]
. () * partly investigated site
. ( ,
) immature ["ImqtjHq] (glaze)
. necropolis [nekrOpqlIs] (pl. necropoleis or necropolises);
urban cemetery; necropolis outside
the city walls; suburban cemetery
. unburnished [AnbE:nISt] (pottery)
. Neolithic ["nJqlITIk]; aceramic Neolithic
. Neolithic ["nJqlITIk]; Neolithic
revolution
. indeterminate [,IndItE:mInIt]
. inorganic ["InLgxnIk]
. undecorated ["AndekqreItId]
. intact [Intxkt]
. ( ) irregular [IregjVlq]
. opaque [qVpeIk]
. raking light [reIkIN laIt];
. . under raking light
. (.) non-destructive ["nOn"dIstrAktIv] adj. (conserv.)
. unmelted [AnmeltId]
. 1 () rib [rIb] or cross rib [krPs rIb] (of Gothic vault);
diagonal rib; reinforcing rib;
transverse rib; longitudinal rib or ridge rib
. 2 ( ) midrib [mIdrIb] (on bronze weapon)
. (.) * member carried / supported by other (s) (archit.)
. carrier [kxriq] or supporting [sqpLtIN] (archit.);
(.) supporting member or carrier member
. atypical [eItIpIkql]
. subsistence [sqbsIstqns] (not fit to be offered for sale)
. 1: nave [neIv]
. 2: aisle [aIl]
. uncleaned [AnklJnd]
. level [levql] (device)
. . levelling, Amer. leveling
[levqlIN] (of a ground suface)
. Lower Palaeolithic [lqVq "pxliqVlITIk], Amer. Lower
Paleolithic
. halo [heIlqV] (pl. halos or haloes) or nimbus [nImbqs] ( pl. nimbi or nimbuses);
. ., nimbate adj., or in halo
. nymphaeum ["nImfxqm] (pl. nymphaea) or nympheum ["nImfxqm] (pl.
nymphea) or nymphaion ["nImfxIPn] (pl. nymphaia)

. 1 ( ) niche [nJS]; altar niche;


stalactitic / stalactite niche;
three-quarter niche
. 2 - . shelf [Self] (in a grave, for placing dead bodies or
cinerary urns)
. New Testament [njH testqmqnt]
. leg [leg]
. 1 ( ) knife [naIf] (pl. knives) (stone tool);
atypical backed knife; battle knife;
natural backed knife; backed
knife; Audi knife
. 2 ( ) knife [naIf] (pl. knives) (metal tool);
vine-pruning hook or winegrowers
knife; penknife or pocketknife;
cobblers knife
. foot [fVt] (pl. feet) or stem [stem]
. 1 ( ) scissors [sIzqz]
. 2 () shears [SIqz]
. 1 (, ) scabbard [sjxbqd] sing.
. 2 (, ) sheath [SJT] sing. (for a weapon)
. nomad [nqVmxd]
. nomadism [nPmqdIzm]
. nomisma [nPmIzmq] (pl. nomismata) (Byzantine gold coin)
. nominal [nPmInql] or coin denomination [kOIn
dI,nPmqneISqn]
. nominal value [nPmInql vxljH]
. Norman [nLmqn]
. 1 (.) Norman [nLmqn] (ethnic)
. 2 (.) Norman [nLmqn] (archit.)
. spout [spaVt] (tubed) or nozzle [nPzql]; spouted;
elongated nozzle
. stretcher sing. [streCq] (litter); bier
. (): people of Timber Grave
culture or Timber Grave people
. nucleus [njHkliqs] or core [kL];
formless core;
globular core; Mousterian
discoid; Levallois for flakes;
Levallois point; Levallois flake-blade;
pyramidal core;
prenucleus; prismatic core;
tortoise core
. numismatist [njHmIzmqtIst]
. numismatics ["njHmIzmxtIks]
. numismatic ["njHmIzmxtIk]
. noummos [nHmqs] (pl. noummoi) or nummus [nHmqs] (pl. nummi)
(copper coin)

174

175

. hypotrachelium ["haIpqVtrqkIliqm] or gorgerin [gLGqrIn] or


necking [nekIN]
. charred [CRd]
. . burnt [bE:nt] or burned [bE:nd] (not
completely)
. degrease [dIgrJs]
. dehydrate [dJhaIdreIt]
. obelisk [PbqlIsk]
. amulet [xmjVlqt], also phylactery [faIlektqri]

. . decolourizer
["dJkAlqraIzq]
. firing [faIqrIN]; ( ) second burning;
bonfire firing; (
) once-fire or single-fire (in pottery-making)
. 1 () plate [pleIt] or appliqu [qplJkeI] (turned around artifact), ()
fencing [fensIN] (decorative, of weapon); gorytus-cover;
scabbard plate; belt mount
. 2 () facing [feIsIN] or siding [saIdIN] (of stones or bricks);
stone facing of a grave
. faced [feIsd] or lined [laInd] (e. g. with slabs);
stone-slabbed
. facing [feIsIN] or siding [saIdIN] (of stones or bricks);
decorative tilework;
Iznik tilework; tiling or tilework;
solid / continious facing
. profile [prqVfaIl] (archit.) or moulding,
Amer. molding [mqVldIN] (an embellishment in strip form decorating
architectural members)
. fragment [frxgment]; . fragments [frxgments] or wreckage
sing. [rekIG]
. plastering [plRstqrIN] or rendering coat [rendqrIN kqVt], (
) cob [kPb]; mud plaster
. measurement [meZqment]; complete measurements
(of a building); - complete
measurements (of a monument)
. wrapping [rxpIN] or wrap [rxp]; cord wrapping;
cord wrapped; wire
wrapping; wire wrapped
. nude [njHd]
. () framing line [freImIN laIn], ( ) border [bLdq];
border of dots
. fired [faIqd]; unevenly fired
. (-) clip [klIp]; carrying
slot (of a scabbard)
. obol [qbql] or obolos or obolus [qbqlqs] (pl. oboli); Charons obol
. defensive [dIfensIv] or fortification ["fLtIfIkeISqn] or
fortificational ["fLtIfIkeISqnql]
. tools pl. [tHlz] or equipment [IkwIpmqnt]
. double-edged ["dAbql eGd]
. worked [wE:kd]
. handiwork [hxndiwE:k] or ( . . ) treatment [trJtmqnt];
() retouch (of stone tools);
laboratory research (of finds);
() flintknapping; metalworking
. image [ImIG]; () holy image
. sample [sRmpql]
. 1 () education ["edjVkeISqn]
. 2 () formation [fLmeISqn] or shaping [SeIpIN]
. 3 (, ) formation [fLmeISqn];
ice-borne deposit; ethnic
formation
. small icon [smLl aIkPn]
. framing [freImIN]
. circulation [sE:kjVleISqn]; coin circulation
. () exergue [ekzF:g]; in exergue
. rite [raIt]; purification; rite of transition;
burial custom / rite or funeral rite
. ritualism [rICuqlIzm] sing. or rites [raIts] pl.;
funeral rites; -

funeral ritualism
. obsidian [qbsIdiqn] n.
. obsidian [qbsIdiqn] adj.
. footwear [fVtweq] only sing.
. carbonized [kRbqnaIzd]
. carbonization ["kRbqnaIzeISqn]
. () siding [saIdIN] (of planks or boards or panels)
- . socio-political ["sqVSqVpqlItIkql]
. 1 () public [pAblIk]
. 2 () social [sqVSql]
. society [sqsaIIti]; nonurban society;
nomadic society; herding society
(, );
settled hunting and gathering society;
) () agricultural / farming society, b) ()
horticultural / peasant society
. common [kPmqn]
. community [kqmjHnIti]; monastic community;
religious community
. ( ) community [kqmjHnIti];
ethnic community; - ethno-linguistic
community; - ethno-religious community
. objective [qbGektIv] or lens [lenz] or
camera lens [kxmqrq lenz]; long-focus
lens; fisheye lens;
wide-angle lens
. space [speIs] or bay [beI] (three-dimensional section of a
building)
. ravine [rqvJn] or gully [gAli]
. eggs [egz] pl. (ornam.) or egg-and-anchor ["eg qnd xNkq] sing., or egg-anddart ["eg qnd dRt] sing., or egg-and-tongue ["eg qnd tAN] sing.
. fire lighter [faIq laItq] or fire starter [faIq stRtq] or fire-steel [faIq stJl]
(piece of metal for starting fire with striking against flint);
. () plunder [plAndq] (of a site); grave
robbery; ritual plunder
. fence [fens]; fortress wall or fortification wall or
fortified wall; abbey wall
. odeum [oudJqm] (pl. odea)
. (-) simultaneous with ["sImqlteIniqs] or contemporary
with [kqntempqrqri]
. aiseless [aIles]
. () single-handled ["sINgqlhxndl]
. * having one pillar only or one-pillar [wan pIlq]
. monochrome [mPnqkrqVm]
. one-storey [wan stLri]
. necklace [neklIs]; paste-set necklace
. lake [leIk]
. lacustrine [lqkAstraIn]
. oikistes [OIkIstqs]
. oinochoe [OInPkqV] (pl. oinochoai or oinochoes) or oenochoa [JnPkPq]
(pl. oenochae)
. fossil [fPsql]
. fossil [fPsql]
. trim [trIm] or fencing [fensIN] (decorative, of weapon)
. oxide [PksaId]; copper oxide; silver oxide
. oxidation ["OksIdeISqn]
. window [wIndqV]; arched dormer;
arch-shaped window; stained glass window;
double-glazed window; glazed window;
bulls-eye window or oeil-de-boeuf window;

176

177

rose window; dormer


or dormer-window or lucarne; observation window;
folding window; lancet / tracery
window window; triple-glazed windows
. binding plate [baIndIN pleIt] (e. g. of a scabbard)
. colouring, Amer. coloring [kAlqrIN]
. environs [envIrqnz] pl., or outlying areas [aVt"laIIN eqriqz] pl.,
or neighbourhood, Amer. neighborhood [neIbqhVd] sing., or vicinity
[vIsInIti] sing.
. circumference [sqkAmfqrqns];
to have a circumference of meters;
concentric circles; interlocking circles
. oxide [PksaId]; copper oxide; silver oxide
. octaconch [PktqkPnC]
. ( ) dipping [dIpIN] (glaze application technique)
. glaciation ["gleIsieISqn]
o . oligarchy [PlIgRki]
., . pewter [pjHtq] or tin [tIn]
. pewter [pjHtq] or tin [tIn]
. olpe [Plpq] (pl. olpai or olpes)
. omphalos [PmfqlPs] (pl. omphali) (centre of earth)
. shuttering [SAtqrIN]
. description [dIskrIpSqn]
. opisthodome ["opIsTPdPm] or opisthodomos ["opIsTPdPmqs] or
opisthodomus ["opIsTPdPmqs] (pl. opisthodomes)
. list [lIst]; collection list; list of finds;
list of finds (compiled in the field)
. wrapping [rxpIN] or wrap [rxp]; cord wrapping;
leather wrapping; wire
wrapping; spiral wrap
. militia [mIlISq]
. pier [pIq] or support [sqpLt]; support structure;
angle post
. support [sqpLt] or supporting [sqpOtIN] or carrier [kxriq]
. oppidum [PpIdqm] (pl. oppida)
. mount [maVnt] or setting [setIN] (an object to which another is affixed)
. definition ["defInISqn]
. identify [aIdentIfaI] or attribute [qtrIbjHt];
localise, Amer. localize
. orans [Lrqns] (pl. orantes) or orant or orante [Lrqnt] or orans figure [Lrqns
fIgq] or orant figure [Lrqnt fIgq] (male)
. orans [Lrqns] (pl. orantes) or orant or orante [Lrqnt] or orans figure
[Lrqns fIgq] or orant figure [Lrqnt fIgq] (female)
. stole [stqVl] or orarion [PrxrJqn] (pl. oraria) or orarium [PrxrJqm] (pl.
oraria) (of an Orthodox deacon, worn over the left shoulder)
. organic [LgxnIk]
. order [Ldq] (archit.); architectural order, also
architectural style or style of architecture; Doric order or
Doric style; Ionic order or Ionic style;
classical orders; / composite
order; Corinthian order / style;
mixed order
. 1 () orientation ["LriqnteISqn];
orientation of burial structure;
orientation of inhumations
. 2 ( ) coin alignment [kOIn qlaInmqnt] or
coin orientation [kOIn "LriqnteISqn] or coin rotation [kOIn rqVteISqn] or
die alignment [daI qlaInmqnt]; / (
0 ) medal alignment / orientation / rotation;
/ ( 180 ) coin alignment /

orientation / rotation
. orient [Lriqnt]
. Aurignacian period ["LrIneISqn pIqriqd]
. Aurignacian ["LrIneISqn]
. ornamentation ["LnqmenteISqn] or decoration ["dekqreISqn] or
design [dIzaIn], ( ) pattern [pxtqn];
openwork ornament; arch
pattern; wavy decoration / pattern; /

clearly-cut ornament; excised
decoration; geometrical decoration /
design; engraved decoration;
combed decoration / ornament; dentils;
cloisonn or cloisons or cloisonn enamel;
cruciate / cruciform ornament;
ornament of petals;
stairs-shaped pattern;
linear decoration / ornament; crocket or leaf
ornament; meander or Greek fret or Greek key;
looped design;
linear
dentate stamping; metope decoration;
rocker dentate
stamping; ( / )
single point dentate decorations;
spiral design;
... ... ornament of alternating with ;
design in the base (of a vessel);
running dog;
stroke-shaped ornament;
scratched decoration; gouged ornament or
incised decoration / design; pierced / pointed
ornamentation; painted decoration;
floral / vegetal decoration / design / rnament;
relief decoration / ornament; (
) gadroon; S- S-shaped
design or swans neck; net pattern;
honeycomb patterns; step pattern;
schematic ornament;
figural design; ornament of dots or pointed design;
imbrication or imbricated design or scaly pattern;
chequered pattern, Amer. checkered pattern or
chequered design, Amer. checkered design or checked ornament;
( ) cord marking, also cord decoration /
ornament or string pattern; /
) ( ) repouss, b) ( ) impressed / stamped
decoration; hatched decoration;
tongue ornament
. ornamental ["Lnqmentl]
. ornamented [LnqmentId];
ornate
. ornithomorphic ["LnITPmLfIk]
. horonym [hPrqnIm]
. 1 ( ) * upright stone
[Ap-raIt stqVn] or upright slab [Ap-raIt slxb]
. 2 ( )
orthostate ["LTqsteIt] or orthostate course ["LTqsteIt kLs] (lowest course
of masonry)
. 3 ( ) orthostat ["LTqstet] (vertical
element of trilith)

178

179

. orthostate ["LTqsteIt] or orthostatic


["LTqstxtIk] adj.
. orthostyle ["LTqstaIl]
. 1 () tool [tHl] or implement [ImplIment];
socketed tool / implement;
pebble tool or worked pebble; stone tool;
flint tool / implement; metal tool;
palaeolithic, Amer. paleolithic
(stone implement); variant tools;
composite tool / implement
fishery installation [fISqri
"InstqleISqn]
. 2 (, ) piece [pJs]
(stone tool); notched piece / tool;
scaled piece; denticulate piece
/ tool; bifacial / foliate point;
microlithic; ovaloid;
core tool; flake tool; blade tool;
end-noched tool;
piece with bifacial retouch;
piece with heavy abrupt retouch;
piece with light abrupt retouch;
piece retouched on ventral surface;
piece with heavy alternating retouch;
piece with light alternating retouch;
retouched tool or tool with retouch;
fishery installation
., . weapon [wepqn] or handy weapon [hxndi wepqn];
combat weapon; pole-arm;
bladed weaponry; thrusting weapon;
throwing weapon; : a) () firearm,
b) () artillery; cutting weapon;
() cut and thrust weapons;
impact weapon; ceremonial weapon
. orchestra [LkIstrq] (part of ancient theater)
. siege [sJG]
. 1 () besiege [bIsJG]
. 2 (.) precipitate [prIsIpItIt] v. tr. (chemistry)
. (.) precipitate [prIsIpItIt] v. intr. (chemistry)
. ( ) powder off [paVdq Pf] (about glaze layer), (
) fall down [fel daVn] (part. fell, fallen)
. saddle [sxdl]
. settled [setld] or sedentary [sedqntqri];
sedentary life
. hone [hqVn] or whetstone [wetstqVn] or snakestone [sneIkstqVn]
. 1 ( ) sliver [slIvq], () splinter [splIntq]
. 2: . ( ) debris [debrJ]
(received in working stone)
. Ottoman [Ptqmqn]
. Ottoman [Ptqmqn]
. 1 () backing [bxkIN]; () timber lacing;
foundation base
. 2 ( ) haft [hRft] (of a composite tool)
. 1 base [beIs] or footing [fVtIN]; road base;
foundation base
. 2 ( ) spring [sprIN] (of an arch or vault)
. 3 () foundation [faVndeISqn] or establishment [IstxblISmqnt]
(of a city)
. 4 ( ) background [bxkgraVnd] (information, data);
against this or that background

. feature [fJCq] or peculiarity [pI"kjHlixrIti]; local


particularity; typical feature or distinctive feature
. ossuary [Psjuqri]
. remains [rImeInz] (of a being);
skeletal remain
. remains [rImeInz] (of something material); e
organic remains; botanical finds or vegetal
remains; remains of a building;
faunal remains
. osteology ["PstiPlqGi]
. osteological ["PstiqVlPGIkql]
. 1 ( ) skeleton [skelItqn] (of a being)
. 2 () frame [freIm] or framework [freImwE:k] or skeleton [skelItqn]
(archit.) or truss [trAs]
. ostracism [PstrqsIzqm]
. ostracon [Pstrqkqn] (pl. ostraa) or ostrakon [Pstrqkqn] (pl. ostraka)
. 1 ( ) point [pPInt] (of blade)
. 2 . ( ) point [pPInt] (stone tool type);
Azilian point; Gravette / Gravetteian
point; atypical Gravette / Gravettian point;
limace; bifacial point;
barbed point; willow leaf or willow leaf point;
laurel leaf or laurel leaf point;
unificial point;
micro-Gravette / micro-Gravettian point;
Mousterian point; elongated
Mousterian point; humped back blade or
gibbous point; Vachons point; -
Font-Yves point; Chtelperron / Chtelperronian
point; atypical Chtelperron /
Chtelperronian point; retouched
Levallois point; - pseudo-Levallois point;
Tayac point; tanged point or stemmed
point or stemmed tool; tanged-and-barbed
point; atypical shouldered point
. 3 ( ) cutting edge [kAtIN eG] (f a stone tool)
. wooden fortress [wVdn fLtrIs] (in a Russian frontier)
. fish spear [fIS spIq] or gig [gIg] or fishgig [fISgIg], ( )
leister [lestq]; composite fish spear
. () pointed [pPIntId] or pointed-base [pPIntId,beIs] (vessel)
. pointed [pPIntId]
. () carinated [kxrq,nxtqd] (vessel)
. 1 () axis [xksIs]
. 2 () bar [bR] or axis bar [xksIs bR] or axle [xksql]
. hammerstone [hxmqstqVn] or fabricator [fxbrIkeItq]
. backfill [bxkfIl] or spoil [spOIl] (archeol.)
. hole [hqVl], ( , ) aperture [xpqCq];
dowel hole (in ashlar)
. () plumb bob [plAm bPb] or plummet [plAmIt]
. ( ) trim [trIm] or trim work [trIm wE:k];
decorative tilework;
Iznik tilework; tiling or tilework
. individual ["IndIvIGuql] or separate [sepqreIt]
. air hole [Fq"hqVl] (that permits passage of air)
. pressure flaking tool [flxkIN tHl] or fabricator [fxbrIkeItq]
. ( ) chipping [CIpIN] (defect of ceramic)
. 1 () uncover [AnkAvq] or unearth [AnE:T] or excavate
[ekskqveIt]
. 2 ( ) discover [dIskAvq]
. discovery [dIskAvqri]

180

181

. excavation license ["ekskqveISqn laIsqns]


