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Report of

Jesse Jacildo
 Stratification is an institutionalizes pattern of
inequality in which social categories are ranked
on the basis of their access to scarce resources
 Social Stratification is the hierarchical

arrangement and establishment of social

categories that evolve into social group together
with status and their corresponding roles.
 Social Stratification is a system whereby people
rank and evaluate each other as superior and, on
the basis of such evaluations, inequality
rewarded one another with wealth authority,
power and prestige. One result of each
differentiation is the creation of a number of
levels within society.
 Different Views for Social Stratification:
◦ Social Structure – status, social roles into ranked
◦ Social Problem – discontentment and social justice
 Basic Principles of Social Stratification
◦ It is universal in nature
◦ The existence of a S.S. system has many
consequences for individuals and groups.
◦ S.S. is a characteristic of society.
◦ S.S. persists over generation.
◦ S.S. is supported by patters of belief.
 Importance of Stratification
◦ Through S.S., men all over, dispels discrimination,
stereotyping and prejudice.
◦ Man will exert great effort in competing with others.
◦ Knowledge of S.S. may enable man to adapt to the
social environment
◦ Improvement of man’s standard of living
◦ Effect economic development in a society.
◦ Attainment of a harmonious and stable society.
 Types of Stratification System
◦ Caste System
 Brahmins – private and scholars
Kastriya – warriors
Vaisya – merchants and farmers
Sudra – labourers and peasants
◦ Estate System
◦ Open Class System
 Theoretical Analysis Stratification
◦ Structural- Functional Analysis
Recognizes that all societies maintain some form of social
stratification, and therefore, social stratification must have
important functional consequences.
In 1945 Kingsley Davis and Wilbert proposed a theory of
S.S. That remains influential and controversial up to this
day, known as Davis – Moore Thesis.
David – Moore Thesis asserts that some degree of social
stratification actually serves society. Inequality of members
in a society based on their social classes is functional,
necessary and constructive.
◦ Conflict Perspective View
Views inequality as neither important nor disadvantageous
to the welfare of most members of society. There is a sharp
division between classes, which are in constant struggle
and opposition.
Stratification is an unjust system afflicted on society by
people with a monopoly of power and wealth to safeguard
their own interests, advantages and power.
Karl Marx claimed that the two major social classes arise
from two basic relationships to the means of production:
 Owning productive property
Labouring for others.
 The Difference between the Structural –
Functional and Conflict Theory
◦ A. Structural – Functional Paradigm
S.S. Keeps society operating.
S.S. Encourages a matching talents and abilities to
appropriate positions.
S.S. Is both useful and inevitable.
They are usually stable over time.
◦ B. Social Conflict Paradigm
S.S. is the result of social conflict.
S.S. ensures that such talent and ability within the society
will not be utilized at all.
S.S. is useful to only some people; it is not inevitable
Not stable over time.
 Consequences of Social Stratification
◦ Stratification affects life chances
◦ Stratification affects life styles.
◦ Stratification affects prestige.
 Social class is a group of people who share a
similar position or status.
 Social class is a category of people who share

roughly the same class, status and power and

who have sense of identification with one
 Social class or status refers to a set of families

that share equal or nearly prestige according to

the criteria of evaluation in the system of
 Determinants of Social Class
◦ Education
◦ Income
◦ Intelligence
 Social Class as viewed by Karl Marx
◦ Bourgeoisie (Capitalist)
◦ Proletariat (Worker)
 Max Weber’s Analysis of Social Class
◦ Dimensions on how people ranked:
 Social Classes in the Philippines
◦ Upper Class- with high personal income, inherited
wealth and economic power
◦ Middle Class – small businessmen, teachers, merchants,
traders with modest income.
◦ Lower Class – earning low incomes with a little or no
savings; some are unemployed.
 Social Mobility is the movement of an individual
or group from one social class to another.
 Process of changing one’s social class or status.
 Types of Mobility

◦ Vertical Mobility
The upward or downward movement from a class level to
◦ Horizontal Mobility
Change of a position that does not involve any real changes
of class rank.
 Factors Affecting Social Mobility
◦ Level of economic development of one’s count
◦ Level of industrialization and urbanization.
◦ Rapid expansion of the service sector.
◦ Availability of opportunities.
◦ Competition
◦ Education
 Indicators of Social Mobility
◦ Power
◦ Prestige
◦ Wealth
 Consequence of Upward Mobility
◦ Pressure
◦ Involves loosening of family ties and old friendship
◦ Adaptations to new lifestyles.
◦ Making new but casual friends
◦ Departing from former places of residence.
 Consequence of Downward Mobility
◦ Loss of self-confidence
◦ Social isolation
◦ Desperation
◦ Diverse emotional changes
◦ Social and cultural maladjustment