Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 69

.

. . ., . . .

2011 .


OFDM
( )

:. .
: . . ., . . .
: . . ., . . .

2011 .

OFDM-
,

.OFDM-

1.

1.1. OFDM
IEEE 802.16-2004

1.2.
OFDM-
1.3.
2.

14
18
20

2.1.
ODFM-

20

2.2.

26

2.3.

3.

30
33

3.1.

33

3.2.

35

3.3.

42

3.4.

44

4.

47

4.1.

4.2.

47
60

61

63

65


.
,

.

()


-
.

(OFDM),

OFDM

,
.

OFDM

.
, OFDM

,
, .

, OFDM-.
,

OFDM

OFDM
IEEE

802.16-2004

(WiMAX),

IP-.

OFDM

OFDM

,
6

,
,

.
,
,

OFDM-

1

1.1. OFDM
IEEE 802.16-2004

IEEE

802.16-2004

: (SC),

OFDM

(orthogonalfrequencydivisionmultiplexing)

OFDMA

(orthogonalfrequencydivisionmultipleaccess).
OFDM
( 12 )

. ,

SC .

, :
[-N/2,

, k
N/2-1]

OFDM-

1/8, 1/16 1/32

OFDM-

1/4,

.
8

OFDM-

()

()

},

(1.1)

(QAM-).


()

))

)),

(1.2)

, .
/ ,

, N. OFDM IEEE
802.16 N=200,

=256. 55 (k=-

128-101 101127)

(k=0)

(..

).
200 (
88, 63, 38, 13),
9

16 12 ,

1 -100, 99, -98, -37, -36, -35, 1, 2, 3, 64, 65, 66.

WirelessMAN-OFDM

()

16, , ,

OFDMA.


( 0 31).

OFDM-

,
86/75 (
144/125

1,25

2,75 ), 57/50 (

),

1,5 ),
316/275

2 ) 8/7 (

1,75 ).

OFDM-

(),

. ,

OFDM

10

.
.

IEEE 802.16-2004
.

(),

, .

239 ,

255

16

).
8

K,
239K

.
1/2.

BPSK

(,

).
11

OFDM.

- (
) -.

OFDM-.

. ,

. ,

(BPSK / QPSK /
16QAM

64QAM),

( 1 / 2 / 4 / 6 ).

(.

1.1),

12

. 1.1.
BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM 64QAM

Q
I, .. ( QPSK
16QAM

, 64QAM

).
13

BPSK.
,

0 1. BPSK-

=12

2
=

,
=

=
=

=1

=12

=12 .



.
.

1.2. OFDM

.
-

,
.

14

OFDM,



OFDM

, ,
15

. 1.2.

. 1.2.

.
OFDM, .
1.1.

.
16

. 1.3.

1.3


, B,
.

OFDM

17

1.3.

[7]

, . 1.2,

OFDM

[7].

[6]

.
[8] ,


18

.
[2]

[1]

().

.
,

[11]

- OFDM-, , ,

-
.
19

2

2.1.
ODFM-

IEEE

802.16-2004

OFDM-

IFFT (
) :

(2.1)

IFFT

, :

( )

(2.2)

20

(2.1),

OFDM-,

, N
.

OFDM,

.
,

(2.2)

( )*

)+,

-, (2.3)

(2.1)

)*

)+,

-,

(2.4)

)+,

)+

-, (2.5)

21

(2.5):

()

()

)+,

-, (2.6)

)+,

-, (2.7)

(2.2) :
(

) ,

()

( ),

(2.8)

OFDM-,

()

()

IFFT

OFDM-

()

()

(2.2)

(2.3)-(2.8)

22

],

,G

().

.
,

OFDM-

OFDM-

| ( )| .

| ( )|


. 2.1.

23

. 2.1.

()

()

( ):


()

()

( ),

(2.9)

:
(

),

).

:
()

()

),

(2.10)

:
()

()

),

(2.11)

(2.6) (2.10), :

()

)+=
24

)+,
(2.12)

(2.12)
:

()

(
*

(
(

))
))

( (
( (

) )+
,
) )+
(2.13)

()

*
*

( (
( (

))
))

(
(

)+=

(
(

)+

) )+
,
) )+
(2.14)

(2.9).

(2.13)

(2.14)

OFDM-,
:
25

()

))

(2.15)

) )+, (2.15)

OFDM-

: N,
,

2.2.