. 1 () cast [kRst] or mould, Amer. mold [mqVld];
() plaster cast of Greek inscription
. 2 () cast [kRst] or casting [kRstIN] (making casts or molds)
. 1 () deposit [dIpPzIt], () sediment [sedImqnt];
. alluvium (pl. alluvia or alluviums);
- outwash;
ice-borne deposit; lacustrine sediment; lacustrine sediment (in lakes appeared from
melting glacier)
. 2 () accumulation [qkjHmjVleISqn]
. ( ) levigated [levI"geItqd]
o . elutriation [I"ljHtrIeISqn] or beneficiation ["benIfISIeISqn] (of clay)
. filler [fIlq] or bonding agent [bPndIN eIGqnt] or temper [tempq] or
tempering material [tempqrIN mqtIqrIql]
. impress [Impres] or impression [ImpreSqn];
( ) single point dentate
decoration (ceramic surface treatment); * cord
marking (if individual fibers in cord are not visible);
. dentate stamping sing.; . fabric marking;
cord marking; round
stamp-impression; fingerprint
. . . 1 () peeling [pJlIN] or
shivering [SIvqrIN] (defect of glaze)
. . 2 ( ) chipping [CIpIN] (defect
of ceramic)
. squeeze [skwJz]
. waste [weIst] sing. (materials left after using something), (
) debitage [debItIG];
industrial waste;
construction waste
. Church Fathers [CE:C fRDqz] pl.
. 1 ( ) incuse [InkjHz]
. 2 ( - ) struck [strAk]
past (coin)
. report [rIpLt]; 2000 . 2000 report
. flake [fleIk] also modified flake [mPdIfaId fleIk] (stone tool);
discoid flake; () bifacial trimming flake;
biface trimming plate;
typical Levallois fake;
blade (stone tool)
. design [dIzaIn]; architectural design
. ridge beam [rIG bJm] or ridge board [rIG bLd] (of a roof)
. hunting [hAntIN]
. hunter [hAntq]; hunter-gatherer
. ochre, Amer. ocher [qVkq]
. ocherous [qVkqrqs] or ochery [qVkrJ]
(of ochre)
. ocherous [qVkqrqs] or ochery [qVkrJ] (colour)
. evaluation [I"vxljueISqn]; critical evaluation
. fireplace [faIqpleIs] (of a regular fire) or hearth [hRT]
. ( ) * wooden gable (of timber house)
. ( ) cleaning [klJnIN] (in conservation of an
artifact); mechanical cleaning;
chemical cleaning
. ( ) clean [klJn] v. (in conservation of an artifact)
. plastered [plRstqd]

182

. pagoda [pqgqVdq]
. groove [grHv] or mortise [mLtIs]; grooved
. ( ) spandrel [spxndrql]
. 1 soldering [sOldqrIN]
. 2 brazing [breIzIN]
. bag [bxg] (simple, usually of plastic or paper)
. tent [tent]
. . (.) palace [pxlIs] (Slavonic art)
. broadsword [brLdsLd]; two-hand broadsword
- palaeo-, Amer. paleo- [pxliqV]
. palaeoanthropus ["pxliqVxnTrPpqs] (pl. palaeoanthropi), Amer.
paleoanthropus (pl. paleoanthropi)
. palaeoanthropologist ["pxliqVxnTrqpPlqGist], Amer. paleoanthropologist
. palaeoanthropologic ["pxliqVxnTrqpqlPGik] (Amer.
paleoanthropologic) or palaeoanthropological ["pxliqVxnTrqpqlPGikql]
(Amer. paleoanthropological)
. palaeoanthropology ["pxliqVxnTrqpPlqGi], Amer. paleoanthropology
. palaeobiologist ["pxliqVbaIPlqGIst], Amer. paleobiologist
. palaeobiological ["pxliqVbaIqlPGIkql], Amer. paleobiological
. palaeobiology ["pxliqVbaIPlqGi], Amer. paleobiology
. palaeobotanist ["pxliqVbPtqnIst] (Amer. paleobotanist) or palaeobotanicist ["pxliqVbqtxnIsIst] (Amer. paleobotanicist)
. palaeobotany ["pxliqVbPtqni] , Amer. paleobotany
. palaeobotanical ["pxliqVbqtxnIkql], Amer. paleobotanical
. ( ) palaeographer ["pxliPgrqfq], Amer.
paleographer
. palaeographic ["pxliqVgrxfIk] (Amer. paleographic) or
palaeographical ["pxliqVgrxfIkql] (Amer. paleographical)
. palaeography ["pxliPgrqfi], Amer. paleography
. palaeozoologist ["pxliqVzHPlqGIst], Amer. paleozoologist
. palaeozoologic ["pxliqVzHqlPGIk] (Amer. paleozoologic)
or palaeozoological ["pxliqVzHqlPGIkql] (Amer. paleozoological)
. palaeozoology ["pxliqVzHPlqGi], Amer. paleozoology
. palaeoclimatic ["pxliqVklaImxtIk], Amer. paleoclimatic
. palaeoclimatologist ["pxliqVklaImqtPlqGIst], Amer. paleoclimatologist
. palaeoclimatology ["pxliqVklaImqtPlqGJ], Amer. paleoclimatology
. Palaeolithic ["pxliqVlITIk], Amer. Paleolithic (period); /
Upper Palaeolithic; /
Lower Palaeolithic; Middle Palaeolithic
. Palaeolithic ["pxliqVlITIk], Amer. Paleolithic
. palaeomagnetism ["pxliqVmxgnItIzqm], Amer. paleomagnetism
. palaeomagnetic ["pxliqVmxgnetIk] (Amer. paleomagnetic)
or palaeomagnetical ["pxliqVmxgnetIkql] (Amer. paleomagnetical);
palaeomagnetology, Amer. paleomagnetology
. palaeomagnetist ["pxliqVmxgnItIst] (Amer. paleomagnetist) or
palaeomagnetologist ["pxliqVmxgnItPlqGIst] (Amer. paleomagnetologist)
. palaeomagnetology ["pxliqVmxgnItPlqGJ], Amer. paleomagnetology
. palaeontologist ["pxliPntPlqGIst], Amer. paleontologist
. palaeontologic ["pxliPntPlPGIk] (Amer. paleontologic)
or palaeontological ["pxliPntPlPGIkql] (Amer. paleontological)
. palaeontology ["pxliPntPlqGi], Amer. paleontology
183

. palaeopathological ["pxliqVpxTqlPGIkql], Amer.


paleopathological; palaeopathological lesion
. palaeopathology ["pxliqVpqTPlqGi], Amer. paleopathology
. palaeoserology ["pxliqVserPlqGi], Amer. paleoserology
. palaestra [pqlestrq] (pl. palaestrae or palaestras) or palestra [pqlestrq]
(pl. palestrae or palestras)
. palaestrite [pqlestraIt]
. palynology ["pxlqnPlqGi]
. palynologic ["pxlqnqlPGIk] or palynological
["pxlqnqlPGIkql]
. palisade ["pxlIseId] or palisading ["pxlIseIdIN]
. bludgeon [blAGqn]
- . digging stick [dIgIN stIk]
. pilgrimage route [pIlgrImIG rHt]
. palmette [pxlmet]
. . punch of the finger [pAnC qv Dq
fINgq] (on a vessel)
. palstave [pPlsteIv]
. 1 ( - -) monument
[mPnjVmqnt] (erected as a memorial); /
grave / funeral / funerary / sepulchral monument
. 2 ( ) archaeological
resource ["RkiqlPGIkql rIzLs]
. 3 ( ) site [saIt];
ceremonial site; Byzantine site;
sacrificing
horses site; burial site
. 4 ( ) monument [mPnjVmqnt] (one
artifact or assemblage)
. 5 tombstone [tHmstqVn] or gravestone
[greIvstqVn] or headstone [hedstqVn]
. (.) pendentive [pendqntIv]
. approach ramp [qprqVC rxmp]
. panel [pxnl]; sunken panel or coffer (archit.) or lacunar
. panoply [pxnqpli] (armour)
. pantheism [pxnTiIzqm]
. pantheon [pxnTiqn]
. Pantocrator; - Christ Pantocrator
. 1 () face [feIs] or facing [feIsIN] (of a wall)
. 2. () coat of mail [kqVt qv meIl] or armour, Amer. armor [Rmq]
. 3 () lorica [lPrIkq] (pl. loricae) or shell [Sel]
. pan-Hellenic [pxn-helenIk]
. porch [pLC] or parvis [pRvIs] (of a church)
. papyrus [pqpaIqrqs] (pl. papyri or papyruses)
. parapet [pxrqpIt] or breastwork [brestwE:k]; (
) battlements / battlement or crenellation
or battlemented parapet or embattlement
. () parastas [pxrqstqs] (pl. parastades) (anta)
. sudatorium ["sHdqtLrIqm] (pl. sudatoria) or sudatory [sHdq,tLri]
. 1 (.) pendentive [pendqntIv]
. 2 () sail [seIl]
. sailing ship [seIlIN SIp] f.
. parcellae [pRsqlq]
. 1 (mixture) paste [peIst]
. 2: glass paste [glRs peIst];
non-translucent / non-transparent / opaque glass paste;
Egyptian faience
. pasture [pRsCq]; mountain pasture
. paste [peIst] n. attrib., ( ) glass paste [glRs

peIst] n. attrib.
. pastophorion ["pRstPfPriqn] (pl. pastophoria) or pastophorium
["pRstPfPriqm] (pl. pastophoria) (the room enclosed in the church for the
preparation and storage of the Eucharist before Mass)
. patera [pxtqrq] (pl. paterai or paterae)
. patina [pxtInq]; noble patina; wild
patina; benign patina;
natural patina; artificial patina;
porcelainized patina; patinate or patine;
patinated [pxtI,neItqd] or patined [pxtJnd]
. patinated [pxtI,neItqd] or patined [pxtJnd]
. patrilineal ["pxtrqlaIniql]
. welding torch [weldIN tLC]
. 1 solder [sPldq]
. 2 braze [breIz]
. pectoral [pektqrql]
. pelike [pelIkq] (pl. pelikai)
. peltast [peltqst]
. pentanoummos ["pentxnHmqs] (pl. pentanoummoi) or pentanummus
(pl. pentanummi) ["pentxnHmqs]
. ash [xS]
. site of fire [saIt qv faIq]
. peplos or peplus [peplqs]
. knapping [nxpIN]
. prehistory ["prJhIstqri]
. prehistoric ["prJhIstPrIk] or primitive [prImItIv]
. primary source [praImqri sLs]
. parchment [pRCmqnt]
. pergola [pE:gqlq]
. mountain pass [maVntIn pRs]
. () bond [bPnd] (of masonry); running
bond or stretcher bond; / Flemish bond
. baldric [bLldrIk] or sling [slIN]; (
) back sling;
two-hand broadsword back sling; sword
baldric; broadsword baldric;
rapier baldric
. partition [pRtISqn] (archit.)
. () antechamber [xntI,CeImbq] or anteroom [xntIrum]
. 1 ( ) overfired ["qVvqfaIqd]
. 2 () cremated [krImeItId]
. 1 () dug-over layer [dAgqVvq leIq] (some time after it was deposited)
. 2 ( ) strip method [strIp meTqd] (of excavation)
. migration [maIgreISqn] (on a relatively short distance);
wanderings (in primitive societies)
. guard [gRd] or quillon [kwIlPn];
crossguard; double guard;
collar;
heart-shaped guard
. overlay ["qVvqleI] or cover [kAvq]
. cap [kxp] or covering [kAvqrIN]
(horizontal); arched vaulting;
architrave vaulting; stone covering;
conchal vaulting;
doming; vaulting;
(spoken) * semi-pyramidal roof; vaulting;
/ corbel vaulting
. ( ) disarticulated ["dIsRtIkjqleItqd] (bones)
. 1 () joining bank [GOInIN bxNk] or joining baulk
[GOInIN bLk]

184

185

. 2 () lintel [lIntl] or transom [trxnsqm]


. 3 ( ): stop ridge [stop rIG] (of
an axe)
. migration [maIgreISqn]; Great
Migration
. crossing [krPsIN] or intersection ["IntqsekSqn]
. lane [leIn] or side-street [saIdstrJt]
. () waist [weIst] (of a vessel); . . waisted adj.
. () restrike v. [,rJstraIk] (past restruck)
. overstrike ["qVvqstraIk] or restrike n. ["rJstraIk]
. peribolos [perIbPlqs]
. railing [reIlIN] sing.
. period [pIqriqd]; Archaic
period; Boreal period;
Prehistori period; Golden Horde period;
Classical period; (
) Roman Imperial period; Hellenistic period;
Late Classical period;
Late Byzantine period; Late Glacial
period; Postglacial period;
Pre-Boreal period; /
Formative / Pre-Classic period; protohistory;
Early Classical period;
Early Byzantine period;
Middle Byzantine period; period of building;
sub-Atlantic period;
sub-Boreal period; Quaternary era;
Hellenistic period
. periplus [perIplHs] (pl. peripli) or circumnavigation ["sE:kqmnxvIgeISqn]
. peripteral [pqrIptqrql]
. ( ) peristalith [pqrIstqlIT]
. peristyle [perI,staIl]
. peristylar ["perIstaIlq]
. nacre [neIkq]
. nacred [neIkqd] or nacreous [neIkrIqs]
. 1 () feather [feDq]
. 2 () plume [plHm]
. 3 ( ) pen [pen] or nib [nIb]
. 4 () blade [bleId] (of spear or lance)
. ( ) distant view [dIstqnt vjH]
. ring [rIN] or finger-ring [fINgqrIN]; - finger-ring key;
- signet ring or seal ring;
gemstone ring
. sand [sxnd]
. pestle [pesql]
. sandy [sxndi]
. 1 () loop [lHp]; (-) hanger
or hanger ring
. 2 ( ) frog [frPg] (a loop fastened to a belt to hold
a tool or weapon); dagger frog;
axe frog
. 3 () hinge [hInG]
. ( ) petasos or petasus [petqsqs] (broadbrimmed hat)
. petroglyph [petrqglIf]
. petroglyphic ["petrqglIfIk]
. infantry [Infqntri]; light infantry; heavy
infantry
. infantryman [Infqntrimqn] (pl. infantrymen)
. seal [sJl] or signet [sIgnIt]; / hanging seal;

cylinder seal; stamp seal


. Pecheneg [peCeneg]
. Pecheneg [peCeneg]
. 1 ( ) furnace [fE:nIs]
. 2 () stove [stqVv] or oven [Avqn]
. 3 () kiln [kIln]; pottery kiln;
two chambered kiln / furnace; wood kiln;
lime-baking
kiln or lime kiln; glass-forming kiln / furnace or glassmelting kiln / furnace
. 4: ( ) smelter [smeltq];
bloomery smelter
. pishtaq or niched portal [nJSt pLtl] (Islamic art)
. cave [keIv]; - hesychasterion cave
. cave [keIv]
. * handless drinking bowl (Oriental)
. pigment [pIgmqnt], ( ) stain [steIn] (in glass-making)
. ( ) pick [pIk] (stone tool)
. pike [paIk] or spear [spIq] or lance [lRns]
. pyxis [pIksIs] (pl. pyxides or pyxidae); pointed
pyxis; lidded pyxis;
globular pyxis
. saw [sL]
. pylon [paIlqn] (archit.)
. pilum [pIlqm] (pl. pila)
. . pilaster [pIlxstq], also applied column or attached
column or engaged column; respond
. ( ) scenery sing. [sJnqri] (in Greek theatre)
. pinnacle [pInqkql]
. pinax [pInxks] (pl. pinakes)
. tweezers pl. [twJzqz]
. feast [fJst]; funeral feast or funeral repast
. pyramid [pIrqmId]; stepped pyramid
. dowel [daVql] (for fastening stones in masonry together);
wood dowel; lead dowel
. pithos [pITPs] (pl. pithoi); storage pithos
. food [fHd]; funeral food;
sacrificial food
. ( ) smelting [smeltIN] or fusion [fjHZqn]
. fusible [fjHzIbql] or meltable [meltqbql]
. cladding [klxdIN]; / patchy
gold; / patchy silver
. clad [klxd] or metal-clad [metl klxd];
silver clad; silver clad bronze
. plan [plxn]; approximate plan;
* plan taken with use of measuring devices;
() greek-cross plan; close-up;
foreground; ( ) floor plan or ground plan;
- * plan without minor deytails;
* layout of objects in regard to each other (with very
approximate calculation of dicstances)
. planning [plxnIN] or grid [grId] or layout [leIaVt];
/ orthogonal plan / planning;
urban planning / grid; three-part
ground plan
. 1 ( ) plane table [pleIn teIbql]
. 2 () * easel [Jzql] or stand [stxnd] (in museum display: flat, often
upright surface, on which drawings and/or artifacts are mounted)
. layer [leIq] or stratum [strRtqm] (pl. strata or stratums) or deposit
[dIpPzIt]

186

187

. art of sculpture [Rt qv skAlpCq];


monumental sculpture
. 1 () plate [pleIt], () scale [skeIl]
. 2 () panel [pxnl] or buckle-plate [bAkql pleIt]
. 3 ( ) blade [bleId] (stone tool);
knife-shaped piece; Aurignacian blade;
/
/ backed blade (total backing);
backed blade (partial
backing); piece with
straight retouched truncation;
piece with oblique retouched truncation;
piece with concave retouched truncation;
piece with convex retouched truncation;
double truncated piece;
piece with continuous retouch on
one edge; piece with continuous
retouch on two edges; / strangled blade
. 4: ( ) spacer plate [speIsq pleIt]
. 1 () small plate [smLl pleIt] (metal)
. 2 ( ) bladelet [bleIdqlIt]; denticulate
bladelet; denticulate backed
bladelet; backed bladelet;
truncated baked bladelet;
notched bladelet; bladelet
with inverse retouch or Dufour bladelet; truncated
bladelet
. plated [pleItId]
., . plateau [plxtqV] (pl. plateaux or plateaus)
. platform [plxtfLm]
. plafond [plxfLN]
. Pleistocene [plJstqVsJn] n.
. Pleistocene [plJstqVsJn] adj.
. ( ) plectron [plektrqn] (pl. plectrons)
or plectrum [plektrqm] (pl. plectrums or plectra) or plektron [plektrqn]
(pl. plektra)
. plemochoe [plemPkqV] (pl. plemochoai)
. tribal [traIbql]; tribal chief;
tribal nobility; tribal union
. tribe [traIb]; . people of Timber Grave
culture or Timber Grave people
. wattle [wPtl] (construction)
. 1 () sennit [senIt]
. 2 (.) network design [netwE:k dIzaIn] or fret [fret] (ornam.) or
latticework [lxtIswE:k] or guilloche [gIlOS] (pattern)
. 3 ( ) latticework [lxtIswWk] or trelliswork [trelIswWk]
(ornam.)
. whip [wIp]
. () shoulder [SqVldq] (of a vessel)
. 1 (.) shoulder [SqVldq] or upper arm [Apq Rm]
. 2 () shoulder [SqVldq] (of a vessel)
. 3: * perpendicular projection from the side of apse
. 4 () shoulder [SqVldq] (the angle between the face and flank of
a bastion)
. ( ) * bare unglazed
area (defect of glazing)
. 1 ( ) film [fIlm] (thin coating or sheet); ()
cling film; polyethylene film
. 2 film [fIlm] (photo film)
. plinth [plInT] (of a column)

. baseboard [beIsbLd] or mopboard [mPpbLd]


