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32.973.26-018.2.

75
61 681.3.07
"" . . .
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info@williamspublishing.com, http://www.williamspublishing.com
, .
61 Cisco, 1. : . . . : - "",
2002. 512 . : . , . .
ISBN 5-8459-0258-4 (.)
" Cisco, 1"
2.1 Cisco.
IP- Cisco
. , , '
OSI, , IP-
,
Ethernet .
.
CCNA CompTIA Net+.
32.973.26-018.2.75

.

, ,
,
Cisco Press.
Authorized translation from the English language edition published by Cisco Press, Copyright 2000
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage
retrieval system, without permission from the Publisher.
Russian language edition published by Williams Publishing House according to the Agreement with
R&I Enterprises International, Copyright 2002
ISBN 5-8459-0258-4 (.)
"", 2002
ISBN 1-58713-004-] (.)
Cisco Press, 2000


1. OSI
2.
3.
4.
5. IP-
6. RARP
7.
8.
9. , ,
10. TCP/IP
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16. IOS
17. IP-
18. RIP IGRP
19.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

3.


1. OSI






(OSI)

OSI
7 ( )
6 ( )
5 ()
4 ()
3 ()
2 ()
1 ()



2.


3.




4.


Ethernet 802.3


Ethernet/802 3
Ethernet/802 3






HDLC
Frame Relay

ISDN
5. IP-



IP- IP-

,
,
AND


6. ARP RARP

ARP
ARP-

ARP-
ARP-
RARP
RARP-
RARP-
ARP-


7.




""
""
""
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8.


EIA/TIA-568B







9. , ,






10. TCP/IP


TCP/IP
TCP/IP TCP/IP TCP/IP
TCP

TCP-
TCP
TCP
TCP
UDP TCP/IP
IP-
ICMP
ICMP
ARP
RARP
11.

Cisco


: -


,











-
:
:
:
:




,
:
:





12.


:
Cisco (IOS)


help


13.

, ,


,


show rurming-config show startup-config


show interfaces
show version
show protocols
Cisco Discovery Protocol
CDP
CDP
CDP-
CDP-
telnet
ping
trace
show ip route

show interfeces serial
14.

Cisco ( IOS)

:



15.


TFTP-
,
IOS 10.3
,
IOS 11.0

IP-



, 11.0


16. IOS

IOS

show version

TFTP-
show flash
IOS


17. IP-

/1-
IP-
-


IP-
IP- -

""
-

telnet
ping
ping
trace


18.
RIP IGRP


IP-





, IP-

RIP
RIP IP-
IP- IGRP

IGRP
19.







SNMP
CMIP











.
.
.
.






,
( )

.


, ?











3.
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(Vito Amato)
Cisco.
.
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.
, Cisco.
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Gosine) (Dennis Frezzo),
. , (Wayne Lewis),
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. Cisco , , , . 1992
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Cisco Microsoft.
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Cisco
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(Amy Lewis) (Kitty Jarrett),
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Cisco.
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(Denise Hoyt) 16 .
, , . 1998
Cisco

Cisco Systems -.

Cisco , .
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(Wayne Jarvimaki) Cisco
Cisco,
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Cisco 1989 .
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8

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26

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Ethernet

Ethernet, Fiber Distributed Data


Interface (FDDI) Token Ring,
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OSI Ethernet
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,
.
(International Telecommunication Union,
ITU),
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forStandardization, ISO)

(International

Organization

Internet (Internet Engineering Task Force,


IETF).
(Electronic Industries Association, EIA).

.
WAN , ,
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,
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"-"
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EIA/TIA-232 , EIA
TIA,
64 /. V.24 RS232.

EIA/TIA-449 , EIA TIA.


, ( 2 /) EIA/TIA-232,
.

V. 24
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48 /.

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. .21
.

G.703 ITU-T
(DTE)
- , 1.

EIA-530 EIA/TIA-449: RS-442 RS423.


,
( 4.10).
HDLC (High-level Data Link Control
).
Frame Relay.
(Point-to-Point Protocol "-").
ISDN.

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.


1.
3 ( ) OSI?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
2.
?
A. .
B. .
C. SDLC.
D. Frame Relay.
3. ?
A. IP-.
B. ARP-.
C. .
D. .
4. ?
A. -.
B. -.
C. - -.
D. - .
5.
?
A. , -
.
B. ,
.
C.
.
D. MAC- IP-.
6.
?
A. ,
.
B., , MAC- IP-.
C., .
D. , -.
7. ,
?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
8.
?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
9. - ?
A. .

B. .
C.
.
D. .
10. ?
A. ,
.
B.
.
C. ,
.
D. ,
.

12

..

help

, 2


11, " ",
, [
(OSI)
[
, |


Cisco ,
,
EXEC,

Cisco

, .

Cisco (IOS)

, :

Router>
, ,
, .
.
,
.
(#).
,
, , , ,
( 12.1).
12.1.
Router conO is now available.
Press RETURN to get started.
User Access Verification
Password:
Router>
Router> enable
Password:
Router#
Router# /disable
Router>
Router> exit


,
IOS .
exit ().



(?)
. , Route> ?,
, . 12.1.
Router> ?
12.1.

access-enable

atmsig
ATM-
cd

clear

connect

dir

disable

disconnect

enable

exit
EXEC
help

lat
L-
lock

login

logout
EXEC
mrinfo


mstat


mtrace


name-connection

pad
X 29 -
ping
-
PPP

pwd

resume

rlogin

show

slip
IP

systat

telnet
Telnet-
terminal

tn3270
traceroute
tunnel
w h ere

xre m ote

270-



X 3 -
XRemote

22 ,
More , ,
, ,
.

IOS , - More -,

<Return> (
<Enter>)


EXEC
enable ( ena)
Roter> ena
Password:

(?)

Router# ?


12 2

EXEC
EXEC
12.2.

access-enable
access-template
appn
atmsig
bfe
calendar
cd
clear
clock
cmt
configure
connect



APPN
ATM-





FDDI-

copy
debug
delete
dir
disable
disconnect
enable
erase
exit
format
help
lat
lock
login
logout
mbranch
mrbranch
mrinfo
mstat
mtrace
name-connection
ncia
pad
ping

pwd
reload
resume
rlogin
rsh
sdlc
send
setup
show
slip
squeeze
start-chat
systat
tarp
telnet
terminal
test
tn3270
traceroute
tunnel
undebug
undelete
verify

IOS
( undebug)





-

EXEC


LAT-


EXEC









/ NCIA-
X 29 -
-






SDLC-
tty- ()
setup

IP




IP-
Telnet-

,
3270-


(. debug)

, -

where
which-route
write
x3
xremote


OSI-
,
X.3 PAD-
XRemote

help
, . ,
,
help,
12.2.
12.2. help
Router# clok
Translating "CLOK"
% Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address
Router# cl?
clear clock
Router# clock
% Incomplete command.
Router# clock ?
set
Set the time and date
Router# clock set %
Incomplete command
Routert# clock set ?
Current Time ( hh : mm : ss )

12.2 , help, ,
set.
, , , 12 3.
12.3.
Router# clock set 19:56:00 % Incomplete command.
Router# clock set 19:56:00 ?
<1- 1>
Day of the month
MONTH
Month of the year
Router# clock set 19:56:00 04 8
% Invalid input detected at the ^ marker
Router# clock set 19:56:00 04 August
% Incomplete command.
Router# clock set 19:56:00 04 August ?
<1993-2035>
Year

12.3, ,
.
<Ctrl+P> (
). ,
, (?).
.

(^) .
,
, , (?).
, , <Return>.
, ,
(^) , .
, ,
.
.


,
.

, ,
.
, ,
, .

, , . 12.3.
12.3.

Ctrl-

Ctrl-E

Esc-B

Ctrl-F

Ctrl-B

Esc-F


, , .
, 10 .
10 ,
.
<Ctrl+B>
, ,
, <Ctrl+A>,
.



, .
. . 12.4,
:
;
;
.

12.4.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

Ctrl-P ()

ctrl-N

show history

terminal history [size
]
terminal editing

terminal editing

(Tab)

________________________________________________________________________________________

10 . ,
, terminal
history size history size. 256 .
, ,
<Ctrl+P> .
.

<Ctrl+P > ,
<Ctrl+N> .
.
<> ,
.

.
,
<Return>.
<Ctrl+Z> .

Cisco
, , .
Cisco :
.
, .
- ;
- , enable;
- .
-
- ;
- .
,
.

, .


1. Cisco?
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
2. Cisco?
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
3. , Cisco
" " (>) ?
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
4. ,
Cisco?
. #.
B. >.
C. <.
D. |#.
5. ,
Cisco
("?")?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
6. More ,
Cisco?
A. .
B. , , .
C. .
D. .
7. Cisco
?
A.
< >
B.
< >
C.
<Ctrl+R>.
D. <Ctrl+PX
8. , Cisco
?
A. , .
B.
.
C. , .
D. .
9. , Cisco
?
A. , .
B.
.

C.
.
D.
.
10. , show ? ?
A. , .
B.
.
C.
.
D. , show.

13

.

,

show
telnet
ping, trace show ip route
show interface serial


12, " ",
,

,

'
,

,
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
, .

13 1,

,
, .
,
(AUX).

,
0 4.

TFTP-.

,

Cisco ,
(. 13.2). ,
, .
/ , ARP-, ,
( ) .
/
.
. , IOS Cisco.

.
.
- . -
.
. -
. IOS,
.
,
.

.
,
.
.


, .
.
IOS. IOS
EXEC,
, .
. 13.3, ,
.
.
.

. ,
,
.
,
.
, ,
, , ,
.


, ,
Telnet ,
. IOS
, .

EXEC ,
,
. R o u t e r > .

EXEC ,
,
. R o u t e r # .

(setup) ,
,
.

,
.
Router (config) #.

Router(config-mode)#.

RXBOOT ,
.

,

,
.

. . 13.4, Cisco
, ,
.

. 13.1.

13.1 .

show version

show process
show protocols

show memory
show stacks

,
,
,


.

3()
,

show buffers
show flash
show running-config
(write term IOS
10.3
)
show startup-config

(show config IOS
10.3
)
show interfaces
,

IOS 10.3 write term show


config .
, .
. ,
, Current Configuration ("
"). , ,
,
.

show running-config show startup-config


show running-config ( 13.1) show startup-config ( 13.2)
EXEC IOS,

,
.
13.1. show running-config
Router# show running-config
Building configuration...
Current configuration:
!
version 11 . 1
!

--More-

13.2. show startup-con fig


Router# show startup-config
Using 1108 out of 130048 bytes
!
version 11.2
!
Hostname router
-- More --

show interfaces
show interfaces
, ( 13.3).
13.3. show interfaces
Router# show interfaces
SerialO is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is MK5025
Internet address is 183.8.64.129, subnet mask is 255.255.255.128
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 56 kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255. load 9/255
Encapsulation HDLC, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
Last input 0:00:00, output 0:00:01, output hang never
Last clearing of show interfaces counters never
Output queue 0/40, 0 drops, input queue 0/75, 0 drops
Five minute input rate 1000 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
1885 packets input, 624002 1 bytes, no buffer
Received 2 0457 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
3 input errors, 3 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
403591 packets output, 66717279 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 8 interface resets, 0 restarts
45 carrier transitions

show version
show version IOS Cisco,
( 13.4).
13.4. show version
Router# show version
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) 4500 Software (C4500-J-M). Version 11.2
Copyright (c) 1986-1996 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Fri 28-Jun-96 16:32 by rbeach
Image text-base: Ox600088AO, data-base: Ox6076EOOO
ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 5.1(1) RELEASE SOFTWARE (fcl)
ROM: 4500-XBOOT Bootstrap Software, Version 10.1(1) RELEASE SOFTWARE (fcl)
router uptime is 1 week, 3 days, 32 minutes
System restarted by reload
System image file is c4500-j-mz, booted via tftp from 171.69.1.129
More

show protocols
show protocols ,

.
3 (, IP, DECnet, IPX AppleTalk)
( 13.5).
13.5. show protocols
Router# show protocols
Globalvalues:
Internet Protocol routing is enabled
DECNET routing is enabled
XNS routing is enabled
Vines routing is enabled
AppleTalk routing s enabled
Novell rout ng is enabled
More
EthernetO is up, line protocol is up
Internet address is 183.8.126.2, subnet mask is 255.255.255.128
Decnet cost is 5
XNS address is 010.aaOO.0400.0284
CLNS enabled
Vines metric is 32
AppleTalk address is 3012.9 , zone Id-eO
Novell address is 3010.aaOO.0400.0284
More


Cisco Discovery Protocol
, Cisco (Cisco Discovery Protocol, CDP),
,
,
. CDP ,

(. 13.5). , CDP-,
, . (
, , -.)

, IOS 10.3 ,
.
Cisco, CDP.
, TCP/IP. CDP
Cisco ,

3 4 .

CDP
CDP
.
CDP show cdp neighbors.
. 13.6 , CDP .
, CDP,
.
CDP- , ,
CDP .
show ,
. CDP
, .
.

, (
).

SNMP
.

, Ethernet 0, Ethernet I, Serial 0 .

,
, .

, ,
show version.

, Cisco 7000.

, , . 13.6,
.
CDP- , Telnet-
, .


.
Cisco IOS 10.3 ,
.
, ,
, cdp
enable. , . 13.7 cdp enable
SO " ".
. CDP .
, CDP-.
CDP- , -
,
.

CDP-,
,
, show cdp interface (
13.6). CDP CDP-.
60 180 .
, .
13.6. show cdp interface
routerA# show cdp interface
SerialO is up, line protocol is up, encapsulation is Frame Relay
Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds
Holdtime is 180 seconds
EthernetO is up, line protocol is up, encapsulation is ARPA
Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds
Holdtime is 180 seconds

CDP-
CDP- show cdp entry
( 13.7). ,
3, ;
IP- CDP- ( ),
.

( 13.7. s h o w c d p e n try
routerA#show cdp entry routerB
-------------------------------Device ID:
routerB
Entry address(es):
IP address:
198.92.68.18
Platform:
2501.
Capabilities:
Router
Interface: EthernetO, Port ID (outgoing port): EthernetO
Holdtime: 155 sec
Version
IOS (tm) GS Software (GS3), 11.2(13337)[asastry 161]
Copyright (c) 1986-1996 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Tue 14-May-96 1:04

(holdtime) , CDP-
.
, .

. , , ,
.

CDP-
CDP,
, show cdp neighbors ( 13.8). ,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
13.8. show cdp neighbors
RouterA#show cdp neighbors
Capability Codes: R - Router, - Trans Bridge,
- Source Route Bridge,
S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP
Device ID
Local Interface Holdtime
Capability
routerB
Eth 0
151
R
routerB
Ser 0
165
R

Platform
2501
2501

Port ID
Eth 0
Ser 0

routerA#show cdp neighbors detail


Device ID: routerB
Entry address(es):
IP address: 198.92.68.18
Platform: 2501, Capabilities: Router
Interface: EthernetO, Port ID (outgoing port): EthernetO
Holdtime: 143 sec

, show cdp
entry, show cdp neighbors detail.


IP- , .
.
OSI
. , ,
OSI. . 13.8, ,
, telnet, ping, trace, show ip route show interfaces.


telnet
.
: Telnet,
TCP/IP.
. Telnet
,
.
.
Telnet.
.
. 13.9, telnet ,
Telnet
, TCP/IP.
,
. , Telnet-
.
Telnet
, , TCP/I-
. Telnet-
, ( )
.

Telnet ,
, , Telnet ,
,
,
Telnet-. ping,
.

ping

-,
, .
. 13.10, ping -
. -
-, , ,
- . ping , ,
, ,
, .
13.9 , ping 172 .16.1.5
. (!)
-. (.), ,
-
ping. - ping
.
- (Internet Control
Message Protocol, ICMP).

13.9 ping
Router> ping 172.16.1.5
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100 byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.5, timeout is 2 seconds:

! ! ! ! !
Success rate is 100 percent, round-trip min/avg/max = 1/3/4 ms
Router>

trace
trace ,
. , ping,

(. 13.11).
, EXEC. trace

(Time To Live, TTL).

. trace ,
. .
13.10 .
.
,
(***).
13.10. trace
York# trace ROME
Type escape to abort.
Tracing the route to Rome (172.16.33.5)
1 LONDON (172.16.12.3) 1000 msec 8 msec 4 msec
2 PARIS (172.16.16.2) 8 msec 8 msec 8 msec
3 ROME (172.16.35.5) 8 msec 8 msec 4 msec
York#

show ip route

,
: ,
, .

show ip route
. 13.11 , (131.100.33.0)

(131.108.16.2) Ethernet1.
13.11. ip route
Paris# show ip route
Codes: I - IGRP derived, R - RIP derived, 0 - OSPF den ved
- connected, S - static, E - EGP derived, - BGP derived
- IS-IS derived, D - EIGRP derived
* - candidate default route, IA - OSPF inter area route El - OSPF external type
1 route, E2 - OSPF external type 2 route
LI - IS-IS level-! route, L2 - IS-IS level -2 route EX - EIGRP external route
Gateway of last resort is not set
I
144.253.0.0 [100/1300] via 133.3.32.2. 0:00:22 Ethernetl
131.108.0.0 is subnetted (mask is 255.255.255.0),3 subnets
I
131.108.33.0 [100/180771] via 131.108.16.2, 0:01:29, Ethernetl

131.108.12.0 is directly connected, Ethernetl

101.108.16.0 is directly connected, EthernetO


I
219.100.103.0 [100/1200] via 133.3.32.2, 0:00:22, Ethernetl


show interfaces serial
. 13.12, (
) ( ).

,
.

, " ",
,
. ,
.

" "?
?

, show interfaces
serial, . 13.13
, .

. ,
" ",
.

show interfaces
, .
,
, show interfaces (.
13.12).
. clear counters.
, .
13.12. show interfaces
Router# show interfaces serial 1
Seriall is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is cxBus Serial
Description: 56Kb Line San Jose - MP
Internet address is 150.136.190.20 , subnet mask is 255.255.255.0
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 56 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255
Encapsulation HDLC, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
Last input 0:00:07, output 0:00:00, output hang never
Last clearing of show interfaces counters 2w4d
Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
Five minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Five minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
1626 packets input, 1347238 bytes, no buffer
1627 Received 13983 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
2 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 2 abort
0 input packets with dribble condition detected 2
2146 packets output, 2383680 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 2 interface resets, 0 restarts
1 carrier transitions

,
.
show.
.
Telnet.
.
ping trace.


,
?
. ,
.
B.
.
C. ,
.
D.
.
2. :
,
?
A. .
B. /.
C. -.
D. .
3.
?
A. show version ,
.
B. show memory ,
.
C. show buffers .
D. show interfaces ,
.
4. show startup-config?
A. .
B. , .
C. .
D. Current Configuration ( ).
5. show i n t e r f a c es s e rial?
A. ID S (trn) 4500 Soft ware (C4500-J-M ) , Experi mental Version 11.2.
B. D E C N E T routing is enabled.
C. S e r i a l l i s u p , li ne p r o t o c o l i s u p .
D. S yst e m i m a g e file i s "c 4 5 00 -j -m z ".
6. show cdp neighbors?
A. .
B. , .
C. IP- .
D. ,
.
7. ping?
A. ICMP-, ,
- ,
.
B. ICMP-, ,
- ,
.
C. ICMP-, -, , .
1.

D. ICMP-, ,
, .
8. trace?
A. , .
B. .
C. , .
D. .
9. show interfaces serial?
A. .
B. , .
C. , .
D. , .
10. ,
?
A.
B.
C.
D.

show running-config.
show config term.
show version.
show backup-config.

14


...


13, " ",
,
.
, ,
, .
,
,
.


Cisco ( IOS)
IOS
. ,
, . ,
.

,
.

IOS,
.

,
.

.
Cisco
.
() .
,
.
.



, . 14.1.
1.
.
, , ,
.
2. .
Boot .
Boot - ,

.
3. .

.
4.

( )
.
, ,
..
5. ,

. .



.
.
,
.
14.1 ,
IOS 10.3 .
14.1 . erase startupconfig .
reload ,
.
EXEC.

14.1. ,
IOS 10.3
Router# show startup-config
(show config) *
Router# show running-config
(write term) *
Routerf erase startup-eonfig
(write erase) *
Router# reload
Router# setup


IOS 10.3 show config, write
term write erase .
, .
.


. , 14.2,
,
- .
,
setup, ([]) .
<Return> ( <Enter>) .
,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
(?)
14.2.
#setup
System Configuration Dialog
At any port you may enter a question mark '?' for help.
Use ctrl-c to abort configuration dialog at any prompt.
Default settings are in square brackets '[]'
Continue with configuration dialog? [yes].
First, would you like to see the current interface summary? [yes]
Interface
IP-Address
OK? Method Status Protocol
TokenRingO
unassigned
NO
not set down
down
EthernetO
unassigned
NO
not set down
down
SerialO
unassigned
NO
not set down
down
FddiO
unassigned
NO
not set down
down


.
, yes.
<Ctrl+C>.
More ,
.


14.3,
. ,
, .
, .
, , ,
IOS.

[Router] . 14.3

, .
14.3. ,
Configuring global parameters:
Enter host name [Router]
The enable secret is a one-way cryptographic secret used instead of the enable
password when it exists.
Enter enable secret[<Use current secret>]
Enter enable password[san-fran]:
%Please choose a password that is different from the enable secret
Enter enable password[san-fran].
Enter virtual terminal password [san-fran]:
Configure SNMP Network Management? [no]:

enable secret-.
Enter enable secret
Cisco .
. , -
, enable ( enable-)
.
, , enable- enable secret-.
, 14.4,
,
. ( yes)
.
14.4. ,
Configure IP? [yes]:
Configure IGRP routing? [yes]:
Your IGRP autonomous system number [1]: 200
Configure DECnet? [no]:
Configure XNS? [no] :
Configure Novell? [no]: yes
Configure Apollo? [no] :
Configure AppleTalk? [no]: yes
Multizone networks? [no]: yes
Configure Vines? [no]:
Configure bridging? [no]:


14.5
,
.
14.5.
Configuring interface parameters:
Configuring interface TokenRingO:
Is this interface in use? [yes]:
Tokenning ring speed (4 or 16)? [16]:
Configure IP on this interface? [no]: yes
IP address for this interface: 172.16.92.67
Number of bits in subnet field [0]:

Class network is 172.16.0.0, 0 subnet bit; mask is 255.255.0.0


Configure Novell on this interface? [no]: yes
Novell network number [1]:
Configure interface SerialO:
Is this interface in use? [yes]:
Configure IP on this interface? [yes]
Configure IP unnumbered on this interface? [no]:
IP address for this interface: 172.16.97.67
Number of bits in subnet field [0]:
Class network is 172.16.0.0, 0 subnet bits; mask is 255.255.0.0
Configure Novell on this interface? [yes]: no
Configuring Interface Serial 1:
Is this interface in use? [yes]: no



setup
, 14.6. setup
, .
(yes), .
(), .
; "" (yes), ""
(). .
,
.
14.6. setup
The following configuration command script was created:
hostname router
enable secret 5 $ !Sg772S
enable password san-fran
enable password san-fran
line vty 0 4
password san-fran
snmp-server community
!
ip routing
no decnet routing
no xns routing
no apollo routing
appletalk routing
no cins routing
no vines
no bridge
no mop enabled
Interface Ethernet
Ip address 172.16.92.67 255.255.0.0
network 1
no mop enabled
!
interface SerialO
Ip address 172.16.97.67 255.255.0.0
Interface Seriall
shutdown
!
end
Use this configuration? [yes/no]: yes
[OK]
Use the enabled mode 'configure' command to modify this configuration.