.
.

.
26

,
,

:
( ),

(2.16)

( )-

. x y
,


.
:

( )
(

(2.17)


, ,
27

(2.18)

, ; K
( )

x, K>0;

.
( ),

( )

) :
( )

(2.19)

(2.19)

(2.17)

(2.20)

b,

:
(

(2.21)
28

. (2.21) :

(2.22)

(2.23)

(2.23)
,

(2.23)

(2.20):

:K

(2.24)

29

2.3.

(2.16),

( ).

( ).

:
()

, ( )-.
()

()

(2.25)

( ), :
()

( ),

(2.26)

[6]

: 1) ,
, 2) ,

()

()

( )

:
30


( ) ( )
() ,

(2.27)

( ),

(2.27) (2.26)
()

( ):

( )(
( ) ( )
( ) ).

()

(2.28)

( )
, :

()

(2.29)

:
),

(2.30)

()

( ).

(2.31)

31

().


,
, .

32

3

3.1.

OFDM,

OFDM

.

Matlab.

:
, ,
.

).

Matlab

OFDM_moire_effect

(.

:
1.

OFDM-

.
33

2.

(2.6)-(2.8)

OFDM.

.
3.

, (2.31).
4.

.
.
.
5.

.
6.

IEEE

802.16-2004:
o

G=1/8,
o

OFDM-

=256,

N=200,

64QAM,

OFDM-

=7.8125

=10,

34

3.2.

OFDM-

.
,
- .
-
OFDM-.

OFDM-

(3.1)

OFDM-:

(3.2)

OFDM-


OFDM-:
.
(

(3.3)

(3.4)

35

OFDM- :
.

(3.5)

OFDM_moire_effect.

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

3
,

. 3.1. 64
OFDM-
. 3.1 64

OFDM-

.
36

256

OFDM-,

32

OFDM-

0.125

280
260

240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

5
,

. 3.2. 96
OFDM-

3.2

OFDM-

96

37

. 32 ,

64

OFDM-.

280
260
240
220

200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

5
,

. 3.3.
OFDM-

3.3

OFDM-,

.

16 . ,
(

9.6

OFDM-),


38

. 3.2.
.

OFDM-

( )( )

( )

(3.6)

( )

OFDM-,

( ).

( ).

Matlab

.
,

Matlab, .

OFDM- .
3.4.

(3.7)

- .

39

10

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50
-25

-20

-15

-10

-5
0
5
,

10

15

20

25

. 3.4.
OFDM-

3.90625

40

, -30
.

3.5

OFDM-.


( ), ,
-
.

0.01
0.009
0.008

0.007
0.006
0.005
0.004
0.003
0.002
0.001
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

. 3.5. OFDM-

OFDM-

. 3.5 ).

OFDM-

41

3.3.


, (2.24), ,

(3.8)

(3.9)


.
,

:
42

) (

)-

(3.10)

:
,

(3.11)

(3.12)

1.5

1.25

0.75

0.5

0.25

0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4

1.6

. 3.6.

3.6

43

,
.

(3.8)

()

()

()
()

()

(3.13)

OFDM.

3.4.

3.5)

(.

(.

3.6),

.
44

0.0111,

.

: 0.5 , 1 , 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 , 3


.
k :
,

) (

)-

(3.14)

(3.15)

.
3.1

0.5

1.5

2.5

0.615

0.857

1.035

1.179

1.3

1.405

k,

..

0,0031 0,0044 0,0053 0,0061 0,0067 0,0072

45

()

( )|

),

(3.16)

| ( )|.

(3.17)

OFDM. ,

46

4

4.1.

,
.

(. 4.1)
(.

4.2)

OFDM-

47

1.4

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

10

15
,

20

25

30

. 4.1.
OFDM-

4.1

48

1
0.9

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

10

15
,

20

25

30

. 4.2. OFDM-

. 4.1 . 4.2

. ,

,
.

,
,

49

1.5

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6
0.8

1.2

1.4

. 4.3.
OFDM-
4.3
OFDM-
(

).

Matlab

50

1.5

0.5

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

. 4.4.
OFDM-

4.4

OFDM-
(

. . 4.3,

51

10

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50
-25

-20

-15

-10

-5
0
5
,

10

15

20

25

. 4.5.
OFDM-
4.5

OFDM-

.
.