. plinth [plInT] (square brick)
. slab [slxb] or flagstone [flxgstqVn]; rubble slab;
() lintel (megalithic); :
a) ( ) vertical slab (covering the entrance into a grave
chamber), ( ) mensa (pl. mensae or mensas) (shelf covering the
grave in arcosolium), b) (, )
inset slab; marver (flat slab); /
gravestone or headstone (horizontal) or tombstone;
facing slab; covering slab or capstone;
porthole slab; inscribed slab;
slab standing on edge;
septal slab
. slabbed [slxbd]
. plain [pleIn] or flat [flxt]
. () flat-base [flxt"beIs] or flat-bottom [flxt"bPtqm] or
flat-bottomed [flxt"bPtqmd] (vessel)
. plane of cleavage [pleIn qv klJvIG] or surface of
cleavage [sE:fIs qv klJvIG] or flake surface [fleIk sE:fIs]
. carpenter [kRpIntq]
. current density [kArqnt densIti]
. (, ) compact [kqmpxkt]
() * glaze flowed poorly
. platform [plxtfLm]; tower platform;
press / pressing ground; site / place of
funeral feast or sacrifices (at a cemetery); (
) * lighted place in plunderers mine where the plunder
is made; ( ) stricking platform (on
a stone tool)
. 1 ( ) square [skweq];
urban square; square of the city;
market square; * square in front of a church or
cathedral; trading square;
main square
. 2 ( ) area [eqriq]
. 1 () plough, Amer. plow [plaV]
. 2 () ploughshare, Amer. plowshare [plaVSeq]
(of a metal plough)
. metatarsus [,metqtRsqs]
. coastline [kqVstlaIn] or shore [SL] or coast [kqVst] or littoral [lItqrql];
eastern shores
. blood brotherhood ["blAd brADqhVd]
. Bug area [bHg eqriq]
. * uppermost, widening part of timber building, base of the roof (wooden archit.)
. * tower in a residential complex with a room for feasts (wooden archit.)
. kitchen [kICIn] (especially in monastery)
. surface [sE:fIs]; ground surface;
ancient surface; original
surface or old ground surface; / ()
coarse surface (of a vessel); () smoothed
surface(of a vessel); () mirror finish (of a
blade); soiled
surface; worn surface
. outcrop of flint [aVtkrPp qv flInt] (where it was
collected by the ancients)
. 1 () chariot [Cxriqt] or cart [kRt];
funeral cart
. 2 () waggon, Amer. wagon [wxgqn]
. damaged [dxmIGd]; (
) damaged in cleaning

188

189

. frontier [frAntIq] or frontier region [frAntIq rJGqn]


. cellar [selq]
. funeral [fjHnqrql] or burial [beriql];
funeral wreath; funeral bed;
funeral cover;
burial (ceremony)
. burial [beriql] or funeral [fjHnqrql] or interment [IntE:mqnt];
( ) burial no. was
found associated with (artifacts); open-air burial;
secondary burial (in a tumulus already existed);
* burial made long time after the death;
in-ground burial; * burial of a group
of persons; childs burial;
female grave; sacrificial burial;
collective / family grave;
() jar burial;
repeated burial; male grave;
undisturbed grave; burial of one
person; main / primary burial (tumulus is raised
above it); twin burial;
prone burial;
extended / supine burial;
cist grave; burial in tree-trunk sarcophagus
(pl. sarcophagi) or tree-trunk burial;
burial in sitting position;
( ) contracted burial;
( ) crouched burial;
urn grave; / horses burial or horse grave;
flexed burial;
/ inhumated burial;
/ cremated burial;
burial covered by tumulus / kurgan / barrow;
disturbed grave
. (.) absorbent [qbsLbqnt]
- . * burial and memorial
. burial [beriql]; mortuary enclosure;
funeral / mortuary practice
. dead body [ded bPdi] or dead [ded] or corpse [kLps] (buried)
. () half-length ["hRfleNT]
. 1 ( ) undercut ["AndqkAt], ( )
loculus [lqVkqlqs] (pl. loculi)
. 2 (.: ) undercut grave ["AndqkAt greIv]
. basement [beIsmqnt] or subterranean room ["sAbtqreIniqn rHm]
. 1 () pendant [pendqnt]; pendant in openwork;
temple pendant; lunar
pendant; Egyptian faience pendant;
- medallion pendant; gemstone
pendant; devotional pendant;
Christian pendant;
phallic pendant; figural
pendant; jingling pendant
. 2 () boss [bPs] (of an arch)
. 1 () hostel [hPstl] or hotel [hqVtel] (historical)
. 2 ( ) * yard and vegetable garden (historical)
. underglaze ["AndqgleIz] adj.
. headrest [hed-rest]
. footring [fVt rIN] or base-ring [beIs rIN] or foot-ring
base [fVt rIN beIs] or ring-foot [rIN fVt] or ring stand [rIN stxnd]
. * make additional burials into a grave
. additional burial [qdISqnql beriql]

. underground room [AndqgraVnd rHm] or underground space


[AndqgraVnd speIs] or catacomb [kxtqkHm], () dungeon
[dAnGqn]
. subterranean ["sAbtqreIniqn] or underground [AndqgraVnd];
underworld
. bargeboard [bRGbLd] or curved lath [kE:vd lRT] (attached to verge of a roof)
. podium [pqVdiqm] (pl. podia or podiums) or rostrum [rPstrqm] (pl. rostra
or rostrums)
. (. ) . (. ) ground floor [graVnd
flL] (usually not lived-in; Slavonic art)
. horseshoe [hLS-SH]
. U-shaped [jH SeIpt]
. covered by tumulus [kAvqd baI tjHmjVlqs] or covered by
kurgan [kAvqd baI kVrgRn] or covered by barrow [kAvqd baI bxrqV]
. bedding [bedIN] or bed [bed] (under foundation) or under layer
["AndqleIq]; mortar bed;
mortar bedding, also bedding mortar
. sweep [swJp]
. Dnieper area [dnJpq eqriq]
. 1 (.) base [beIs] or crepidoma ["krepIdqVmq] (of
a building)
. 2 (.) foothill [fVt,hIl]
. (-) similar to [sImqlq]
. window sill, Amer. windowsill [wIndqV,sIl] or window ledge [wIndqV
leG]
. Don area [dPn eqriq]
. () sub-footing ground [sAb fVtIN graVnd] or sub-footing
course [sAb fVtIN kLs]
. basement [beIsmqnt] (used for household needs only)
. support [sqpLt] (moveable)
. 1 ( ) candlestick [kxndl,stIk]
. 2 ( ) andelabrum ["kxndIlRbrqm] (pl.
andelabra; .
)
. stand [stxnd]; cooking stand;
shooting stick (for a musket); shooting
stick; crank
[krxNk] (firing stand) or firing tripod or stilt
. bedding [bedIN] or bed [bed] (under foundation or dead body);
funeral bedding;
sub-base coarse; mortar bed
. bedding [bedIN] (of friable material)
. hew [hjH] (past hewed, hewn)
. butt [bAt] (weight fitted onto spear-shaft for balance)
. (.) pillow block [pIlqV blPk] or capital [kxpItl]
o . crupper-strap [krApq strxp]
. fire [faIq], () conflagration ["kPnflqgreISqn]
. (. ) vertebra [vE:tIbrq] (pl. vertebrae);
dorsal vertebra or thoracic vertebra; lumbar
vertebra; thoracic vertebra;
cervical vertebra
. backbone [bxkbqVn] or spinal column [spaInl "kPlqm] or spine
[spaIn] or vertebral column [vE:tIbrql kPlqm]
. Late Classical [leIt klxsIkql]
. Late Byzantine [leIt baIzxntaIn]
. Late Roman [leIt rqVmqn] or Later Roman [leItq rqVmqn]
. Late Scythian [leIt sIDIqn]
. late mediaeval [leIt "mediJvql], Amer. late medieval
. Late Hellenistic [leIt helInIstIk]
. gilt [gIlt] or gilding [gIldIN]

190

191

. gilt [gIlt] or gilded [gIldqd]


. flood plain [flAd pleIn]
. corpse [kLps] or dead body [ded bPdi]
. generation ["GenqreISqn]
. encrust [InkrAst](destroy)
. coating [kqVtIN] or coat [kqVt]; glassy
coating; road coating
. floor [flL]; flagstone floor;
floor of hardened clay; floor of hardened
soil; mosaic floor; living floor
. plank-bed sing. [plxNk bed]
. field [fJld]; urnfield
. field [fJld] or open-air ["qVpqn eq] or fieldworking [fJldwE:kIN];
field notes; excavation journal
. 1 () glaze [gleIz];
poorly adhered glaze or
glaze which badly adheres to the surface of the vessel;
welladhered glaze; glaze of poor quality;
worn-off glaze
. 2 (.: ) glazed ware [gleIzd weq]
. ( ) pouring [pLrIN] (glaze application technique)
. glazed [gleIzd]
. ( ) polypod bowl ["pPlIpPd bqVl]
. polis [pqVlIs] (pl. poleis)
. polytheism [pPlITJIzqm]
. ( , ;
) polythyron (pl. polythyra) or pier-and-door partition
. polychrome [pPlIkrqVm] or polychromatic [,pPlIkrqmxtIk] or
multicoloured, Amer. multicolored [mAlti,kAlqd]
. * lower part of a round gable (or hip roof) to drain rain water (wooden archit)
. 1 ( ) shelf [Self]
. 2 (. ) flange [flxnG]
. Polovcian [pPlPvsiqn]
. Polovcian [pPlPvsiqn]
. location [lqVkeISqn] or position [pqzISqn] or situation ["sItjueISqn];
in sitting position; the
situation of bones within grave; c social status
. 1 () * shelf for sitting (in Russian bath)
. 2: ( ) * platform / walk
for defensmen (on a fortificational wall or tower);
tower platform; ( )
parapet walk; (
) covered paraper walk
. demigod [demIgPd]
. (.) pithouse [pIt haVs] or subterranean house ["sAbtqreIniqn haVs]
. ( ) half ikrion (pl. half ikria)
. applied column [qplaId kPlqm] or attached column [qtxCt kPlqm]
or engaged column [IngeIGd kPlqm] or half column ["hRf kPlqm]
. seminomadic ["semInqVmxdIk]
. semidome [semidqVm]
. peninsula [pInInsjulq]; in a peninsula
. semivault ["semIvLlt]
. semivaulted ["semIvLltqd]
. hemi-spherical ["hemIsferIkql] or semiglobular ["semIglPbjVlq]
. (spoken) * semi-pyramidal roof
. () semi-finished vessel ["semIfInISt vesql]
. half-figure [hRf fIgq]
. semi-pediment ["semIpedImqnt]
. room [rHm] or compartment [kqmpRtmqnt] or space [speIs];

living / dwelling room or living chamber;


cave room, also cave; basement
or subterranean room; (-) storage
compartment; storage room;
service room; economiroom or
household room or shed
. commemorative feast [kqmemqrqtIv fJst] sing., or wake [weIk] sing., or
funeral repast [fjHnqrql rIpRst] sing.
. greave [grJv] or jambeau [GxmbqV]
. 1 () Pontus, also Pontos [pPntqs] (state)
. 2 () Pontus, also Pontos [pPntqs] (sea); Pontus Axinus
or Pontos Axeinos; Pontus Euxinus or Pontos Euxeinos
. Pontian [pPntiqn] n.
. Pontic [pPntik] adj.
. punty [pAntJ]
. crosspiece [krPspJs]
. pore [pL]
. () * ornamental masonry of bricks / stones laid at 45 angle with
outer surface of the wall
. porosity [pqrPsIti]; apparent porosity
. porous [pLrqs]
. doorstep [dLstep] or entrance step [entrqns step] or
sill [sIl] or threshold [TreShqVld]
. () rock [rPk]; core (mineral)
. port [pLt]
. ( ) Porte [pLt]; /
Ottoman Porte or Sublime Porte or High Porte
. portal [pLtl]; arched portal;
recessed portal
. portico [pLtIkqV] (pl. porticoes or porticos);
octastyle portico; pedimented portico
. port [pLt]
. portrait [pLtrIt]; intaglio portrait;
sculptured portrait
. sword belt [sLd belt] or girdle [gE:dl] or cingulum [sINgjulqm] (pl.
cingula)
. . (, )
vambrace [vxmbrRs]
. * extramural part of a city / town
. settler [setlq]
. settlement [setlmqnt]; permanent settlement
. silvered [sIlvqd]
- - . post- [pqVst]
. ante mortem [xntI mLtqm] adv. adj.
. post [pqVst] (position)
. pedestal [pedIstql] or base [beIs]; statue base
. 1 () bed [bed]
. 2 (.) sub-wall structure [sAb wLl strAkCq] or sub-wall course [sAb
wLl kLs] or bedding [bedIN]
. 3 ( ) * wide side of ashlar
. postcranial [pqVstkreInIql]
. construction [kqnstrAkSqn] or building [bIldIN];
log cabin; adobe building or mud
hut; bi-level / two-tier building;
two-storey building, Amer. two-story building;
residential / living / dwelling building / structure / construction;
frame building; -
wattle-and-daub building; cult structure /
construction; multi-storeyed building, Amer.
multi-story building; aboveground construction;

192

193

one-storey building, Amer. one-story building;


building is sunk into ;
apsidal building; stilted building;
household / industrial building;
centralized building
., . ( ) pottery [pPtqri], ware [weq];
* wooden ware made of staves bound together with
hoops; * wooden ware made of a hollowed-out log;
house ware or household pottery;
( ) stoneware; Corinthian pottery;
red-figured pottery or red-on-black ware;
wheel-made / wheel-turned pottery;
kitchenware or cookingware; laboratory
ware; hand-made pottery / ware;
monochrome glaze ware;
monochrome glaze ware; polychrome ware;
under-glaze painted ware;
relief pottery; pottery
with string patterns; tableware or dinnerware;
( )
fine ware;
Iznik ware; blackfigured pottery or black-on-red ware
. chalice [CxlIs]
. ceiling [sJlIN]; lacunar (ceiling of sunken panels);
coving
. ( -) similar (to) [sImqlq]
. funeral [fjHnqrql] sing., or burial [berIql] sing., or interment [IntE:mqnt]
sing. (ceremony)
. scratched [skrxCt] (defected)
. soil [sOIl]; fossil soil or buried soil
. ( ) dormitory [dLmItqri] or dorter [dLtq]
. 1 ( ) belt [belt]; battle-belt
. 2 (.) band [bxnd] (ornam.)
. 3: blind arcade [blaInd RkeId]
. 4 (.) girdle [gE:dl] (anat.);
pectoral girdle or shoulder girdle;
pelvic girdle
. 5 ( ) course [kLs] (in masonry or brickwork)
. ( ) string course [strIN kLs]
. Orthodoxy [LTqdPksi]
. Orthodox [LTqdPks]
. remains [rImeInz]
. sling [slIN] (weapon)
- . pre- [prJ]
. altar rail [Lltq reIl] or altar screen [Lltq skrJn] or choir
screen [kwaIq skrJn]
. prewetting [,prIwetIN]
. foothills pl. [fVt,hIl]
. 1 (, , ) object [PbGekt] or item [aItqm];
(-) item in the shape of (something);
silver-gilt item
. 2 () subject [sAbGIkt] or topic [tPpIk]
. 3: export [IkspLt] (exported object);
import [ImpLt] (imported object)
. intentional [IntenSqnql]
. tarsus [tRsqs]
. preceding [prIsJdIN]
. cease to exist [sJs tV IgzIst]
. prenucleus [prInjHkliqs]

. prevail [prIvaIl]
. 1 ( / ) presbytery
[prezbItqri] (in Orthodox churches corresponds to bema)
. 2 ( ) presbytery
[prezbItqri] (in Western churches is in the central part of chancel)
. 1 () throne [TrqVn]; . . enthroned adj.;
enthroned Christ
. 2 () altar [Lltq] or communion table [kqmjHnjqn teIbql] or Lords
table [lLdz teIbql] or holy table [hqVli teIbql]
. 3 () see [sJ]; Holy see
. device [dIvaIs]
. pendant [pendqnt] (. : )
. () chapel [Cxpql] or finis [fInIs] (in Orthodoxy an annex to or a
part of church, a place of worship, with its altar or icon stand);
side chapel
. () catch plate [kxC pleIt] or receiver [rIsJvq];
returned foot; with disk for
catch-plate; solid foot;
elongated catch plate
. indicator [IndIkeItq] or attribute [xtrIbjHt] or sign [saIn] or feature
[fJCq]; dating feature;
morphological attribute
. Transarpathian region [trxnskRpeITjqn rJGqn]
. abut [qbAt]
. junction [GANkSqn] or attachment [qtxCmqnt] (of a handle to a vessel)
. attachment [qtxCmqnt] or appendix [qpendIks] (pl. appendices)
. 1 ( ) inclusion [InklHZqn] or temper [tempq] or matter
[mxtq] or additional material [qdISqnql mqtIqriql] (in ceramic);
dopant or doping agent; sandtemper
. 2 () contaminant [kqntxmInqnt] or impurity [impjVqrIti]
. 3 ( ): intrusive [IntrHsIv]; residual
[rIzIGuql] (in a layer)
. participate [pRtIsIpeIt] or take part [teIk pRt]
. offering [PfqrIN] (to deities)
. solder [sPldq]; soft solder; hard solder
. nature [neICq]
. natural [neICqrql]
. wharf [wLf] or pier [pIq]
. attached [qtxC] or annexed [qneksd] or adjacent [qGeIsqn]
(to a buiding)
. annexe, Amer. annex [xneks] or attached house [qtxCt haVs]
. prytaneion ["praItqnJqn] (pl. prytanea) or prytaneum ["praItqnJqm]
(pl. prytanea)
. narthex [nRTeks]
. * hew stones for making them closer to each other when at place
. lintel [lIntl]
. antechamber [xntI"CeImbq] or anteroom [xntI"rHm]
. Black Sea littoral [blxk sJ lItqrql], also Black Sea region [blxk
sJ rJGqn] or Black Sea area [blxk sJ eqriq] or Pontic area [pPntIk
eqriq]; northern Black Sea littoral, also
northern Black Sea coast or northern Black Sea area or north Pontic area
. test [test]
. test tube [test tjHb]
. wire [waIq]; wire wrapped
. wire [waIq]
. longitudinal ["lPnGItjHdInql]
. view [vjH] or projection [prqGekSqn]; side view;
elevated / elevation view;
horizontal view; oblique view;

194

195

taken from an oblique view; angled view


. opening [qVpqnIN] or aperture [xpqCq]; doorway;
window opening
. streak [strJk] (in marble)
. transparency [trxnspxrqnsi] or colour transparency [kAlq
trxnspxrqnsi]
. 1 () industry [Indqstri] or manufacture ["mxnjVfxkCq]
or production [prqdAkSqn];
production of bronzes;
pottery making or pottery production or manufacture of
pottery; local production or home production or
domestic production; craft production
. 2: local product ["lqVkxl
prPdAkt]
. origin [PrIGIn]; of Milesian
origin; ethnic origin
. calcined [kxlsInd]
. pick [pIk] (break up by means of a pick)
. spacer [speIsq]
. ( ) pinhole [pInhqVl] (in glaze); .
pinholing n. sing. or pitting n. sing. (in glaze)
. 1 ( ) borer [bLrq] or perforator ["pE:fqreItq] or punch
[pAnC] (stone tool); atypical borer;
double pointed punch;
borer on truncated plate; - borer-burin; -
borer-end scraper; typical perforator;
multiple borer;
. 2 ( ) piercer [pIqsq] or punch [pAnC] (metal tool
for piercing, without handle); double pointed punch
. proxenos [prPksqnqs] (pl. proxenoi)
. proxeny [prPkseni] n. attrib.
. proxeny [prPkseni] n.; proxeny for a citizen of
Sinope; - proxeny for so-and-so citizen
of Sinope
. span [spxn] or bay [beI] (part of building marked off by vertical elements);
arch span
. ( ) breach [brJC] (rupture)
. ( ) scour [skaVq] (made by river)
. 1 () beneficiation ["benIfISIeISqn] or elutriation [I"lHtrIeISqn]
(of clay)
. 2 . (.) washing [wPSIN];
deep washing
. rinse [rIns]
. pronaos [prPnxPs] (pl. pronaoi)
. 1 ( ) pierced bead [pIqst bJd]
. 2 ( ) necklace of beads [neklqs qv bJds]
. 3 (.: ) * bead with wide aperture (spoken)
. . propylaeum [prqVpaIlJq] (pl. propylaea) or propylon
[prqVpaIlqn] (pl. propyla)
. openwork [qVpqn,wE:k] (single aperture)
. line drawing [laIn drLIN]; line drawing of
inscription
. subsidence [sqbsaIdqns]
. ( ) () holed [hqVld] (coin)
. ( ) translucent [trxnzlHsqnt]
. sieving [sIvIN]
. sieve [sIv]
. proscenium [prqsJniqm] (pl. proscenia)
. streak [strJk] (thin layer between two layers)
. 1 () prostas [prqVstqs] (pl. prostades) (antechamber)