,
.
setup .
, . setup
,
.

,
.
,
.

.


1.
Cisco ?
A. (1) ; (2)
; (3) ; (4)
.
B. (1) ; (2) ; (3)
; (4)
.
C.
(1) ; (2)
; (3) ; (4)
.
D. (1) ; (2) ; (3)
; (4)
.
2.

?
A.
.
B. .
C. ,
.
D. ,
.
3.

IOS?
A.
.
B. .
C. ,
.
D. ,
.
4.

?
A.
.
B. .
C. ,
.
D. ,
.
5.
erase startup-config?
A. .
B. - .
C. IOS.
D. - .
6.
reload?
A. TFTP- .
B. - IOS.
C. .
D. .

7.
?
A. , .
B.
.
C. .
D. .
8.

?
A.
.
B. .
C. , , enable secret-.
D.
.
9.
show startup-config show runningconfig?
A. IOS,
.
B.
.
C. ,
.
C. , IOS .
10. () () ?
A. IOS .
B. .
C. IOS.
D. IOS .

15

...


EXEC
EXEC



14, " ", ,
,
, .

,
Cisco Internetwork Operating System ( IOS)
.

IOS.

,
. 14, "
", ,
.
, 1OS
11.0 .
.
EXEC configure
() ,
,
.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP-),
.
. 15.1 ,
, . 15.1.

15.1. ,
IOS 11.0

configure terminal

configure memory

copy tftp running-config


TFTP
show running-config
,

copy running-config startup


config

copy running-config tftp

TFTP-
show startup-config
,

erase startup-config

,
IOS , 11.0
, . 15.2, ,
IOS 10.3 ,
, ,
.
.

TFTP-
TFTP-. 15.1,
TFTP, copy running-config tftp.
.
1. copy running-config tftp.
2. IP- -,
.
3. , .
4. yes ("").
15.1. copy running-config tftp
Tokyo# copy running-config tftp
Remote host
[]? 131.108.2.155
Name of configuration
file
to write
Write
file tokyo.2
to
131.108.2.155?
Writing tokyo.2
!!!!!!
[OK]
Tokyo#

[tokyo-config]?
[confirm]

tokyo.2


. .
1. copy tftp running-config,
( 15.2).
2. :
-. ,
,
. - ,
.
3. IP- -,
.
TFTP- I- 131.108.2.155.


,
UNIX- .
- _--config,
_-config. DOS

(, router.cfg ).
. 15.2 ,
tokyo . ,
.
15.2. copy tftp running-config
Router# copy tftp running-config
Host or network configuration file [host]?
IP address of remote hose [255.255.255.255]? 131.108.2.155
Name of configuration file [Router-config]? tokyo.2
Configure using tokyo.2 from 131.108.2.155? [confirm]
Booting tokyo.2 from 131.108.2.155:!! [OK-874/16000 bytes]
tokyo.2

,
IOS 10.3
, 15.3,
(. 15.2).
15.3. ,
IOS 10.3
Router# configure memory
[OK]
Router#
Router# write erase
[OK]
Router#
Router# write memory
[OK]
Router#
Router# show configuration
Using 5057 out of 32768 bytes
!
enable-password san-fran
!
interface Ethernet 0
ip address 131.108.100.5 255.255.255.0
!
-- More --

15.2.
IOS 11.x

configure memory
erase startup-config
copy running-config startupconfig
show startup-config


(, )
(
)
,

,
IOS 11.0
, 15.3, ,
IOS 10.3 .
( 15.4),
, .
.
15.4. IOS 11.x,

Router# configure memory
[OK]
Router#
Router# erase startup-config
[OK]
Router#
Router# copy running-config startup-config
[OK]
Router#
Router# show startup-config
Using 5057 out of 32768 bytes
!
enable-password san-fran
!
interface Ethernet 0
ip address 131.108.100.5 255.255.255.0
!
More


EXEC
.
EXEC, .
EXEC; EXEC, ,
, .
,
(
. 15.3 . 15.3).

15.3.

R o u t er ( c o n fi g-if ) #

R o u t er ( c o n fi g-s u bif ) #

R o u t e r ( c o n f i g - c o nt r o l l e r ) #
R o u t e r ( c o n fi g - m ap -l i s t ) #

R o u t e r ( c o n fi g- m a p-c l a s s ) #

R o u t e r ( c o n fi g -li n e) #

R o u t e r ( c o n fi g - r o u te r ) #
I-
R o u t e r ( c o n f i g - i p x-r o u t e r ) #

R o u t er ( c o n fi g-r o ute -m a p ) #
exit (""),
, .
exit
. <Ctrl+Z>
EXEC.


,
.
, . ,

, ,
. ,
15.5, EXEC configure.
EXEC .
15.5 EXEC configure
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# (commands)
Router(config)# exit
Router#
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# router protocol
Router(config-router)# (commands)
Router(config-router)# exit
Router(config)# interface type port
Router(config-if)# (commands)

Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)# exit
Router#

,
, . .
<Retum> .

.
,
Router (config-router); ( 15 6),
.
15.6.
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# router protocol
Router(config-router)# (commands)
Router(config-router)#

,
Router (config-if) # ( 15 7)|
.
15.7.
Roter# configure terminal
Router(config)# interface type port
Router(config-if)# (commands)
Router(config-if)# exit

exit.

IP-
15.8,

Router (config-router) #
(?)
15.8.

Router(config)# router?
bgp
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
egp
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)
eigrp
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
igrp
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
isis
ISO IS-IS
iso-igrp IGRP for OSI networks
mobile
Mobile routes
odr
On Demand stub Routes
ospf
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
rip
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
static
Static routes
Router(config)# router rip
Router(config-router) # ?
Router configuration commands
default-information
Control distribution of default

information

default-metric
distance
distribute-list
exit
More

Set metric of redistributed routes


Define an administrative distance
Filter networks in routing updates
Exit from routing protocol configuration mode



,
Ethernet, Token Ring
,
interface,
type serial, ethernet,
token ring .
Router(config)#
Router(config)#

interface
interface

type port
type slot/port


Router(config-if)#

shutdown

, ,
Router (config-if)# no shutdown



Router(config-if)# exit


:
Router(config)# interface serial 1/0
Router(config-if)# bandwith 56
Router(config-if)# clockrate 56000


. (data
communication equipment, DCE), / (channel
service unit/data service unit, CSU/DSU).
(data terminal equipment, DTE). Cisco
DTE-,
DCE-.
,
clockrate . bandwith
, show
interface ,
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP).
:
Router(config)# interface serial 0

Router(config-if)# int & 0.1 point-to-point


Router(config-if)# int & 0.2 point-to-point

Cisco 4000 :
Router(config)# interface ethernet 2
Router(config-if)# media-type lObaset

Cisco 4000
Ethernet:
(attachment unit interface, AUI) lOBaseT-. AUI,
,
(media-type) IQBaseT.


,
IOS Cisco.

11..
, 11.0.
.
.
11.x.
, . 15.4, IOS 11.0
. . 15.4

;
, ;

;

.

,
11.0
. 15.5 IOS 10.3 .
,
, .
.


,
. ,
EXEC.

line console 0 :
Router(config)# line console 0
Router(config-line)# login
Router(config-line)# password Cisco

line vty 0 4 Telnet:


Router(config)# line vty 0 4
Router(config-line)# login
Router(config-line)# password cisco

enable password EXEC:


Router(config)# enable password san-fran

, enable secret
,
, Cisco.

service password-encryption.
Data Encryption Standard (DES):
Router(config)# service password-encryption
( )
Router(config)I no service password-encryption


.

, ,
.
.
- ,
. ,
Router.
. , . 15.6,
Tokyo.

,
.
, ,
.
banner motd.

.
,
TFTP-.

, IOS 10.3 ,
.

EXEC
.

.
,
.

,
, .

,
.

.
.


1.
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.


EXEC configure?
.
TFTP- .
.
TFTP-.
configure memory?
.
.
, .
, .
copy running-config startup-config?
.
.
, .
, .
,
?
exit.
no config-mode.
<Ctrl+E>.
<Ctrl+Z>.
,
?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Router(config)f.
Router(config-in)I.
Router (config-intf)#.
Router(config-if)I.

6.


? (,
.)
(1) ; (2)
, ; (3) ; (4)
.
(1) ; (2) ,
; (3) ; (4)
.
(1) ,
; (2) ; (3)
; (4) .
(1) ; (2) ; (3)
, ; (4)
.

?

A.

B.

C.

D.

7.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Router# copy running-config tftp.


Router#t show running-config.
RouterI config mem.
Router#t copy tftp running-config.

8.

A.

Router(config)# no ....

B.
C.
D.

Router# config mem.


Routerl copy running-config startup-config.
Router# copy tftp running-config.

9.


?
EXEC.
.
Telnet.
enable password EXEC.

?
.
.
, enable
secret,
, .
.

A.
B.
C.
D.
10.
A.
B.
C.
D.

16
IOS

,
( IOS)

, IOS
, IOS
TFTP-


15, " ",

,
IOS. IOS,
, ,
. ,
, .
TFTP-

IOS
IOS, , ,
,
IOS
, ,


16 1,
IOS
boot system .
copy running-config startup-config


boot system,
,
IOS , -.
- ,
: TFTP-. ,
,
.


, ,
.

config-register.
.
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# config-register OxlOF
[Ctrl-Z]

,

, .
16- , .
( 3, 2, 1 0)
. ,
, (.
16.1).
,
, 0x100.
, ,
. ( 0-0-0-0.)

0x101. (
0-0-0-1.)


0x102 OxlOF. . (

0-0-1-0 1-1-1-1.)
,
config-register, show version.
16.1. , config-register

0100
(
)
0x101
( ,
-)
0x102 OxlOF

( 0x102
, )

show version
show version IOS,
. .
, 16.1, IOS
. ,
11.2.
System image file is "c4500-f-mz", booted via tftp from 1 7 1 . 6 9 . 1 . 1 2 9
. IOS 11.2
. , , Cisco 4500.
16.1. show version
Router# show version
Cisco Internetwork Operat ng System Software
IOS (tm) 4500 Software (C4500-J-M),
Experimental Version 11.2(19960626:214907) ]
Copyright (c)1986-1006 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Fri 28-Jun-96 16.32 by rbeach
Image text-base: Ox600088AO, data-base: Ox6076EOOO
ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 5.1(1) [daveu 1], RELEASE SOFTWARE
(fcl)
ROM: 4500-XBOOT Bootstrap Software, Version 10.1(1), RELEASE SOFTWARE
(fcl)
router uptime is 1 week, 3 days, 32 minutes
System restarted by reload
System image file is "c4500-f-mz", booted via tftp from 171.69.1.129
Cisco 4500 (R4K) processor (revision 0x00) with 2768K/16 84K bytes of
Memory
Processor board ID 012941
R4600 processor, implementation 32, Revision 1.0
G.703/E1 software, Version 1.0
Bridging software
SuperLAT software copyright 1990 by Meridian Technology Corp.
X.25 software, Version 2.0, NET2, BFE and GOSIP compliant
TN 270 Emulation software (copyright 1994 by TGV Inc.)
Primary Rate ISDN software, Version 1.0
2 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interfaces.
48 Serial network interfaces.
2 Channelized tl/PRI ports.

128K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.


8192K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write)
4096K bytes of processor board Boot flash (Read/Write)

show version
, IOS.

IOS
boot system. ,
, , IOS
-, , , .
-. ,

(). -
, TFTP-.
Router# configure terminal
Router (config)# boot system flash gsnew-image
[Ctrl-Z]
Router# copy running-config startup-config

TFTP-.
Router#
configure
terminal
Router(config)# boot
system
[Ctrl-Z]
Router#
copy running-config

tftp

test

exe

172.16.13.111

startup-config

. -
, .
, ,
IOS,
, IOS.
IOS,
.
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# boot system rom
[Ctrl-Z]
Router# copy running-config startup-config

copy running-config startup-config


. boot
system , .

, show running-config show


.

TFTP-

startup-config,


.
,
. TFTP-
.
TFTP- , . TFTP- UNIX,
(laptop), DOS Windows.
- TFTP
TFTP, /1-.
- TFTP
- . TFTP-,
.
, , - ,
. ,
-, IOS.
Router#t show flash
4096 kbytes of flash memory on embedded flash (in XX).
file
offset
length
0
0x40
1204637
[903848/2097152 bytes free]

name
xk09140z

TFTP-, TCP/IP ping.


Router# ping tftp-address

TFTP- ,
IOS .
.
Is g s 7 -j - m z .

1 1 2 -0 . 1 1

.
, ,
, .

show flash
show flash
IOS. , ,
- 4, .
Router# show flash
4096 bytes of flash memory sized on embedded flash
File name/status
0 mater/California//ill/bin/gs7-;j-mz.112-0. 11 [deleted]
[0/4194304 bytes free/total]

IOS.

, Web-
Cisco (Cisco Connection Online, CCO).

,
.
1OS,
.

IOS
Cisco
.
IOS Cisco
IOS. ,
,
.
IOS 112 , ,
(. 16.2).
, .
.
, .
zip.
IOS, ,

, Web- .
16.2. IOS 11.2

cpa25-cg-l

CiscoPro2500 (cpa25)

igs-inr-1

Cisco ICG, 25xx (igs)

4500-aj-m

Cisco 4500 4700 (c4500)

gs7-k-mz

Cisco 7000 7010


/
,
ISDN (eg)
IP,
Novell IPX IBM (inr)
APPN

(aj)

,

,
(I)
,
(I)
,
(m)
, zip-
(mz)

.
. 16.2 . 16.2
show flash
(xk09140z) copy flash tftp TFTP-.
16.2. show flash copy

flash

tftp

Router# show flash


4096 bytes
of
flash memory on embedded
flash
(in XX).
file
offset
length
name
0
0x40
1204637
xk09140z
[903848/2097152 bytes
free]
Router# copy flash tftp
IP address of remote host [255.255.255.255]? 172.16.13.111
filename to write on tftp hose? c4500-i
writing C4500-1 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
successful tftp write.
Router#

.

TFTP-.
. ,
,
, .


IOS
. TFTP- copy
tftp flash. 16.3 . 16.3 , copy tftp flash
IP- -,
TFTP-.
16.3. copy tftp flash
Router# copy tftp flash
TP address or name of remote host [255.255.255.255]? 172.16.13.111
Name of tftp filename to copy into flash []? c4500-aj-m
Copy C4500-AJ-M from 172.16.13.111 into flash memory? [confirm]
<Return>
xxxxxxxx bytes available for writing without erasure.
erase flash before writing? [confirm] <Return>
Clearing and initializing flash memory [please wait] ######
Loading from 172.16.13.111: !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!! (text omitted) [OK - 324572/524212 bytes]
Verifying checksum...
Vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
vvvvvvv (text omitted)
Flash verification successful. Length = 1804637, checksum = OxA5D3

.
, ,
TFTP-.

-.
. - IOS.
- .
- ,
.
.
(!)
(User Datagram Protocol, UDP). "V"
.


boot system , show flash.
reload
, .

IOS, tftp flash.
, , TFTP-.
16.4, copy tftp flash IP ( ) TFTP-.
16.4. copy tftp flash
Router# copy tftp flash
IP address or name of remote host [255.255.255.255]? 172.16.13.111
Name of tftp filename to copy into flash []? c4500-i
copy C4500-I already exists; it will be invalidated!
Copy C4500-I from 172.16.13.111 into flash memory? [confirm] <Return>
xxxxxxxx bytes available for writing without erasure.
erase flash before writing? [confirm] <Return>
Clearing and initializing flash memory [please wait] ####...##
Loading from 172.16.13.111: !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!! (text omitted) [OK - 324572/524212 bytes]
Verifying checksum...
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
VVVVVVVVV (text omitted)
Flash verification successful. Length = 1204637, checksum = Ox95D9

,
-.
. 16.4
C4500-I -.
- , ,
, .
- .
-,
. show flash ,
[deleted] ("").
, [deleted] ,
.
- - .

IOS, , ,
,
.

show version IOS,


.
IOS
. IOS
-, TFTP- .

IOS show flash.
, IOS 11.2,
.
, .
.
zip-.
.

- .
TFTP- t f t p f l a s h .
IOS,
copy tftp flash ,
TFTP-.


1.

A.
B.
C.
D.
2.
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.
A.
B.
D.
4.
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.

,
,
IOS?
(1) -; (2) ; (3) TFTP-.
(1) ; (2) TFTP-; () -.
(1) ; (2) -; (3) TFTP-.
(1) TFTP-; (2) -; (3) .

IOS?
, ,
.

config-register.

.
show running-config.
IOS show version?
.
, . .
IOS.
IOS?
.

.

copy running-config startup-config.
,
, .
TFTP-
-?
TFTP- -,
UNIX .
- TFTP , Ethernet.
, -.
-.
TFTP-
IOS?
TFTP- trace.
TFTP- ping.
TFTP- Telnet- telnet.
TFTP-.
IOS TFTP-
?
- .
IOS
.
TFTP.
, , ,
.
IOS?

A.
B.
C.
D.
9.
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.
A.
B.
C.
D.

, - .

.

.
.
, -, IOS?
.
-.
TFTP-.
.
, IOS
TFTP-?
boot
copy
show
tftp

system tftp 131.21.11.3.


tftp flash***.
flash.
ios.exe.

17
IP-

..

TCP/IP-, -
IP-
, If-,



IP- telnet, ping, trace


16, " IOS",
Cisco ( IOS),
IOS ,
IOS
IP-, , ,
, ,
IP-.

TCP/IP-
TCP/IP
, ,
TCP/IP, 32- , IP-
,
- , ,
,
,

32-
. , ,
- .
, -, ,
, -
- ( 17.1).

IP-
, ,
IP-. ,
IP-.

-
-. , , IP- (. 17.2).
" " " " (, 172.16.0.0).

TCP/IP IP, . (. 17.1)


; , .

IP-
; ,
.
17.1.

172.16.0 .0
0
10.0.0.0
1


. 17.3 ,
(. 17.2).
/8, .

17.2.


Cisco A
: 172. 16. 2. 1
255. 255. 255. 0/8
SO: 172. 16. 1. 1
255. 255. 255. 0/8
Cisco
SO: 172. 16. 1. 2
255. 255. 255. 0/8
: 172. 31. 4. 1
255. 255. 255. 0/8
: 172. 31. 16.1
255. 255. 255. 0/8


172.16.2.0
172.16.1.0
172.16.1.0
172.31.4.0
172.31.16.0


Internet .
, -,
. IP-,
.
IOS : .
( 255.255.255.255)
(. 17.4).
, .
.

IP-
ip
address:
Router(config-if) # ip address ip-address subnet-mask

ap-address 32-
, subnet-mask 32-
, , ,
ip address
IP-.
ter m ip
netmask-format:
Router(config)# term netmask-format

(. 17.3)
:

;
( );

.
17.3. , IP-

Router(config-if)#
i address ip-address subnetmask
Router#
term ip netmask-format{bit count
| decimal | hexadecimal}
Router (config-if)#
ip netmask-format {bit count |
decimal | hexadecimal}


, IP-



IP- -
IOS - ,
- Telnet -
(). IP,
- IP-.
ip host
( 17.4).
17.4. ip host
ip host

name
,

top-port -number
, TCP-
, -
EXEC connect telnet
Telnet port23
Address
IP- ,
- IP.
Router(config)# ip host name
ip host tokyo 1.0.0.5 2.0.0.8
ip host kyoto 1.0.0.4

[top-port-number]

address

[address]

...

1.0.0 . 5 2 . 0 . 0 . 8 tokyo, a
1 . 0 . 0 . 4 kyoto 1. 0 .0 .4 .


ip name-server -, .
IP- :
Router(config)#
address 6]

ip name-server

server-address!

[[servrer-address2]

[server-

IP- , Domain Name


System (DNS). ,
, , DNS IP-

"-"
IP- -. IOS
" -",
EXEC. .
IP ,
IP-. , ftp.cisco.com
(FTP) Cisco. IP , .
DNS 255.255.255.255,
, no ip domain-lookup
:
Router(config)# no ip domain-lookup

, DNS-.

-
- show
hosts, 17.1.
17.1. show hosts
Router# show hosts
Default domaiiin ins not set
Name/address lookup uses statmc mappiimgs
Host
TOKYO

Flags
(perm, OK)

Age
5

Type
IP

S
LUBBOCK
AMARILLO
BELLEVUE

(perm,
(perm,
(perm,
(perm,

OK)
OK)
OK)
OK)

**
5
**
**

IP
IP
IP
IP

BOSTON

(perm, OK)

**

IP

CHICAGO

(perm, OK)

IP

Router

(perm, OK)

**

IP

FARGO
(perm, OK)
HARTFORD (perm, OK)

**
**

IP
IP

HOUSTON (perm, OK)


--More

**

IP

Address (es)
144 .253.100.200 133.3.13.2
133 .3.5.1 133.3.10.1
172.16.100.156
183.8.128.12 153.50.3.2
153.50.129.200 153.50.3.1
144.253.100.201 153.50.193.2
153.50.65.1 153.50.33.1
144.253.100.203
192.3.63.129
192.3.63.33 192.3.63.65
183.8.0.129 183.8.128.130
183.8.64.130
144.253.100.202 183.8.128.2
183.8.128.129 183.8.64.129
183.8.0.130 183.8.64.100
192.3.63.196 192.3.63.34
192.3.63.66
153.50.129.1 153.50.65.2

. 17.5 show hosts,



-.
17.5. show hosts


Host
Flag
perm
temp

Age

Address (es)

-,
, ,
-
DNS

,



, -


IP-.
.
.
telnet ,
.
.
ping (Internet Control Message
Protocol, ICMP)
. .
trace * (Time To Live, TTL)
,
.
.

telnet
telnet , , ,

Telnet-, ping, ,
. ,
, .

ping
ping ICMP - ,
EXEC. , (.) ,
, (!).
Router> ping 172.16.101.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5 100-byte ICMP echoes to 172.16.10.1. timeout is 2 seconds:
. ! ! ! !
Success rate is 80 percent, round-trip min/avg/max = 6/6/6 ms Router>

. 17.6 , ping-,
, ping.

17.6. ping IP

!
.
U

I
?
&

-



ping (,
<Ctrl+Shift-6 X)

TTL

ping
ping EXEC.
17.2, ping
, Internet.
, Extended commands ("
") "".
17.2. ping,
EXEC
Router# ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 192.168.101.162
Repeat count [5]:
Datagram size [100]:
Timeout in seconds [2] :
Extended commands [n] :
Source address:
Type of service [0]:
Set DF bit in IP header? [no]: yes
Data pattern [OxABCD] :
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose [non]:
Sweep range of sizes [n] :
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5 100-byte ICMP echoes to 192.168.101.162. timeout is 2 seconds :
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), roundrobin min/avg/max = 24/26/28 ms
Router#

trace
trace ( 17.3) - ,

-. ,
.
17.3. trace
Router# trace aba.nyc.mil
Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to aba.nyc.mil (26.0.0.73)
1. debris.cisco.com (172.16.1.6) 1000 msec 8 msec 4 msec
2. barmet-gw.cisco.com (172.16.16.2) 8 msec 4 msec 4 msec

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

external-a-gateway.stanford.edu (192.42.110.225) 8 msec 4 msec 4 msec


bb2.su.barmet.net (131.119.254.6) 8 msec 8 msec 8 msec
su.arc.barmet.net (131.119.3.8) 12 msec 12 msec 8 msec
moffett-fld-mb.in.mil (192.52.195.1) 216 msec 120 msec 132 msec
aba.nyc.mil (26.0.0.73) 412 msec * 664 msec

,
(*).