52

10

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50
-25

-20

-15

-10

-5
0
5
,

10

15

20

25

. 4.6.
OFDM-

4.6

OFDM-
1

),

()

(). ,

1 , 2 3

-28 , -26 -24


53

1 2
0


2 3 .

,
,

, ,
,
.

()

(2.27)

,
- .

.
. 4.7
.

54

. . ; . .

1
0.98
0.96
0.94
0.92
0.9
0.88
0.86
0.84
0.82
0.8
0.78
0.76
0.74
0.5

1.5
2
,

2.5

. 4.7.


,

, .

55

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70

-80
-25

-20

-15

-10

-5
0
5
,

10

15

20

25

. 4.8.

4.8

: 1 ( ), 2
( ) 3 ( ).
,
.

-20 .

56

36

/,

34
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
0.5

1.5
2
,

2.5

. 4.9. /

4.9

()

(2.30)

.
,
,

, (2-3 )

57

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-8

-6

-4

-2
0
2

. 4.10.

1

4.10

OFDM-

).

,
. ,
.
,
, [11].
, ,

,
.

4.11

58

586 (BitErrorRate
BER) .

x 10

-3

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0.5

1.5
2
,

2.5

. 4.11. BER

BER
.

BER

59

4.2.

, [7].

OFDM,

60

, -
IEEE-802.16-2004.

.
, ,
:
1.

, .
2.


OFDM.

OFDM- .
3.

61

,
,

62

1. . ., . .
.
.: . , 1977.
2.

..

2002
3. . ., . ., . .

. .: -, 2005.
4.

IEEE 802.16. : , 2005.


5.

. 2007.
6.

. . 2009
7.

..

OFDM

).

.. / . . . , 2011 .
8.

. . 2011
9.

URL:

http://allfpga.com/wiki/Category:%D0%A6%D0%9E%D0%A1
63

10.

URL:http://www.dsplib.ru/contentdsptheory.html
11.

Richard

Wireless

van

Multimedia

Nee,

Ramjee

Prasad.

OFDM

Communications.Artech

House

for
on

Demand. 2000.
12. IEEE Std 802.16-2004: IEEE Standard for Local
and metropolitan area networks. New York, USA: The
Institute

of

Electrical

and

Mohamed,

F.W.

Electronics

Engineers,

Inc. 2004.
13.

M.A.

Simulation

of

WiMAX

Physical

Zaki,

R.H.

Mosbeh.

Layer:

IEEE

802.16e.

International Journal of Computer Science and Network


Security, Vol.10 No.11, 2010.

64


OFDM_moire_effect
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%

OFDM_moire_effect

%%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
clear all; close all; clc;
%% OFDM
FFT_Num=4096; % ODFM-
Fs=10; %(MHz)
QAM=64; %
Nfft=256; %
CarNum=200; %
gi=1/8; %

%levels=[0.0006 0.0025 0.615 0.857 1.035 1.179 1.3


1.405];
levels=[0.615 0.857 1.035 1.179 1.3 1.405];
NumSym=50;
%%
disp(' '); clc;
SqLen=FFT_Num*NumSym;
GI=FFT_Num*gi; % -
SymLen=FFT_Num+GI; % -

StartCar=floor((FFT_Num-CarNum)/2)+1; %

65

StopCar=StartCar+CarNum-1; %

FirstCar=StartCar-(Nfft-CarNum)/2; %
EndCar=StopCar+(Nfft-CarNum)/2; %
%% QAM
disp(' QAM '); clc;
%rnd_data=randint(NumSym,StopCar-StartCar+1,QAM); %
-
loadrnd_data;
QAMData=modulate(modem.qammod(QAM),rnd_data); % QAM

fftbuf=complex(zeros(NumSym,FFT_Num));
fftbuf(:,StartCar:StopCar)=QAMData;
%% IFFT ( OFDM )
disp('IFFT'); clc;
for o=1:NumSym
SymEnv(o,:)=FFT_Num*ifft(fftshift(fftbuf(o,:)));
end
tSymEnv=(1/FFT_Num:1/FFT_Num:1)*Nfft/Fs;
%SpSymEnv=abs(fftshift(fft(SymEnv)/FFT_Num)); %
..
%fSymEnv=FFT_Num/Nfft*Fs/2:FFT_Num/Nfft*Fs/FFT_Num:FFT_Num/Nff
t*Fs/2-FFT_Num/Nfft*Fs/FFT_Num;
for o=1:NumSym
SqEnv(1,FFT_Num*(o-1)+1:o*FFT_Num)=SymEnv(o,:);
end
%tSqEnv=1/Fs/FFT_Num:1/Fs/FFT_Num:NumSym/Fs;
66