. 2 ( / ) prostas [prqVstqs] (pl.


prostades) (area included between parastades)
. (.) prostasis [prqVstxsIs] (pl. prostases)
. pier [pIq] (portion of a wall between windows)
. prostyle [prqVstaIl]
. space [speIs]; inner space of a house;
inner space of a church;
space under dome
. desiccate [desIkeIt]
. prothesis [prPTIsIs] (pl. protheses) (room)
. proteichisma [prqVteIkIzmq] (advanced wall)
. protoma [prqVtPmq] (pl. protomae)
. lane [leIn] or side-street [saId strJt]
. eye [aI] or shaft-hole [SRft,hqVl] (in tool, for handle)
. profane [prqfeIn]
. profiled [prqVfaIld]
. 1 ( ) profile [prqVfaIl]; complete profile (profile
of a vessel with all its parts preserved); incomplete
profile
. 2 (. ) profile [prqVfaIl] or moulding, Amer. molding [mqVldIN]
(archit.: embellishment in strip form made of a structural material)
. prochous (pl. prochoi)
. way [weI] or passage [pxsIG] or passageway [pxsIGweI] or walkway
[wLkweI]; mountain pass; archway;
gateway
. scratched [skrxCt] (inscription or image made in this way)
. process [prqVses]; erosion (natural process)
. incised [InsaIzd](about a line or image made by such lines)
. spring [sprIN] (metal device)
. ( ) blister [blIstq] (in glaze); . ( ) bloating
[blqVtIN] or blistering [blIstqrIN] (glaze defect)
. buckle [bAkql]; decorated buckle;
circular buckle; shoe buckle;
eagle-headed buckle; belt buckle or strap
end buckle; ( ) plain buckle;
spur buckle;
/ simply decorated buckle;
buckle with cast integral plate
. distaff [dIstRf]
. ( ) rectangle [rektxNgql] (stone tool)
. spindle whorl [spIndl wE:l]
. psalium [sLliqm] (pl. psalia) or cheek-piece [CJkpJs];
two-holes cheek piece
. pseudodipteros [psHdPdIptqrqs] (archit.)
. pseudodipteral [psHdPdIptqrql] (archit.)
. pseudoisodomum [psHdPaIsPdqmqm] n. attrib. (pl. pseudoisodoma)
- . pseudo-microburin [sjHdqV "maIkrqVbjuqrIn]
. pseudoperipteral [sjHdqVpqrIptqrql] adj.
. . psephism [sI"fizqm] (pl. psephisms) or psephisma
[sIfizmq] (pl. psephismata or psephismas)
. psykter [saIktq] (pl. psykteres)
. () pointill [pPIntIlq]
. button [bAtn] (cloth)
. ( ) blister [blIstq] (in glaze); .
( ) bloating [blqVtIN] or blistering [blIstqrIN] (glaze defect)
. bullet [bVlIt]
. point [pOInt]; stronghold; trading post or
emporium (pl. emporiums or emporia)
. ( ) void areas [vPId FqrIqs] (in an artifact)

196

197

. slave [sleIv]
. slave-owning [sleIv qVnIN]
. slavery [sleIvqri]
. plain [pleIn]
. radiometric ["reIdIqVmetrIk]
. radiocarbon ["reIdIqVkRbqn]
. ( )
rainbow toning [reInbqV tqVnIN] (on a coin)
. (-) dilute [daIlHt]
. collapse [kqlxps]
. ruin [rHIn] sing., or wreckage [rekIG] sing. (of a building)
. reconnaissance [rIkPnIsqns] or
fieldwalking reconnaissance [fJldwLkIN rIkPnIsqns];
* reconnaissance made within an administrative
unit; *reconnaissance made
within geographic unit (e. g. river basin);
* reconnaissance searching for sites of one culture or period;
* reconnaissance searching for
sites of all cultures and periods
. () plunder [plAndq] (of a site);
grave robbery
. decomposition ["dJkPmpqzISqn]
. decayed [dIkeIId] or perished [perISt]
. broken [brqVkqn] part. (into pieces) or cracked [krxkt] adj. or
fragmented [frxgmentqd] adj.
. demarcation ["dJmRkeISqn] or delimitation [dI"lImIteISqn]
. . size sing. [saIz] or measurements pl. [meZqmqnt] or
dimensions pl. [daImenSqnz]
. grid [grId] or layout [leIaVt]; grid
layout (of excavation trench)
. section [sekSqn]; in section; cross section;
longitudinal section
. ( ) disarticulated ["dIsRtIkjqleItqd] (bones)
. (.)destructive [dIstrAktIv] (conserv.)
. destruction [dIstrAkSqn]
. ruined [rHInd]
. region [rJGqn] or area [eqriq]
. shrine [SraIn] or casket [kRskIt] (with relics of a saint)
. ( ) raclette [rRklet]
. (a) shell [Sel], () malacological find ["mxlqkqlPGIkql
faInd]
. frame [freIm], () framing line [freImIN laIn],
p . rank [rxNk]
. Early Classical [Wli klxsIkql]
. Early Byzantine [Wli baIzxntaIn]

. Early Roman [Wli rqVmqn]


. early mediaeval [Wli "mediJvql], Amer. early medieval
. Early Hellenistic [Wli helInIstIk]
. rapier [reIpiq]
. race [reIs]; Australoid race;
Caucasoid race; Mongoloid race;
Negroid race
. ( ) working [wE:kIN] or treatment [trJtmqnt] (of
stone) or flintknapping [flInt,nxpIN]
. excavate [ekskqveIt] or dig up [dIg Ap] or unearth [AnE:T] or
uncover [AnkAvq] or recover [rIkAvq]
. excavation area ["ekskqveISqn eqriq] or excavation trench ["ekskqveISqn
trenC] or dig [dIg]
. excavation ["ekskqveISqn] sing.; () strip method [strIp meTqd] (of excavation)
. aslant wall [qslRnt wLl] or aslant support [qslRnt sqpLt]
. cusp [kAsp] (triangular-shaped projection from the inner curve of an arch)
. ( ) devitrification
[dJvItrqfaIkxISqn] (of glass)
. crown [kraVn] (unsupported part of a vault)
. painted [peIntId]
. location [lqVkeISqn] (of a site)
. spreader bar [spredq bR]
. () grouping [grHpIN];
biological groupings
. flaked [fleIkt]
. ( ) devitrification
[dJvItrqfaIkxISqn] (of glass)
. devitrify [dJvItrqfaI]
. 1 (.) grout [grout] or mortar [mLtq];
bonding mortar; mud mortar;
air-setting mortar ;
lime-based mortar or lime mortar; mortared with
or grouted with or with mortar; cement mortar
. 2 (.) solution [sqlHSqn]; - alcoholwater solution; diluted solution
. soluble [sPljubql]
. solvent [sPlvqnt] (chemistry)
. dissolve [dIzPlv]
. floral [flLrql]
. ( ) crazing [kreIzIN] (glaze defect)
. capital flare [kxpItl fleq]
. ( ) ceramic calculation [sIrxmIk "kxlkjqleISqn]
. clean [klJn] or uncover [AnkAvq]
. 1 () embroidered [ImbrPIdqd]
. 2 ( ) slushed [slASt] (masonry)
. ribbed [rIbd] or rippled [rIpqld]
. 1 () rib [rIb] (anat.)
. 2 (.) rib [rIb] or arris [xrIs] (pl. arris or arrises) or ridge [rIG] (shape);
vertical rib; horizontal rib;
reinforcing rib
. 3 () groin [grPIn] (archit.); ( )
cross springer
. 4 () ridge [rIG] or ripple [rIpql] (of a vessel); ()
carinated (vessel)
. punch side [pAnC saId] or reverse [rIvE:s]
. () register [reGIstq] (in painting)
. regula [rqgjVlq]
. 1 () editorial board ["edItLriql bLd]
. 2 () publishing house [pAblISIN haVs]

198

199

. road [rqVd] or way [weI]; sea route; trade /


trading route
. cannon [kxnqn]
. pedestal [pedIstql] or base [beIs] (of a statue)
. cinqfoil [sINkfPIl]
. 1 (, ) impost [ImpqVst] or abutment [qbAtmqnt] or springer
[sprINq] (of an arch or vault); * ( :
) skewback (of an arch); (
) gable springer
. 2: shoulders of blade [SqVldqz qv bleId] pl.
. ( ) stop ridge [stOp rIG]

. ( ,
) fraudulently tooled [frLGqlqntli tHld] (coin)
. reservoir [rezqvwR]; rain reservoir
. ( ) burin [bjuqrIn]; atypical burin;
multiple burin on retouched
truncation; core-shaped burin;
burin plan or flat burin;
burin on truncated piece; transverse
burin on notch; transverse
burin on lateral retouch; burin on
broken blade; Noailles burin; mixed
multiple burin; straight dihedral burin;
asymmetrical dihedral burin or canted burin;
angle dihedral burin;
typical burin; angle burin
. eraser [IreIzq]
. carved [kRv]
., . carving [kRvIN] or cutting [kAtIN];
woodcarving; stone carving;
bone-carving; relief cutting;
intaglio cutting
. 1 () graduated levelling rod [grxGueItId levqlIN rPd] or graduated
levelling staff [grxGueItId levqlIN stRf] or graduated measuring rod
[grxGueItId meZqrIN rPd] or graduated measuring staff [grxGueItId
meZqrIN stRf]
. 2 () scale [skeIl] (calibrated rod, used when taking pictures)
. reconstruction ["rJkqnstrAkSqn];
artists impression or historic view (of
something)
. religion [rIlIGqn], () worship [wE:SIp]
. reliquary [relIkwqri] or shrine [SraIn] or casket [kRskIt]
. relic [relIk]; / holy / sacred relics
. 1 ( ) relief [rIlJf] (archit.); . . in
relief; incised relief; haut relief or high
relief; false relief; grave relief;
bas relief or low relief; hollow
relief, also sunk / concave relief
. 2: landscape [lxndskeIp] (geographic characteristic)
. relief [rIlJf]
. strap [strxp]; sword belt or girdle;
bridle band
. craftsman [krRftsmqn] (pl. craftsmen)
. 1 ( ) craft [krRft]
. 2 () craftsmanship [krRftsmqnSIp] or workmanship
. 1 () ornamental band ["Lnqmentl bxnd] (under rim of an amphora)
. 2 ( ) annulet [xnjulIt] (of a Doric capital)
. datum point [deItqm pPInt]; zero point (if
there are few reference points); reference point (in
mapping, other than zero point)
. replica [replkq]
. reprint ["rJprInt]
. conservator [kqnsE:vqtq] or restorer [rIstLrq]
. conservation ["kPnsqveISqn] n. attrib., or restoration
["restqreISqn] n. attrib.; . conservation
treatment sing.
. conservation ["kPnsqveISqn] or restoration ["restqreISqn]
. conserv [kqnsE:v] or restore [rIstL]
. retouched ["rJtACt]
. retouch ["rJtAC]; secondary retouch;
heavy retouch; bifacial retouch;

abrupt retouch; light retouch;


pressure flaking; retouch on ventral surface;
alternating retouch
. grate [greIt] or lattice [lxtIs] or grille or grill [grIl];
transenna (lattice); window grating or grille or grill;
porticullis or cataract
. (-, ) riad (Arabic archit.: walled garden)
. (, .) ribat (fort, in Moslem architecture)
. ( : , ) riwaq or rivaq
(Arabic archit.: arcade or portico open on at least one side)
. girth rail [gE:T reIl]
. * part of a building protruding from the facade at all its height
. sacristy [sxkrIsti] or vestry [vestri] or diaconicon or diakonikon
["daIqkPnIkPn]
. Rome [rqVm]
. Roman [rqVmqn] (he)
. Roman [rqVmqn] (she)
. Roman [rqVmqn]
. draw [drL]
. 1 () picture [pIkCq] or image [ImIG] or painting [peIntIN];
figural composition; stipple
. 2 () drawing [drLIN] (by an archaeologist)
. 3 ( ) figure [fIgq] (in a book)
. rhyton [rItPn] (pl. rhyta)
. ritual [rICuql]
. ritual [rICuql]; ritual breaking of objects
. corrugation ["kPrqgeISqn]; zones of corrugation
. moat [mqVt] or ditch [dIC], () fosse [fPs]
. small ditch [smLl dIC] (e. g. around barrow)
. horn [hLl], () antler [xntlq];
horns of consecration; drinking horn
. ( ) cheval-de-frise
[SqvaldqfrJz] (pl. chevaux-de-frise)
. antler sleeve [xntlq slJv]
. 1 ( ) clan [klxn] (division of tribe); clansman (pl.
clansmen)
. 2 ( ) kin [kIn]
. kinship [kInSIp]
. Nativity [nqtIvIti]; . . before
Christ or B. C., Amer. BC;
. . after Christ or Anno Domini or A. D., Amer. AD
. rosette [rqVzet]
. stylised shell [staIlaIzd Sel] (ornam.)
. Romanesque style ["rqVmqnesk staIl] or Romanesque art ["rqVmqnesk Rt]
. Romanesque ["rqVmqnesk]
. ( ) rhomboid [rPmbOId] (stone tool)
. rhombic [rPmbIk], ( )
lozenge [lPzInG] or diamond [daIqmqnd]
. painting [peIntIN]; geometric design;
overglaze (decoration applied over a glaze);
rock paintings or cave paintings; /
wall-painting, () mural;
negative painting; underglaze painting
or underglaze n.; polychrome painting;
brush paint; figural painting or figural scene
of painting; fresco painting
. Russian [rASqn] (citizenship)
. . ( ) rostrum [rPstrqm] (pl.
rostrums or rostra) (prow)
. rotunda [rqVtAndq]

200

201

. turn of centuries [tWn qv senCqrJz]; XV-XVI . at the


turn of 1500
. turn of eras [tWn qv Iqrqs]
. handaxe [hxndxks] or biface ["baIfeIs];
elongated biface; lanceolate biface;
Micoquina biface; subdiscoid biface;
sublanceolate biface;
subcordiform biface; cordiform biface;
triangular biface or triangulate biface;
partial biface or incomplete biface;
core shaped biface; limande
. ore [L]
. ruin [rHIn] (often pl.: ruins)
. arm [Rm]
. 1 () sleeve [slJv]
. 2 (.) arm [Rm] (archit.)
. the head of the excavation (team)
. manuscript [mxnjqskrIpt] n.; the Dead Sea
Scrolls
. manuscript [mxnjqskrIpt] n. attrib.
. 1 () handle [hxndl]
. 2 (, , )
grip [grIp] or handgrip [hxndgrIp]; two handed
grip; wire wrapped handgrip
. 3 ( , - ,
) hilt [hIlt];
cruciform hilt
. 4 () manubrium [mqnHbriqm]
. measuring tape [meZqrIN ,teIp] or tape [teIp ,meZq]
p . rune [rHn]
p . runic [rHnIk]
. Rus man [rVs mxn]
. river bed [rIvq bed]
. Russian [rASqn] (ethnic)
. rustication ["rAstIkeISqn]; rusticated
. . rustic work [rAstIk wE:k] or rusticated masonry
["rAstIkeItqd meIsqnri]
. rusticated ["rAstIkeItqd]
. Rus [rVs]; Ancient / Old Rus; Kievan Rus
p . 1 ( ) pen [pen] (for writing)
p . 2 () handle [hxndl] (of an object)
p . 3 () handle [hxndl] (of a vessel); volute
handle; () applied volute (handle of
krater); ear; double
handle; () arc handle;
zoomorphic handle; () column-shaped
handle (of krater); twisted handle;
band-shaped handle; loop-hand;
strap handle; pulled up handle;
handle with asymmetric rib;
flanged handle; handle with
finger tip; handle with medial ridge;
handle with central rib; - lug
handle or basket-hand or applied volute; (
) subcutaneous / tunnel handle;
triple handle; ribbon handle;
quadruple handle
. manual labor [mxnjuql leIbq]
. fishery [fISqri]
. market [mRkIt]; overseas market

. sabre, Amer. saber [seIbq]


. shroud [SraVd]
. Sauromatian ["saVrPmeISqn]
. Sauromatian ["saVrPmeISqn]
. bowcase [bqV keIs]
. sagaris [sqgxrIs] or Scythian battle-axe
. orchard [LCqd]
. horticulture [hLtI"kAlCq] or gardening [gRdnIN]
. sakkos [sRkqs] (pl. sakkoi)
. sacralization ["sxkrqlaIzeISqn]
. sacral [seIkrql] or sacred [seIkrd]
. sacristy [sxkrIsti] or vestry [vestri] or diaconicon or diakonikon
["daIqkPnIkPn]
. adobe [qdqVbi] or mud brick [mAd brIk] or raw brick [rL brIk]
. sandal [sxndl]
. canopy [kxnqpi] (archit.); round canopy;
flat canopy; triangular canopy;
composite canopy
. 1 ( ) centimetre, Amer. centimeter [sentI"mJtq]
. 2 ( ) measuring tape [meZerIN "teIp]
. shed [Sed]
. sarcophagus [sRkPfqgqs] (pl. sarcophagagi)
. Sarmatian [sRmeISqn]
C . [sRmeISq]
. Sarmatian [sRmeISqn]
c . Sassanid [sqsenId], also Sasanian or Sassanian [sqsxnJqn] or
Sassanide [sqsenId]
. Sassanid [sqsenId] (pl. Sassanidae or Sassanids), also Sasanian
[sqsxnJqn] (pl. Sasanians) or Sassanian [sqsxnJqn] (pl. Sassanians) or
Sassanide [sqsenId] (pl. Sassanidae or Sassanides)
. satyr [seItq]
. ( ) crawling [krLlIN] (glaze defect)
. collection [kqlekSqn] or collected articles [kqlektId RtIkqlz]
. horse trappings [hLs trxpINz] or horse harness [hLs
hRnIs]
. stilt [stIlt] (holding a building)
. drill [drIm]
. () verge [vE:G] (of a roof)
. lamp [lxmp] (ancient), () oil lamp, Amer. oillamp [Oil
lxmp]; pottery lamp
. light-clay [laIt kleI]
. photosensitivity ["fqVtqVsensItIvItJ]
. lead [led] n.
. lead [led] adj.
c . scroll [skrqVl] (roll of parchment)

202

203

. friable [fraIqbl] (about soil)


. 1 () wine glass [waIn glRs] (with narrow funnel-shaped body)
. 2 () goblet [gPblIt] (clay, fine)
. 1 () row [rqV] or tier [tIq] or line [laIn]; row of an
ornament; row of stalls; ()
seriation (of objects)
. 2: ourse [kLs] (of a wall); stretching course;
levelling course; * course
of upright stones / slabs; bond course;
* course of stones / slabs laid flatwise;
heading course; footing / plinth course