. , trace, . 17.7.

trace (IP),
(Connectionless Network Service, CLNS),
(Virtual Integrated Network Service, VINES) AppleTalk.
17.7. trace

__________________________________________________________________________________
!
, ,
-


*

__________________________________________________________________________________

TCP/IP
. , ,
TCP/IP, 32- ,
IP-.
IP- :
- .
-
- , .
,
-, .
ip address
.
ip hosts ""
.
ip name-server -,
.
show hosts -
.
IP- telnet, ping
trace.


1.
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.
A.
B.


?
.
.
.
, .
trace?
.
.
IP- .
.
ip name-server?
-, .
,
.
TCP-, .
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IP-, ?
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.
'
DNS.
'
DNS IP- .
no ip domain-lookup?
-, .
,
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"-".
" ".
show
hosts?
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,
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- IP-.
telnet?

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ping?

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ICMP
.

C.
D.
9.

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.
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A.
B.
C.
D.

ip
ip
ip
ip

10.


ping?
Internet-.
ping-.
ping-.

.

A.
B.
C.
D.

perm.
route.
name.
host.

18

RIP IGRP

...


IP-


, RIP IGRB


17, " IP- ",
(IP).
IP, (Routing Information Protocol, RIP)
(Interior Gateway Routing Protocol, IGRP)


IOS

,
, ,
,
,
( setup)


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, :

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. .

EXEC configure.

IP-
. 18.1,
.
IP- IOS IP , - .
,
.

,
, .. .



"", IP.
.

.
(. 18.2).

, ,
(. 18.3).


,
.
ip route :
ip route

network

[mask]

{address

interface}

[distance]

(. 18.1).
18.1.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________



, ,

address
IP-
interface
, ,

distance

______________________________________________________________________________________
Network
mask
Ethernet 0


, 0 255. ,
. , , 253,
.
,
, ,
.
,
. ,
, , .
, ,
, , .

. 18.4 .
ip route 172,16.1.0

255.255.255.0

, ,
8

172.16.2.1

IP-

Cisco
172.16.1.0 ,
. ""
Cisco .
,
.


.


.
ip default-network,
:
ip default-network network-number

network-number IP- ,
.
,
.
.
.
, ,
.
,
,


, . 18.5, ip default-network 192.168.17.0
, ,
192.168.17.0 . , ,
,
X ,
. , , ,
, ,
X. .
,
, .
(Network Information Center)
16- .
, IGRP Cisco,
.


. 18.6, ,
(Border Gateway Protocol, BGP),
. , RIP,
.
TCP/IP
IP. IP- .

(RIP)
.

(IGRP) Cisco.

(Open Shortest Path First, OSPF)


.
IGRP .
.

IP-

. 18.7, IP
, .

: RIP IGRP.

IP- .

/
.

.
.


:
router network. router ,
IP-, :
Router(config)i router protocol [keyword]

IP- network:
Router(config-router)#

network network-number

.
P r otocol

RIP, IGRP, OSPF


IGRP

net wo rk

,
, , ,
IGRP network ,
,

network-number

,
, -.

RIP
RIP RFC 1058.
RIP:

;
(. 18.8);
15;

30 .

RIP router
rip:
Router(config)# router rip

network ,
. , :
Router(config-router)# network network-number

RIP
. 18.9

router

rip

RIP

network

1.0.0.0

network

2.0.0.0

Cisco , 1 . 0 . 0 . 0 2 . 0 . 0 . 0 ,
RIP- .
.

IP-
R1P show ip protocol.
18.1,
, .

18.1. show ip protocol, RIP


Route > show ip protocol
Routing Protocol is rip
Sending updates every 30 seconds, next due in 13 seconds
Invalid after 180 seconds, hold down 180, flushed after 240
Outgoing update filter list fo all interface is not set
Incoming update filter list fo all interface is not set
Redistributing: rip
Routing for Networks:
183.8.0.0
144.253.0.0
Routing Information Sources:
Gateway
Distance
Last Update
183.8.128.12
120
0:00:14
183.8.64.130
120
0:00:19
183.8.128.130
120
0:00:03
Distance:
(default
is
120)

, .
30
. ( .)
17 , 13 .
, Routing for Networks.

IP-
18.2, IP-

, .
show ip route.

18.2. show ip route,

Route > show ip route


Codes: - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, - BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, 0 - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area El - OSPF external
type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E-EGP i - IS-IS, LI - IS-IS level 1, L2 - ISIS level 2 * - candidate default
Gateway of last resort is not set
144.253.0.0 is subnetted (mask is 255.255.255.0), 1 subnets

144.253.100.0 is directly connected. Ethernetl


R
133.3.0.0
R
153.50.0.0 [120/1] via 183.8.128.12, 00:00:09, EthernetO
183.8.0.0 is subnetted (mask is 255.255.255.128), 4 subnets
R
183.8.0.128 [120/1] via 183.8.128.130.00, 00:00:17, SerialO
[120/1] via 183.8.64.130, 00:00:17, Seriall

183.8.128.0 is directly connected, EthernetO

183.8.64.128 is directly connected, Seriall

183.8.128.128 is directly connected, EthernetO


R
192.3.63.0

, network;
R , RIP;
via , ;
0 0 : 0 0 : 0 9 , RIP-

9 ;

120;
153.50.0.0 1.

IGRP
IGRP ,
Cisco.
90- ,
.
IGRP.

,
.

,
.

.
. 18.10,
IGRP .
RIP .
.

.
.
.
.
.
IGRP
router igrp:
Router(config)# router igrp autonomous-system

.
Autonomous-system

IGRP-,

.
network ,
:
Router(config-router)# network network-number

:
network-number
, ,
. ,
-.

IGRP
. 18.11 :

router

igrp
109 109
IGRP;

network 1.0.0.0 ;
network 2 . 0 . 0 . 0 .
109 IGRP.
, 1.0.0.0 2.0.0.0, I-.

show ip protocol
18.3, show ip protocol ,
, .
IGRP,
. 15
.

18.3. show ip protocol

Route > show ip protocol


Routing Protocol is igrp 300
Sending updates every 90 seconds, next due in 55 seconds
Invalid after 270 seconds, hold down 280, flushed after 360
Outgoing update filter list fo all interfaces is not set
Incoming update filte list for all interfaces is not set
Default networks flagged in outgoing updates
Default networks accepted from incoming updates
IGRP metric weight Kl=l, K2=0, K3=l, K4=0, K5=0 M
IGRP maximum hopcount 100
IGRP maximum metric variance 1
Redistributing igrp 300
Routing for Networks:
183.8.0.0
144.253.0.0
Routing Information Sources
Gateway
Distance
last Update
144.253.100.1
100
0:00:52
183.8.128.12
100
0:00:43
183.8.64.130
100
0:01:02
Distance: (default is 100)
-- More --

show ip interface
18.4, show ip interface
, . IOS
, ,
.
"up" (.. . .
.). , .
, .
18.4. show ip interface
Route > show ip interfaces
EthernetO is up,
line protocol is up
Internet address
is
183.8.128.2,
subnet mask is
Broadcast address is 255.255.255.255
Address determined by non-volatile memory
MTU is 1500 bytes
Helper address is not set
Directed broadcast forwarding is enabled
Outgoing access list is not set
Inbound access list is not set
Proxy ARP is enabled
Security level is default
Split horizon is enabled
ICMP redirects are always sent
ICMP unreachables are always sent
ICMP mask replies are never sent
IP fast switching enabled
IP fast switching on the same interface is disabled
IP SSE switching is disabled
Route
Discovery is disabled
IP output packet accounting is disabled
IP access violation accounting is disabled
TCP/IP header compression is disabled
Probe proxy name replies are disabled
More

show ip route

255.255.255.128

show ip route, 18.5, IP. ,


, . ,
IGRP .
18.5. show ip route
Router> show ip route
Codes: - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, 0 - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area El - OSPF
external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E-EGP i - IS-IS, LI - IS-IS
level 1, L2 - IS-IS level 2 * - candidate default
Gateway of last resort is not set
144.253.0.0 is subnetted (mask is 255.255.255.0). 1 subnets
144.253.100.0 is directly connected, Ethernet1
I 133.3.0.0 [100/1200] via 144.253.100.200, 00:00:57, Ethernetl
I 153.50.0.0 [100/1200] via 183.8.128.12, 00:00:05, EthernetO
183.8.0.0 is subnetted (mask is 255.255.255.128), 4 subnets
I 183.8.0.128 [100/180 71] via 183.8.64.130, 00:00:27, Seriall [100/180 71] via
183.8.128.130, 00:00:27, SerialO
183.8.128.0 is directly connected, EthernetO
183.8.64.128 is directly connected, Seriall
183.8.128.128 is directly connected, SerialO
I 172.16.0.0 [100/1200] via 144.253.100.1, 00:00:55, Ethernetl
I 192.3.63.0 [100/1300] via 144.253.100.200, 00:00:58, Ethernetl

debug ip rip
18.6 debug ip rip
RIP ,
. , ,
183.8.128.130. ,
, 15.
183.8.128.2.
8.6. debug ip rip
Router# debug ip rip
RIP Protocol debugging is on
Routerft
RIP: received update from 183.8.128.130 on SerialO
183.8.0.128 in 1 hops
183.8.64.128 in 1 hops
0.0.0.0 in 1 hops (inaccessible)
RIP: received update from 183.8.64.140 on Seriall
183.8.0.128 in 1 hops
183.9.128.128 in 1 hops

0.0.0.0
in 1 hops (inaccessible)
RIP: received update from 183.8.128.130 on SerialO
183.8.0.128 in 1 hops
183.8.64.128 in 1 hops

0.0.0.0

in 1 hops (inaccessible)

RIP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via EthernetO (183.8.128.2)


subnet 183.8.0.128, metric 2
subnet 183.8.64.128, metric 1
subnet 183.8.128.128, metric 1
default 0.0.0.0, metric 1
network 144.253.0.0, metric 1
RIP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Ethernetl (144.253.100.202)
default 0.0.0.0, metric 16
network 153.50.0.0, metric 2

network 183.8.0.0, metric 1

,
.

:
;
;
.
ip

route

ip

default-network

.
.


IP-, RIP IGRP.


1.
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.
A.
B.

C.
D.
3.
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.
A.
B.

?
, .
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IP- .
, .
?
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.
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.
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.

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IP- .
: RIP IGRP.
/ .

.
RIP ,
?
.
.
.
.
,
. ?
Router(config)# show ip protocol.
Router# show ip protocol.

C.
D.

Router> show ip protocol.


Router(config-router)# show ip protocol.

9.
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.

IP-?
.
.
.
.
,
, ?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Router> show router protocol.


Router(config)> show ip protocol.
Router(config)# show router protocol.
Router> show ip protocol.

19




SNMP CMIP


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(Simple Network Management Protocol, SNMP)
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(Management Information Base, MIB).
, , ,
, , . SNMP
CMIP MIB,
.
.

SNMP
SNMP, 1988
TCP/IP,
.
SNMP ,

MIB-. , , ,
. , . 19.2,
,
MIB .
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CMIP
CM IP (ISO).
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MIB-. , .
19.3,
.


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2.
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D.
3.
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.
A.
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5.
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D.
6.
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D.
7.
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8.
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C.

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,

,

,
Cisco.

access-enable
access-template
appn
atmsig
b
bandwith
banner motd
bfe
boot system
calendar
cd
cdp enable
clear
clear counters
clockrate

cmt
config-register
configure

configure memory
configure terminal
connect
copy
copy flash tftp





APPN
ATM-

12


Cisco Discovery Protocol

,

,


FDDI-


,





- TFTP-

12
13

12
12
12
16
15
15
12
16
12

12
13
15

12
16
12, 15,
18
15
15, 16
12
12
16

copy running-config startup- 15, 16



config
4
copy running-config tftp
TFTP-
TFTP- -
16
copy tftp flash

15
copy tftp running-config
TFTP-

12
debug

18
debug ip rip
RIP ,


12
delete

12
dir

12
disable

12
disconnect

12
enable
15
enable password

15
enable secret
enable password

12
erase


14, 15
erase s tartup- config
, 12, 15
exit

EXEC

12
format

12
help

12
history
15
interface

17
ip address
IP

18
ip default-network
17
ip domain-lookup

17
ip host

17
ip name-server


18
ip route
LAT-
12
lat
,
15
line
,


12
lock
.
12, 15
login

EXEC
12
logout

15
media- type

12
mbranch


12
mrbranch


12
mrinfo

12
mstat

12
mtrace


12
name-connection
/ NCIA-
12
ncia

18
network


15
no shutdown
.29 -
12
pad
-; 10,
ping

12, 17
IETF
12
PPP

12
pwd
; 12,
reload

14, 16

12
rlogin
, 15, 18
router
IP-. , router rip
RIP

12
rsh
SDLC
12
sdlc
tty- ()
12
send.
15
service password-encryption
setup
12,14
setup
,18

2
show

13
show buffers

,
13
show cdp entry
CDP-
, 13
show cdp interface
CDP
CDP-
13
show cdp neibores
-
13,16
show flash
- 17
show hosts

, 13
show interfaces

, 18
show ip interface

- 18
show ip protocols

IP-
13, 18
show ip route
- 13
show memory
,

13
show processes
. 13
show protocols

show running-config
show stacks

show starup-config
show version

shutdown
telnet
term ip
trace
verify
where
which-route
write
write erase
write memory
x3
xr emote

3 OSI

13, 14,
15, 16
13
,

, 14, 15,

16
, 13, 16
,

15
-, 13, 17
Telnet

17
, ,
13, 17

-
12

12
OSI-
12

,
12

erase startup-config
15
copy running-config startup-config
15
.- -
12
XRemote
12


,
.
1
3
1.
1.
2.
2. D
3.
3. D
4.
4.
5. D
5.
6.
6.
7.
7.
8.
8.
9.
9.
10.D
10.
2
1.
2. D
3.
4.
5.
6. D
7.
8.
9.
10.

4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8. D
9.
10.

5
1. D
2.
3.
4. D
5.
6.
7.
8. D
9.
10.

8
1. D
2.
3.
4. D
5.
6. D
7.
8.
9.
10.

6
1.
2. D
3. D
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

9
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8. D
9.
10.

7
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, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, , 111, 1000, 1001, 1010, 1011, 1100, 1101, 1110, 1111


,
. , 2 (, 0, 2, 4,
6, 8, 10, 12 ..) , . .9 2,
: 1.
.9
27
26
128
64

25
32

24
16

23
8

22
4

21
2

20
1

, , 2 ,
.
, 0. ,
(, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, ..). , ,
1.
: 10011 ( 19),
1010100010 ( 674).


16, ,
.
(, -)
: 0, 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, , , , D, F.
10, 11, 12, D 13, 14 F 15.
, , 2A384C5D9E7F, 001 237 ,
, ,
237
.
.
1 1 , 1
1 , ,
, "" "h",
. ,
, .
,
0 15. 15
1111, 10 1010. ,
. - 48 (6 ),
48 : 4 = 12 , .
, Windows 95/98 winipcfg
ipconfig /all, Windows NT4/2000.
. . 10 ( . .1)
. 16, (
) 16 ( 0 F), ,
16. , ,
10! ,
16
; ,
.
.10
3

16
4096

162
256

161
16

160
1

.
(. 11).
.11
161
16
3

160
1

. .11,
10:
= 3 16 + 1 = 3 16 + 10 1 = 48 + 10 = 58.
23CF. . . 12
.
.12
3

16
4096

162
256

161
16

160
1

. . 12, 23CF
10:
23CF = 2 4096 + 3x256 + Cxl6 + F x l = 2x 4096 + 3 x 256 + 12 x 16 + 15 x 1 = 8192 +
768 + 192 + 15 = 9167.
,
, 0000, 0. ,
, FFFF, 65 535. ,
, , 0
65 535 65 536, 216 .
, .
,
8D2B3 578 227.
, , ,
,
.

, ,
.
. -
, .
,
16, ,
, .
,
. ,
, 16 .
15 211. . . 10,
16 15 211? , 4096.
15 211? , 3 (4096 3 = 12
288), 4096 ( 163) 3. ?
: 15 211 12 288 = 2923. , 256 2923 (
) (256 11 = 2816), 256 ( 162) ( 11!).
, : 2923 2816 = 107. 16 107 ( )
(16 6 = 96), 16 ( 16') 6. , : 107 96 = 11,
. 15 211 6.
. . 13.
.13
3

16
4096
3

162
256
B

161
16
6

160
1
B

. ,
;
, 16 2: 16 = 24.
A3,
10100011, 1010, 3 . ,

. ( , , , 101011, ,
, .) FOFO
1111000011110000, F 1111, 0 0000. ,
- FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
11111-11111-11-11111-11-11111111-11111111-11111111. ,
,
.
. ,
,
. ,
!


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

1010 10.
2 11110000 .
10101111 .
1111 .
249 2.
128 2.
65 .
63 10 .
31 10 .
198 .
11100011 ?
10.
ABCDh 10.
OxFF .
249 16.
65 000 .
2 2.
OxlOFS 2.
- 00----4-39 .
IP- 166.122.23.130 255.255.255.128
.



"",
.
.

.
"",
, OSL
.

,

(. 3.1-3.4)
Cisco,
.
, 1 OSI, ,
.. ,
13.
1 :

;
;
, ;
;
.
(,
);

;
DCE-;
DTE-;
.

2 :

;
Ethernet;
;
(
HDLC);

.
3 :
;
;
IP- ;
;
;
DNS IP- ( -);
IGRP.
13,
. , , ,
, , . . 3.5
.
Web-
Cisco (Cisco
Connection Online CCO) (www. cisco. com).


,
.
, .

1.

. ?

2.

. .

3.

.
,
. .

4.

.
.

5.

.
, .

6.

. , .
, .

7.

. ,
.
4, , .


"".
Lab-E Lab-
- .
lab-a#ping lab-e
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5,100-byte
ICMP Echos
. . . . .
Success
rate
is
0 percent

to

210.93.105.2,timeout

is

seconds:

(0/5)

1 .
1. . ?
: - Lab-E
Lab-A.
,
OSI:
) 1
- .
- .
- .
) 2
- .
- (
HDLC).
-

.
) 3
- .
- .
- .

. 3 6.

2. . .
show.
. ,
,
.
EXEC Lab-A
show ip route,
Lab-A. .

.
lab-a#show ip route
Codes:C -connected,S -static,! -IGRP,R -RIP,M -mobile, -BGP
D -EIGRP,EX -EIGRP external,0 -OSPF,IA -OSPF inter area
N1 -OSPF NSSA external type 1,N2 -OSPF NSSA external type 2
El -OSPF external type 1,E2 -OSPF external type 2,E -EGP
i -IS-IS,L1 -IS-IS level-l,L2 -IS-IS level-2,*-candidate default
U -per-user static route, -ODR
Gateway of last resort is not set
205.7.5.0/24 is directly connected,Ethernetl
R 219.17.100.0/24 [120/1] via 201.100.11.2, 00:00:24, SerialO
R 199.6.13.0/24 [120/1] via 201.100.11.2, 00:00:24, SerialO
R 204.204.7.0/24 [120/2] via 201.100.11.2, 00:00:24, SerialO
192.5.5.0/24 is directly connected, EthernetO
R 223.8.151.0/24 [120/2] via 201.100.11.2, 00:00:24, SerialO
201.100.11.0/24 is directly connected, SerialO

3. .
,
.
.
, ,

.
, , , 204.204.7.0
, [120/2] R
204.204.7.0/24 [120/2] via 201.100.11.2, 00:00:24, SerialO.
Lab-A Lab-C,
RIP.
,
. .
. Telnet- Lab-C
show run, .
(
Notepad-).
lab-a#lab-c
Trying lab-c (199.6.13.2)...Open

User Access Verification


Password:
lab-c>ena
Password: l
ab-clshow run
Building configuration...

interface EthernetO
ip address 223.8.151.1
255.255.255.
!
interface SerialO
ip address 204.204.7.1
255.255.255.0
no ip mroute-cache
clockrate 56000
!
interface Seriall
ip address
199.6.13.2.255.255.0
!

interface BRIO
no ip address
Current configuration:
!
version 11.3
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
!
hostname lab-c
enable password class <more>

shutdown
!
router rip
network 199.6.13.0
network 204.204.7.0
network 223.8.151.0
!
ip host lab-a
192.5.5.1 205.7.5.1
ip host lab-b
201.100.11.2.219.17.
100.1
<more>

,
show ip route . show int sO,
. .
lab-c#sho int sO
SerialO is up,line protocol is up
Hardware is HD64570
Internet address is 204 . 204.. 7 .1/24
MTU 1500 bytes,BW 1544 Kbit,DLY 20000 usec,,
reliability 255/255,txload 1/255,rxload 1/255
Encapsulation HDLC,loopback not set,keepalive set (10 sec)
Last input 00:00:01,output 00:00:00,output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface"counters never
Input queue:0/75/0 (size/max/drops);Total output drops:0
Queueing strategy:weighted fair
Output queue:0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops)
Conversations 0/1/256 (active/max active/max total)
Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated)
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec,0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec,0 packets/sec
185 packets input,12570 bytes,0 no buffer
Received 185 broadcasts,0 runts,0 giants,0 throttles
0 input errors,0 CRC,0 frame,0 overrun,0 ignored,0 abort
241 packets output,20487 bytes,0 underruns
0 output errors,0 collisions,21 interface resets
0 output buffer failures,0 output buffers swapped out
10 carrier transitions
DCD=up DSR=up DTR=up RTS=up CTS=Up

4. . ,
.
Lab-C ,
. show int s0, ,
. ,
.
, .
show ,
. , , , :
Lab-D. .
Telnet- Lab-D

. , , , S1.
5. .
, .
, Telnet- Lab-D

. ,
Lab-D. EXEC
show run. , Lab-D
RIP (
Lab-C), IGRP. ,
router igrp 111 router rip.
network: network 210.93.105.0 network 204.204.7.0 (
, Lab-D).
<Ctrl+Z> copy run start.
6. . , . ,
.
Lab- Lab-E
.
lab-d#ping lab-a
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5,100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.5.5.1,timeout is 2 seconds:
! ! ! !
Success
rates
is
100 percent
(5/5) , round-trip rtun/avg/max =96/100/108
ms lab-d#ping
lab-e Type escape
sequence
to
abort.
Sending
5,100-byte
ICMP Echos
to
210.93.105.2,timeout
is
2
seconds :
! ! ! !
Success
rate is
100 percent
(5/5),round-trip min/avg/max =1/3/4 ms

7. . ,
.
4, ,
.

, , .
. ,
4 .
,
.
.
. : .
, .
, . 3.7 -
.

:
. 3.7.
. , ,

,
.
,

.
.
.


,
,
, ,
,
, , ,
, ,




,
.