%psdSqEnv=fftshift(psd(SqEnv));
%fSqEnv=FFT_Num/Nfft*Fs/2:FFT_Num/Nfft*Fs/length(psdSqEnv):FF
T_Num/Nfft*Fs*(1/2-1/length(psdSqEnv));
clearfftbuf;
%%
disp(' '); clc;
SymEnvGI=complex(zeros(NumSym,FFT_Num+GI));
SymEnvGI(:,1:GI)=SymEnv(:,end-GI+1:end); %

SymEnvGI(:,GI+1:end)=SymEnv(:,1:FFT_Num); % ..

tSymEnvGI=(1/FFT_Num:1/FFT_Num:1+gi)*Nfft/Fs;
%SpSymEnvGI=abs(fftshift(fft(SymEnvGI)/SymLen)); %
.. .
%fSymEnvGI=FFT_Num/Nfft*Fs/2:FFT_Num/Nfft*Fs/FFT_Num/(1+gi):FFT_
Num/Nfft*Fs/2-FFT_Num/Nfft*Fs/FFT_Num/(1+gi);
for o=1:NumSym
SqEnvGI(1,SymLen*(o-1)+1:o*SymLen)=SymEnvGI(o,:);
end
tSqEnvGI=1/Fs/FFT_Num:1/Fs/FFT_Num:(1+gi)*NumSym/Fs;
SpSqEnvGI=fftshift(pwelch(SqEnvGI,Nfft/2,Nfft/4));
fSpSqEnvGI=(-1/2:1/length(SpSqEnvGI):1/21/length(SpSqEnvGI))*Fs*FFT_Num/Nfft;
PwrSqEnvGI=sum(SqEnvGI.*conj(SqEnvGI),2)/2/SqLen;
%clear SymEnv&&SymEnvGI;
%%
67

disp(''); clc;
NomLvl=3*sqrt(sum(SqEnv.*conj(SqEnv),2)/2/SqLen); %
. .
scale=levels/NomLvl; % -
%clearSqEnv;
%%
disp(''); clc;
fori=1:length(scale);
ComplexCurvGI_x=SqEnvGI*scale(i); %
.
for o=1:NumSym
ComplexCurv_x(i,FFT_Num*(o1)+1:o*FFT_Num)=ComplexCurvGI_x(SymLen*(o1)+1+GI:o*SymLen);
end
CurvGI_x=abs(ComplexCurvGI_x);
fiGI=angle(ComplexCurvGI_x);
tmp=CurvGI_x;
tmp(tmp>1.5)=1.5;
CurvGI_y=tmp-4/27*tmp.^3;
ComplexCurvGI_y=CurvGI_y.*exp(1i*fiGI);
for o=1:NumSym
ComplexCurv_y(i,FFT_Num*(o1)+1:o*FFT_Num)=ComplexCurvGI_y(SymLen*(o1)+1+GI:o*SymLen);
end
end

68

%clear
SqEnvGI&&fiGI&&ComplexCurvGI_x&&ComplexCurvGI_y&&tmp&
&CurvGI_x&&CurvGI_y;
%% .
disp(' . '); clc;
Curv_x=abs(ComplexCurv_x);
Curv_y=abs(ComplexCurv_y);
Q=sum(Curv_x.*Curv_y,2)./sum(Curv_x.^2,2);
clearCurv_x&&Curv_y;
%%
disp(' '); clc;
fori=1:length(scale);
ComplexCurv_z(i,:)=ComplexCurv_y(i,:)Q(i)*ComplexCurv_x(i,:);
end
%%
Pwr_x=0.5/SqLen*sum(ComplexCurv_x.*conj(ComplexCurv_x
),2);
Pwr_y=0.5/SqLen*sum(ComplexCurv_y.*conj(ComplexCurv_y
),2);
Pwr_z=0.5/SqLen*sum(ComplexCurv_z.*conj(ComplexCurv_z
),2);
disp(' '); clc;

69