. vault [vLlt] (ceiling); fan vault; Gothic


vault; stellar vault; cavetto
vault; ogive vault; trough vault;
cross vault or groin / groined vault;
calotte; / / rib / ribbed
vault; invert; horseshoe
vault; / net vault; cloister
/ cloistered vault; stalactitic / stalactite vault;
/ corbel / corbelled vault or corbelling;
barrel vault or tunnel vault
. (.: ) cohesion [kqVhJZqn] (resistance to separation)
. ( -) related to [rIleItId]
. adhesive [qdhJsIv]
. link with [lINk] or connection with [kqnekSqn] or relation to [rIleISqn]
. sanctuary [sxNkCuqri] or sanctum [sxNktqm] (pl. sancta or sanctums)
. saint [seInt]
. holy [hqVli] or sacred [seIkrId];
warrior saint
. priest [prJst] (Christian)
. hieromartyr ["hIqrqVmRtq] or holy martyr [hqVli mRtq] (he)
. hieromartyr ["hIqrqVmRtq] or holy martyr [hqVli mRtq] (she)
. ( ) holy
gate [hqVli geIt] or holy gates [hqVli geIts] (entrance in altar screen or
iconostasis)
. holy [hqVli] or sacred [seIkrId]
. sgraffito [zgrRfJtqV] (pl. sgraffiti)
. north [nLT]
. northern [nLDqn], Amer. north [nLT]
- . north-east, Amer. northeast ["nLTJst]
- . north-eastern ["nLTJstqn], Amer. northeast [,nLTJst]
- . north-west, Amer. northwest ["nLTwest]
- . north-western ["nLTwestqn], Amer. northwest [,nLTwest]
. ( ) segment [segmqnt] or crescent [kresqnt] (stone tool)
. saddle [sxdl]
. saddle [sxdl]
. season [sJzqn]; season (of excavations)
c . grass shears [grRs SIqz] pl., or secateurs [sekqtE:z] pl.
. battle axe, Amer. battle-ax [bxtl-xks]
. quadrant method [kwOdrqnt meTqd] (of excavation)
. celadon [selqdOn] (pottery)
. * site of unfortified settlement
. Seldjuk or Seldjuq or Seljuk or Seljuq [sqlGHk] n. (related to the tribe)
. ( ) Seldjuk or Seldjuq or Seljuk or Seljuq [sqlGHk] n.
(related to the tribe)
. Seljukid [sqlGHkId] n.
. Seljukid [sqlGHkId] n. attrib.
. Seldjuk or Seldjuq or Seljuk or Seljuq [sqlGHk] n. attrib.
. agricultural ["xgrIkAlCqrql] or farming [fRmIN];

agricultural area; . agricultural work
. menorah [mqnLrq]
. lobby [lPbi] (in a Slavonic house)
. () canopy [kxnqpi] or ciborium [sIbLrJqm] (pl. ciboria) (awning
over altar)
. ( ) crank [krxNk] (firing
stand) or firing tripod [faIqrIN traIpPd] or kiln spacer [kIln speIsq] or
stilt [stIlt]
. sulphur, Amer. sulfur [sAlfq]
. seraglio [sqrRlIqV]
. (.) drinking set [drINkIN set]

. ( ) core [kL] (in casting or coreforming glass); clay core;


sand core
. ornelian [kLnJliqn] n.
. ornelian [kLnJliqn] adj.
. core [kL] (general)
c . silvering [sIlvqrIN]
. silver [sIlvq] n.; base silver
. silver [sIlvq] adj.
. gray-clay [greI kleI]
. sickle [sIkql]
. earring [IqrIN], ( ) ear-stud [Iq stAd]
. sestertius [sestWtjqs] (pl. sestertia)
. net [net]; hairnet; p fishing net
. section [sxkSqn]; in section; cross
section; longitudinal section
. sigillata [sIGIlatq] or sigillated ware [sIGIleItId weq] or terra sigillata
["terq sIGIlatq]
. sigillographic ["sIjqlOgrxfIk]
. sigillography ["sIjqlOgrxfi]
. silica gel [sIlIkq Gel]
. 1 ( ) sima [saImq] (draining gutter above
cornice)
. 2 ( , ) sima [saImq] (topmost moulding
of a classical cornice)
. symbol [sImbql]; astral symbol;
deity symbol; insignium (pl. insignia);
Evangelist symbols
. symbolism [sImbqlIzqm]
. symbolic [sImbPlIk]
c . simpulum (pl. simpula) or simpuvium (pl. simpuvia)
. synagogue [sInqgPg]
. syncretism [sINkrqtIzm]
. synthronon [sINTrqnqn] (pl. synthronoi) or synthronos [sINTrqnqs] (pl.
synthronoi) or synthronus [sINTrqnqs] (pl. synthroni)
. ( ) crank [krxNk] (firing
stand) or firing tripod [faIqrIN traIpPd] or kiln spacer [kIln speIsq] or
stilt [stIlt]
. siren [saIqrqn] (Greek mythology)
. siren [saIqrqn] (on glazed bowl or in Russian mythology)
. 1 ( ) system [sIstIm] (organizatonal form);


Global Positioning System or GPS;
political system;
( ) air-handling system (in museum);
( ) environmental monitoring system (in
museum)
. 2 (.) system [sIstIm] (archit.); basilican
system (archit.); / drainage
system; Hippodamean scheme;
support / supporting system
(of a building); water supply system or water
system; public water system;
centrally-planned system (archit.); * system of archtecture having dome as a core of
building
. 3 ( ): kinship [kInSIp];
matrilineage;
patrilineage; descent system;

204

205

kinship system
. riddle [rIdl] or sieve [sIv], (, ) screen [skrJn] (coarse
sieve)
. situla [sItjulq] (pl. situlae)
. 1 () rock [rPk]; bedrock
. 2 ( , ) cliff [klIf]
. scalpel [skxlpql]
. bench [benC], ( ) pew [pjH]; (
) [prJdjE:] prie-dieu (pl. prie-dieux or
prie-dieus or prie-dieu)
. scarab [skxrqb]
. () bay [beI] or inclination ["InklIneISqn] (of a roof); (. :
)
. skeuomorphic [skjHq"mLfIk] adj., or skeuomorph [skjHq"mLf] n.
. skeuophylakion (pl. skeuophylakia) (the room outside of the church
for the preparation and storage of the Eucharist before Mass)
. skeleton [skelItqn] (of a being);
articulated skeleton;
disarticulated
skeleton; ritually disturbed skeleton
. scene [sJn] (in a Greek theater)
. ( ) scimitar [simqTq]
c . 1 ( ) tabernacle [txbqnxkql] (portable altar)
c . 2 () chapel [Cxpql] (a place of whorship)
c . 3 () reliquary [relIkwqri] or shrine [SraIn] or casket [kRskIt]
. sceptre, Amer. scepter [septq]
. hermitage [hE:mItIG]
. Scythian [sIDIqn], also Scyth [sID]; Late Scythian
- . cup-skyphos [kAp skIfPs] (pl. cup-skyphoi)
. skyphos [skIfPs] (pl. skyphoi)
. Scythian [sIDIqn], also Scyth [sID] or Scythic [sIDIk]; c
Scythian triade
. storehouse [stLhaVs] or warehouse [weqhaVs]; magazine
. 1 () reliquary cross [relIkwqri krPs]
c . 2 ( ) portable altar [pLtqbql Lltq] (Christian)
c . vault [vLlt] (barbarian chambered grave, with chamber perpendicular to
entrance pit), also catacomb or vaulted grave; cut in
bedrock vault; underground vault;
vault on / above ground surface; vault under a city
wall; vault annexed to a wall or vault at a city wall;
family vault; /
corbelled vault
. 1 () planer [pleInq]
. 2 ( ) push-plane [pVS pleIn] or push-plate [pVS pleIt]
. cooking pan [kVkIN pxn] or frying pan [fraIiN "pxn]
. 1 () break [breIk] (place where vessel is broken) or fracture [frxkCq];
in fracture; old break; fresh / new break
. 2: burin spall [bjuqrIn spLl]
. 3 ( ) scar [skR] (on a coin)
c . * boat-shaped bowl (with two handles in the form of birds head and tail)
. set [set] (of objects at one place); set of vessels
(standing at one place)
., ., eggshell [egSel]
. (.): ( ) contracted burial [kPntrxktId
beriql], ( ) crouched burial [kraVCt beriql], (
) flexed burial [flekst beriql]
. ( ) splay [spleI] (of doorway)
., . cattle [kxtl] pl., or livestock [laIvstPk]; beef
cattle; dairy cattle; domesticated
livestock; pastoralism or cattle-breeding

. pastoralist [pRstqrqlIst]; -
nomadic pastoralist
., . cattle-breeding [kxtl brJdIN] or pastoralism
[pRstqrq,lIzqm]; transhumance;
dairying or dairy cattle breeds; beef
cattle breeds; stock farming
. scotia [skqVSq] or concave moulding ["kPnkeIv mqVldIN]
. side scraper [saId skreIpq] (simple or double); single
concave side-scraper; - double convex-concave
side scraper; double straight-concave
side-scraper; straight convex sidescraper; double straight side-scraper; double biconcave side-scraper; -
double biconvex side-scraper;
convergent concave side-scraper;
convergent convex side-scraper;

convergent straight side-scraper;
transverse concave side-scraper; transverse
convex side-scraper; transverse straight sidescraper; - single convex side-scraper;
single strait side-scraper;
side-scraper with bifacial retouch; side-scraper
with abrupt retouch; side-scraper with
retouch on ventral face; side-scraper with
thinned back; side-scraper with
alternate retouch; caned scraper
. currycomb [kArIkqVm]
. (. ) 1 ( ) scraper [skreIpq] (metal)
. (. ) 2 ( ) end scraper [end skreIpq] [(stone tool);

atypical carinate end scraper; atypical endscraper; atypical end scraper on blade;
fan-shaped end
scraper; double end scraper; ,
carinate end scraper;
thumbnail end scraper; core-shaped scraper;
circular end-scraper;
flat end scraper with nose or atypical nosed scraper;
end scraper on blade;
end-scraper on Aurignacian blade; end scraper on
flake; end scraper on retouched
blade; end scraper on truncated blade;
thick-nosed scraper; - burin-endscraper; ogival end scaper;
typical end-scraper
. clamp [klxmp]
. scriptorium [skrIptLrIqm] (pl. scriptoria or scriptoriums)
. sculptor [skAlpCq]
. sculpture [skAlpCq], ( )
statuary [stxtjuqri]; architectural sculpture;
round sculpture; cult statue;
/ sepulchral sculpture;
/ relief sculpture;
portrait sculpture;
painted sculpture
. sculptured [skAlpCqd]
. ill-baked ["Il beIkqd]
. (. ) Slav [slRv]; East Slavs
. Slavonic [slqvPnIk]

206

207

. slide [slaId] (image)


. shale [SeIl]; slate from Ovruch [sleIt qv qVvruC];
() slate [sleIt] (metamorphic rock used for
making fine articles)
. shaly [SeIli], also shaley
. trace [treIs]; ( ,
) traces of turning (on the surface of a vessel);
() hut circle;
traces of habitation; / tool marks or traces of
handiwork; ( ) traces of the original leather strip
(on buckle); (-) with traces (of something);
(.) tooled (conserv.)
. hood-mould [hVd mqVld]
. metalworker [metlwE:kq]
. ( )
lachrymatory ["lxkrImeItqri] (vessel for collecting tears)
. 1 () spout [spaVt] (open, mouth-shaped); spouted
. 2: ( ) crushing canal [krASIN kqnxl]
. ( ) * damage of glaze by another object when firing
. ingot [INgqt]; slab ingot; coin ingot;
oxhide ingot
. syllabary script [sIlqbqri skrIpt] or syllabic script [sIlxbIk skrIpt]
. ( ) laminated [lxmIneItId]
. deposit [dIpPzIt] or layer [leIq]; humus layer;
turf layer or topsoil;
location of a layer; ashy layer; cultural
layer; redeposited layer;
pigment layer; ( )
release agent; layer of destruction; burning
layer; activity / occupation layer; postoccupational layer; cinder layer; rubbish layer;
fire layer, () conflagration layer;
collapse or layer of deconstruction; slide of a layer;
sterile layer (containing no finds);
construction layer
. service [sE:vIs]
. casual [kxZuql] or chance [CRns]
. mica sparkles [maIkq spRkqlz]
. smalto [smPl,tL] (pl. smalti or smaltos) or tessera [tesqrq] (pl. tesserae)
(used in making mosaics)
. equipment [IkwIpment] (only modern)
. 1 () take picture of [teIk pIkCq]
. 2 ( ) read [rJd] (obtain data)
. 3 () map [mxp]
. 4 ( ) remove [rImHv] (finds from a grave)
. photo [fqVtqV] or photograph [fqVtqgrRf] or picture [pIkCq];
* photo / picture taken during fieldworks;
digital photo / picture
. () pull down [pul daun]
. gatherer [gxDqrq]
. gathering [gxDqrIN]
. 1 ( ) * major church in a city (or its part) with no parish
(Orthodoxy); cathedral
. 2 ( ) council [kaVnsql]
. 1 ( ) pan [pxn] (small hand-tool)
. 2 (.: ) shovel [SAvql]
. (-) contemporary [kqntempqrqri] (with something)
e . solea [sqVliq] or solium [sqVliqm] (pl. solia)
c . box tile [bPks taIl]
. salt-cellar [sLlt "selq]

. salt [sLlt]; soluble salt;


salt-mining
. Solutrean period [sqlHtrJqn pIqriqd]
. Solutrean [sqlHtrJqn]
. structure [strAkCq] or construction [kqnstrAkSqn];
constructions related to maintenance and industry;
. structures used by public utilities;
megalithic structure;
aboveground construction; o /
defensive work or fortificational structure;
burial / funeral / funerary / grave / tomb structure /
construction; port facility;
agricultural installation;
bearing-wall structure; : * a) () temple,
b) () church (often core of a complex);
centrally-planned building;
cyclopean structure
. (-) correspond to ["kPrIspPnd]
. () coin alignment [kPIn qlaInmqnt] or coin orientation
[kPIn "LriqnteISqn] or coin rotation [kPIn rqVteISqn] or die alignment
[daI qlaInmqnt]; (. : 2)
. composition ["kPmpqzISqn] or structure [strAkCq];
species composition; fabric or composition of clay;
/ / body mix or clay matrix (ceramic); c
social stratification or social structure;
ethnic structure
. composite [kPmpqzIt]
. (, ) preservation ["prezqveISqn] or condition of preservation
[kqndISqn qv "prezqveISqn] or preservation state ["prezqveISqn steIt];
coin preservation
. 1 () prosperity [prPsperIti]
. 2 () reliability [rI"laIqbIlIti]
. vessel [vesql] or vase [vRz] (. pottery), () ontainer
[kqnteInq]; gallipot; a
fragment from which complete profile of the vessel can be reconstructed;
ornate vase; high
vessel; deep vessel; pottery vessel;
two-handled vessel; closed-shape
vessel or closed vessel; mould-made
vessel, Amer. mold-made vessel; ribbed vessel;
perfume container;
red-figured vessels or red-on-black vessels;
round-bottomed vessel or vessel with rounded
bottom; wheel-made vessel; cooking
pot; hand-made vessel; burnished / polished
vessel; plain vessel; monochrome
vessel;
unglazed painted vessel;
unglazed vessel; flat
vessel; one-handled vessel;
decorated vessel; vessel with pointed bottom;
open-shape vessel or open vessel;
perfume vessel; Pergamene vessel;
: a) ( ) plain vessel / bowl / vase, b) (
) flat / flat-bottomed vessel;
polychrome vessel; broken vessel; /
liturgical / ecclesiastical vessel;
ameo glass bowl; container
for water; perfume flask; oil
flask; drinking vessel;

208

209

mixing bowl; (-) storage vessel;


food vessel;
ill-baked vessel; vessel with
footring or vessel with footring base or vessel with ring-foot or vessel with
base-ring; footed vessel;
aquarelle vessel; banded
vessel; vessel with vertical handles;
vessel with vertical sides;
vessel with glaze splashed on the
outside; vessel with slip
spilling over the rim; square-mouthed pot;
spout and bridge pot;
straight sided vessel;
vessel with flaring sides; - truncoconical vessel; vessel with applied
relieves; ()
sand-core fabric vessel; broad-shouldered
vessel; transport vessel; thickwalled vessel; thin-walled vessel;
three-handled vessel; toilet vessel;

carefully potted vessel; narrowneck vessel; plastic vase;
partly burnished vessel; black-figured vessel or
black-on-red vessel; wide-neck vessel
. sacristy [sxkrIsti] or vestry [vestri] or diaconicon or
diakonikon ["daIqkPnIkPn]
. sauceboat [sLs,beVt]
. (.) soffit [sPfIt]
. wooden plough, Amer. wooden plow [wVdn plaV] or ard [Rd]
. . preservation [,prezqveISqn] or state
of preservation [steIt qv ,prezqveISqn] or condition of preservation
[kqndISqn qv "prezqveISqn]; excellent state
of preservation
- . socio-political ["sqVSqVpqlItIkql]
- . socio-economic or
socioeconomic ["sqVSqV,JkqnOmIk]
. social [sqVSql]; social group
. ploughshare (of a wooden plough), Amer. plowshare [plaVSeq]
. Saviour, Amer. Savior [seIvjq] or Spas [spRs]
. spatula [spxtjulq] (Stone Age tool)
. caked [keIkd] (in fire)
. back [bxk] (of a being)
. 1 ( ) back [bxk] (of a stone tool)
. 2 () bow [baV] (of fibula or brooch);
highly arched bow; narrow arched bow
. spiraliform ["spaIqrqlIfLm]
. alcohol [xlkqhOl] or ethanol [eTe"nOl]
. alcoholic ["xlkqhOlIk]
. list [lIst]
. alloy [xlOI] or fusion [fjHZqn]; copper alloy,
pewter n.
. method of removal [meTqd qv rImHvql] (conserv.)
. mediaeval or medieval ["mediJvql]
c. Mediaeval / Medieval period ["mediJvql pIqriqd] or Middle Ages
["mIdl eIGz]
. Middle Palaeolithic [mIdl "pxliqVlITIk], Amer.
Middle Paleolithic
. crossing [krPsIN] (of nave and transept)
. * construction of timber frames placed one on another (wooden architecture)

. shelf life [Self laIf]


. (.) stabilization ["steIbIlaIzeISqn] (conserv.)
. 1 ( ): a) ( ) candlestick
[kxndl,stIk], b) ( ) andelabrum [,kxndIlRbrqm]
(pl. andelabra; .
)
. 2 () * desk or cabinet for an icon
. 3 () candle [kxndl]
. 4 ( ) fixed seine [fIkst seIn] or pound net [paund net]
c . stadium [steIdiqm] (pl. stadia or stadiums) (ancient unit of measure)
stadium [steIdiqm] (pl. stadia or stadiums) (arena)
. glass [glRs] or tumbler [tAmblq] (cylindrical vessel without stem and footring)
. (.) stalactites [stxlqktaIts] or muqarnas (Islamic art)
. steel [stJl] (alloy); stainless steel
. steel [stJl] adj.; . . stainless steel n. attrib.
. stamnos [stxmnqs] (pl. stamnoi)
. oxbow lake [PksbqV leIk]
. old believer ["qVld bIlJvq] (in Russia)
. statuary [stxtjqri] adj.; statuary group
. statuette ["stxCuet] or figurine [fIgqrJn]
. statue [stxCH]; (-)
honorific portrait statue or honorific statue; half-statue;
- statue menhir
. article [RtIkql], ( ) paper [peIpq]
. 1 () column shaft [kPlqm SRft], () tower [taVq] (of a minaret)
. 2 () barrel [bxrql] (of fire arm)
. leaf [lJf] (hinged); gate leaf; door leaf;
valve of shell
. steatite [stIqtaIt] n.
. steatitic ["stIqtItIk] adj. or steatite [stIqtaIt] n. attrib.
. 1 () glass [glRs] (material); colourless glass;
Venetian glass; /
stained glass; opaque glass;
slant-cut glass; Egyptian faience;
onyx glass;
speckled glass; /
cast glass;
vitreous glass; transclucent glass;
cut glass; c lead glass;
( / ) blown glass;
( / ) mouldblown glass; ( / )
ameo glass; ( / )
gold-band glass; ( /
) sagged glass; ( /
) free-blown glass;
( / ) core-formed glass or
sand-core glass; relief cut glass;
intaglio cut glass; - (
) changing colour glass
stained glass; soda glass
. 2: window-pane, Amer. windowpane [wIndqVpeIn] or
pane [peIn]
. glassworker [glRs"wE:kq]
. glasswork [glRs"wE:k] or glass industry [glRs Indqstri]
. glass blower [glRs"blqVq]
. glass blowing [glRs"blqVIN]
. glass [glRs]
. stele [stJlJ] (pl. stelae or steles) or stela [stJlq]; /
funeral stele or grave stele; a painted stele