100BaseFX Fast Ethernet
100 /

,
100BaseFX 400 WOBaseX; Fast
Ethernet, IEEE 802 3
100BaseT Fast Ethernet 100
/ UTP (
) lOBaseT, , 100BaseT

, ,
lOBaseT IEEE 802 3 lOBaseT, Fast Ethernet, IEEE
802 3
100BaseT4 Fast Ethernet
100 / UTP
3, 4 5 ,
100BaseT4 100 IEEE 802
3 Fast Ethernet, IEEE 802 3
100BaseTX Fast Ethernet
100 / UTP
STP ( ) ,
,
100BaseTX 100 . IEEE 802.3.
. lOOBaseX; Fast Ethernet; IEEE 802.3. lOOBaseX
Fast Ethernet 100 /, Fast
Ethernet 100BaseFX 100BaseTX. IEEE
802.3. . IOOBaseFX;4 100BaseTX; Fast Ethernet; IEEE 802.3.
lOOVG-AnyLAN Fast Ethernet Token Ring,
UTP 3, 4 5.
Hewlett-Packard
Ethernet lOBaseT. IEEE
802.12.
10Base2 Ethernet
10 / 50- . 10Base2,
IEEE 802.3,
185 . . Ethernet; IEEE 802.3.
1 dBase5 Ethernet
10 / () 50- .
10Base5,
IEEE 802.3, 500 .
. Ethernet; IEEE 802.3.
lOBaseF Ethernet 10
/, Ethernet
lOBaseFB, lOBaseFL lOBaseFP. . 10BaseFB; 10BaseFL; 10BaseFP;
Ethernet.
lOBaseFB Ethernet 10
/ .
IEEE 10BaseF.
, ,
. l0BaseFB
2 000 . . 10BaseF; Ethernet.
lOBaseFL Ethernet 10 /
. IEEE 10BaseF ,
, FOIRL (Fiber Optic

Inter Repeater Link ),


FOIRL. lOBaseFL 1 000 ,
FOIRL, 2 000 ,
, lOBaseFL. . WBaseF; Ethernet.
lOBaseFP Ethernet
10 / . IEEE lOBaseF
"" .
lOBaseFP 500 . . 1OBaseF; Ethernet.
lOBaseT Ethernet 10
/ " " ( 3, 4
5), ,
. lOBaseT, IEEE 802.3,
100 .
. Ethernet; IEEE 802.3.
10Broad36 Ethernet 10
/ . ,
IEEE 802.3, 3 600
. . Ethernet; IEEE 802.3.

A
ABM . HDLC (
),
, .
. . Address Resolutions Protocol . ARP. Advanced
Research Projects Agency CM. ARPA.
AEP - AppleTalk (AppleTalk Echo Protocol). ,

AppleTalk. , ,
.
AFP AppleTalk (AppleTalk Filing Protocol).
,
, -. AFP
AppleShare .
ANSI (American National Standards
Institute). , ,
, ;

. ANSI
, , ,
. ANSI
(IEC) (ISO).
API . ,
.
AppleTalk , Apple Computer
. 1, ,
, .
2

. . .
APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking).
(SNA) IBM.
APPN ,

().
ARA AppleTalk (AppleTalk Remote Access),
Macintosh ,
AppleTalk-.
ARIN , Internet-,
, , ,
Internet , . InterNIC.
ARP . Internet-, IP -. RFC 826. RARP.

.
. ARPA
.
ARPA DARPA, , 1994 , ARPA.
ARPANET (Advanced Research
Projects Agency Network). , 1969 .
ARPANET 1970- BBN ARPA
( DARPA). Internet. ARPANET'
1990 .
ASBR (Autonomous System Boundary
Router), OSPF- OSPF-.
OSPF, - ,
RIP. ASBR OSPF-,
.
ASCII (American Standard Code for
Information Interchange). 8- (7 )
.
Asynchronous Balanced Mode . ABM.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode . ATM.
ATM . ,
(, , )
(53 ) .
, .
ATM ,
, , SONET .
ATM- (ATM Forum) , 1991
Cisco Systems, NET/ADAPTIVE, Northen Telecom Sprint,
ATM. ATM , ANSI ITU-T,
.
ATP AppleTalk (AppleTalk Transaction Protocol).
, -.
-,
.
, /.

AURP AppleTalk
(AppleTalk Update-Based Routing Protocol). AppleTalk-
, Apple
Talk (, TCP/IP),
Apple Talk. AURP-.
AURP,
, Apple
Talk.

Banyan VINES - . VINES.


Basic Rate Interface . BRJ.
BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) ,
IP- Ethernet,
.
Bootstrap Protocol . BOOTP.
BPDU (bridge protocol data unit) .
,

, .
BRI . ISDN-,
- D- ,
. PRL
- ( channel) -. ISDN 64
/, . D-, - .

CCITT (Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone)


. ,
. ITU-T. . ITUT.
CDDI (Copper Distributed Data Interface)
. FDDI STP
UTP. CDDI
( 100 ), 100 /,
. ANSI
TPPMD (Twisted-Pair Physical Medium Dependent " "
). FDDI.
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol . CHAP.
CHAP . ,
, -, . -

, .
, .
.
CIDR . ,
, . CIDR , ,
. CIDR IP .
CLNS (Connectionless Network Service) .
OSI,
. CLNS
.
CMIP (Common Management Information Protocol)
. OSI-, ISO,
. . /5.
CMIS (Common Management Information Senises) . OSI-,
ISO, . . /5.
(central office) . ,

.
CPE (customer premises equipment) , .
, , , ,
,
.
CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access with collision detect)
. ,
, ,
.
, .
, ,
.
.
CSMA/CD Ethernet IEEE 802.3. CSU (channel service unit)
. ,
.
DSU: CSU/DSU. . DSU.

D
DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)
. ,
Internet. ARPA,
1994 . . .
DAS 1. (dual attachment station). ,
, FDDI.
FDDI-. ,
, .

. SAS. 2. (dynamically
assigned socket). , DDP .
AppleTalk 128 254 DAS.
DCE (data communication equipment) EIA
(data circuit-terminating equipment)
ITU-T. ,
"-". DCE
, ,
DCE- DTE-. DCE-
. DTE.
DDN (Defence Data Network) . ,
(MILNET) .
DDN DISA.
DDP (Datagram Delivery Protocol) .
AppleTalk,
AppleTalk.
DDR (dial-on-demand routing) . ,

. " ",
. DDR
ISDN
ISDN- .
DECnet Routing Protocol . DRP
DECnet ( ),
Digital Equipment Corporation.
DECnet/OSI ( DECnet Phase V). OSI, Digital. Phase IV Prime
-, DECnet- ,
, -.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) . , IP-,
,
-.
DNS (Domain Name System) . , Internet,
.
DoD (Department of Defence) . ,
;
.
DRP (DECnet Routing Protocol) DECnet.
, Digital Equipment Corporation
DECnet Phase III. DECnet Phase V OSI-
(ES-IS IS-IS).
DSAP (destination service access point) .
, Destination (" ") .
SSAP. . SAP.
DSU (digital service unit) . ,
, DTE-
, 1 1.
, , ,
. CSU: CSU/DSU. . CSU.

DTE (data terminal equipment) . ,


"-" ,
. DTE-
DCE- (, ) ,
DCE-. DTE- ,
. DCE.
D- (D channel) -. 1. ISDN-
16 / ( BRI) 64 / ( PRI). -, - //-. 2.
SNA ,
.

E
1 , .
2,048 /. 1
. 77.
, .
34,368 /.
. .
EIA (Electronic Industries Association) . ,
. EIA TIA
, EIA/TIA-232
EIA/TIA-449.
ES-IS (End System-to-Intermediate System) " -
". OSI-, , () (). . IS-IS.
Ethernet , Xerox
Corporation, Xerox, Intel Digital
Equipment Corporation. Ethernet CSMA/CD,
10, 100 1000 /. Ethernet
IEEE 802.3.
- ( channel) -. ISDN-
64 /. -
1984 ITU-T ISDN, 1988 . -,
D- E-.

F
Fast Ethernet Ethernet
100 /. Fast Ethernet
, 10BaseT Ethernet, ,
,
. Fast Ethernet
10BaseT .
IEEE 802.3. Ethernet. . 100BaseFX, 100BaseT,
100BaseT4, 100BaseTX, lOOBaseXu IEEE 802.3.

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)


. , ANSI X3T9.5
100
/ 2 . FDDI
. CDDI FDDI .
FDDI II ANSI, FDDI. FDDI II

. FDDI.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface - . FDDI.
File Transfer Protocol . FTP.
Frame Relay
, HDLC-
. Frame
Relay , .25, - . .
.25.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) . ,
TCP/IP .
FTP RFC 959.

G
Get Nearest Server CM. GNS.
GNS " ". , IPX
. IPX GNS, ,
, ,
. GNS-
IPX SAP. . IPX SAP ( ).
GUI . ,
,
, .
, ,
, (, ).
, GUI, Microsoft Windows Apple
Macintosh.

HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control)


. - ,
ISO. .
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language).
,
,
Web-, ().

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). ,


Web- Web-, , .
Hypertext Markup Language . HTML. Hypertext Transfer Protocol - CM. HTTP.
- ( channel) . ISDN-
384 /. -, D- .

I
IAB (Internet Architecture Board) Internet.
, ,
Internet. , Internet
, IANA, IESG IRSG. IAB
ISOC. . IANA; ISOC.
IANA (Internet Assingned Numbers Authority) Internet.
, ISOC IAB. IANA
IP- InterNIC
.
, TCP/IP, .
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) Internet.
Internet ,
, IP-. RFC
792.
IDF (Intermediate Distribution Facility) .

.
. . MDF.
IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) .
, -,
.
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
. ,
.
.
IEEE 802.2 ,
LLC- OSI. 802.2
, ,
( 3 OSI). 802.3
802.5. . IEEE 802.3; IEEE 802.5.
IEEE 802.3 ,
- OS1.
CSMA/CD
. 802.3
Fast Ethernet. 802.3
10Base2, lOBaseS, lOBaseF, lOBaseT 10Broad36. Fast
Ethernet 100BaseTX 100BaseFX. IEEE 802.5
, -
OSI.

4 16 / STP UTP.
Token Ring IBM. .
Token Ring. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) Internet
80 ,
Internet. IETF ISOC.
IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) .
.
IGRP OSPF RIP.
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
. IGP, Cisco ,
.
IGRP. . IGP; OSPF; RIP.
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers CM. IEEE. Integrated Services Digital Network
CM. ISDN. International Organization for Standardization CM. ISO.
Internet ,

. Internet-
. Internet ARPANET.
DARPA Internet,
internet, .
internet internetwork:
. . .
Internetwork Packet Exchange . IPX.
IOS . . IOS Cisco.
IP (Internet Protocol) .
TCP/IP,
. IP , ,
,
. RFC 791. IPv4 (Internet Protocol 4)
. .
IPv6.
IPv6 IP 6, IP ( 4). IPv6
,
. IPng ( IP
).
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) .
NetWare,
. IP XNS.
IPXWAN (IPX wide-area network) IPX-. ,

. IPXWAN-,
.
IPXWAN- IPX-.
RFC 1362.
IP- (IP address) 32- , -,
TCP/IP. IP- (, , , D, )
, (..
). , . , -
-, . IP-

. IP CIDR. IP- Internet-.


IP- (IP datagram) , Internet.
,
, , , ,
( ) .
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
. , ,
, .
IS-IS (Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System) "
". OSI-
, DECnet Phase V-,
() ,
. . ES-IS; OSPF.
ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
. ,
, ,
. ISO OSI
.
ISOC (Internet Society) Internet. ,
1992 . Internet.
, ISOC ,
Internet, IAB. - ISOC . , , .
. IAB.
ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union Nelecommunication Standardization
Sector) .

(CCITT). ,
. . CCITT.

L
LAN (local-area network).
, (
). ,
, ,
.

OSI. Ethernet, FDDI Token
Ring. MAN ( ) WAN ( ).
LAPB (Link Access Procedure, Balanced) .
.25. LAPB -
, HDLC. . HDLC; X.25.
LAPD (Link Access Procedure on the D channel) D-. ISDN-
D-. LAPD LAPB
,
ISDN. ITU-T "
Q.920" " Q.921".

LAT (Local-Area Transport) .


, Digital Equipment Corporation.
Link Access Procedure on the D channel
LAPB.

CM.

LAPD. Link Access Procedure, Balanced

CM.

Link layer . .
LLC (logical link control) .
, IEEE. LLC-
, ,
-. LLC- IEEE 802.2,
.
LSA (Link-State Advertisement) .
, ,
. LSA-
.
(LSP).

MAC (Media Access Control) .


, IEEE. -
, ,
. . ; LLC.
- (MAC address) ,
, .

. - 6
IEEE. ,
. .
MAN (Metropolitan-Area Network) . , .
, ,
, . LAN WAN. Management Information Base .
MIB.
MAU (Media Attachment Unit) . ,
Ethernet IEEE 802.3, AUI
Ethernet. ,
, OSI,
, Ethernet,
.
(media access unit), MAU, . Token Ring
(multistation
access unit), MSAU.
MDF (Main Distribution Facility) .
. "",
, .
Media Access Control . MAC.
Media Access Unit CM. MAU.
MIB (Management Information Base) .
,

, SNMP. MIB
SNMP,
. MIB
, () (
) .
MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) . ,
Token Ring. MSAU
Token Ring .
MAU.
MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit) .
, .

N
NAK (Negative Acknowledgment) . ,
, ,
. .
NAT (Network Address Translation) .
IP-. ,
, Internet,
.
.
NAUN (nearest active upstream neighbor)
. Token Ring IEEE 802.5 ,
.
NCP (Network Control Program) . SNA
,
( ) .
NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) NetBIOS.
NetBIOS,
, LAN Manager, LAN Server, Windows for Workgroups Windows NT.
.
NetBEUI OSI LLC2.
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) /. ,
IBM-
.
. NetWare Link Services Protocol . NLSP. NetWare Loadable Module - CM.
NLM.
NetWare ,
Novell.
.
Network Basic Input/Output System . NetBIOS.
Network File System - CM. NFS
NFS (Network File System) .
, Sun Microsystems,

. NFS
. NFS
(RPC) (XDR).
, Sun ONC (
. . .).
NIC 1. (network interface card). ,
.
. 1. (Network Information Center). ,
ARIN. . ARIN.
NLM (NetWare Loadable Module) NetWare. ,

NetWare.
NLSP NetWare (NetWare Link Service Protocol) NetWare.
, IS-IS.
NMS (Network Management System) . ,
. NMS
, . NMS
,
.
NOS (Network Operation System) .
, , LAN Manager, NetWare, NFS, VINES Windows NT.
Novell IPX - CM. IPX.
NTP (Network Tune Protocol) . ,
TCP,
, Internet.

.
NVRAM . ,
.

O
ODI (Open Data-link Interface) .
Novell, ,
.
Open Shortest Path First . OSPF.
Open System Interconnection CM. OSI.
OSI (Open System Interconnection) .
, ISO ITU-T
,
.
OSI- (OSI presentation address) ,
OSI-. OSI-
( ) , ,
.
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) .

,
Internet- RIP.
,
. OSPF
IS-IS.
OUI (Organizational Unique Identifier) .
48- .

P
PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) ,
- . ,
, ,
. CHAP, () .
, .
,
. - .
CHAP.
Password Authentication Protocol . .
PDN (Public Data Network) . ,
( ),
, .
, ,
.
PDU (Protocol Data Unit) . OSI .
PHY 1. .
FDDI. 2. . ATM

,
. : PMD .
PLP (Packet Level Protocol) .
.25. .25 3 .25-. .
.25.
Point-to-Point Protocol . .
POST (Power-On Self-Test) . ,
.
P (Point-to-Point Protocol) . SLIP.
"" -
" . SLIP
IP,
, IP, IPX ARA.
: CHAP . : LCP
NCP.
PRI (Primary Rate Interface) . ISDN-
. D- 64 / 23 (1)
30 (1) - .
Proxy Address Resolution Protocol . ARP .

PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) .


, ,
,
. ATM- .
SVC.

Q-R
QoS (quality of service) .
, .
RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) .
TCP/IP, I-
-. ARP.
RFC (Request for Comments) . ,
Internet.
" IAB Internet. " "
, Telnet FTP,
.
.
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) .
, UNIX BSD-. IGP-
Internet. .
RMON (Remote Monitoring) . MIB-,
RFC 1271,
. RMON
, .
Routing Table Maintenance Protocol . RTMP.
RFC (Remote Procedure Call) . .
, .
RPF (Reverse Path Forwarding) .
, ,
, , ,

.
RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol) . ,
IP-. ,
, IP-, RSVP ,
( , ,
..) , .
IPv6. (Resource
Reservation Setup Protocol).
RTMP (Routing Table Maintenance Protocol) .
Apple Computer.
,
- - AppleTalk.
RTMP,
. RTMP
RIP.

RTP 1. (Routing Table Protocol).


RIP VINES (Virtual Networking System).
VINES-
.
. 2. (Rapid Transport Protocol). ,
, APPN-.
RTP
, .
, . 3.
(Real-Time Transport Protocol). ,
IPv6. ,
, (, , - ) - .
RTP , ,
,
.

S
SAP (Service Access Point) 1. . , IEEE
802.3,
. , DSAP (
) . SSAP
( ). 2. (Service Advertising
Protocol). IPX-,
.
SAS (Single Attachment Station) . ,
FDDI.
. DAS. . FDDI.
SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control)
. SNA.
- ,
, HDLC LAPB.
Sequenced Packet Exchange . SPX. Service Advertising Protocol CM. SAP.
SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) .
,
TCP/IP. .
SMI (Structure of Management Information) .
(RFC 1155), ,
MIB.
SNA (Systems Network Architecture) . ,
, 1970- IBM.
OSI, .
SNA 7 . . ;
; ; ;
; ; .
SNAP (Subnetwork Access Protocol) . ,
.
SNAP IP- ARP- IEEE-.

SNAP- , ,
: ,
(QoS).
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) .
, /1-. SNMP
,
, ,
.
SPF (Shortest Path First) .
,
.
. (Dijkstra's algorithm).
SPP (Sequenced Packet Protocol) .

. XNS.
SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) .
,
OSI. Novell
NetWare SPP
XNS.
SQE (Signal Quality Error) . Ethernet , , ,
. .
SSAP (Source Service Access Point) .
, "" ("Source"). DSAP. .
SAP.
STP (Shielded Twisted-Pair) .
, .
STP , .
UTP.
SVC (switched virtual circuit) . ,
.
,
. ATM
. PVC.

T
1 ,
DS-1 1,544 /,
AMI ( ) B8ZS (
). 1.
,
DS-3 44,736 /.
.
TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System)
.

,
,
. ,
,
.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) .
, . TCP/IP.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) / . , 1970-
, . TCP IP
.
Telnet TCP/IP.
Telnet
,
. RFC 854.
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) .
FTP, .
Time To Live . TTL.
Token Ring ,
IBM. Token Ring 4 16 /
. IEEE 802.5.
TokenTalk Apple Computers,
AppleTalk- Token Ring.
traceroute ,
.
-. , RFC 1393.
Transmission Control Protocol . TCP.
TTL (Time To Live) . IP-, ,
.

U
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) .
TCP/IP. UDP
,
, , -
. RFC 768.
UPS (Uninterruptable Power Supple) . ,

. UPS - .
URL (Universal Resource Locator) .
,
.
User Datagram Protocol . UDP.

UTP (Unshielded Twisted-Pair) .


, . UTP-
, .
STP.

V
VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) .
, Banyan Systems.
VLAN . , ( ) ,
, ,
.
, , .

W-X
WAN (Wide-Area Network) . ,

. Frame Relay, SMDS
.25. LAN MAN.
.25 ITU-T, DTE
DCE
. .25
LAPB PLP. Frame Relay
.25.
XNS (Xerox Network Systems) Xerox. ,
Xerox .
, , 3Com, Banyan, Novell
UB Networks, XNS
.

Z
ZIP (Zone Information Protocol) . AppleTalk-
, . ZIP
NBP , ,
.

(Agent) 1. ,

. 2. ,

.
(Adapter) . NIC.
(Network Administrator) , ,
.
(Address) ,
,
.
- (MAC-layer address) . -. (Source
Address) , .
(Subnet Address) IP-,
.
(Destination Address) ,
. . .
- (Host Address) . -.
(Active Monitor) ,
Token Ring. ,
- .
,
.
(Algorithm) .

.
(Distance-Vector Routing Algorithm)
,

.

, .
,
, .
- (Bellman-Ford algorithm).
(Link-State Routing Algorithm)
,

.

,
,
.
.
(Spaiming- Algorithm) , .
STA.
(Protocol Analyzer) . .
(Hardware Address) . -.
(Leased Line) ,

.
.
(Asynchronous Transmission) ,
.
.
( ),
. .
(Attenuation)
.
(Authentication)
.
(Load Balancing)
,
.
, .
,
.
(Connectionless)
. . .
.
. MSAU.
(Firewall) ,
.

(Virtual Circuit) ,
.
VPI/VCI (VPI ; VCI
) (PVC), (SVC).
Frame Relay .25.
VC.
(Call Setup Time) ,
DTE-.
(Secondary Station)
, HDLC, ,
. .
(backoff)
.
(Timeout) ,
,
, .

.


(Insured Rate) ,
, ATM-
. , ,
:
.
.
(Gb) . 1 000 000 000 . / (Gbps) .
(Hybrid Network) , ,
.
- (Horizontal Cross-Connect) ,
,
, , ,
.

(Data) .
(Binary) ,
(1 ., 0 .).
(Dual
Counter-Rota ting Ring) ,
, . FDDI CDDI.
(Point-To-Point Connection)
. ATM -
.
" ".
(datagram) ,
.
Internet IP-.
OSI
, , , .
(Demarc)
, .
(Demultiplexing) ,
, . .
.
(Dotted-Decimal Notation)
IP- a.b.c.d,
1 4- IP-.
.
(Dynamic Routing) ,
.

. , .
(Collision Domain) Ethernet ,
.
; ,
. . .
(Broadcast Domain) ,
, ,
.
( ),
.
(Tree Topology) ,
, , .

. ,
"".

(Header) ,
. .
(Queuing Delay) ,
.
(Punch Tool) ,
.
. RFC.
(Firmware)
.
(Zone) AppleTalk.
(Zone Multicast Address) ,
NBP-, .

(Excess Rate) ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
.
(Encapsulation) .
, Ethernet
. ,
,
. . .

(Keepalive Interval)
, ("keep alive" message),
.
(Interface) 1. . 2.
. 3.
,
, ,
. 4.
OSI.
(Seed Router) AppleTalk,
.
,
,
AppleTalk,
. AppleTalk
.

1 (Category I Cabling)
UTP ( ), EIA/TIA 568.
1
. 2, 3, 4 5. . UTP.
2 (Category 2 Cabling)
UTP (" "), EIA/TIA
568. 2 4
/. 1, 3, 4 5. . UTP.
3 (Category 3 Cabling)
UTP (" "), EIA/TIA
568. 3 lOBaseT
10 /. 1, 2, 4 5. .
UTP.
4 (Category 4 Cabling)
UTP (" "), EIA/TIA 568B.
4 Token Ring
16 /. 1, 2, 3 5. . UTP.
5 (Category 5 Cabling)
UTP (" "), EIA/TIA
568B. 5 CDDI
100 /. 1, 2, 3 4. .
UTP.
(Cable Range) ,
AppleTalk.
.
.
(Frame) ,
.
, ,

, .
OSI ,
, , .
(Circuit) .
(link) ,
.
.
.
(Circuit Group) ,
. ,
, ,
.

