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History of Creative Arts & Design

Submitted to:
Miss Asma Khan

Submitted by:
Fatima Fayyaz 2006-PID-09
Haider Anwar 2006-PID-20
Mutahir Hafeez 2006-PID-22
Sara Liaqat 2006-PID-05

Sultanate Period (13th - 18th Century)
Establishment of Sultanate Caliphate:
 The Ghurid Qutb al-Din Aybak was the first sultan of Delhi beginning a
long line of Turkish rulers over various parts of North India.
 This was the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate period; it was the
foundation dynasty of the period and together with some later dynasties it
was called Delhi Sultanate or Sultanate Period.
 Qutub-ud-din Aybak declared himself the Sultan after the death of his
master, Muhammed of Ghur.
 After his death a power struggle broke out and Malik Shams-ud-din
Iltutmish, Qutub-ud-din Aybak's son-in-law succeeded to the throne.
 Iltutmish (1210-35) and Balban (1266-87) were among the dynasty's most
illustrious rulers.
 The "Deccan" (derived from Dakshina) is a geographical term that refers
to the plateau in south central India still ruled by Hindu kings when the first
Muslim sultanates of India were established in Delhi. The Khaljis (1290–
1320) and the Tughluqs (1320–1414) after them both tried to conquer the
Deccan but were ultimately unsuccessful.
 This period ends with the conquest by the Mughals in 1526.

Art of sultanate period:

Sultans in Delhi were most interested in Architecture. However a lot more
work is done in Calligraphy and Manuscript illustrations.
Sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah II (r. 1580–1627), a poet, calligrapher, and
musician himself, was the dynasty's greatest patron of the arts. He attracted
artisans, writers, and thinkers from all over the Islamic world to his court, and
during his reign the city became the most important center of painting in the
So-called bidri work adapted motifs from many sources—textiles, jewelry,
and architectural ornament—in order to satisfy the varying and changing tastes
of patrons in many parts of India.
Different combined motifs are representative of the rich mix of traditions in
the Deccan

 Painting:
 Painting was popular at all times in the various dynasties of sultanate
 These paintings were treated distinctively with vivid palette and somewhat
fantastic backgrounds.
 Rulers were portrayed in intimate moments, strolling through gardens or
relaxing with a lover.

 Book art:
 Manuscript illustrations were dominant among the sultans.
 Metalwork:
 The city of Bidar is famed for a metalworking technique, invented there.
So-called bidri ware is cast from an alloy of zinc mixed with copper, tin,
and lead and inlaid with silver or brass. It is then covered with a mud
paste, which turns the base metal black, highlighting the color and sheen
of the inlaid metal.

Art Examples:

1.Coin of Shams-Ud-Din Iltutmish:

 Era: 1210 AD - 1235 AD
 Location: India
 Material: Silver
 Technique: Forging
 Symbolism: Rider bearing lance on
caparisoned horse facing right.
 Art style: Abstract and calligraphic
 Inscription: “Shams al-dunya wa'l din Abu'l Muzaffar Iltutmish al-Sultan”

2. Page from a dispersed manuscript of the Shahnama (Book of Kings):

 Era: ca. 1430–35
 Location: India
 Material: Ink, colors, and paper
 Technique: gilded paper
 Dimension: H. 7 13/16 in. (19.8 cm), W.
7 1/8 in. (18 cm)
 Symbolism: This painting illustrates a
passage from the great Persian epic
history. It shows the dramatic
confrontation between the hero Bizhan
and the brave half-brother of the Iranian
king Kay Khusrau, in the moments after
each protagonist had slain his opponent's
 Art style: Preference for abstract patterns
 Feature: The Sultanate features of this painting include the almost square
format and the use of scale for dramatic effect.

3. Architectural Ensemble from a Jain

Meeting Hall:
 Era: Last quarter of 16th century
 Location: India, Gujarat
 Material: Teak with traces of color
 Technique: Carving
 Dimension: H. (approx.) 15 ft. (4.58 m)
 Symbolism: The carvings symbolize the splendors of the celestial realms
 Art style: Floral motifs, abstract patterns and figural representation.
 Feature: At the center of the dome is a large pendant covered with flower

 Era: 17th century
 Location: India, Deccan
 Material: Bronze
 Technique: Cast
 Dimension: H. 38 1/2 in. (97.7 cm), W.
25 1/2 in. (67.7 cm), Diam. 36 11/16 in.
(93.2 cm)
 Symbolism: The fountain closely
symbolizes Deccani architecture, in which
turban-topped minarets, corner pillars,
ornamental finials, and staggered
pavilions display similar voluptuous and
organic forms.
 Art style: Floral motifs and abstractness.

5.Huqqa base:
 Era: Last quarter of 17th century
 Location: India, Deccan
 Material: Alloy with brass
 Technique: Inlaid
 Dimension: H. 6 7/8 in. (17.5 cm), D. 6
1/2 in. (16.5 cm)
 Art style: Abstract floral motifs with rim
based design.
 Description:
 Smoking became so popular during
the seventeenth century in India
that artists diverted their attention
to this side and thus produced
admiring artworks like this one
huqqa base.
 A luxurious effect is shown in it by
the use of gold with black