210

211

. wall [wLl]; exterior wall, (, ) bailey (wall);


adobe wall;
blind wall; wall with two faces and
fill of rubble in between; /
buttressed / counterfort retaining wall; /
/ fortress / fortification / fortificational /
fortified wall; partition wall or division wall;
bearing wall; defensive wall or fortification
wall or bulwark; / revetment or in agere or
retaining / support / terrace wall; advanced wall or prewall; planting wall;
dry stone wall
. wall [wLl] (small or thick or of a vessel); (.
) corrugated wall
. stereobate [sterJqV"beIt] or crepidoma [,krepIdqVmq]
. bar [bR] or rod [rPd]
. wear away / off [wFq] v. tr. (inflected form: wore, worn)
wear away / off [wFq] v. intr. (inflected form: wore, worn)
. abraded [qbraIdId]
. stylised, Amer. stylized [staIlaIzd]
. stylobate [staIlq"beIt]
. 1 ( ) stylus [staIlqs] (pl. styli or styluses) or writing stylus [raItIN
staIlqs]
. 2 ( ) style [staIl]; animal style or
beast-style; Scythian / Scythic beast-style
. table [teIbql]
. 1 () post [pqVst] or pole [pqVl], () pillar [pIlq];
( ) crossed pillar;
support / supporting pillar; angle post
. 2: backbone [bxkbqVn] or spine [spaIn] or spinal
column [spaInl "kPlqm] or vertebral column [vE:tIbrql kPlqm]
. century [senCqri]
. ( ,
) stomion [stOmJ,qn] (pl. stomia) (part of tomb)
. foot [fVt] (pl. feet)
. * drinking glass (with straignt flaring faceted walls)
. qibla side
. cardinal direction [kRdqnql dIrekSqn]
. (-) stoa [stqVq] (pl. stoas or stoae)
. station [steISqn] (stone age site)
. strategos [strqtJgPs] (pl. strategoi) or strategus [strqtJgqs] (pl. stratigi)
(Hellenic)
. strategos [strqtJgPs] (pl. strategoi) or strategus [strqtJgqs] (pl. stratigi)
(Byzantine)
. stratify [strxtIfaI] or determine stratigraphy [dItE:mIn
strqtIgrqfi]
. stratigraphic [strqtIgrqfIk];
stratigraphical sequence
. stratigraphy [strqtIgrqfi];
horizontal stratigraphy
. 1 ( ) stratification ["strxtIfIkeISqn] (layered
configuration)
. 2 () stratification ["strxtIfIkeISqn] (of a society);
social stratification
. stratify [strxtIfaI] or determine stratigraphy [dItE:mIn
strqtIgrqfi]
. * stick with metal sting on top for driving cattle
. arrow [xrqV]
. 1 () arrow [xrqV] (indicatory)
. 2 ( ) flchette [flJSet]

. 3 ( ) nose guard [nqVzgRd]


. shooter [SHtq] or firer [faIq]; archer or bowman
. stirrup [stIrqp]
. step-ladder [step,lxdq]
. cladding [klxdIN]
. 1 () strigil [strIGql] or athletes scraper [xTlJts skreIpq]
. 2 (.) S-shaped design [es SeIpt dIzaIn] or swans neck [swPnz nek]
- . strip method [strIp meTqd] (of excavation)
. building [bIldIN] n. attrib.; construction
works; building technique / technology
. construction [kqnstrAkSqn] or building [bIldIN];
/ fortress / fortification building;
monumental building;
church building
. (. ) rafter [rRftq]
. () strophion [strPfIqn] (pl. strophia)
. plane tool [pleIn tHl] (for polishing wooden articles)
. structure [strAkCq]; planning grid;
social structure; fabric or
structure of clay
. ( ) stucco [stAkqV] (pl. stuccoes or stuccos), also
stuc [stAk]
c . mortar [mLtq] (vessel)
. step [step] (of a staircase or a ladder)
. sole [sqVl]
. joint [GOInt] (in masonry, ashlar, etc.)
. ( ) bedding [bedIN] (of mortar); mortar
bedding, also bedding mortar
. substratum ["sAbstrRtqm] (pl. substrata or substratums);
ethnic substrate
. sub-structure [sAb"strAkCq] or bedding [bedIN] (of a construction)
. sub-ethnic [sAb"eTnIk]
. clay loam [kleI lqVm] or loamy soil [lqVmi sOIl]
c . vessel [vesql]; sailing ship
c . bag [bxg]
c . loam [lqVm]
. (.) dentil [dentIl]
. dry [draI]
. (: ) dull surface
[dAl sE:fIs] (glaze defect)
. drying [draIiN]; candling
. desiating chamber [,desIkeItIN CeImbq]
. spherical [sferIkql]
. spheroid [sfIqrOId]
. sphinx [sfINks] (pl. sphinxes)
. sphragistics [sfrqGIstIks], also sigillography ["sIjqlOgrxfI]
. sphragistic [sfrqGIstIk], also sigillographic ["sIjqlOgrxfIk]
. scheme [skJm]
. resemblance [rIzemblqns] or similarity ["sImIlxrIti];
bear resemblance to
. scene [sJn]; hunting scene
. (.) cohesion [kqVhJZqn] (resistance to separation)
. edible [edIbql]
. friable [fraIqbl]
. 1 () adobe [qdqVbi] or mud brick [mAd brIk] or raw brick [rL brIk]
. 2 ( ) greenware [grJn,wFq]
. damp [dxmp] or wet [wet]
. () adobe [qdqVbi] n. attrib.
., . raw material ["rL mqtIqriql]

212

213

. tablinum (pl. tablina)


. ( ) plate [pleIt] (in book)
. tabhane (hostel for dervishes)
. Taurian [tLrIqn]
. Taurian [tLrIqn]
. 1 (.) pelvis [pelvIs]
. 2 () basin [beIsqn] or bowl [bqVl] (big, for washing)
. treasure pit [treZe pIt]
. thalassocracy ["TxlqsOkrqsi]
. talisman [txlIzmqn], also phylactery [faIlektqri]
. thalweg [txlveg]
. ( ) lobby [lPbi] (in front of door to protect from cold and winter)
. tamga (pl. tamgi) (symbols of property, etc. amidst nomads)
. swab [swPb] (conserv.)
. () cistern [sIstqn]
. receptacles [rIseptqkqlz] or containers [kqnteInq];
transport amphorae; transport ware
. winery [waInqri]
. () dish [dIS], () plate [pleIt]; soupplate; dinner-plate
. Tartar or Tatar [tRtq]; Crimean Tartar or Crimean Tatar
. Tartary or Tatary [tRtqri]
. Tartar or Tatar [tRtq], also Tatarian [tRtFqrIqn] or Tataric [tRtxrIk]
[ta/tarskiI]; - Crimean Tartar or Crimean Tatar
. wheelbarrow [wJl,bxrqV] or barrow [bxrqV]
. theatre, Amer. theater [TIqtq]
. theatron [TIqtqn] (seats for spectators in Greek theatre)
. Tayacian [tqjasiqn] n.
. Tayacian [tqjasiqn] adj.
., . ( ) dergah or tekke [tek,ki]
(lodge for dervishes)
. texture [teksCq] or fabric [fxbrIk] or paste [peIst] or pt [pxteI]
(inner struture of a material)
. tell [tel] (large mound composed of remains of settlement)
. body [bPdi], () corpse [kLps]
. temenos [temqnqs] (pl. temenoi)
. tassel [txsql] (of sword)
. dungeon [dAnGqn] or prison [prIzqn] (dark, underground)
. tempera [tempqrq]
. templon [templqn] (pl. templa)
. taenia [tJnJq] (pl. taeniae or taenias) or tenia [tJnJq] (archit.)
. awning [LnIN]
. theodolite [TiPdqlaIt]
. tepe [tepi] (large mound)
. tepidarium ["tepIdxrJqm] (pl. tepidarii)
. 1 * upper living floor of a house (Savonic art)
. 2 * separate building with upper living floor (Savonic art)
. term [tE:m] (word or group of words having a particular meaning);
archaeological term;
consertvation term

.
thermoluminescent
["TE:mP"lHmqnesqnt];
thermoluminescent method
. thermoluminescence ["TE:mP"lHmqnesqns]
. thermae [TE:mJ]
. 1 (, ) terra cotta or terracotta ["terqkPtq];
architectonic terracotta
. 2 ( ) . terra cotta ware ["terqkPtq

weq] or terracottas ["terqkPtqs]


. terrace [terIs]; alluvial terrace;
river terrace located over flood plain; river terrace;
sedimentary rock or stratified rock;
rock terrace
., . terra sigillata ["terq sIGIlatq]
. terret [terqt]
. cutlass [kAtlqs]
. chisel [CIzql]; socketed chisel
. 1 () tessera [tesqrq] (pl. tesserae) (token)
. 2 ( ) tessera [tesqrq] (pl. tesserae) (used in making mosaics)
. test [test]; chloride presence test
. body [bPdi] (ceramic) or clay [klei] (prepared for
pottery-making) or claybody [klei"bPdi] or ceramic paste [sIrxmIk peIst]
or fabric [fxbrIk] (ceramic); coarse grained
paste; / fine grained paste;
impermeable fabric; tempered with soil / rock
fabric; medium grained paste;
distinctive fabric
. tetradrachmon [tetrqdrxkmPn] (pl. tetradrachma) or tetradrachm
[tetrqdrxm]
. tetraconch [tetrq kPnC]
. tefillin [tqfIlIn] or phylactery [faIlektqri]
. 1 ( ) technology [teknPlqGi];
technological level
. 2 () technique [teknJk]; with technique;
filigree; inlay or
inlaid technique; - coiling technique;
building technology;
tempera; firing technique;
/ dipped enamel technique;
opus mixtum (pl. opera mixta) or opus mixtum technique;
/ sgraffito technique;
champelev technique; a encaustic technique
. 3: glass-making technique [glRsmeIkIN
teknJk]; hot forming technique;
* casing with coloured background glass and colourless
overlay glass; mould-blowing;
cameo glass technique or cameo cutting;
golden bands technique;
casing; * casing
that covers a part of vessel; * casing that
covers the whole vessel, with colourless backgorund glass and coloured
overlay glass; sagging;
sagging mosaic glass with former molds;
free-blowing;
core-formed technique or core-forming or sand-core technique
. grindstone [graIndstqVn] or grinding stone [graIndIN stqVn] (for grinding)
m. boards [bLdz]
. tiara [tiRrq]
. (. ) crucible [krHsIbql] or melter [meltq]
. 1 (.) tympanum [tImpqnqm] (pl. tympana or tympanums) or
timpanum [tImpqnqm] (pl. timpana or timpanums) or tympanon
[tImpqnqn] (archit.)
. 2 () timbrel [tImbrel]
. type [taIp]; iconographic type;
in the iconographic type Hodegetria; racial
affinity; bone type; (-) the (Someones) type
; grave type; type of soil
. typical [tIpIkql]

214

215

. typological ["taIpqlPGikql]
. typology [taIpPlqGi]
. thursos [TE:sqs] (pl. thursoi) or thursus [TE:sqs] (pl. thursi)
. cramp [krxmp] (that hold pieces together)
. embossing [ImbPsIN]
. textile [tekstaIl] or fabric [fxbrIk]
. or decay [dIkeI] or rotting [rPtIN], also ashes pl. [xSqs];
ashes of wood; ashes of bone
. commodity [kqmPdIti] or ware [weq] or goods [gVdz]
. marketable [mRkItqbql]
. tholos [TqVlqs] (pl. tholoi) or beehive tomb [bJhaIv tHm] or tholos tomb
[TqVlqs tHm] (pl. tholoi tombs)
. toluene [tLljuJn] or toluol [tLljuPl]
. thickness [TIknIs]
. tondo [tLndqV] (pl. tondi)
. fine-grained [faIn greInd]
. topographic ["tqpPgrqfik] or topographic ["tqpPgrxfIkql]
. topography [tqpPgrqfi]
. toponym [tPpqnIm]
. toponymic [,tPpqnImIk] or toponymical ["tPpqnImIkql]
. toponymy [tqpPnqmi]
. 1 ( ) axe, Amer. [xks]; battle axe, Amer.
battle-ax; double axe, Amer. double-ax
. 2 ( ) axe-head, Amer. ax-head [xks hed];
socketed axe, Amer. socketed ax (with closed aperture);
double axe; wedge
axe; boat-axe; shouldered axe;
flat axe; socketed axe, Amer. socketed
ax (with open aperture); - axe-hammer;
flanged axe; polished axe
. axe-shaft, Amer. ax-shaft [xks SRft]
. torus [tLrqs] (pl. tori)
. trade [treId] or trading [treIdIN]; overseas trade;
transit trade
. trade [treId] or trading [treIdIN]; trading post;
trade route
. toreutics [tqrHtIks]
. trading place [treIdIN pleIs] or emporium [empLrIqm] (pl. emporia or
emporiums) or emporion [empLrIqn] (medieval and modern)
. torque [tLk] (Celtic neck decoration); tara torque
. torsade (motif) [tLsRd]; double torsade
. torus [tLrqs] (pl. tori)
. totemism [tqVtq"mIzqm]
o e . point impression [pPInt ImpreSqn]
. sharpener [SRpqnq] or pencil sharpener [pensql SRpqnq]
. grindstone [graIndstqVn] or grinding stone [graIndIN stqVn] (for
sharpening)
. grindstone [graIndstqVn] or grinding stone [graIndIN stqVn]
(small, for sharpening)
. dot [dPt] or point [pPInt]
. (.) * open-air lab for studying ceramics
. trave [trRveI] (section of naive or aisle, rectangular in ground plan, and
limited with four or six piers supporting cross or cloister vault)
. herbarium [hE:bxrJqm] (pl. herbaria) (place in a monastery)
. custom [kAstqm] or tradition [trqdISqn]; local
tradition; building tradition
. transept [trxnsept]
. tranchet [trRnSIt]; Mousterian tranchet
. * excavation of barrow by long trenches (with use of machines)
. 1 () trench [trenC] (building)

. 2 ( ) * narrow trench [nxrqV trenC] or narrow excavation


trench [nxrqV "ekskqveISqn trenC] (2 m wide or less)
. refectory [rIfektqri]
. ( ) trapeze [trqpJz] (stone tool)
. . trassology
. trassological
. trident [traIdqnt]
. . tripod [traIpPd]
. trepanning [trIpxnIN]
. 1 ( ) triangle [traIxNgql] (stone tool);
notched triangle
. 2 () triangle [traIxNgql] (for drawing)
. triangular [traIxNgjVlq]
. fissure [fISq] or crevice [krevIs], () crackle [krxkql] (on surface
of a vessel)
. cracked [krxkt] (without complete separation of parts)
. three-apsidal [TrJ xpsIdql]
. three-aisled [TrJ aIld]
. () three-handled [TrJ hxndld]
. three-tiered TrJ taIqd]
. triad [traIqd]; c Scythian triade
. triglyph [traIglIf]
. tridrachmon [traIdrxkmPn] (pl. tridrachma) or tridrachm [traIdrxm]
. funeral feast [fjHnqrql fJst] or funeral repast [fjHnqrql rIpRst];
() mourn for
. triklinon [trIklInPn] (pl. triklinoi) or triclinium [trIklInIqm] (pl. triclinia)
. . triconch [traIkPnC]
. trefoil [trJfOIl]
. trilith [trJ,liT] or trilithon [trJli,Tqn]
. ( ) EDTA [JdJtJeI] abbr.
(ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid)
. triptych [trIptIk]
. triforium [trIfqVrJqm] (pl. triforia) or triforium passage [trIfqVrJqm pxsIG]
. squinch [skwInC]
. throne [TrqVn] (of a sovereign); . . enthroned adj.;
enthroned Christ
. trochilus [trqVkIlqs] (pl. trochili)
. Troy [trPI]
. pipe [paIp] or tube [tjHb]; water pipe, Amer. waterpipe
(separate item); drain-pipe; pottery
pipe; chimney; . pipework
. 1 ( ) pipe [paIp] or tube [tjHb] (small);
blow pipe (in glass-making)
. 2 () pipe [paIp] (for smoking); pottery
pipe; tobacco pipe
. corpse [kLps] or dead body [ded bPdi]
. inhumation ["InhjHmeISqn]
. cremation [krImeISqn]
. ( ) tinderbox [tIndqbOks]
. toilet [tOIlIt] n.
. toilet [tOIlIt] n. attrib.; toilet article
n. corpse [kLps] or body [bPdi]
. body [bPdi] (of vessel); decorated body;
low body; / globular body;
hemispherical body; flattened
body; body converging to the foot
. tumulus [tjHmjVlqs] (pl. tumuli)
. tunic [tjHnIk]
. Turkish [tE:kIS], () Ottoman [Ptqmqn]
. Turk [tE:k] (related to Turkey); - Ottoman

216

217

. ( ) opaque [qpeIk] (glass), ( ) unburnished [AnbE:


nISt] (metal)
. tutulus [tHtjqlqs] (pl. tutuli) (hairstyle)
. millennium [mIleniqm] (pl. millennia)
. ( , ) header [hedq] (brick in bond)
. tierceron [taIqsqrPn]
. tube [tjHb] (container with screw cap for holding pastes or semiliquids)
. turbe or turbeh [tWbi] (Moslem mausoleum)
. Turkic [tE:kIk]
. Turkic [tE:kIk]
. prison [prIzqn]
. (. ) 1 () cornice [kLnIs] (Slavonic art)
. (. ) 2 () projection [prqGekSqn] or ledge [leG] or corbel
[kLbql] (archit.)
. (. ) 3 () vault [vLlt] (ceiling)
. (. ) 4 () pendentive [pendentIv]
. (. ) 5 ( ) shelf [Self] (for icons)
. (. ) 6 ( ) tier [tIq] or row [rqV] (of icons in iconostasis)
. reglet [reglIt]

. shelter [Seltq] or refuge [refjHG] or hideaway [haIdqweI]


. magnification ["mxgnIfIkeISqn];
magnification x 3; magnification x 6
. enlarged [InlRGd]
. carbon fiber [kRbqn faIbq];
carbon fiber reinforcement
. recess [rIses] or hollow [hPlqV], pit [pIt] (small)
. (. ) 1 . coal [kqVl]
. (. ) 2 charcoal [CRkqVl]
. (.) remove [rImHv] (eliminate)
. bulb of percussion [bAlb qv pE:kASqn]
. bits [bIts] or horse bits [hLs bIts]; single-ring horsebits; cruel bits
. elongated [JlPNgeItId]
. bridle [braIdl]
. patterned brickwork [pxtqnd brIkwLk]
. decorate [dekqreIt], () adorn [qdLn] or ornate [LneIt]
. decoration ["dekqreISqn] or adornment [qdLnmqnt], ()
jewel [GHql] (pl. jewelry); temple ornament;
womens jewelry; applied
decoration; shield decoration;
cap decoration;
comb or knobbed inset to bow (of a fibula or a brooch);
neck-piece or necklet;
neck-hoop; jewel
. 1 () fortification ["fLtIfIkeISqn] or stronghold [strPNhqVld]
or fort [fLt]; bastion;
outwork (minor fortification)
. 2 () strengthening [streNTqnIN] or fortifying [fLtIfaiIN]
. fortified [fLtIfaId]
. 1 (.) fortify [fLtIfaI] or strengthen [streNTqn]
. 2 (.) consolidate [kqnsPlIdeIt] (conserv.)
. shelter [Seltq] or refuge [refjHG] or hideway [haIdqweI]
. acetic [qsJtIk]
. street [strJt]; side-street; main street;
transverse street; longitudinal street
. ulus [ulus] (administrative and territorial unit in Turcik states)
218