,
. (Link-Layer Address) . -.
(Data Link Layer) 2 OSI.
.
, , , ,
. IEEE : MAC
LLC-.
SNA.
(Route Map)
.
(Cut Sheet) , , ,
, .
(kB) . 1 000 .
/ (kBps) .
(kb) . 1 000 .
/ (kbps) .
(Handshaking) ,

.
(Client) (
), .
- (Client/Server Model)
() .
/ DNS "/
", NFS | .
- (Client/Server Computing)
(),
: ( ) (
). ( ) ,
, .
(). .
(Coaxial Cable) , , .
: 50-
, , 75- ,


.
(Coding) ,
.
(Encoding) .
(Hop Count) ,
. , RIP
. . ; RIP.
(Ring Topology) , , ,

. ,
. ,
.
(Ring) ,
.
Token Ring, FDDI CDDI.
(Patch Panel) ,

. ,
.
(Dialup Line) ,
.
(Contention) ,
.
.
(Console) DTE-, -.
(Collision) Ethernet .
, . .
.
(Concentrator) . (hub).
(Caching) , ,
,
.

(Local Loop)
.
(Local-Area Network) . LAN.
4/5 (4/5 local fiber) 4/5 . ,
FDDI ATM.
100 / .
8/10 (8/10 local fiber) 8/10 . ,

149,76 /
.

(Backbone Cabling) ,

, .
(Backbone) , ,
.
(Maximum Rate)
,
.
. ,
,
, ,
.
.
(Token) , .
.
(Token Bus) ,
.
802.4.
(Default Route) ,
,
.
(Router) , OSI,
,
.
, ,
. (
).
(Routing) - . -
,
, --,
.
. DDR.
(Shortest Path Routing) ,
.
(Routed Protocol) , .
,
.
AppleTalk, DECnet IP.
(Mask) . .
(Address Mask) , ,
, -.
.

(Subnet Mask) 32- , IP , IP-,


. . (MB) . 1 000
000 . (Mb) . 1 000 000 .
(Interoperability) ,
,
.
(Packet Internet Groper) . num.
(Dual Homing) ,
( ).
,
, .
(Access Method) 1. ,
. 2. SNA-,
.
(Metric) . .
(Routing Metric) ,
, .
.
, , ,
, , ,
. .
(Multicast) - ,
.
"Destination Address". .
(Multimode Fiber) ,
.
(Multicast Address) ,
. .
.
(Internetwork) , , ( ) .
(Modem) -. ,
.
,
. .
.
(Bridge) ,
, .
( 2) OSI.
, , .
(Multiplexing) ,
. .

(Designated Router) OSPF-,


LSA-
OSPF. OSPF- ,
, , OSPF "Hello".
, , , ,
.
(Bootstrap) ,
, ,
.
(Nonseed Router) AppleTalk,

. . .
(Nonextended Network) AppleTalk Phase 2,
253 .
(Carrier) ,
, .
(Network Number) IP-, , .
(Socket Number) 8- , . AppleTalk-
254 .
- (Host Number) IP-, ,
. -.

(Area) ( CLNS,
DECnet OSPF) .
, . (Reassambly)
IP-, ,
, .
- (MAC Address Learning) ,
, -
, , ,
, .
,
, , ,
. .
- IEEE 802.1.
(Networking)
, , , (CD-ROM) .
(unicast) , .
.
(Unicast Address) , .
.
(Peer-To-Peer Computing) ,

, .
OSI
. - .
(RAM) . ,
.
(Octet) 8 (). (
), ,
8 .
(Random Access Memory) . .
(Common Carrier) ,
.
(Advertising) ,
,
.
(Signal Reference Ground) ,

.
(Fiber-Optic Cable) ,
.
, .
.
(internetwoking) ,
. , .
IOS Cisco (Cisco Internetwork Operating System)
Cisco. Cisco,
,
CiscoFusion. IOS
,
, ,
, .
(Queue) 1. , . 2.
,
.

(Packet) , ,
, () .
OSI.
OSI
, , .
(Flash Update) ,
.
.
(Routing Update) ,

.

.
.
(Poison Reverse Update) , , ,
. "" .
(Hello Packet) , , ,
.
, .
(Split-Horizon Updates) ,
, .
.
(Parallel Transmission) ,
.
.
(Forwarding)
.
(Frame Forwarding) ,
, HDLC SDLC, ATM.
(Congestion) , .
(Token Passing) ,

, .
.
(Redirect) ICMP ES-IS, -,
.
(Loop) , ,
.
(ROM) . ,
, .
(ping, Packet Internet Groper) . -
ICMP. IP-
.
. NIC.
(Repeater) ,
.
(Subnetwork) 1. IP- ,
. ,


.
2. OSI- ,
.
(Payload) , , ().
(Full Mesh) ,
"", ,
.
, , ,
. . ;
.
(Full Duplex)
. .
(Bandwidth) ,
.
.
(Half Duplex)
.
.
(Port) 1. (, ). 2. IP- ,
. .
, SNMP 25.
.
(Port) ,

, , .
(Serial transmission) ,
. .
(Proxy) ,
.
(Priority Queuing) ,

, , .
. .
&- (& Bit Signalling) ,
1, 24
1
.
(Flow) (,
).
.
(PROM) . ,
.

. .
(Congestion Avoidance) , ATM .

, .
(Address Resolutions)
.
( 3)
( 2).
(Name Resolution)
.
(Application) ,
. FTP
Telnet.
(Throughput) , , . (Flat
Addressing) ,
.
(Protocol) ,
.
ARP (Proxy ARP) ARP, (, ) -
ARP- .
.
Internet (Internet Protocol) ,
TCP/IP. . IP; TCP/IP.
(Routing Protocol) , .
IGRP, OSPF RIP.
(Spanning-Tree Protocol) ,
,

. BPDU- ,
, .
, .
802.1,
Digital Equipment Corporation, .
IEEE
. IEEE
Digital.
(Protocol Address) . .
(Non-Stub Area) OSPF- , , ,
. OSPF-,
ASBR. . . ASBR.


(Window Size) ,
.
(Bandwidth Reservation) , .

.
, ,
. .
(Redundancy) 1.
, ,
. 2.
, ,
.

(Connection-Oriented) ,
. . ',
.
(Route Summarization)
OSPF IS-IS. OSPF ,
.
(Protocol Stack)
,
OSI.
, .
TCP/IP.
(Spanning Tree)
() 2 OSI.
(Session) 1.
. 2. SNA
,
.
(Session Layer) 5 OSI. ,

.
SNA.
(Segment) 1. , , . 2.
,
. 3. TCP

.
, , .
(Server) , .
(Name Server) ,
.
. NOS.
(Network Address) OSI,
, . .
-.
(Network Analyzer) - ,
,
,
,
.
(Network Interface) .
(Network Byte Order) Internet
, .
(Network Layer) 3 OSI.
.
.
SNA. . ', ', ;
; ; .
(Mesh) ,
,
, . .
.
(Network) , , ,
, -
.
(Multivendor Network) , . ,
, .
.
(Single-Vendor Network) ,
.
. . .
(Acknowledgment) , , , (, ).
. NAC.
(Simplex)
.
.
.
(Synchronous Transmission) ,
. ,

( - ), .
.
. NMS.
" " (Point-To-Multipopint Connection)
. ATM " "
, - ( )
-
( ). .
(Socket) 1. ,
( ). 2. ,
AppleTalk; ,
. AppleTalk- :
(SAS), ,
AppleTalk, (DAc),
DDP . AppleTalk-
/1-.
(Message) ,
, .
OSI
, , , .
(Trap) , SNMP-
, , ,
-
- .
(Address Mapping) ,
. ,
IP- .25 IP-
.25, .25.
(Neighboring Routers) OSPF ,
, .
OSPF Hello.
(Adjacency) ,
.
.
(Access List) ,
(,
, IP-
).
(EPROM) .
, ,
.
.
(Spoofing) 1. , , , .
-,
- , .
, ,


. 2. , ,
, ,
. ,
.
(Media) , .
" ",
(
, ). .
(Standard) , ,
. . DAS.
(Dual-Homed Station) , FDDI-, .
(Static Route) ,
.
,
.
(watchdog packet) ,
, NetWare-.
,
. ,
, ,
, .
(Watchdog Spoofing) , , NetWare,
NetWare-
. ,
.
(Watchdog Timer) 1. ,
,
. 2. Netware ,
,
. ,
( ).
(Convergence)

.
(Count To Infinity) ,
,
.

.

(Routing Table) , -

,
, .
(Topology)
, .
"" (Star Topology) ,
.
, , "" , . ,
.
. DSAP. (Service
Access Point) . SAS. . NAT.
(Transport Layer) 4 OSI.
, ,
,
, .
SNA. . ', ',
', ; ; .
(Tunneling) , ,
,
.
(Stub Area) OSPF-,
, , , .
,
(ASBR).
.
(Stub Network) , .

(Hold-Down) ,
, (
).
. ,
.
(Node) 1. ,
. ,
. ,
,
.
, .
. 2. SNA ,
.
(Universal Resource Locator) . URL.

(Fault Management) :
, ,
, ISO OSI.

.
(Flow Control) , ,
.


. IBM- .
(Sliding Window Flow Control)
,
, .
,
.
TCP,
.
(Network Management)
,
.
(Traffic Management)
, .
,

.
(Presentation Services Layer) 6 SNA. ,
. OSI.
(Transaction Services Level) 7
SNA. ,
, ,
.
OSI. . ; ',
; ;
; .
(Presentation Layer) 6 OSI.
, , ,
.
, ,
.
SNA. . ;
; ; ; ;
.
(Application Layer) 7 OSI, ( ,
), OSI.

( , ),



.
SNA. . ; ; ;
; ; .
(Data link Control Layer) 2
SNA. .
OSI. .
:, ', ',
', ',
.
(Transmission Control Layer) 4
SNA. , SNA-,
. OSI. .
, ', ',
', ', .
(Data Flow Control Layer) 5 SNA,
, . OSI.
. ', ',
; ', ;
.
(Path Control Layer) 3 SNA.

.
. OSI. .
; ; ;
; ;
.
(Physical Control Layer) 1
SNA.
OSI. .
; ; ,
; ;
.
IGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
.
IGRP, Cisco.


. IGRP. . IGP; OSPF; RIP.

(Physical Address) . -.

(Physical Layer) 1 OSI.


, , ,
.
SNA. .
', ', ', ;
', .
(Filter) , , ,
, ,
.
(Local Traffic Filtering) ,
() , -
,
. IEEE 802.1.
- (Flash memory) ,
,
, . -
Intel,
- .
(Signaling)
.
(Fragment) ,
. Ethernet ,
64 .
(Fragmentation)
, .

(Hub) 1. ,
.
1 OSI. 2. Ethernet IEEE 802.3 Ethernet, .
(Trailer) ,
. .
- (Host) , .
, - ,
,
. . .
(Partial Mesh) , , ,
.
,
, .
,

(Bus Topology) ,

. ,
.
(Broadcast Address) ,
.
- , .
. .
.
(Broadcast) ,
. .
. . .
(Gateway) .
, , ,
, OSI

. .

(EEPROM) . .
. OSI.
OSI (OSI Reference Model) , ISO ITU-T. ,
-, , , ,
. ()
.
, .
( ) .
OSI
,
SNA. . ; ; ; ;
; ; .
- (Echo Channel) . -.

32.973.26-018.2.75
61
681.3.07
""
. ..
..
"" :
info@williamspublishing.com, http://www.williamspublishing.com
, .
61 Cisco, 2. : . . . : "", 2002. 464 .: . . . .
ISBN 5-8459-0283-5 (.)
,
2.1 Cisco. 1 ,
.
, . (, ), . ,
OSI, .
. , , .
.
CCNA CompTIA Net+.
32.973.26-018.2.75

.

, , ,
Cisco Press.
Authorized translation from the English language edition published by Cisco Press, Copyright
2000
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage retrieval
system,
without permission from the Publisher.
Russian language edition published by Williams Publishing House according to the Agreement with
R&I
Enterprises International, Copyright 2002
ISBN 5-8459-0283-5 (.)
"", 2002
ISBN 1 -58713-005- (.)
Cisco Press, 2000

1. OSI
2.
3.
4.
5. IGRP
6. (ACL)
7. Novell IPX
8.
9.
10.
11. ISDN
12. Frame Relay
.
.
.

1. OSI

: OSI



Ethernet 802.3

Ethernet/802.3

IP-


ICMP



2.


Ethernet/802.3
Ethernet

Ethernet
LAN

LAN
Ethernet
LAN

LAN-

2- 3-
LAN-




(VLAN)



3.



4.




intranet

2-
3-

:


5. IGRP

,
OSI






IP-




IP-
IGRP
, IGRP
IGRP-
IGRP

IGRP
IGRP

:
IGRP


6. (ACL)


any
host





deny
permit




:


7. Novell IPX

Cisco NetWare
Novell NetWare
IPX
Novell IPX
Novell
, Cisco
IPX-
Novell RIP

(Get Nearest Server Protocol)
Novell IPX
Novell IPX

IPX
IPX-
IPX-
IPX
IPX Novell
IPX
IPX

:
Novell IPX


8.

CSU/DSU
ISDN
OSI




HDLC





ISDN

:


9.











Fraire Relay ISDN

:


10.



1.
2.
3.
4.


CHAP
:


11. ISDN

ISDN
ISDN
ISDN
ISDN
ISDN
ISDN
ISDN OSI
ISDN
ISDN
ISDN
ISDN

ISDN



ISDN: (BRI)
(PRI)
BRI
BRI
ISDN
BRI

SPID
BRI
BRI

DDR
DDR

: ISDN


12. Frame Relay


Frame Relay
Frame Relay
DLCI Frame Relay
Frame Relay
Frame Relay
Frame Relay Cisco LMI
LMI
(LMI)
LMI-


ARP

Frame Relay
Frame Relay

Frame Relay
Frame Relay

Frame Relay
Frame Relay

:



.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
.
.


(Vito Amato) -
Cisco. - -
, - .
. ,
- Cisco. , .


(George Ward), (Kevin Warner),
(Alex Belous), (Devid Alexander) , . - ,
,
Cisco, , , . (Jai Gosine) (Dennis Frezzo),
- . ,
(Wayne Lewis), . - Cisco
. Cisco , , , . 1992 - Cisco , - Cisco Microsoft . , , -
, , .
Cisco .
. , , Cisco Press (Dave Dusthimer), (Amy
Lewis) (Kitty Jarrett),
.



. , . , .
(Denise Hoyt) 16 . , ,
. 1998 Cisco Cisco Systems -.
Cisco , .
- (Mark McGregor) Cisco
Cisco , .
. , .
(Wayne Jarvimaki) Cisco Cisco,
Cisco . Cisco 1989 . Cisco
.
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Cisco , ,
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,
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, , .
, ,
. , .
.
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, .
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e-mail.
. :
E-mail: mfo@ciscopress.ru
WWW: http://www.ciscopress.ru


Cisco
, Cisco
2.1.
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.


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. , . ,
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, .

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(6- ). , .
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. 1.1. OSI ,

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,
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.
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CSMA/CD), Ethernet, IEEE
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, .

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.

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Ethernet (Gigabit-Ethernet),
1000 /.

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, ,
.

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.

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. , , -
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IP
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delivery)

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.

Internet (Internet Control Message


Protocol, ICMP) .

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.

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TCP/IP , . , , TCP/IP, 32- , IP- (IP address). , TCP/IP . -
. , , , ,
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.

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, . 1.11 , ,
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. . 1.12 ,
- ping.

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Ethernet - IP-
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-, , -.

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. , .

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, .

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. , .
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, .


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protocol

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network 1.0.0.0 .
network 2.0.0.0 .
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.
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IEEE 802.3.
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.

, .
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. .
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, , . .
1. OSI lOBaseT?
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B. .
C. .
D. .

2.
OSI?

. , .
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C. .
D. .
3.
?

. .
. .
. .
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?

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5. ,
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B. .
C. .
D. .
6.
7. OSI.
8. ICMP.
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10. OSI.


Cisco IOS (Internetwork Operating System software, Cisco IOS software).
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,
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.
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(, , , D ) , . , .

, .
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.
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.
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. - , , .
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.
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(data link layer). OSI.
. ,
, , ,
. IEEE : MAC LLC.
(data link control layer)
SNA.
(convergence). , . .
(routed protocol). ,
.
, . : AppleTalk, DECNet, IP.
(subnet mask).
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(window). ,
.
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Internet. OSPF ,
.

(queue). 1. : , . 2.
: ,
.
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(hop). (,
).
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.
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IGRP). Cisco ,
.
(shortest path first protocol, SPF). . (Dijkstra's algorithm).
(Routing Information Protocol, RIP). , UNIX BSD.
Internet. () .

(Reverse Address Resolution Protocol,


RARP). TCP/IP, IP-
-.
(Address Resolution Protocol, ARP). Internet-
TCP/IP, IP- -. RFC
826.
(link-state routing protocol).
, (
) ( ) . ,
( ).
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,
IP-. RFC 792.
(layering). ,
OSI. ,
.
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- .
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- .
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.
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. (adapter).
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(network). , , ,
, - .
(default route). , , .
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(stub network). , .
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.
(flow control). ,
. ,
, . IBM- (pacing).
(presentation layer).
OSI. , . , , , , , , ,
.
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,
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, ,
, . SNA.


, , :

CSMA/CD





LAN

Fast

Ethernet


1, " OSI ",
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, , -
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LAN, ,
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. ,
. .
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.
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.
, . /, World Wide Web, .
, .
/ . , /, .

Ethernet/802.3
Ethernet.
, , . . 2.1, Ethernet
. Ethernet
,
.
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.
(carrier
sense multiple access collision detect, CSMA/CD), .

, Internet.
( )
1- LAN 1-, 2- 3- .
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Ethernet, CSMA/CD ,
10 /. CSMA/CD ,
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,
, . . 2.2,
CSMA/CD .

Ethernet
Ethernet (half-duplex) .
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. ,
.
, ,
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.



. /
( , bandwidth), 10 /, Ethernet/802.3.
,
, .
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,
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, ( ) (data link layer) (physical layer) .. . . 2.1


.
2.1. Ethernet

64


51,2

512

410

1000

800

1518

1214

Ethernet- 100 . (byte)


8 (bit) , , , 800 . 64 51200 51,2 (64 800
51200 , 51200, 1000, 51,2 ). 1000
800 .


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, ,
(attenuation) . "" , () . . (repeater) Ethernet , . Ethernet-
LAN , .
2.3. ,
LAN .

. 2.3. Ethernet- ;

, (hub).
, , , 10 /.

LAN
LAN :
Ethernet;
LAN

Ethernet
Ethernet (full-duplex)

, "-" , Ethernet , Ethernet:

10BaseT/1 OBaseTX
10BaseFL

100
2


(port) "-" lOBaseT, 100BaseT 100Base FL
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(RX) , , ,

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10 / Ethernet
100%
20 /, 10 /
10 /

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, (segment) CSMA/CD 2 4
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/ 2 5,

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,

10 / Ethernet , ,
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25
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, , ,
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10-30%. ,
. ,
, , (interface) . ,
.


, .
.
(network layer) . . 2.7,
, , .
, , , (routing table) .
, . . , (acknowledgement) ( , , acknowledgement-oriented protocols),
3040% .
, ( , slidingwindow protocols), 2030%. (.. ).

. 2.7.


(switching) , , , , PC -. . 2.8,
, .. , . LAN-
, , , - . , , .
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, , , .
10 / . , , 10 /.

. 2.8. LAN-KL i uymamop , LAN


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.
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.


, Ethernet, Token Ring FDDI (
, Fiber Distributed Data Interface)
. . .

.

.

.
.

(bridging) , , , Ethernet.
.
, -
. ,
, , , .

, , . ,
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.
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, (virtual LAN,
VLAN).

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.
, ,
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, . .

2- 3-
2- 3- .
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. ,
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.
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, .

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, , , , 3- .
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. ,
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.

.
. , , .
.


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LAN .


. . 2.9,
, , 10
/ 100 /.
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/, , ,
, .

10 /

. 2 10
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, 100
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(memory buffer). ,
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, . , - . , -

.
, . , , .
. ,
. , .
, .
, . , , ,
. , , 10/100, ..
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; , ,
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, . , 64 . 64 .
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, .
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. VLAN , , .
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. VLAN
.


(Spanning-Tree Protocol,
STP) , ,
, , .
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.
,
, . , . . ,
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, Ethernet Fast Ethernet ( Ethernet). , . , Ethernet- .

, BPDU.

, .

, .

, .

, BPDU .

VLAN , STP. ,
show spantree. " VLAN" STP ,
. , STP , : , . ,
.

/ , ,
, Ethernet/802.3 LAN.
c
, Internet, .
, . .
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, .
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, .
, .
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( "-") .

.

, , 10 / 100 /.

.
(VLAN) , .

, - .


, , . .

Ethernet ?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. 1 .
2.
,
Ethernet?
A. 100 .
B. 800 .
C. 51200 .
D. 800 .
3. ?
A. .
B. .
C. ?
D. .
4. Ethernet ...
A. 1 .
B. 2 .
C. 3 .
D. 2 .
5. ?
A. , "" .
B. .
C. .
D. .
6. _______
, _____ .
A. ; .
B. ; .
C. ; .
D. ; .
7. ...
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. , ,
8.

.
1.

9. Ethernet.
10. .


Bridging. , .
Ethernet. ( ),
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Fast Ethernet. Ethernet 100 /. Fast Ethernet
, lOBaseT, , ,
, MAC MTU. Fast
Ethernet lOBaseT. Fast
Ethernet IEEE 802.3.
Unicast. .
(byte). , (, , 8 ).
(bit). . .
(memory buffer). ,
.
(virtual LAN, VLAN). , ( ) , , .
. , ,
.
(virtual circuit). , , .
VPI/VCI (PVC), (SVC).
Frame Relay .25. ATM VC (virtual channel).
Ethernet (full-duplex Ethernet). , .
(propagation delay). , ,
. (latency).
(attenuation). .
(interface). 1. . 2. .
(collision domain). Ethernet , . , ,
, .
(collision). Ethernet .
.
(switch). , ,
.
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(switching). .
(cut-through). ,
: -

, . , , , ,
.
(on-the-fly packet switching) " ".
(fragment-free switching). , .
.
(fast-forward switching). .
(store-and-forward). , .
CRC . ,
,
(, ).
(hub). , ""
(multipart repeater).
(flooding). .
(latency).
.
(mackbone). .
(router). , . , . (gateway), .
(carrier
sense multiple access collision detect, CSMA/CD). , , , . , . , , , .
Ethernet IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD.
(microsegmentation). . (
)
(bridge protocol data unit, BPDU). , ,
, .
(bridge). , ,
, .
( ) OSI. , , MAC- .
(queue). 1. : , . 2.
: , .
, (content-addressed memory, CAM). , .
(congestion). , .
(repeater). ,
.
(acknowledgment). , , , (, ).


Ethernet (half-duplex Ethernet). ,
.
(port). (, ). , , , RJ-45. , , . (); .
/ (client/server application). , . .
(Spanning-Tree Protocol). ,
.
.
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. Spanning-Tree Protocol : 802 1 Digital Equipment Corporation,
. IEEE LAN. IEEE , Digital.
(segment). , , .
(network interface card, NIC) , .
(network layer). OSI. ,
SNA .
(sliding window). ,
TCP-.
(routing table). ,
, ,
, , .
(topology).
.
(node). . .
, . , , . " " , . "" "" .
, (data link layer).
OSI. . , , , , . IEEE
: MAC LLC. (data link control layer) SNA
(physical layer). OSI.
, , , . SNA
, (bandwidth). , .

.
(broadcast). , . .

, (virtual local
access network, VLAN)

" 2, " ", , -iyr , \


(bridges), (switches) (routers), ,
Ethernet (virtual
local-area network, VLAN) ,


3 1, , , .. , (segment)


, . (hub), , . ,
,
(broadcast firewall), , , .
.
, .

. 3.1.
,


, , , . ( Ethernet
, broadcast domain).
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,
, . . .
, .
. , . , , ,
. . ,
.


, ,
.

. 3.2 . .

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3- .

VLAN ,
.

,
.


, , , .
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,
.

, ,

. , . ,

Catalyst
5000

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, (firewall), , .
, ,
.
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, .


,
. .

, , .
.
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,
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.

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. , . , , ,
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) .
.
; , . (LAN switch)
(Media Ac-

cess Control address) (protocol) .


.

. 3.4. ,
,
. , .
(tag) ,
. (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers,
IEEE) , .
;
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.
, .
. ,
.
.
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.


,
, , ,
. , , -

, , . . , : , .


(port-centric VLAN)
. . 3.5 , . , :
;
;
"" .


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, . , . ,
,

,
.


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. -

, .

- .
.
, .

,
, ,

,
. 20
40% . ,

,
,
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, .

, 3 6.

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, ,
,

, , , .
; , ,
.


.
, , .
, ,
()
(multicast).
, , . , , , . ,
, , .

,

.
, ( 2- ) . (flat network); .
, .
,
.

()
. , , .
,
. . 3.7, , , .
,

(broadcast storm)
, , , - .
, .
,
, .

3.7.
, ,


. -

. . ,
, ,
, , . , .

, . 3.8. :

, ;

VLAN.

. . , , .
. ,
.

3.8. ,


(access control list, ACL), 6, "
(ACL)"
. , ,


. .
, - . ,
3 9, , , . - ,
.

. , (microsegmentation)
.
,
. , .

Ethernet ,
(collision domain).

.
, ,

2- 3- OSI.
VLAN
,
.
,
, .

,
.
: , .
.


, ,
.


, , . .
1. .
2.
?
3. ?
4. ?
5. .
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
6. , ,
.
A. , .
B. .
C. .
D. .
7. __________, ______ _,
.
A. ; .
B. ; .
C. ; .
D. ; .

8. ?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D.
.
9. ?
A. ID- -.
B. .
C. .
D. .
10. ?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. , .


- (Media Access Control,
MAC). ,
, , . , . -
IEEE. , -
.
(firewall). , .
(ACL) .
(virtual LAN, VLAN). ,
( ) , ,
. .
, , .
(port-centric VLAN). , .
(multicast).
, .
(dynamic VLAN). , -, .
(Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, IEEE). , . .
(collision domain). Ethernet , . , , .
(switch). , ,
- . OSI.

(hub). ,
, . ( , ) ( , ).
(router). ,
. , . (gateway),
.
(microsegmentation). .
( ).
(flat network). ,
. .
(port). (, ).
(protocol). , .
(scalability). - .
(segment). , , .
(LAN switch). . , . , -, . ,
: .
Cisco Catalyst 5000.
(access control list, ACL). Cisco, (,
).
(static VLAN). ,
.
(frame). ,
.
, , , . , ,
(datagram, message, packet, segment)
OSI
.
(broadcast storm). , .
.
(broadcast domain). ,
, . ,
.
(broadcast packet). ,
. .

( )

()

()

3, " ", (LAN, VLAN)


,
. .
, ,
, .
, ,
. ,
. . , , ,

________________________________________________
:
, ,
. , ,
, .
.
, .
.

,
.

. , , ,
.

Internet
.

7-10
, 100%
.

1
/, 100 /.

:
TCP/IP Novell IPX.


.
, . , .
, ,
. , 50
, , . , ,
.
. . .

. , . ,
.
.

. . , -
.

.
, .

. , .

, , .
.


, ATM (
) , , ,
.
.



. , , , . , , NetWare, Windows NT, UNIX Linux.
, ,
.
: (enterprise servers) (workgroup servers).
, ,
(DNS), . 4.1.
DNS , (, ). ,
,
, , .
(main
distribution facility, MDF).
MDF, .
(intermediate distribution
facilities, IDF), no , . MDF IDF. , IDF, .
MDF IDF 100 /.

_________________________________________________________________________
:

,
.

DNS . DNS-, ,
. DNS
( ), .

. , .
TCP/IP
.

.

. TCP/IP
OSI
.

. ,
,
.

. , ,
( ) .
.
__________________________________________________________________________

intranet
Intranet . Web intranet Web- ,
intranet - .
intranet , ,
. intranet Web-,
, , , , .
intranet , .
, intranet.
10100 / , .


, ,
. Ethernet, . ,
, (routing update),
, , (ARP).
Ethernet , .
, , ,
, "". , , , , Ethernet.
. 4.2,
. Ethernet,
( ). 3540%

(10 /). , .


(segmentation)
, . 4.3. ()
. . - , , (. 4.3).

. 4.3.
, . , . ,
(FF-FF-FF-FF-FF) ,
.


,
. Ethernet-
. . . 4.4,
.
.
Ethernet, , .


,
, .
1. .
2. .
3. 1-, 2- 3- (. . ).
4. .
.


.
,
, , , , . :
? , ?
, .

_________________________________________________
:
. , , , ,
. :

, ;

, ;

, ,
,
, Internet;

, .

_________________________________________________________________________

,
. ,
. - ? ? (
, .) ?
?
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? ? . , , .

. , ,
. , , .
. ,
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. .
_________________________________________________________________________
:
, .
, . , ,
.
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?
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?
_________________________________________________________________________


. ,
.

. , . , . ,
. .
_________________________________________________________________________
:

.
, , ,
, (, , , ).
, , .

Internet-.

, .
_________________________________________________________________________



, . (star topology) .
. 4.5,
Ethernet 802.3 (CSMA/CD). CSMA/CD
.

. 4.5.

. 4.3,
OSI , .
.


.
__________________________________________________________________________________
:

. , ,
- -. , , .

______________________________________________________

, . (
) .
, (Category 5
unshielded twisted-pair, UTP) (fiber-optic cable). EIA/TIA 568 .
,
,
. ,
, . -
, ,
.
, ,
, Fast Ethernet, ATM Gigabit Ethernet , , UTP .
.
, TIA/EIA 568.
EIA/TIA 568 , , , , . 4.6.
, ,
, 100 UTP Ethernet,
EIA/ IA 568. . 4.1 .

4.1. IEEE 802.3


- 10 /
10 /
100 /
100 /


- -
UTP

UTP

100
2000
100
400


, . 4.7,
- (horizontal crossconnect, HCC) . ( ) ( ). (
, ) Ethernet .
.

. 4.7. ( )
.
_________________________________________________________________________
:

, (catchment area) .

______________________________________________________


. , ,
100- UTP Ethernet. .
(. 4.8). EIA/TIA 568 ,
(vertical cabling). (backbone cabling).

. 4.8.
. 4.9, - (vertical cross-connect,VCC)
.
100- UTP, - (. 4.10).

. 4.10..
_________________________________________________________________________
:

, , , , 100 /
_________________________________________________________________________

Fast Ethernet
Fast Ethernet Ethernet, 100 /.
lOBaseT,
CSMA/CD
(MAC). Fast Ethernet -

, (100BaseTX) (100BaseFX). , . 4.11.

4.11. Fast Ethernet ,


100 /
CSMA/CD

1 -
. 4 12, .
. .

,
. , 1 80%,
.

, (.
4.13), , . ,, 203-
. , , 203-1, 13- . , ,
1- . , ,
203-1.

4.12 .

_________________________________________________________________________
:

,
, , , , .
, .

.
.
, .

.
Ethernet-, (.
)
, Ethernet , 100BaseT 100BaseFX.

. UTP
100 /. () UTP
.
EIA/TIA 568.

.
, .
(point of presence, POP)

() .

.

______________________________________________________

1-
203

203-1
1/13

5 UTP

1-
203

203-2

1/14

5 UTP

1-
203

203-3

2/

5 UTP

1-

1-2

1 /1

1-

1-1

1 /2

4 13 ()

2-
2 , " ", 3, "
", 2- ,

2- ( , )


2-
_________________________________________________________________________
: 2-
2-

, .
__________________________________________________________________________________

, . , , ,
4 14, , , , . . , , 10 100 /.

4 14
,
. Ethemet-. 4 15,

,
. , ,
.
UTP, 100 . 10 100
/. 10 / .

10 100 / , , .
, ,
.
, , . , , . , .
_________________________________________________________________________

:
,
, , , (POP) .

. ,
, 24 DTP . .

. DTP 100
/.

. . ,
(, ).

, . 1-
, 2- .

_________________________________________________________________________


, . , .
. ,
(- -). , .
. ,
(. 4.16). , ,
(. 4.17).

. 4.16. ,

, , Catalyst 1700,
,
- .
ARP- .

. 4.17. 2. , ,

, . 4.18. , , , , ,
.

. 4.18.

2-

. , 100 /. , . 4.19, , .
4.18. .
121

. 4.19. ,
- 100 /
10 / 100 /. 2- 100 /, .

.

3-
3- () , ,
, 3- , .. IP-. 3-
, ,
.
(Wide-Area Network, WAN), Internet.

_________________________________________________________________________
: 3-
3- .

,
.

ARP.

4- .

_________________________________________________________________________

3-
. 4.20, 3-
, IP- , 3- . .

. 4.20. 3- ,
, , . ,
, ARP-. , - ,
.



, ARP-. ,

, , (. 4.21). , (. 4.22).

. 4.21 . ,
1, 4 1, 2, , 5 2. 1 2 .

, , 1 2. , .


,
, . 4.20.

, 3- , , ,
, (. 4.23). ,
, . 4.2. ,
IP-, .

4.2.

x.x.x.1-...10

, ,

...11-...20

...21-...

...31-...80

...81-...254

(network addresses) , . , , . , , : " ?"


, , . , , ,

. , , .
_________________________________________________________________________
:
TCP/IP-
, . . . , (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, DHCP). DHCP IP- , ,
, - , (,
)
_________________________________________________________________________

. 4.23, IP-
. . , , , .
,
. , , . , , . , .
, , . , . , , , .

3-

. 4.24 , . 1, 2, . .
IP- ( /).
1- 2- . ,
. , , , .

. 4 24
,


IP- , . 4.2. .
(. 4.25). , (. 4.26), , . 4.27
.


. , .

, , .

, .

,
;

1-, 2- 3-
;

,
. .
1.
.
2. ,
.
3. ,
.

.
.
, , , :

, ;

- ,
.

.
, .
IP- .


, . .
1. .
2. 2- ?
3. 3- ?
4. ,

, ?
5.
?
6. ?
A.
Internet.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
7. ?
A.
, .
B.
, .
C.
.
D.
.
8. ___,

, _____
?
A.
3- ; 2- ;
B.
1- ; 2- ;
C.
2- ; 1- ;
D.
2- ; 3- .
9. lOBaseT?
A.
10 /.
B.
400 .
C.
.
D.
UTP.
10. 3- ?
A.

.
B.

.
C.
.
D.
.


100BaseFX. 100-/ Fast Ethernet, , .
, lOOBaseFX- 400 . 802.3.
100BaseTX. 100-/ Fast Ethernet, UTP STP. , . 100 . IEEE 802.3.
lOBaseT. Ethernet 10 / " " (3, 4 5 ). ,
. lOBaseT IEEE 802.3
100 .
EIA/TIA-568. , UTP .
Ethernet. , Xerox Xerox, Intel Digital Equipment Corporation. Ethernet CSMA/CD
10 /. Ethernet IEEE 802.3.
Fast Ethernet. Ethernet 100 /. Fast Ethernet
, lOBaseT, , ,
, MAC MTU. lOBaseT- Fast Ethernet.
IEEE 802.3.
Intranet. , .
(asymmetric switching). ,
. ,
10 100 /.
(vertical cabling). . .
- (vertical cross-connect, VCC). , .

- (fiber-optic cable). ,
. ,
.
(optical fiber).
, (main distribution facility, MDF).
. , , .
- (horizontal cross-connect, HCC). ,
, , ,
.
(catchment area). , , (, ).
(header). ,
.
(encapsulate). . , Ethernet Ethernet-. : ,
.
5- (category 5 cabling). UTP , EIA/TIA 568.
100 /.
(contention). ,
.
(flooding). ,
. , ,
, .
(local-area network, LAN). ,
, (
). , , , .
OSI. Ethernet, FDDI Token Ring - .
(backbone cabling).
, (POP),
, .
(unshielded twisted-pair, UTP). , . UTP , . UTP. .
(unicast). , .
(media). , . : , ,
( , ). (physical media).
, (intermediate distribution facility,
IDF). ,
. .
(protocol). , .
(wide-area network, WAN). ,

. , . Frame Relay, SMDS .25.


(Asynchronous Transfer Mode, ATM).
, ( ,
) (53 ). , , ,
. ATM , , SONET .
(segmentation).
.
(enterprise server). , , , (e-mail) (DNS).
(workgroup server). , ( ) , ,
, , .
(network address). , ,
. (protocol address).
(routing table). , , , , , .
"", (star topology). , "-". (ring topology), "", "-" .
(broadcast domain). ,
, . ,
.

, JGRP

IGRP

4, " ", . , 1-, 2 3- (Open System Interconnection Reference Model, OSI). , , ,


, , ,

, , , ,

, , ,

,
,
, NTO , IP-
,
,
.
. IP-,

Cisco (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol).


_________________________________________________________________________

: IGRP
, (, IGRP)
.
IGRP ,
. , IGRP
, .
________________________________________________________________________

,
OSI
, - . - .

. .


(path determination) .
(routing)
. Internet. , .
,
.
:
, , ,
.


IP- - , . : ,
, (hop)
.
, , , .

. IP-. .
IP-
. -

, .. , .
. ,
.
. , , .

. (routing update message).
. , .
.

, ,
, . . , (metric).
.
. . . .
.
, , (Routing Information Protocol, RIP), , , , IGRP,
. . 5.1.
5.1.


,
.

, .



, IBM PC (
55 )

,
,


,
, ,
,


, , , 5 1


, , , , IP-
IP- IP-
IP (next-hop address)

.


(routed protocol)
(routing protocol). (routed protocol) , /Internet- (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
protocol, TCP/IP) ( Internetwork Packet Exchange,
IPX) (routing protocol)
IGRP, Enhanced IGRP, Open
Shortest Path First (OSPF), Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), Border Gateway Protocol (BGP),
OSI routing, Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN), Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System RIP. , ( , end systems) , , IP " ", ( , intermediate systems) "
" .


(multi-

protocol routing), , , RIP IGRP. ,


, , TCP/IP IPX.
_________________________________________________________________________________
:

. , TCP/IP IPX.
_________________________________________________________________________

IP-
, , , .
,
. ,
. .
.

-,
.

-,
.

-, ,
.

:
. (interior protocols) ,
. IP-
. , ,
. Cisco RIP IGRP.
(exterior protocol) , .
EGP .
.

( , , peer) , .

, .

_________________________________________________________________________

: IGRP
IGRP .
; .
.
, IGRP ,
.
.
_________________________________________________________________________


(optimal mute) .
, . ,
, ,
.



. , ,
, .

. , ,
, , . , . ,
.


. -

(convergence) , , , , .
- , ,
, .
,
.
. 5.2 . 1- 1. , , , 2 . 2- ,
, 1- , , 1- . , 2-
, . ;
. , IGRP 255 , 100, 50 .

,
. , , . , .
, ,


(static routing), , .

.
, . ,
, , , .

,
. .


(dynamic routing)
.
, , ,
. ,
.
, , . , " (gateway of
last resort) ( . , , ).
, - .


, .

- () IGRP RIP

(
) (, ,
, ). OSPF, IS-IS
NetWare (NetWare Link Services Protocol, NLSP).

.
IGRP.

IP-

. .
1. .
2. .

, , IGRP
RIP, . , ,
. IGRP
(autonomous system, AS).
_________________________________________________________________________________
:

, . 16 Internet.
_________________________________________________________________________
IP- ,
. . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

IGRP
IGRP Cisco
RIP. IGRP - .
- ,
. , .
IGRP . : , ,
. .
IGRP ,
, .
IGRP . ,
1255,
, 1200 / 10 /, 1 224 .
.

. , .. . , ,
, IGRP RIP. RIP
, .

, IGRP
Cisco IGRP . ,
(. 5.3).
IGRP ,
, , . IGRP : , (. . 5.3).
(interior) ,
. , ,
, . ,
, , IP-, .
(system route) .
,
, IGRP. .

. 5.3.
(external) , , " ". ,
IGRP. ,
, .
, .

IGRP-
IGRP . , IGRP .
,
, , ,
.
_________________________________________________________________________________
: IGRP
IGRP
,
.
router igrp:
router igrp -
- IGRP . , -, router
igrp:
no router igrp -
network:
network -
- , . , . network.
. . ,
, IGRP
. no network
:
no network -
IGRP
109. network , IGRP.
Router(config)# router igrp 109
network 131.108.0.0.
network 192.31.7.0

IGRP .
, IGRP.
_________________________________________________________________________

IGRP
IGRP , ,
:
(holddown);
(split horizon);
(poison reverse update).
.

, , , , ,
(holddown). ,
, , , . , .
,
, , , . , . ,
. , ,
. , , , , (,
, , - ) , . . ( ) .
, .
, . , .


(split horizon) , , . , . 5.4.
1 , .
, . , 2 , 1.

. 54 1
, 2 , 1,
2
. , , 1, , . , 2 1 , ( 1).
1 , , , 2
, . , IGRP , .



, (poison reverse update) . .
,
.
, .
_________________________________________________________________________________
: timers basic holddown
timers basic holddown
.

timers basic. timers basic ,


IGRP .
90 . IGRP , .
IGRP - .
,
.
15 90 45 . .

,
. , . - . 10 ,
, 30
1
4. 12 .

no metric holddown. , , no metric holddown.


, ,
. . , ,

.
_________________________________________________________________________

IGRP
IGRP .
, , maximum transmission unit,
MTU), .
.
. , (, Ethernet),
. , (, Ethernet , 9600
1),
.

IGRP
, IGRP, 90 . ,
, .. 270 , ,
. (450 )
. IGRP
.
(triggered update)
. (poison reverse update) , . ,


IGRP 255. , 100 . IGRP -

(triggered updates), 100 . ,


. ,
, .
,
. , , -
.
,
( 128.6.0.0 ).
Router(config)# router igrp 46
timers basic 15 45 0 60
network 128.6.0.0
no metric holddown
metric maximum-hop 50


30 , , (keepalive interval), ,
4.

.
.
,
.
.
, . , .
IGRP - , : , ,
. ,
.
IGRP , .
IGRP ; .

: IGRP
,

IGRP . IGRP
. , IGRP . , (
).
1. , , . , (
).
2. IGRP- .
3. , IGRP .
4. ,
.
5. ,
, .. .


, , . .
1. OSI
?
2. , ?
3. (multiprotocol routing)?
4. ?
5. (convergence) ?
6. , ,
?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
7. ?
. .
. .
C. .
D. . .
8. _________ _______
; _________________ .
A. -; .
B. -; .
C. ; -.
D. ; .

9. , IGRP
?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. IGRP .
10. IGRP
?
A. show igrp
B. router network grip
C. enable igrp
D. router igrp


(autonomous system, AS). , . . Internet (Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority) 16- .
(next-hop address). IP-, IP .
(exterior protocol). ,
, .
(interior protocol). , ,
.
(dynamic routing). , .
(delay). . , , .
(hop count). ,
. RIP .
(convergence). ,
, ,
.
(maximum transmission unit, MTU). , , .
(routed protocol). ,
.
(triggered update). .
.
(metric). (, ), .
(multiprotocol routing). , . ,
, TCP/IP IPX .
(load). , , | ,
, .
(reliability).

. , . .
(poison reverse update). IGRP,
. ,
.
, .
(path determination). ,
.
OSI.
(cost). , , , .
(hop). (, ).
(routing protocol). ,
.
IGRP, OSPF RIP.
(Interior Gateway Routing Protocol,
IGRP). Cisco ,
.
(Border Gateway Protocol, BGP). . (Exterior Gateway Protocol). BGP BGP RFC 1163.
(split horizon). IGRP, .

.
(keepalive). ,
, .
(static routing). ,
. .
(tick). ,
( ). 55 . 1/18 .
(holddown). IGRP
.
(bandwidth).
, .
.
" " - (gateway of last resort). , , .

' ' ACL, 6

, , any host

, ;

(ACL)


, , . , ,
, , , ,
Internet,
Internet, ,
Telnet
, Internet, , (access control
list, ACL).
,
,

, , , .
_________________________________________________________________________________
:
, . , , , .
_________________________________________________________________________


, . , ,
. ,
, .
. ,
, .
, , , Internet Protocol (IP) Internetwork Packet exchange (IPX) .
, .
,
, .
,
.
, . , , .
. , , ,
, . , . , IP, AppleTalk IPX,
, , .
. 6.1, ,
-1 .

_________________________________________________________________________
:
,
, . Ethernet- .
, , .
,
(Domain
Name System, DNS) DNS/email, .
, . , Web
, DNS- ,
. , .
_________________________________________________________________________


, .

. , , -
.
(queuing) , ,
.
.

. ,

.
.

. ,
, . . 6.2 , , .
, , ,
.

,
. ,
Telnet.
_________________________________________________________________________

:


. , ,
,
.
DNS , .
, .
_________________________________________________________________________



, . ,
Cisco Internetwork (Cisco Internetwork Operational System, IOS)
, . , .
, , . ,
. , , (Trivial File Transfer Protocol, TFTP).
_________________________________________________________________________

. , ,
, .
_________________________________________________________________________


, , .

. .
, ,
.
Cisco
, . 6.3. ,
.


, :

. 6.3.
. 6.4,
, , . , ,
. , .
, -,
, .
, . , ; , Too,
, .
. , . ,
.

. 6.4. ,
,
, . 6.5 . (bit bucket). .
,
. , , . , .
,
. :
,
;
, , ;
, .

. 6.5.
, -
_________________________________________________________________________
:
, .
. Internet.
_________________________________________________________________________________

, , . ,
. .
. , permit
any. ,
. ,
.
_________________________________________________________________________


. , , .

ACL .

ACL 1 99
. 100 199 ACL.

ACL
. IP ; .

IP-;
. .

IP- ,
.

, .
1.

Router(config)# access-list -
{ }

{permit

deny}

access-list . ,
1 99 IP-. . 11.2 Cisco
, , education_group.
permit deny , Cisco , . permit , . , .
2.
accessgroup, :
Router (config-if)#

{} access-group

, , . , , , .


, ,
, .
,
.
, .
.
.