. ultraviolet [VltrqvaIqlIt];
UV-light or ultraviolet light
. umbo [AmbqV] or (shield) boss [bPs]
. dead [ded] (person) or dead body [ded bPdi] or corpse [kLps];
/ royal dead
. unguentarium ["ANgwqntqriqm] (pl. unguentaria)
. decline [dIklaIn]
. ( ) knob [nPb] or lug [lAg] or basket [bRskIt] or applied
volute [qplaId vqljHt] (handle of a vessel)
. horse trappings [hLs trxpINz] or horse harness
[hLs hRnIs]
. Urartean [HrRtIqn]
. Urartean [HrRtIqn]
. Urartu [HrRtH]
. urn [E:n]; biconical urn; collared
urn; encrusted urn; face urn;
cinerary urn; pail-shaped urn;
overhanging-rim urn;
globular urn
. 1 (, ) level [levql]; technological
level
. 2 () spirit level [spIrIt "levql]
. estate [IsteIt] or homestead [hqVmsted] or mansion [mxnSqn] or large
house [lRG haVs]; town house (for one family) or
urban estate; farmhouse or farmstead or country house
or farming estate, () villa, () kleros (pl. kleroi)
- . truncated conical [trANkeItId kOnIkql]
. conditions of life [kqndISqnZ qv laIf]
. map symbols [mxp sImbqlz] or plan symbols [plxn
sImbqlz] or legend sing. [leGqnd] or conventional signs [kqnvenSqnql
saInz] or map signs [mxp saInz]
. pier [pIq]; crossed pier; drum
pier; pier (of a bridge)
. device [dIvaIs]
. 1 () ledge [leG] or terrace [terIs] (natural)
. 2 () ledge [leG] (projection)
. 3 ( ) ledge for a lid (on a vessel)
. 4 (.) corbel [kLbql] or boss [bPs] (archit.)
. 1 (, ) mouth [maVT] (of a vessel or a shaft)
. 2 () estuary [esCuqri]
. sepulchre, Amer. sepulcher [sepqlkq] or tomb [tHm];

family grave or family tomb
., . goods pl. [gVdz] or ware [weq] or utensils pl. [jHtensqlz];
kitchenware; church utensils
. cliff [klIf]
. recessed [rIsest] or sunken [sANkqn]
. pounded flat [paVndId flxt] or rammed [rxmd]
. () morningstar ["mLnIN stR] (weapon)
. scholar [skPlq], ( ) scientist
[saIqntIst]
. () ear [Iq] (of vessel)
. area [eqriq] or site [saIt], () plot [plPt] (of arable land)
. () eye [aI] (of a needle)

. faun [fLn]
. phase [feIz]
219

. torch [tLC] (stick with burning material)


. torch stand [tLC stxnd]
. factor [fxktq], () agent [eIGqnt]
. factory [fxktqri] (trading post)
. phalanx [fxlxNks] (pl. phalanges)
. phalera [fxlqrq] (pl. phalerae)
. phallic [fxlIk]
. plywood [plaIwVd] or veneer [vInIq]
. plywood [plaIwVd] n. attrib., or veneer [vInIq] n. attrib.
. monster [mPnstq], also creature;
monster bird; monster fish
. china [CaInq] or porcelain [pLslIn] n.
. china [CaInq] or porcelain [pLslIn] n. attrib.
. faade [fqsRd] or elevation [,elIveISqn]; side elevation;
avant-corps (archit.); /
frontage (archit.); solid / blank / blind faade;
/ back elevation or rear faade; front
elevation; screen faade
. elevation ["elIveISqn] or face [feIs] (drawing)
. fascia [feISq]
. half-timbering ["hRf tImbqrIN]
. half-timbered ["hRf tImbqd]
. () faience [faIRns], () whiteware [waIt"wFq];
Egyptian faience
. faience [faIRns];
Iznik n. attrib. (type of pottery)
. phoideratos [fedqreItqs] (pl. phoideratoi) or phoederatus [fedqreItqs] (pl.
phoederati) (barbarian ally of Rome)
. phenomenon [fInPmInqn] (pl. phenomena)
. festoon [festHn]
. festooned [festHnd]
. fetish [fetIS]
. 1 () . phiala [faIqlq] (pl. phialae) or phiale [faIql] or vial
[vaIql]
. 2 (.) finial [faInJql] (figured top of a pinnacle, etc.)
. 1 ( ) fibula [fIbjVlq] (pl. fibulae or fibulas) (clasp);
military fibula; / two-piece
fibula; two-piece fibula;
fibula with convoluted bow; zoomorphic fibula;
rossbow
fibula; boat fibula; La Tne
fibula; / moulded fibula;
bow-shaped fibula; / one-piece fibula;
leech fibula; fibula with
returned foot; bow fibula;
fibula with bilateral spring;
inscribed fibula; fibula with
unilateral spring; looped foot fibula;
,
fibula with reflexed terminal;
fibula with terminal knob ornament;
Aucissa fibula; - plate fibula;
hinge fibula
. 2 ( ) brooch [brqVC]; radiate-headed
brooch (without important knobs of head plate);
two-piece brooch; zoomorphic brooch; /
moulded brooch; one-piece
brooch; radiate-headed brooch (in the head with five
knobs between straight edges, the short barched bow and the long foot
also with lateral knobs); crescent type brooch;

umbonate disk brooch;


inscribed brooch; double bow
brooch; serrated edged brooch;
single bow brooch;
looped foot brooch; divided
bow brooch; equalarmed brooch; triple bow brooch; brooch in the form
of a fly or insect brooch
. 3: - : a) () P-shaped fibula, b) (,
c ) cruciform brooch / fibula, c)
(, ) crossbow brooch / fibula
. figure [fIgq]; draped figure;
winged figure;
fertility figure
. figurine ["fIgjVrJn]
. figured [fIgqd]
. fixation [fIkseISqn] (of finds) or recording [rIkLdIN];
/ condition recording
. record [rIkLd]
. tefillin [tqfIlIn] or phylactery [faIlektqri]
. panel [pxnl] (of door or wall)
. 1 () filigree [fIlIgrJ]
. 2 ( ) marvered glass [mRvqd glRs] or reticella glass
[rItIsqlq glRs]
. () filigree [fIlIgrJ] or filigreed [fIlIgrJd]
. filter [fIltq]; UV filter
. thymele [TaImJl]
. Phoenician [fInISIqn] n.
. Phoenician [fInISIqn] adj.
- . Finno-Ugrian [fInqVjHgrIqn]
- . Finno-Ugrian [fInqVjHgrIqn]
. chip [CIp] (gaming)
. bottle [bPtl] or flask [flRsk] (small, for perfumes)
. flank [flxNk]
. flank [flxNk]
. flanking [flxNkIN]
. poppy-head [pPpi hed] (archit.)
. outbuilding [aVt"bIldIN] or outhouse [aVthaVs]
. marker [mRkq] or felt tip pen ["felt tIp pen]
. fleet [flJt], () navy [neIvi]
o . flotation [flqVteISqn]
. 1 ( ) flask [flRsk] (flat container for liquor)
. 2 ( ) large container [lRG
kqnteInq] (for liquor)
. small flask [smLl flRsk] (flat container for liquor)
. tholos [TqVlqs] (pl. tholoi) or beehive tomb [bJhaIv tHm]
. foil [fOIl]
. background [bxkgraVnd] (image);
the image of Christ set against a gold background
. 1 () lantern [lxntqn] or lamp [lxmp]
. 2 (.) lantern [lxntqn] (archit.) or oriel [Lriql] or oriel window
[Lriql wIndqV] or bay window [beI wIndqV]
. 3 ( ) eye [aI] (lightning aperture in a roof)
. * museum collection(s) (altogether)
. fountain [faVntIn]; public fountain;
ablutions fountain; drinking fountain
. 1 ( ) form [fLm] or shape [SeIp]; (-) in the
form of (something) or shaped like (something) or (something)-form
. 2 ( ) form [fLm] (of a vessel); closed form /

220

221

. () sheath [SJT], () case [keIs]; bowcase

vessel or closed shape vessel; a open form / vessel or open


shape vessel; shape development
. 3 ( ) mould, Amer. mold [mqVld] (hollow form
or matrix); two-part / two-piece mould;
() closed mould; casting mould;
composite mould (in which several different shapes
are produced in one cycle); / one-part / onepiece mould; () open mould;
three-part / three-piece mould
. shaping [SeIpIN] or formation [fLmeISqn] or forming [fLmIN];
formation / shaping of a layer
. pot [pPt]; thinly pot
. () hand-forming [hxnd fLmIN] (of a vessel) or forming [fLmIN]
or pottery forming [pPtqri fLmIN]
. fort [fLt]
. fortification ["fLtIfIkeISqn]
. fortification ["fLtIfIkeISqn]
. forum [fLrqm] (pl. fora or forums)
. camera [kxmqrq]; digital camera
. (-) take picture of [teIk pIkCq]
. 1 . . photography
[fqtPgrqfi]; digital photography
. 2 () photo [fqVtqV] or photograph [fqVtqgrRf] or picture
[pIkCq]; * photo / picture taken during fieldworks;
(-) photo courtesy (of
so-and-so); digital photo / picture
. film [fIlm] (photo)
. fragment [frxgmqnt]; architectural
/ architectonic fragment; crowning element;
amphora fragment; rim fragment;
() basal sherd; ceramic
fragments; lid fragment; ()
wall fragment (of a vessel); body sherd
. in fragments [In frxgmqnts] or fragmented
[frxgmqntId] or fragments (of something) [frxgmqnts qv]
. Thracian [TrxSqn]
. Thracian [TrxSqn]
. fresco [freskqV]
. fresco [freskqV]
. frigidarium [frIGIdxrIqm]
. phrygian cap [frIGJqn kxp]
. 1 (.) frieze [frJz]
. 2 (.) band [bxnd] (ornam.); ornamental frieze
. frit [frIt]; borax frit
. gable [geIbql] or pediment [pedImqnt] (separated from lower wall by a
cornice); / triangular gable;
( S- ) bonnet-scroll / gooseneck / scrolled / swan-neck / swan-necked pediment;
blind / false pediment; bow-shaped pediment;
curved / round gable; /
broken-apex / open / open-topped pediment;
pilastered pediment; (
) pedimental or pedimented; * triangular
log gable (that directly continues the wall made oftimber frames);
segmental pediment;
broken-base / open-bed pediment
. fluorine [flVqrJn]
. foundation [faVndeISqn] or footing [fVtIN]
. fust [fAst] or column shaft [kPlqm SRft]
. foot [fVt] (pl. feet)

. (. ) . (. ) Khazar
[kRzq]
. Khazarian [kRzeqriqn] or Khazar [kRzq]
. hazarbaf (elaborate brickwork)
. hazira (Moslem tomb contained within an enclosure)
. Chalcolithic ["kqlkqliTik] n.
. Chalcolithic ["kqlkqliTik] adj.
., . ( ) hammam (Turkish bath)
. 1 () khan [kRn] (ruler)
. 2 (-) khan [kRn] (caravansary)
. ( ) khanaqah or khanqah
(monastery or hostel for sufis or dervishes)
. khanate [kR"neIt]; Khanate of Kazan;
Crimean Khanate
. character [kxrIktq], (, ) nature [neICq]
. characteristic ["kxrIktqrIstIk];
biological characteristics of individuals (of the deceased);
, clay, glaze, and colour
characteristics
. stone cross [stqVn krOs] (Armenian)
. . tang [txN] (that fits into a handle or shaft)
. henge [henG]
. Cherson [kE:sqn]
. Chersonesos or Chersonesus ["kE:sqnisqs] or Chersonese [kE:sqnJz];
Greek Chersonesos
. Chersonesite [kE:sqnIsaIt]
. Chersonesian ["kE:sqniZqn]
. Chersonite [kE:sqnaIt]
. Chersonian [kE:sPniqn]
. hegira or hejira [heGIrq]
. hut [hAt] or shack [Sxk]
., . hilani
. chemical [kemIkql]
. Chiot [kaIqt] or Sciot [SaIqt]
. chiton [kaItn]
. chytra [kaItrq] (pl. chytrai)
. chlamys [klxmIs] (pl. chlamydes or chlamyses)
. cotton [kPtqn] adj.
. cotton [kPtqn] n.
. chlorine [klPrJn]
. chloride [klPraId]; sodium chloride
. calomel [kxlqVmel]
. economic ["JkqnOmIk], also household [haushqVld]
. economy [IkPnqmi]; () agriculture,
() farming
. hall [hLl] or lobby [lPbi]
. hill [hIl]
. ( ) dunting [dAntIN] (ceramic defect)
. 1 () oxbow [PksbqV] or yoke [jqVk]
. 2 (, ) collar [kPlq] (part of harness)
. chora [kPrq]
. residential house ["rezIdenSql haVs] or residential building ["rezIdenSql
bIlbIN] (usually wooden and reach) (Slavonic art)
. bury [beri] or inter [IntE:]
x . processional banner [prqseSqnql bxnq] or church banner [CE:C bxnq]

222

223

. choir [kwaIq] or gallery [gxlqri] or loft [lPft] (part of chancel occupied


by singers)
. 1 (c) temple [tempql]; mortuary temple;
(-) temple tower (of the Assyrians
and Babylonians); temple in antis or temple with ant or
templum in antis (pl. templa in antis); () multi-storey
temple, Amer. multistory temple
. 2 () church [CE:C]; basilican church;
church outside the city walls or extramural church;
: a) ( ) *elongated in ground plan
church with its nave and aisles of the same height, b) (
) *church without aisles and transept;
cross-in-square church or cross-inscribed church or quincunx church;
cross church; triconch;
church of antae or church with antae or church in antis;
arched church; arcosolia church;
- commemorative / memorial church
. 3: * major church in a city (or its part) with no parish
. frame [freIm] (building)
storage [stLrIG] (act or state of storing);
recommended storage
. storeroom [stLrVm] or storage [stLrIG];
museum storage or storage area
. curator [kjureItq]; museum curator
. 1 () backbone [bxkbqVn] or spinal column [spaInl "kPlqm] or spine
[spaIn] or vertebral column [vE:tIbrql kPlqm]
. 2 () ridge [rIG]
. Christogram [krIstqgrxm]
. chryselephantine [krI"selqfxntJn]
. Christian [krIsCqn] adj.
. Christianity ["krIstixnIti]
. chronogram [krPnq"grxm]
. () chronology [krqnPlqGi], () dating [deItIN]
or date [deIt]; absolute chronology or
absolute dating; relative dating or relative
chronology
. fragile [frxGaIl]
. cartilage [kRtIlIG]; costal cartilage
. chthonian [ktPnIqn] or chtonic [ktPnIk]
. hujra [hjHGrq] (deep niche)
. () draftsman [drRftsmqn] (pl. draftsmen)
. chous [kHs]
. hyk (large mound)

. mattock [mxtqk], ( ) hoe [hqV], ( )


ultivator [kAltIveItq] (modern)
. royal [rPIql] or kings [kINz]; beautiful / holy / royal
door or holy gate
. king [kIN]
- . king-priest [kIN prJst]
. colour, Amer. color [kAlq]
. colander [kAlqndq] or filter [fIltq] or strainer [streInq] (small)
. ( ) crazing [kreIzIN] (glaze defect), also crackle
[krxkql] or craze [kreIz]; crackled or crazed
. pillar [pIlq] (of soil)
. cella [selq] (pl. cellae)
. intact [Intxkt]
224

. one-piece wood [wAn pJs wVd]


. one-piece metal [wAn pJs metl]
. one-piece [wAn pJs]
. cement [sIment]
. cement [sIment]
. opus signinum [qVpqs sIgnInqm] (pl. opera signina) (lime mixed with
pounded brick or potsherds)
. centre, Amer. center [sxntq]; craft centre (city);
production centre
. centuriation [sqn"tjurJeISqn]
. flail [fleIl]; battle flail; single ball flail;
double ball flail; 3-ball flail
. chain [CeIn]; thurible chain
. ceremonial [,serImqVniql]
. ceremony [serImqni]; funeral or burial
or burial ceremony
. ecclesiastical [I"klJzixstIkql] or church [CE:C] adj.
. 1 () church [CE:C] (spiritual body);
Catholic church; adj. Orthodox church
. 2 () church [CE:C] (functionally); /
abbey / monastic / monastery church; /
cathedral; church outside the city walls or
extramural church; commemorative / memorial
church; pilgrimage church;
parish church; * major church in a city (or its part) with no
parish (Orthodoxy)
. 3 (.) church [CE:C] (archit.); basilican church;
/ - funeral
/ burail church; bi-apsidal church;
house-church; church outside the city walls
or extramural church; hall church;
cross-in-square church or cross-inscribed church or quincunx
church; cross / cruciform church;
domed church; commemorative church;
gate church (made into gatehouse);
one-apsidal church; aiseless church or singleaisled church; / rock-cut church;
five-domed church; tetraconch;
triconch; fortress church;
centralized church or centrally planned church;
antae church or in antis church;
arched church; ambulatory church;
arcosolia church
. cyclopean ["saIklPpiqn]
. zinc [zINk] n.
. zinc [zINk] n. attrib.
. () rush mat [rAS mxt], () straw mat ["strL mxt]
. cippus [sipqs] (pl. cippi)
. pair of compasses [peq qv kAmpqsIs]
. 1 () cylindrical pail [sIlIndrIkql peIl]
. 2 ( ) cist [sIst]
. cistern [sIstqn]; water cistern;
underground cistern; fish-salting cistern
. citadel [sItqdql]
. socle [sPkl] (of a building or column)

. * drinking vessel (Russian, metal, without base ring and with flat horizontal
225

handle)
. * drinking vessel (Russian, sometimes with base ring or globular foot; Russian,
for ardent spirits)
. altarless church [Lltqlqs CE:C] or altarless chapel [Lltqlqs Cxpql] (for
praying the hours, in Orthodoxy)
a . particle [pRtIkql]; a particle of mica
. palisade or pallisade ["pxlIseId] or palisading ["pxlIseIdIN] or stockade
[stPkeId], ( ) lists [lIsts]
. clock [klPk], () watch [wPC]; clepsydra (pl.
clepsydrae or clepsydras); c sun-dial
. bowl [bqVl] (for fruits or drinks), ( ) mazer
[meIzq]; bowl with eyes; pottery
bowl; rosettes bowl;
Ionian bowl; Megarian bowl;
flat bowl; hemi-spherical bowl;
( ) stemless cup;
lustral basin; chalice; - bowl;
stemmed cup or footed bowl; - * handleless drinking
bowl; bird bowl
. 1 () cup [kAp] or bowl [bqVl] (small drinking vessel, with footring and
handle)
. 2 tea cup [tJkAp]
. 3 coffee cup [kPfi kAp]
. 4 ( ) collar [kPlq] (type of guard)
. 1 () puncheon [pAnCqn] (weapon)
. 2 () hammer-axe [hxmq xks]
. 3 coinage [kPInIG] or mintage [mIntIG]
. 1 () chase [CeIs] or emboss [ImbPs] (ornament)
. 2 () coin [kPIn] or mint [mInt] (coins); mint
coins [mInt kPInz] or issue coins [ISH kPInz] or struck coins [strAk kPInz]
. 1 () chasing [CeIsIN] or embossing [ImbPsIN]
(ornamentation)
. 2 coinage [kPInIG] or mintage [mIntIG]
. chased [CeIst] or embossed [ImbPst] (decorated)
. 1 () canoe [kqnH] or light boat [laIt bqVt]
. 2 ( ) shuttle [SAtl]
. jaw [GL]; maxilia or upper jaw;
lower jaw or mandible
. shaft [SRft] (handle)
. skull [skAl]; deformed skull;
* skull with clay reconstruction of face details
. tile [taIl] n. (to cover roofs); glazed tile;
gable / ridge tile; roof tile
. tile [taIl] n. attrib.
. cephalic index [sIfxlIk Indeks]
. 1 ( ) (. ) shred [Sred] or sherd [SLd] or
potsherd [pPtSE:d]
. 2 ( ) . ceramic [sIrxmIk] (fabric) or body
[bPdi] or fabric [fxbrIk]
. shaft [SRft] or tang [txN] or tanged [txNd]
. shaft [SRft] or tang [txN]; barb or thorn or tang (of
an arrow)
. blackening [blxkqnIN]; . . blackened adj.
. inkwell [INkwel]
. chernozem [Cernqzem] or humus [hjHmqs];
buried soil (surface from which the depth of the main burial in the kurgan
is calculated)
. black slip [blxk slIp] or black-slipped [blxk slIpt], also black
gloss [blxk glPs] or black-glazed [blxk gleIzd] or black-lacquered [blxk
lxkqd]

. black-burnished [blxk bE:nISt] or black polished [blxk pOlISt]


. black-on-red [blxk Pn red] or black-figure [blxk fIgq] or
black-figured [blxk fIgqd]
. 1 (.) niello [nJelqV] (pl. nielli or niellos)
. 2 ( ) rabble [rxbql]
. dipper [dIpq] or ladle [leIdl] or scoop [skHp]
. draft [drRft] or drawing [drLIN]; drawing of finds (made
during fieldworks); dimensional drawing
. draftsman [drRftsmqn] (pl. draftsmen)
. draw [drL]
. square bay [skweq beI] (archit.)
. Quaternary [kvqtWnqri]
. four-apsidal [fL xpsIdql]
. quatrefoil [kxtqfPIl]
. four-columned [fL kOlqmd] (church)
. case [keIs]
. scale [skeIl]
. scale [skeIl] or scaly [skeIli]
. (. ) small boat [smLl bqVt]
. ( ) row [rqV] (in Russian iconostasis); deesis
(pl. deeses) or deesis row; sovereign row;
festival row; patriarchs row;
prophets row
. chopper [CPpq];
inverse chopper
. (.) architectural partition ["RkItekCqrql pRtISqn] (of a building
or its part)
. chopping tool [CPpIN tHl]
. cast iron [kRst aIqn] n.; ( ) wrought iron
. cast iron [kRst aIqn] n. attrib.

226

227

. tepee [tJpJ]
. shamanism [SRmqnIzqm]
. scimitar [sImItq]
. grog [grPg] (ground pottery used as bonding agent)
. champelev [SRnlqveI]
. sharia or shariah [SqrJq]
. () hinge [hInG] (of a fibula)
. globular [glPjVlq]
. Chatelperron ["SxtqlpirOn] n.
. Chatelperronian ["SxtqlpirLnJqn] adj.
. 1 () tent [tent]
. 2 . pyramidal roof [pIrxmIdl rHf]
. mine [maIn] (excavation to extract minerals from earth);
flint mine; iron mine
. () draughtsman [drRftsmqn] (pl. draughtsmen) (for the game of
draughts)
. () draughts [drRfts]
. (.) chevron [Sevrqn] (design)
. Chellean [Seliqn] n.
. chipping [CIpIN] (defect of ceramic)
. crown [kraVn] (archit.); or arch
crown
. chert [CWt]
. (. ) awl [Ll]
. ( ) splint [splInt]
(device used to prevent motion)

. ( ) tenon [tenqn]
. width [wIdT]
. batch [bxtS] (mixture of components for making ceramic or glass)
. (.) knob [nPb] (ornam.)
. ( ) boss [bOs]
(on a glass or terracotta vessel)
. small box [smLl bPks] or casket [kRskIt] (for jewelry or perfumes);
() exaleiptron n. (pl. exaleiptra)
. slag [slxg]
. helmet [helmIt]; scale helmet;
crested helmet
. abrasive [qbreIsIv]
. () cap [kxp] or nail head [neIl hed]
. 1 () cord [kLd]
. 2 (.) width [wIdT] (archit.)
. seam [sJm], ( ) joint [GOInt]; casting seam
. sword [sLd] (thin, late medieval, like that of a musketeer)
. cord [kLd]
. spatula [spxtjVlq] (modern tool)
. spire [spaIq]
. 1 hairpin [heq"pIn]
. 2 ( ) pin [pIn] (fastening bar)
. spur [spE:]
. () script [skrIpt] (style of writing of an inscription)
. die [daI] (device); dentate stamp or roulette (toothed
disc used to make impressions); (
) . dentate stamping (ceramic surface treatment)
sing.; .linear dentate stamping
sing.; . rocker dentate
stamping sing.; /
single point dentate decorations
. beam compass [bJm kAmpqs] or trammel [trxmql], Amer.
beam trammel [bJm trxmql]
. dowel [daVql] or pin [pIn] (for fixation)
. mining surface [maInIN sE:fIs] or excavation surface [,ekskqveISqn sE:fIs]
. piece [pJs] (specimen)
. 1 () wall-plastering [wLl plRstqrIN];
gypsum plaster
. 2 (, , ) wall-plaster [wLl
plRstq] or plaster [plRstq] or stucco [stAkqV]
. assault [qsLlt]
. 1 () arbitrary layer [RbItrqri leIq] (usually 30 cm deep);
topsoil
. 2 (.: ) spade [speId]
. () Sumer [sjHmiq]
. () Sumerian [sjHmiqriqn] n.
. Sumerian [sjHmiqriqn] adj.
. prospect trench [prPspekt trenC] or prospect hole [prPspekt hqVl] or
prospecting hole [prPspektIN hqVl] (small trench for reconnaissance,
usually 2x2 m)
. * make prospect holes / trenches
. * digging prospect holes / trenches

. (. ) ( ) side [saId] (of a vault)


. broken stone [brqVkqn stqVn] or crushed stone [krASqt stqVn]
. alkaline [xlkqlaIn]
alkali [xlkqlaI](pl. alkalis or alkalies)
228

. brush [brAS] (big) or bristles [brIsqlz] (made of several bunches), ()


broom [brHm]
. (. ) gable [geIbql] (with no cornice below)
. tongs [tPNz]
. shield [SJld]; figure-of-eight shield
. () plate [pleIt] or buckle-plate [bAkql pleIt] or panel [pxnl] (of a
buckle); cast integral plate
probe [prqVb]

. 1 () Euxine [jHksaIn]
. 2 () Euxine Area [jHksaIn eqriq]
. eulogia [jHlOGIq] (pl. eulogiae)
. eustasy [jHstq"si] (pl. eustasies)
. eustatic variations [jHstxtIk "vFqrIeISqns]
. aegis [JGIs]
. aedicula [JdikjHlx] (pl. aediculae)
. exagion (Byzantine unit of weight)
. specimen [spesImIn]
. exoethnonym (ethnonym given from other people)
. exomion (pl. exomia) or exomis
. exonarthex ["IgzLnRTeks] or outer narthex [aVtq nRTeks]
. exedra [eksIdrq] (pl. exedrae); columned exedra
(semicircular portico)
. expansion [IkspxnSqn]
. 1 ( ) team [tJm] (of archaeologists)
. 2 () expedition ["ekspIdISqn]; /
expedition leader
. 1 () exposition ["ekspqzISqn] or exposure [IkspqVZq] (photo)
. 2 () display [dIspleI] or exposition ["ekspqzISqn]
. exhibit [IgzIbIt] or showpiece [SqVpJs]
. light meter [laIt mJtq] or exposure meter [IkspqVZq mJtq]
. () export [ekspLt], ( ) exports [ekspLts];
Sinopean export
. () electrum [Ilektrqm]
. electrolytic [IlektrqVlItIk]
. electrochemical [IlektrqVkemIkql]
. element [elImqnt], (.) pattern [pxtqn];
geometric pattern; dating element;
floral / vegetal element / pattern;
linear pattern
. Hellenos [helInqs] (pl. Hellenoi) or ancient Greek [eInSqnt grJk]
. graecized [grJsaIzd] or hellenized [helInaIzd]
. Hellenism [helInIzm]
. Hellenistic [helInIstIk] or ancient Greek [eInSqnt grJk]
. Hellenic [helenIk] or ancient Greek [eInSqnt grJk]
. enamel [Inxmql]; plique-a-jour;
enameled
. . gallery [gxlqri] (upper story over the aisle or narthex)
. emporion [ImpLriPn] or emporium [ImpLriqm] (pl. emporia or
emporiums)
. englyphic [qnglIfIk] (carved into surface)
. native name [neItIv neIm] (of an ethnos)
. Aeneolithic [x"nJqlITIk] or Eneolithic [q"nJqlITIk]
. Aeneolithic [x"nJqlITIk] or Eneolithic [q"nJqlITIk]
. encaustic [enkLstIk] or encaustic technique [enkLstIk teknJk]
. reliquary cross [relIkwqri krPs] (not an enkolpion)
. entasis [IntxsIs]
229

. (. ) Aeolian [JqVlJqn]
. Aeolian [JqVlJqn]
. 1 ( ) eolith [Jq,lIT]
. 2 ( , ) Eolithic
[JqlITIk] n.
. Eolithic [JqlITIk] adj.
. epigraphy [epIgrqfi]
. epigrapher [epigrqfq] or epigraphist [epigrqfIst]
. epigraphic [epIgrqfIk] or epigraphical [epIgrqfIkql]
. epiclesis [IpIklqsIs] (pl. epicleses) or epiklesis [IpIklqsIs] (pl. epikleses)
. Epi-Palaeolithic ["epi"pxliqVlITIk] n.
. Epi-Palaeolithic ["epi"pxliqVlITIk] adj.
. architrave [RkItreIv]
. epitaph [epItRf]; epitaph in verse
. epoxy resin [I"pPksi rezIn]
. eponym [epq"nIm]
. eponymic ["epqnImIk]
. period [pIqriqd] or age [eIG]; Classical period;
pre-Petrine era (in Russia); turn of eras;
Great Migration period;
age of Justinian; Bronze Age;
Stone Age
. 1 (): B. C. (Before Christ), Amer. BC ["bJ sJ];
A. D. (Anno Domini), Amer. AD ["eI dJ]; turn of eras
. 2 () era [Iqrq]; prehistoric era
. oriel [Lriql] (projecting upper storey)
. erosion [IrqVZqn] or weathering [weDqrIN] (of glass or metal)
. squadron [skwPdrqn] (cavalry unit)
. squadron [skwPdrqn] (naval unit)
. squeeze [skwJz]
. floor [flL] or storey, Amer. story [stLri]; ground floor;
first floor; second floor; basement
or basement storey; semibasement
. ethanol [eTqnPl]
. label [leIbql]; label v.
. etymology ["etImPlqGi]
. ethnic [eTnIk]; ethnic group;
ethnic particularity; ethnic
territory; ethnic consciousness
. ethnicity [eTnIsIti]
. ethnoarchaeology [eTnP,RkIPlqGi]
. ethnogenesis ["eTnPGenIsIs] (pl. ethnogeneses)
. ethnogenetic [eTnPGqnetIk]
. ethnographer [eTnPgrqfq]
. ethnographic ["eTnqgrxfIk];
ethnographic group (local group within ethnos having its specific features)
. ethnography [eTnPgrqfi], () cultural anthropology
[kAlCqrql "xnTrqpPlqGi]
. ethnologist [eTnPlPGIst]
. ethnological ["eTnqlPGIkql]
. ethnology [eTnPlqGi]
ethnosocial [eT"nPsPVSql]
. ethnonym [eTnqnIm]
. * aggregate of ethnonyms
. ethnos [eTnqs] (pl. ethnoi or ethne)
. Etruscan [ItrAskqn]
. Etruscan [ItrAskqn]
. ephebus [IfJbqs] (pl. ephebi or ephebes) or ephebos [IfJbqs] (pl. epheboi) or
ephebe [efJb]
. ( , ) hilt [hIlt]
230

. ether [JTq]; ester


. echinus [ekaInqs] (pl. echini) (archit.)
. ( ) echinus [ekaInqs] (foot of amphora)

. goldsmith [gqVld"smIT]
., . jewelery art, Amer. jewelry art [GHqlri Rt]
. south [saVT]
- . south-east, Amer. southeast ["saVTJst]
- . south-eastern ["saVTJstqn], Amer. southeast ["saVTJst]
- . south-west, Amer. southwest ["saVTwest]
- . south-western ["saVTwestqn], Amer. southwest ["saVTwest]
. southern [saDqn], Amer. south [saVT]
. yurt [jHt]

. nucleus [njHkiqs] or core [kL] (worked)


. ball [bLl] (throwing stone); sling shot
. 1 ( ) language [lxNgwIG]; IndoEuropean languages; - Uralo-Altaic languages
. 2 (, ) tongue [tAN] (of buckle or bell)
. pagan [peIgqn]
. paganism [peIgqnIzm]
. pagan [peIgqn], ( , ,
) heathen [hJDqn]
. (, ) tongue [tAN] (of buckle or small bell)
. egg-shaped [egSeIpt] or ovate [qVveIt]
. anchor [xNkq]
. pit [pIt]; : ) ( ) entrance pit (into a grave), b) (
, , ) shaft (in a
tumulus); cess pit; plunderers pit (to
have access to a burial); / grain pit;
grave pit; pit for pithos; post hole;
household pit; ( )
centration dimple (on a coin)
. amber [xmbq]
. amber [xmbq]
. janissary [GxnI,sqri] or janizary [GxnI,zqri]
. yoke [jqVk]
. 1 () tier [tIq] (in theatre)
. 2 () tier [tIq] or layer [leIq] (in grave)
. 3 () course [kLs] (in brickwork or masonry); footing / plinth course
;
. 4 (.) band [bxnd] (ornam.)
. 5: stratigraphic spit ["strxtIgrxfIk spIt]
. yataghan [jxtq"gan] or yatagan [jxtq"gan] or ataghan [atq"gan]
. 1 () box [bPks] (large and hard)
. 2: cist [sIst]

231

Selected Bibliography

Websters Third New International Dictionary of the English Language: Unabridged /


ed. Philip Babcock Gove. Koln: [no date].

a) Printed -
. ., . . - - . ., 1993.
. . //
. 1966. . 1-30.
- : . , 1990.
. ., . . :
. , 1983.
.. - -
. ., 2005.
., . . ., 1990.
. . :
. , 2006.
Oxford. , 2002.
. / .

. . . , 1990.
. . ., 2005.
. . . . , 1999.
.. . ., 1995.
.. (-). ., 1995.
-i i / . . . , 1996.
. . ., 1991.
.. - . ., 2005.
. : , ,

, , , / .

.. ., 2001.

b) Digital -
Encyclopaedia Britannica 2003: Ultimate Reference Suit (2002), by the Axion
Development Team.
Pocket Oxford Dictionary (1994), by Oxford University Press.
The American Heritage Talking Dictionary, version 4.0 (1995) by SoftKey International Inc.
Websters New World Dictionary & Thesaurus (1997-1998), by Accent Software
International Ltd.
Websters Visual Dictionary (1998), by Accent Software International Ltd.
WordWeb, version 2.2 (2003), by A. Lewis.

A Dictionary of Archaeology / ed. Shaw I., Jameson R. Oxford, 2002.


Biers W.R.The Archaeology of Greece: An Introduction. Ithaca, 1987.
Bouzek J. Studies of Greek Pottery in the Black Sea Area. Prague, 1990.
Britton J. A Dictionary of the Architecture and Archaeology of the Middle Ages. London, 1838.
Crimean Chersonesos: City, Chora, Museum, and Environs / ed. G. R. Mack, J. C.
Carter. Austin, 2003.
Darvill T. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. Oxford, 2002.
Hattatt R. Ancient Brooches and Other Artefacts. London, 1989.
Krautheimer R. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. New Haven, 1986.
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Harlow, 1999.
Mignon M. R. Dictionary of Concepts in Archaeology. Westport (Connecticut); London, 1993.
Minns, Ellis H. Scythians and Greeks: A Survey of Ancient History and Archaeology on
the Northern Coast of the Euxine from the Danube to the Caucasus. 2nd ed.
New York, 1971.
Murray P., Murray L. A Dictionary of Christian Art. Oxford, 2004.
Pedley J.G.Greek Art and Archaeology.Englewood Cliffs, 1993.
Petersen, Andrew. Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Routledge, 1996.
Rolle R., Toloko P. Archologisches Wrterbuch. Deutsch Russisch Ukrainisch
Weirussisch Englisch. Berlin, 1999.
Scythian Gold: Treasures from Ancient Ukraine / ed. Reeder E. D. New York; San
Antonio, 1999.
The Golden Deer of Eurasia: Scythian and Sarmatian Treasures from the Russian
Steppes: the State Hermitage, Saint Petersburg, and the Archaeological
Museum, Ufa / ed. Aruz J., Farkas A., Alekseev A., Korolkova E. New York,
2001.
The Oxford Classical Dictionary / ed. Hornblower S., Spawforth A. Oxford; New York, 1999.
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium / ed. Kazhdan A. P. Oxford, 1991. 3 vols.
The Oxford-Duden Pictorial English Dictionary / ed. Pheby J. Oxford; Mannheim;
Moscow, 1985.
232

233

Appendix. Measuring Systems


.
Note. Numbers writing
.
*In Russian, comma (,) divides integer and decimal. There is no indication of a change
between millions and thousands, thousands and hundreds but spacing (not always).
E.g. 1000000,00 or 1 000 000,00 in Russian writing is one million.
(,) .
, (
).
** In English, dot (.) divides integer and decimal; comma (,) often divides millions and
thousands, and thousands and hundreds.
(.). (,)
, .
, 1,000,000.00 = 1 .


Metric system
Units of length


1 ,
1 ,
1 ,
1 ,
1 ,

millimetre, .
millimeter, mm
centimetre, .
centimeter, cm
decimetre, .
decimeter, dm
metre, .
meter, m
kilometre, .
kilometer

milligram, mg

1 ,

gram, g

1 ,

hectare, ha

1
, k2

square kilometre,
km2

100 ares =
10,000 m2
100 ha =
1,000,000 m2

119.6 square
yards
2.471 acres
247.1 acres

Units of capacity

1
, 3
1 , = 1

, 3

cubic centimetre,
cm3
litre, . liter, l
= cubic decimetre,
dm3

1
, ,
3

cubic metre, m3

0.001 l

0.06 cubic inch

1,000 cm3

0.035 cubic foot

1,000,000 cm3 =
1,000 l

1.308 cubic
yards

Anglo-Saxon system
-
Units of length

1 inch, in

1/12

1 foot, ft (. feet)

12

1 yard, yd

1 land mile, m

1 nautical mile,
n.m., sea mile

3 = 36

5280 = 1760

6076

2,54
30,48 =
0,31
91,44 =
0,91
1609 = 1,61
1852 = 1,85

10 mm

0.39 inch

1 grain

0,002285

0,065

10 cm

3.94 inches

1 dram, dr

1/16

1,77

100 cm, 10 dm

39.37 inches =
1.09 yards

1 ounc, oz

16

28,35

1 pound, lb

16

453,6 = 0,46

1 stone
1 hundredweight,
cwt
1 long
hundredweight,
quintal
1 net tong, short
ton, t, tn

14

6,35

100

45,3

112

50,8

2000

907,18

2240

1016,05

1,000 m

0.62 mile
Units of weight
0.015 grain
15.43 grains =
0.035 ounces

kilogram, kg

1,000 g

2.205 pounds

1 ,

centner (NIS)

100 kg

220.46 pounds

1 ,

tonne, t

1,000 kg = 10
centners

2204.62 pounds

Square measure

square centimeter,
cm2

100 mm2 =
0.0001 m2

square metre, m2

10,000 cm2
234

1 ,

100 m2

0.04 inch

0.001 g
1,000 mg =
0.001 kg

1
, 2
1
, 2

are, a

0.1 cm


1 ,

1 , = 1

0.155 square
inch
1.196 square
yards

Units of weight

1 long ton

Square measure
1 square inch
1 square foot
1 square yard
1 acre


645,16 2
144 .

0,09 2

9 .

0,84 2

4840 .

4047 2

235

1 square mile

640

Units of capacity

259

1 cubic inch

16,39 3

1 fluid ounce, fl oz

28,41 3

1 gill, gi

1 pint, p, pt

20

1 quart, q, qt

1 gallon, gal

1 cubic foot

1728

1 bushel

1 cubic yard

27

0,14 ; .
0,118
0,57 .; . 1
( )
0,44 ; 2 (
)
0,55
1,14 .; . 1
( )
0,95 ; 2 (
)
1,1
4,55 ; .
( )
3,785
28,32
36,37 ; .
(
) 35,24
764,6 = 0,76 3

Temperature

,
,

Celsius degree,
o , degree
Celsius grade

Fahrenheit = (9/5 x xo Celsius) + 32

Fahrenheit degree, o
F, degree Fahrenheit
grade


,
F,

Celsius = 5/9 x (xo Fahrenheit 32)

Temperature conversion

o

40

20

10

10

20

30

Fo

40

14

32

50

68

86

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Fo

104

122

140

158

176

194

212

236