{
.
,
.
, , . 6.1.
6.1. ,


IP
1-99
Extended IP
100-199
AppleTalk
600-699
IPX
800-899
Extended IPX
900-999
IPX Service Advertising Protocol
1000-1099
.
, ,
no access-list -
_________________________________________________________________________
:

1 2.
interface ethernet

ip address
1.1.1.1
255.0.0.0
ip access-group 1 in
ip access-group 2 out
!
access-list 1 permit 5.6.0.0 0.0.255.255
access-list 1 deny 7.9.0.0 0.0.255.255
!
access-list 2 permit 1.2.3.4
access-list 2 deny
1.2.0.0 0.0.255.255

, 10 IP- 5.6.7.7 14
IP- 1.2.23.21. :
list I permit 5.6.7.7
list 2 deny

1 packet

1.2.23.21 1 packet

_______________________________________________________________________________

32- , , 8 . 0 , ,
1 , (. 6.6).

. 6 6. IP

_______________________________________________________________

, IP-. ,
, ,
. ,
(,
0.0.255.255, 255.255.0.0).
_________________________________________________________________________
IP-; IP-.
, .
(wildcard masking) "", .
32 , .
, . IP- , .
, IP-.
. 6.7 .
, IP- , . , , (..
), 8
( ).
172.30.16.0 172.30.31. , -

, . 6.7.
:
172.30.16.0 172.30.31.0


(172.30).
(
0.0), , .
15 (00001111), IP- 16 (00001000).
IP- (0001). ,
16 (00010000) 31 (00011111) ,
0001.
( )
, , .
172.30.16.0 0.0.15.255 172.30.16.0 172.30.31.0. .

any
.
. , . ,
, 0.0.0.0, . 6.8. ,

(.. ), (..
255.255.255.255). Cisco any. 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255
any.
,

Router(config)#

Router(config)#

access-list

permit

0.0.0.0

access-list

permit

any

255.255.255.255

host
, , , . , , . (, 172.30.16.29, . 6.9), ,
, .. (0.0.0.0).
host.
172.30.16.29 ). . . host.
,
Router(config)#

access-list

permit

172.30.16.29

0.0.0.0


Router(config)#

access-list

permit

host

172.30.16.29

. 6.9. host host 172.30.16.29


, , - , . , .
.
, . , . 6.10 , -

, . , SO,
. , .


, access-list. .

SO

. 6.10. , ,

:
Router(config)# access-list - {permit | deny} source

[-]

[log]


n:
Router(config)# no access-list -

, .

-
deny
permit
source

.
1 99 ( IP-)
,
,
, .

32- - ,
any

...0255.255.255.255
() , .
32- - ,
. - , .
any -

log


0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255
()
(logging message) , ,
( ,
logging console)
,
, , , , , ,

show accesslists. .

:
access-list I permit 192.5.34.0 0.0.0.255
access-list 1 permit 128.88.0.0 0.0.255.255
access-list 1 permit 36.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
! (: )

,
. , , .
, .
:
access-list 2 permit 36.48.0.3
access-list 2 permit 36.48.0.3 0.0.0.0

ip access-group
. , ,
. .
Router (config) # ip access-group - {in | out}
.

-
,

in | out
,
in, out ,
out

______________________________________________________


no ip access-group , , no
access-list( )
, , , . 6 11. - 172.16.0.0.
172.16.4.13 .
172.16.4.0
.
_________________________________________________________________________________

1 :
-
6.1 172.16.0.0. . . 6.11
, -
172.16-.

6.1. - 172.16.0.0
access-list I permit 172.16.0.0
0.0.255.255
( ;
)
(access-list I deny O.O.O.O 255.255.255.255)
interface ethernet 0
ip access-group 1 out
interface ethernet 1
ip access-group 1 out

6.1

,
,


, ,
IP-,
-
, ,
, ,

permit
172.16.0.0

0.0.255.255

ip access-group 6.1 .

2 :

6 2 , , 172.16.4.13,
Ethernet 0. access-list
, deny. 0.0.0.0 .
6.2.
access-list I deny
172.16.4.13
0.0.0.0
access-list 1 permit 0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255
( ; ) (access-list I deny O.O.O.O 255.255.255.255)
interface ethernet 0
ip access-group 1
________________________________________________________________________________

6 2

1
deny
host
permit
0.0.0.0
255,255.255.255

, ,
, ,

0.0.0.0
, ,

IP- -,
(placeholder)
, , ,
, , , 32

access-list 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 , -

.
any
, , 32 .
, ,
.

3 :

6.3 , 172.16.4.0,
. , : 0.0.0.255. , . ,
IP- any.
6,3.
access-list 1 deny 172.16.4.0 0.0.0.255
access-list 1 permit any
( )
(access-list I deny any)
interface ethernet 0 ip access-group 1
_________________________________________________________________________________

6 3

deny
172.16.4.0
0.0.0.255

permit
any


, 172.16.4.0,

, ,

IP-
, , ,
, , 255 ,

, ,

0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255. ,
, , 32


(extended access control list, extended ACL)
, , . , , ,
Worldwide Web FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Telnet

, .
, . ,
.
. ,
. , . 6.10 , SO,
.
, . 6.10
. ,
. , ,
, .
, ,
. , , , . , .
. , , .
.
, , . . , , .
.
, ( 1
99) .
(Transmission Control Protocol, TCP). , .
. ,
. , ,
TCP (User Datagram Protocol, UDP), . TCP/IP.
. 6.2.
6.2.
()
20

IP-
FTP

21
23
25
53
69

FTP
Telnet
Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP)
DNS
TFTP

, . 100 199.

access-list .
Router(config)# access-list - {permit | deny}
source [- destination -]
[ ] [established] [log]
.

,
100 199
,
, IP,
TCP, UDP, ICMP, GRE IGRP

, ,
,
,

it, gt, eq, neq ( , ,
, )
TCP-

( )

permit | deny

source destination
- -


established

ip access-group
. , ,
. .
Router(config)#

ip access-group -

{in

out}

-
in I out

,
,
.
in out, out

,
, 100 199. TCP UDP, , .
. 6.3.
6.3.

0

1-4
20
21
23
25
42
53
69
70
80
133-159
160-223
161
224-241
242-255


FTP ()
FTP

SMTP

DNS
TFTP
Gopher
WWW
He

FNP
He
He

FTP-DATA
FTP
TELNET
SMTP
NAMESERVER

DOMAIN
TFTP

TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
UDP
TCP/UDP
UDP
TCP/IP
TCP

UDP


, . 6.11.
FTP . Telnet , .

1 :
FTP
6.4 ,
FTP.
6.4. FTP
access-list

access-list

101 deny tcp

101 permit

0.0.0.255

eq

20

172.16.3.0

0.0.0.255

eq

21

ip

172.16.4.0

172.16.4.0
0.0.0.0

0.0.0.255
255.255.255.255

( ;
) (access-list 101 deny ip 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255
0.0.0.0

interface

ethernet

255.255.255.255

0 ip access-group

101

6.4.

101
;
deny
, ,

tcp

172.16.4.0 0.0.0.255
, ,

172.16.3.0 0.0.0.255
, ,

eq 21
eq 20



FTP

FTP

interface access-group 101 101- . , FTP;


20 21. FTP . , , .

2 :


6.5 ,
SMTP.
6.5.

access-list 101 permit
tcp 172.16.4.0
0.0.0.255 any eq
( ; )
(access-list
101
deny ip 0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255
0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255)

25

interface ethernet 0 ip access-group 101

6.5.

101
;
permit
, ,
tcp

172.16.4.0 0.0.0.255
; ,
0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255
;

eq 25
SMTP
access-group 101

SMTP- (eq 25) 172.16.4.0 .
, any.
access-group 101 out. , 101 .

( )
( 1 199). . . .

, .

99 100 ,
.
.

Cisco, 11.2.

. ,
. ,
George .

Router(config)#

ip access-list

{standard

extended}


. , .
Router (config
| any}

{std-

ext-}

nacl)# deny

[-]

Router (config {std- | ext-} nacljt permit ( [-]


| any}

Internetfilter marketinggroup:
interface ethernetO/5
ip address 2.0.5.1
255.255.255.0
ip address-group Internetfliter out
ip address marketinggroup in
. . .
ip access-list standard Internetfliter
permit 1.2.3.4
deny any
ip access-list ip extended marketinggroup
permit tcp any 171.69.0.0
0.255.255.255

eq telnet

deny tcp any any


deny
udp any 171.69.0.0

It 1024

0.255.255.255

deny ip any log

deny
deny . :
deny ( [-]

\ any } [log]


. :
no deny [ [-]

\ any}


Internetfilter:
ip access-list standard Internetfilter
deny
192.5.34.
0 0.0.0.255
permit 128.88.0.0 0.0.255.255
permit 36.0.0.0
0.255.255.255
! (: )

permit
permit . :
permit

{ [-]

| any

[log]

;.
:
no permit

{ [-]

\ any


access-list , .
Internetfilter:
ip access-list standard Internetfilter
deny
192.5.34.0
0.0.0.255
permit 128.88.0.0
0.0.255.255
permit 36.0.0.0
0.255.255.255
!(: )

,
no :
Router(config (std- | ext-} nacl)# {permit | deny}
{permit
|
deny}
{ip ACL -}
no
{permit
|
deny}
{ip ACL -}

{ip ACL }

IP:
Router(config-if)# ip access-group { \ 1-199 {in | out}}

:
ip access-list extended come_on
permit tcp any 171.69.0.0 '0.255.255.255
deny tcp any any
deny udp any 171.69.0.0

0.255.255.255

deny ip any any


interface ethrnetO/5
ip address 2.0.5.1
255.255.255.0
ip access-group over_out out
ip access-group come_on in
ip access-list standard over_and
permit 1.2.3.4

eq telnet

It 1024

deny any


Cisco . . . .
. . .
, , .
, Cisco
. ,
. ,
. , , . , .
, .
_________________________________________________________________________________
:
, :
eigrp, gre, icmp, igmp, igrp, ip, ipinip, nos, ospf, top, udp ,
1-255. Internet ( ICMP, TCP UDP) ip.
RFC 1700.
_________________________________________________________________________


,
. , , . ,
, ,
.
, , Telnet- FTP 1 D Ethernet 1
, . 6.12.
. . ,
, , . .
Ethernet-
- D. - .
-

, . - , . , . 6.12, D.

. 6.12. ,

, (firewall) , Internet. ,
.
,
.
_________________________________________________________________________

,
, , .
,
, . , permit any .
_________________________________________________________________________
(border routers), ..
. , .
, . , , , -

.
_________________________________________________________________________________
:
Internet, ,
, Internet
. ,
, , .
_________________________________________________________________________


, .
Internet , . , . 6.13.
, Internet (.. )
. , (.. ) .

. 6 13
Internet

, . , Internet,
.
, [ . ,
, .
:
, . 6.13,

.


, ,
.
.
13 , 14
Internet .
interface ethernet
ip address ..13.1 255.255.255.0
interface serial 0
ip address ..14.1
255.255.255.0
router igrp
network ..0.0

. .
, , . ,
.
.
. - . , access-list,
.

no access-list 101
access-list
, . established, , () (RST).
access-list

101

permit

tcp

0.0.0.0

255.255.255.255

0.0.0.0

255.255.255.255

established

(nonvolatile random-access memory, NVRAM),


. , 13 (ethernet 0). access-group,
, .
interface ethernet
ip access-group 101
Internet
, -

0 . , , Telnet FTP, . . 13.0


, , , .
, , .
_________________________________________________________________________


show ip interface , . show access-lists
. , 6.6.
6.6. IP-
Router> show
EthernetO is up, line protocol is up
Internet address is 192.54.22.2, subnet mask is 255.255.255.0
Broadcast address is 255.255.255.255
Address determined by nonvolatile memory
MTU is 1500 bytes
Helper address is 192.52.71.4
Secondary address 131.192.115.2, subnet mask 255.255.255.0
Outgoing ACL 10 is set
Inbound ACL is not set
Proxy ARP is enabled
Security level is default
Split horizon is enabled
ICMP redirects are always sent
ICMP unreachables are never sent
ICMP mask replies are never sent
IP fast switching is enabled
Gateway Discovery is disabled
IP accounting is disabled
TCP/IP header compression is disabled
Probe proxy name replies are disabled
Router>

Cisco- , /
.


, .

IP- ( 0 1)
.

, , , Internet.

:
,
, . . , .
1.
,

.
2. , , .
3. , .
4.
.


, , . .
1. ?
2. IP- ?
3.
?
4.
?
5.
?
6. , , ?
A.
B.
C.
D.

show
show
show
show

running-config
ip protocols
ip interface
ip network

7. 32 access-list?
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D. .
8.
Router(config)# access-list 156.1.0.0
0.0.255.255?
A. " ."
B. " ."
C. " ."
D. " ."
9. : " ,
" ", , permit,
".
A. .
B. .
10. show access-list , :
A. , ;
B. ;
C. ;
D. .


(bit bucket). , .
(firewall). () () , .
.
(Domain Name System, DNS). , Internet

(queuing). , .
(border router). ,

.
(extended access control list, Extended ACL).
, .
(access control list, ACL). , Cisco , (, IP-, ).
(standard access control list, standard ACL).
,
.
TCP/IP.
(wildcard mask). 32- , IP , IP-
IP-.
.

, Cisco
NetWare

Novell NetWare

Novell IPX

Novell

, Novell RI

(Service Advertising Protocol)

Ethernet-
IPX-

IPX-

IPX

IPX

Novell IPX

Novell NetWare (network operating


system, NOS),
NetWare , , Internet
NetWare Internet- intranet-,
, Novell
( 5
50 )
Internet- (Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), (Internetwork
Packet Exchange, IPX), Novell 1998 Novell NetWare
NetWare IPX AppleTalk, Novell NetWare
IP IPX- ,
Novell IPX,

_________________________________________________________________________________
: IPX
Novell IPX

, IP IPX,
_________________________________________________________________________

Cisco NetWare
Cisco Novell , NetWare. NetWare
,
Cisco
NetWare . Cisco NetWare.
Cisco
(Cisco Internetwork Operation System, IOS).

Novell NetWare
Novell NetWare 80- . NetWare /.
( ) , , , . Windows NT,
NetWare
. . 7.1 NetWare,
, Cisco NetWare, NetWare OSI.

_________________________________________________________________________

,
. IP (User Datagram Protocol, UDP).
,
.

_________________________________________________________________________
Novell IPX , .

3- , .

Novell (Routing Information Protocol, RIP), IP , .

(Service Advertising Protocol, SAP), .

NetWare (NetWare Core Protocol, NCP) .

(Sequenced Packet Exchange, SPX)


4- , .
_________________________________________________________________________________

SPX (4-) NetWare.


SPX , (
TCP), , IPX.
_________________________________________________________________________

IPX
IPX 3- , . IPX , , , IP- , TCP/IP
IPX TCP/IP . IPX
. IPX.

IPX / .

..

- .

Novell RIP - .

(service access point);


(Get Nearest Server, GNS).

IPX - (, , RIP) ( NetWare (NetWare Link


Services Protocol, NLSP). IPX RIP 60
. RIP . 16 .

Novell IPX

IPX- Novell ,
(. 7.2). -
. Novell IPX ;
. , , .
_________________________________________________________________________________

IPX (tick), .
1/18 . , , IPX RIP . RIP , , Novell RIP, ,
TCP/IP.

4a1d.0000.OC56.dE33

. 7.2. 80- Novell IPX; 32


48
. 7.3 IPX-: 4ald 3f. IPX- , . . -
IPX (ARP). IPX- - Ethernet. . 7.3 IPX- 0000. Oc56.de33 4ald
0000. Oc56.de34 3f.
, IPX-, IPX-, . Novell . IPX-
, IPX Cisco. Cisco IPX-.
NetWare. , IPX- , . (Telnet) show protocols show ipx interface .

_________________________________________________________________________
: show ipx interface
IPX-,
, show ipx interface (privileged EXEC command mode). :
show ipx interface [ ]
interface
: asynchronous (), dialer (), ethernet ( IEEE
802.3), FDDI ( -
(Fiber Distributed Data Interface, FDDI), loopback ( ), null (-), serial (), Token Ring
tunnel (). . , ethernet 0 Ethernet.
,
show ipx interface .
Router# show ipx interface Ethernet 1
Ethernet1
is up, line protocol
is up
IPX address is COS.0000.Oc05.6030, NOVELL-ETHER [up]
RIPPQ:
0,
SAPPQ:
0
Delay of this Novell network,
in ticks is
1
IPXWAN processing not enabled on this interface.
IPX SAP update interval is 1 minute(s)

line-up,

Ethernet! is..., line . protocol


(up), (down)
IPX address is...

;
,


NOVELL-ETHER

,
( )

[up] line-up

, IPX- . Line-up , IPX- ipx routing, line-down, ,


. IPX-
-

RIPPQ:

RIP-

SAPPQ:

SAP-

Secondary
dress is...

ad- , ( ).
. , ipx network
.

Delay of this ( ipx deNovell


network, lay)
in ticks...

IPXWAN
essing..

proc- , IPXWAN- .
ipx ipxwan

IPX SAP update SAP- (


interval
ipx sap-interval)
_________________________________________________________________________
: IPX-
IPX- ,
TCP/IP. , - . IPX- . , , (IP, IPX .)
.
.
IPX- , 32 ( 8 ),
" " ("pad out"). , 21 () ,
32- (, 8 ): 00000021.
IP- IPX- . ,
169.199.69.128/27 974580. ,
.

(, 10, 20, 30 ..).


, - 2- , ..
. ,
Novell,
.
_________________________________________________________________________

Novell
NetWare (.. )
Ethernet. Cisco.
Xerox, Intel Digital ( DIX) Ethernet- 1980 . Ethernet I (Ethernet Version
I). DIX Ethernet II (Ethernet Version II),
TCP/IP. 1982
(Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, IEEE)
Ethernet. 802.3. Novell 1983 , 802.3, . Novell 802.3 (
Ethernet 802.3). IEEE ,
" Ethernet" (Ethernet raw). IEEE, ,
802.3, (logical link control, LLC). LLC ,
. IEEE ( 802.2) Novell 802.3, Ethernet 802.2
. IOS Cisco
ethemet sap (Novell Ethernet_802.2).
Ethemet SNAP. ,
. Novell 802.3, Cisco 802.2,
.
IOS Cisco Novell,
.

Ethernet 802.3, "" Ethernet, NetWare 2- 3.11, .

Ethemet 802.2 sap ( Novell Ethemet_802.2 802.3) IEEE, LLC 802.2. NetWare 3.12 4.x
Novell OSI- .

Ethernet II ( Novell Ethernet_II Ethernet II) Ethernet II TCP/IP.

Ethernet SNAP snap ( Novell Ethernet_SNAP snap) IEEE 802.2 (Subnetwork Access Protocol, SNAP), " ", , Ethernet II TCP/IP AppleTalk.

_______________________________________________________________


IPX-, , IPX- .
IPX- , Novell
.
_________________________________________________________________________

, Cisco
IOS Cisco Ethernet/802.3, NetWare. Cisco , , . , NetWare , .
IPX- ,
IPX- .
IPX- Novell, Cisco. 7.1
Novell Cisco IOS
.
_________________________________________________________________________________

, IPX-
Cisco ,
. , , 3.11 NetWare, Ethernet IPX- Cisco
Novell.
______________________________________________________________________
7.1. , Cisco

Novell IPX

Cisco IOS

Ethernet

Ethernet_802.3
Ethernet_802.2
Ethernet-II
Ethernet SNAP
Token-Ring
Token-Ring SNAP
FDDI SNAP
FDDI_802.2
FDDI_RAW

novell-ether
sap
arpa
snap
sap
snap
snap
sap
novell-fddi

Token Ring
FDDI

_________________________________________________________________________
: IPX-

,
Novell . NetWare 3.12 4.x, ethernet sap . NetWare
, . , (.. IPX-,
, ).
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

Novell 3.11 3.12 4.x. ,


, IPX, Cisco-, sap. , Ethernet 802.2, Ethernet 802_3,
. Cisco-
Ethernet 802.3.
, , , .
_________________________________________________________________________

IPX-
IPX- Novell NetWare. IPX-.

Checksum ( )

, , 16- (FFFF)

Packet length ( )

IPX-
IPX-

(media transmission
unit, MTU)

Transport control ( )

,
. 16,

Packet type ( )

,

.

.
5 SPX;
17 NCP.

Novell RIP
Novell NetWare , . Cisco IOS
Novell.
Cisco IOS Novell RIP, Novell.
, , RIP ( 16), ,
.
RIP - , : (ticks) (hop
count). Novell RIP , . , , . ,
, .
(load share)
. , .
_________________________________________________________________________
: ipx maximum-path
, ,
ipx maximum-path . : ipx maximum-path
1, , : no ipx maximum-path

, .
1 512. , , 1.
i maximum-path .
(, ). IPX
(round-robin fashion), (, fast
switching) (process switching)). , , .. ,
.
-

. , ,
. : Router(config)# ipx maximum-paths 3
_________________________________________________________________________
Novell RIP IP
, IPX-. , IPX- Novell
RIP- . IPX-
Novell RIP- .
, " " Novell RIP- IPX-
, , . Novell RIP
, IPX - . . 60- .
.
_________________________________________________________________________
: ipx routing
IPX- ipx routing . :
Ipx routing []
IPX-
:
no ipx routing []
. 48- , (. . ).
, -. - Ethernet-, Token Ring- FDDI- . (, , ), .
ipx routing IRX RIP- SAP- .
, - , IPX-
.
- , IPX . IPX:
Router(config)# ipx routing

_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

: IGRP Cisco
NetWare Cisco.
IGRP (enhanced IGRP), TCP/IP, NetWare AppleTalk. IGRP - , . IGRP
,
, . IGRP , .
IGRP ,
,
. , IGRP (,
, ),
. IGRP
NetWare- 40-50%.
IGRP , .
:

- ipx router eigrp


IGRP- --

IGRP- network {- | all}
IPX
RIP 1 2 IGRP
1.
Router# ipx routing
!
interface ethernet 0
ipx network 1
!
interface ethernet 1
ipx network 2
!
ipx router eigrp 100
network 1

RIP 2 IGRP 1:
Router# ipx routing
!
interface ethernet 0
ipx network 1
!
interface ethernet 1
ipx network 2
!

ipx router eigrp 100


ipx network 1
!
ipx router rip
no ipx network 1
_________________________________________________________________________________


NetWare- (NetWare SAP) ,
, . , SAP. SAP 60 .
, , SAP .
Novell - , . .
NetWare . NetWare SAP . , , SAP-.
SAP- , . .

SAP-

NetWare

24

(-

SAP- .
SAP. RIP, SAP
SAP, .
60 . , , ,
, .
SAP.
SAP . 60 ,
SAP- .
Cisco SAP- , S. ,
.
_________________________________________________________________________________
: RIP- SAP- -



NetWare RIP- SAP , 60 . RIP SAP
,
. , , .
Cisco RIP SAP . , , RIP SAP,
.
Cisco
RIP- SAP- ( MTU ).
,
.
_________________________________________________________________________

(Get Nearest
Server Protocol)
NetWare , Novell , SAP. SAP GNS,
.
NetWare / ,
.
,
NetWare. ,
SAP.
NetWare SAP; GNS.
, ,
.
NetWare , . Cisco GNS. NetWare,
Cisco SAP.
Cisco
, . NetWare
NetWare, GNS. Cisco NetWare, GNS .
GNS- - ,
.
GNS- Cisco . , , GNS-, . 7.4. Cisco GNS-
, 1 ,
2.

GNS-
GNS-: 1

. 7.4. GNS- ,

, Cisco , ,
, .

Novell IPX
IPX- .
:

. ,
.

IPX-, ,
.

Novell IPX
, ipx routing
Novell. , Cisco - .
Cisco , . , ipx maximum-path,
. ,
. 1, 512.


IPX- , IPX-,
IPX-.
, ,
(primary) . (secondary).
, IPX- , ,
,
. , -
.
, IPX-,
, . (subinterface) , . ,
. ,
, , ,
.
_________________________________________________________________________________
:
IPX-,
IP-,
.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
:
IP, .
,
. , IPX , . , , IP . , IP . , , , ,
, .
_________________________________________________________________________
. 7.5, Novell IPX . , :

ipx routing

IPX
IPX RIP

ipx maximum-paths 2

interface ethernet . 1


encapsulation novell-ether

, Novell- . Cisco
novell-ether;
Novell

Ethernet_802.3

ipx network 9e

, E

interface ethernet 0.2

ipx network 6

encapsulation sap

, Ethernet 802.2.
Cisco sap

IPX
, , , . 7.2.
7.2. IPX


show interface

IPX

show ipx route

show ipx servers

IPX

show ipx traffic


debug ipx routing activity

RIP-

debug ipx sap

SAP

ping

IPX-
Cisco IOS , . NetWare-
.
_________________________________________________________________________________
: 1 (Simple Network Management Protocol)
Cisco IOS NetWare (NetWare Management Information Base), (Simple Network Management Protocol),
.

IPX , IPX-
, , IPX-,
.

IPX,
:
IPX-;

, ,
;

,
.

IPX, RIP, SAP,


.

IPX-
show ipx interface IPX- IPX-,
( 7.1).

7.1. show ipx interface


Router# show ipx interface ethernet 0
EthernetO is up, line protocol is up
IPX address is 3010.aaOO.0400.0284 NOVELL_ETHER [up] line-up RIPPQ:
0,SAPPQ: 0
Delay of this Novel Network, in ticks, is 1
IPXWAN processing not enabled on this interface
IPX SAP update interval is 1 minute(s)
IPX type 20 propagation packet forwarding is disabled
Outgoing access list is not set -.- IPX Helper access list is not set
SAP Input filter list is not set
SAP Output filter list is not set
SAP Router filter list is not set
SAP GNS output filter list is not set I Input filter list is not set I Output
filter list is not set I Router filter list is not set
Netbios Input host access list is not set
Netbios Input bytes access list is not set
Netbios Output host access list is not set
Netbios Output bytes access list is not set
Update time is 60 seconds
IPX accounting is disabled
IPX fast switching is configured (enabled)
IPX SSE switching is disabled
RIP packets received 1, RIP packets sent 10006
SAP packets received 1, SAP packets sent 6
_________________________________________________________________________________

,
. ipx delay , . Cisco:

1 ;

6 .

IPX
show ipx route IPX.
7.2 .

3030.

. . , .

3021.0000. . 13d3.

23 .

Serial 0 ( ).

Novell-ETHER.

7.2. show ipx route


Router# show ipx route
Codes: - Connected primary , - connected secondary network,
R - RIP, E - EIGRP, S - Static, W - IPXWAN connected
5 total IPX routes
Up to 2 parallel paths allowed, Novell routing protocol variant to use
R Net 3030 [6/1] via 3021.0000.Oc03.13d3, 23 sec, Seriall
via 3020.0000.Oc03.13d3, 23 sec, SerialO
Net 3020 (X25), SerialO
Net 3021 (HDLC), Seriall
Net 3010 (Novell-ETHER), EthernetO
Net 3000 (Novell-ETHER), Ethernetl
, 7.2.

, :

Codes

;
;
R RIP;
RIP

s , ipx route;
w , IPXWAN
5 Total IPX routes
Parallel
lowed

paths

IPX

al- ,
ipx maximum-paths

Novell routing pro- , IPX-


tocol variant in use
( )
Net 1

[6/1]

/ Delay , -. , . , ( )

via .

Age

(, ),

uses

,
,

EthernetO

(NOVELL-ETHER)

().

(HDLC)

(SAP/SNAP)

IPX Novell
show ipx servers , c
SAP-. .

, SAP- .

, , .

( ).

( SAP-).

, .

, SAP-, ( show
ipx
servers -.
:
show ipx servers [sorted [name | net | type] ]
, .

sorted

()

name

()

net

()

type

()
() SAP-

7.3 show ipx servers. 7.3.


show ipx servers
Route r > show ipx servers
Codes: P - Periodic, I - Incremental, H - holddown, S - Static
1 Total IPX Servers
Table ordering is based on routing and server info
Type Name
Net Address
Port Route Hops Itf
P
4 MAXINE AD333000.0000.Ib04.0288:0451 32800/1
2 Et3
_________________________________________________________________________________
, 7.3.

Codes

, '

SAP-
i
SAP (incremental SAP)
IGRP-
,

s ipx
sap

Total IPX Serv-


ers
and
server
info
Table
ordering ,
is based on rout- SAP. ing
and
server
info
Type

SAP-

Name

Net

Address

Port

Route

( )

Hops

SAP

Itf

IPX
show ipx traffic IPX, .
7.4 RIP. , , . , IPX
.
( 7.4. show ipx traffic
Routert# show ipx traffic
Rcvd:
32124925 total, 1691992 format errors, 0 checksum errors, 67
bad hop count,
18563 packets pitched, 452467 local destination, 0 multicast
Bcast: 452397 received, 1237193 sent Sent:
2164776 generated, 31655567 forwarded
0 encapsulation failed, 2053 no route
SAP:
3684 SAP requested, 10382 SAP replies
259288 SAP advertisements received, 942564 sent
0 SAP SAP flash updates sent, 0 SAP poison sent
0 SAP format errors
RIP:
0 RIP format errors
Echo:
Rcvd 0 requests, 0 replies
Sent 0 requests, 0 replies
4252 unknown, 0 SAPs throttled, freed NDB len 0
Watchdog:
0 packets received, 0 replies spoofed
Queue lengths:
IPX input: 1, SAP 0, RIP 0, GNS 0
Total length for SAP throttling purposes: 1/(no preset limit)
IGRP:
Total received 0, sent 0
Updates received 0, sent 0
Queries received 0, sent 0
Replies received 0, sent 0
SAPs received 0, sent 0
_________________________________________________________________________________

, 7.4.

Rcvd:

32124925 total

1691992

format errors

(,
, , )

checksum errors

67 bad hops count

, , 16 ( . )

18563 packets pitched

20

ipx type-20-inputchecks

20 ,

RIP- SAP-

-.

452467 local destination

multicast

Bast

452397 received

1237193 sent

.
, .

Sent:

, ,

2164776 generated

31655567 forwarded

0 encapsulation
failed

2053 no route

SAP:

SAP-,

3684 SAP requests

SAP-,

10382 SAP replies

SAP-,

259288 SAP advertisements received

SAP-,

942564 sent

SAP-,

0 SAP flash updates sent

SAP-,

0 SAP poison sent

,
, -

SAP format errors

SAP-

RIP:

RIP-,

0 RIP format errors

RIP-

Echo:

ping,
0

ping,

Sent 0 requests, 0
replies

ping,

4252 unknown

0 SAP throttled

SAP-, ,

Rcvd 0 request,
replies

Freed NDB len 0

(Network descriptor
block, NDB), ,

Watchdog:

0 packets received

, IPX-

0 replies spoofed

,
watchdog-

Queue lengths

IPX input

SAP

SAP-,

RIP

RIP-,

GNS

GNS-,

Total length for


SAP throttling purposes

RIP- SAP . SAP- , ,

Unknown counter

,
, ,

IPX
IOS Cisco debug ping,

. debug , Novell.
debug ipx routing activity IPX, .
60 . 50 . 50
, .
7.5 ,
. , ,
.
7.5 debug ipx routing activity
Router# debug ipx routing activity
IPX routing debugging is on
Router#
IPXRIP: positing full update to 3010.ffff.ffff. ffff via EthernetO

(broadcast)
IPXRIP: positing full update to 3000.ffff.ffff.ffff via Ethernetl
(broadcast)
IPXRIP: positing full update to 3020.ffff.ffff.ffff via SerialO
(broadcast)
IPXRIP: positing full update to 3021.ffff.ffff.ffff via Seriall
(broadcast)
IPXRIP: sending update to 3020.ffff.ffff.ffff via SerialO (broadcast)
IPXRIP: arc=3020.0000.0c03.14d8m dst=3020.ffff.ffff.ffff, packet sent
network 3021, hops 1 , delay 6
network 3010, hops 1 , delay 6
network 3000, hops 1 , delay 6
IPXRIP: sending update to 3021.ffff.ffff.ffff via Seriall (broadcast)
IPXRIP: arc=3021.0000.0c03.14d8m dst=3021.ffff.ffff.ffff, packet sent
network 3020, hops 1 , delay 6
network 3010, hops 1 , delay 6
network 3000, hops 1 , delay 6
IPXRIP: sending update to 3010.ffff.ffff.ffff via EthernetO
IPXRIP: arc=3010.aaOO.0400.0284, dst=3010.ffff.ffff.ffff, packet sent
network 3030, hops 2 , delay 7
network 3020, hops 1 , delay 1
network 3021, hops 1 , delay 1
network 3000, hops 1 , delay 1
IPXRIP: sending update to 3000.ffff.ffff.ffff via Ethernetl

SAP IPX
debug ipx sap IPX SAP-,
.
SAP 60 , , RIP, . 7.6, SAP- ,
.
7.6. debug

sap

Router# debug ipx sap


IPX SAP debugging is on
Router#
NovellSAP: at 0023F778
I SAP Response type 0x2 len 160 arc:160.0000.OcOO.070d
dest: 160.ffff.ffff.ffff(452)
Type 0x4, "HELL02", 199.0002.0004.0006(451), 2 hops
Type 0x4, "HELL01", 199.0002.0004.0008(451), 2 hops
Novell SAP: sending update to 160
NovellSAP: at 169080
0 SAP Update type 0x2 len 96 ssoc; 0x452 dest: 160.ffff.ffff.ffff(452)
Novell: type 0x4 "Magnolia", 42.0000.0000.0000(451), 2 hops
_________________________________________________________________________________

SAP :
Oxl ;
0x2 ;
0x3 GNS-;
0x4 GNS-.
SAP-
.

IPX- ping
IOS Cisco
IPX- ping.
, . , , .
ping Novell Novell,
.

ping IPX
ping (EXEC).
:
ping [ipx] [.]
, .

ipx

() IPX

() , ping

ping
, . Cisco, IOS 8.2 . Novell IPX .
ping .
ping .
<Ctrl+Shift+6+X>. <Ctrl>, <Shift> <6>, , , <>.
. 7.3 , ping.
7.3. , , ping

,
,

(PDU) " "

&

7.7 ping .
7.7. ping
Router# ping
Protocol [ip]: ipx
Target Novell Address: 211.0000.OcOl.f4cf
Repeat Count [5]:
Datagram Size [100]:
Timeout in seconds [2] :
Verbose [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5 100-byte Novell echoes to 211.0000.OcOl.f4cf, timeout is 2
seconds.
!!!!!
Success rate is 100%, round trip min/avg/max = 1/2/4 ms.
_________________________________________________________________________________

ping IPX
ping (EXEC). ping, ping , . ping. 100-
. :
ping [ipx]

{ \ }

ipx

() IPX
, ping
,
ping

ping Cisco, 8.2 . Novell IPX .


ping . , : %Unrecognized host
or address.
7.8 ping .
7.8. ping
Router> ping ipx 211.0000.OcOl.f4of

Type escape sequence to abort.


Sending 5, 100-byte Novell Echoes to 211.0000.OcOl.f4cf,
timeout is 2 seconds.
. . .
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
_________________________________________________________________________________

Novell IPX , :

, ,
;

3- , .

Novell NetWare R1P SAP . NetWare NCP /, SPX 4-


.

IPX 3- NetWare
, IP IP/TCP.

Cisco Ethernet (novel 1-ether), Token Ring (sap) FDDI (snap).

Novell RIP - ,
:
.

SAP NetWare
.

GNS .

IPX , .

:
Novell IPX
, IPX . IPX .
1.

IPX.

2.

3.

, IPX .

, , . .
1.
IPX-?
2.
?
3.

ipx routing?
4.
IPX-?
5.
SAP-,
IPX?
6.
Novell IPX- 80 : 32
48
A. ; IP-.
B. ; -.
C. ; .
'
D.
-; .
7.
IPX-
________________.
A.
Novell-.
B.
Cisco .
C.
.
D.
.
8.
Novell NetWare _______
_________
A.
NCP; RIP.
B.
RIP; SAP.
C.
SPX; NCP.
D.
SAP; RIP.
9.

Novell IPX?
A.
B.
C.
D.

ipx routing []
router ipx
ipx route []
router rip

10. :

_______ IPX;

________ IPX;

__________ SAP-.
A.
show ipx traffic; show ipx route; show ipx routing activity.
B.
show ipx interface; show ipx route; show ipx servers.
C.
show ipx interface; show ipx; show ipx servers.
D.
show ipx; show ipx route; show ipx.


Cisco IOS (Internetwork Operating System software, Cisco IOS software). Cisco, , CiscoFusion. Cisco ,
, , , .

-, (Media Access Control address, MAC address). ,


, . ,
. - 6 IEEE.
- .
(Get Nearest Server, GNS). , IPX- .
IPX GNS- , , . GNS IPX SAP.
(encapsulate). . , Ethernet Ethernet.

, .
(client). (
), .
/ (client/server). .
(routing metric). ,
. . , , , , , , MTU, . .
NetWare (NetWare). , Novell.
.
(subinterface). .
NetWare (NetWare Link Services Protocol, NCLP).
, IS-IS. NLSP Cisco MIB-, SAP- NSLP IPX- .
(Internetwork Packet Exchange, IPX).
NetWare, .
IPX IP XNS.
(Service Advertising Protocol, SAP). IPX-,
.
(Sequenced Packet Exchange, SPX). , , , . Novell SPP
XNS.
Qoad sharing).
; ,
.
(Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol, Enhanced IGRP). IGRP,
Cisco. , - .
(server). , .
(Network Operating System, NOS). ,
, , , Novell NetWare Windows

NT.
(service access point). , IEEE,
.
(frame). ,
.
( 16) (hexadecimal (base 16)). ,
1 9 F 10 15.
, , 16, 12=256 ..

, , (wide-area network, WAN) , , , .


"-", (), , , ,
_________________________________________________________________________________
:

,
, . .
_________________________________________________________________________


,
,
, , , Bell (regional operating company Bell, RBOC) (carrier network services)
, (Integrated Services Digital Network,
ISDN) (Frame Relay), ,
''' , , ( ) . , , .

OSI , . . 8.1 OSI.


, . (point of
presence, POP) (central office) . ,
.

. 8.1. OS1
(. 8.2)
.

(call setup). . , , .
7 (Signaling System 7, SS7),
.

(Time-division multiplexing, TDM).



.
, .
, TDM
. TDM
ISDN.

Frame Relay. , , .
Frame Relay , TDM,
2- .
, Frame Relay
3- , .


. .

,
, , , .
. 8.3, , , .

(Customer's premises equipment, CPE).

, .
, , ,
.

( ) (Demarcation demarc). , .
.

( " "). ( ),
.

( switch). , .

(toll network).
( , trunk) .

,
.

. 8.3. "- "


(data terminal equipment, DTE) (data circuit-terminating equipment, DCE). DTE , a DCE , , DTE , .
. 8.4, DCE (modem),
/ (channel service unit/data service unit)
/ 1 (terminal adapter/network termination 1, TA/NT1).

. 8.4.
DTE, ,
DTE , . DCE DTE . DTE/DCE
, .
DTE/DCE (, , HSSI v.3.5),
, .
, .

(virtual circuit) , "-"


, . : (switched virtual circuit) (permanent virtual circuit).

.
: ,
.
. ,
. , . , .
.
, .
,
.
_________________________________________________________________________________
:
, Frame Relay. . , Internet Frame Relay.
_________________________________________________________________________



, (/). , .
- (North American
Digital Hierarchy), . 8.1.
8.1.

, /

56

DSO

56 /

64

DSO

64 /c

DS1

1,544 /

ZM

2,048 /

34,064 /

Y1

2,048 /

DS3

44,736 /

SONET

51, 84 /

-3

SONET

155,54 /

-9

SONET

466,56 /

-12

SONET

622,08 /

SONET

933, 12 /

-24

SONET

1244, 16 /

-36

SONET

1866,24 /

-48

SONET

2488,32 /

'


, .

, , , .

, ,

, .
CSU/DSU /NT 1,
ISDN.

, .

. 8.5 , .

, . . -


. . ,
, .



, , Frame Relay, X
25 (Switched Multimegabit Data Service,
SMDS).
OSI. . 8 6 , . ,

_________________________________________________________________________________
:
, MDF IDF
.
_________________________________________________________________________

8 6 ,

, ,
,
. . . 8.7
, .

CSU/DSU
CSU/DSU (
), DNE (,
, ) DCE- (, )
. . 8.8 CSU/DSU .
CSU/CDU | .

. 8.8. CSU/DSU
_________________________________________________________________________
: CSU/DSU
CSU/DSU,
. , .
, CSU/DSU .
_________________________________________________________________________

ISDN
ISDN , -|
(Basic Rate Interface, BRI) | .
ISDN-. . 8.9. ISDN.

OSI

OSI, ,
.
, , , . , .

(International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector, ITU-T). (Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone, CCITT).

(ISO).

Internet (Internet Engineering task Force, IETF).

(Electronic Industries Association, EIA).

(Telecommunications Industries Association, TIA)


, , ,
. , (, , RBOC),
(, , Internet) ,
(post, telegraph and telephone agency, FIT).
DTE DCE.
, a DTE ,
. 8.10.

DTE

,

DCE

. 8.10. DTE (, ) DCE (, )


, DTE DCE,
.

EIA/TIA-232 , EIA
TIA, 64
/. V.24
RS-232.

EIA/TIA-449 , EIA TIA. ( 2 /)


EIA/TIA-232,

EIA/TIA-612/613 ,
(High Speed Serial Interface, HSSI), : (45 /), (34 /) STS-1 (Synchronous Optical Network, SONET) 51,82 /.
DSU ,

V.24 ITU-T DTE DCE

V.35 ITU-T, ,
. V.35
48 /

.21 ITU-T
.

G.703 ITU-T DTE


(British Naval Connector, BNC),
1

EIA-530 EIA/TIA: RS-422 ( ) RS-423 ( ).


. -

, .
. 8.11 , .

Frame Relay.
Frame
Relay , .

"-" (Point-to-Point Protocol, PPP). RFC 1661; IETF.


, .

ISDN. .

(Link Access Procedure,


Balanced, LAPB). 2- .25.
"-" ,
, , , .
LAPB
"-".

Cisco/IETF. Frame Relay.


Cisco Cisco

(High-Level Data Link Control, HDLC).


ISO, HDLC, , ,
. HDLC : "-" .

"-" .
,
(. 8.12).

; 7F ( , .. 16).

: , . .

PCS (frame check sequence, PCS).

; 7.

LSP

FCS

HDLC

FCS

. 8.12. "- "


2- . , , , 2-
. . HDLC ,
, .


( RFC 1332 RFC 1661). , , . (Password Authentication Protocol, PAP) (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, CHAP).
10, " ".
_________________________________________________________________________________
:
, , .

LCP .


3- IP- (, IP-, IP
Control Protocol, IPCP) , .


, .
LCP
show interfaces,
.
debug ppp.

encapsulation ppp:
Router(config) #
Router(config-if)#

interface
serial
encapsulation ppp

_________________________________________________________________________________

HDLC
HDLC , (Synchronous Data Link Control). HDLC- Cisco.
: ,
"-".
. , 2- ;
, HDLC .
, Cisco (Cisco Internetwork
Operating System software, IOS), HDLC.
HDLC , ,
Cisco,
.
_________________________________________________________________________________
:
"-"
HDLC,
. .

LCP
.


3- .
_________________________________________________________________________


, :
. . 8.13. , , . .


, (leased lines),
. ,
, , .
, .
.
, .
, ,
, CSU/CDU .
,
.

"-". ; 2 /
(1) , CSU/CDU.
.
. ,
, .

. 8.13. ,

_________________________________________________________________________
:
. , (, CSU/CDU).
_________________________________________________________________________

"-", , . "-"
, , , , , .
. . 8.14
"-", .


,
"-"
-,
. 8.15. Frame Relay,
SMDC .25.

8 15 -
()
.
, Frame Relay.

Frame Relay
Frame Relay
. ,
;
.
Frame Relay , , . 8.16. Frame Relay ,
IP, IPX AppleTalk, , . Frame Relay
, .

. 8.16. Frame Relay ,


(, .25),

Frame Relay DTE .
DTE , a DCE Frame Relay. (
DTE DCE , ). Frame Relay 56 /, 64 / 1,544 /.
Frame Relay
"-". . . Frame Relay , , .
.
PVC .
(data-link connection identifier, DLCI) . DLCI DTE DCE, . DLCI (committed information rate), .
, Frame Relay .
( 12, " Frame Relay".).
, 12 ,
.
- (fully meshed technology).
. , - , . ,
.
- (partially-meshed topology). .
.


, ,

-.
. ISDN.
. ,
, , 28,8 /,
ISDN 64 128 /.
.
, Frame Relay .


(dial-on demand routing, DDR)
, ,
. , , . , ,
( ,
). , , .
, , ,
. ,
.

ISDN , .
, .
, , , . , . 8.17, ISDN. , . , "-"
.

. 8.17. ISDN ,

-

. , ,
, , , , . , ,
, .
.
,
DDR, .
, ,
.
DDR , , .
, ,
, . , DDR.
(dialer group).
.

ISDN
ISDN
. ISDN .
1- (1). , ISDN. NT 1-
2- .
2- (2). ,
ISDN .
(). , ISDN, ISDN , ISDN-.
NT- 1- (NT1). ISDN .
NT- 2- (NT2). NT1, . NT2 , .
. 8.18, ISDN .
S/T, 1 NT. S/T NT.
R- 2 NA.
U- NT ISDN.

ISDN: (Basic Rate Interface, BRI) (Primary Rate Interface, PRI). BRI ,
. BRI 144 / .
, - (bearer channel, -),
64 /
. , D- (delta channel)
16 / ,
-. BRI 2B+D. ISDN 11, "ISDN ".
ISDN , - . , - ISDN, 64 /,
, - Web-.
, ISDN.

,
.
, .
; , .
, ISDN.
OSI.


HDLC.
, , "-", , ( Frame Relay)
( DDR ISDN).

:
, .
.
1.

2.

3.


, , . .
1.
?
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
2. OSI DTE?
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
3. CSU/CDU?
A.
.
B.
DTE.
C.
.
D.
DCE.
4.
?
A.
.
B.
HDLC.
C.
Frame Relay
D.
.
5. ,
?
A.
Frame Relay.
B.
.
C.
HDLC.
D.
SLIP.

6. , , ...
A.
, .
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
7. DTE ...
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
8. ?
A.
Frame Relay.
B.
ISDN.
C.
.
D.
.
9. ?
A.
ISDN.
B.
Frame Relay.
C.
.
D.
HDLC.
10. "-"?
A.
HDLC.
B.
LCP.
C.
LAPD.
D.
Cisco IFTF.


- - (bearer channel, channel). ISDN-,
64 / .
Cisco IOS (Internetwork Operating System software, Cisco IOS software).
Cisco, , CiscoFusion. Cisco
, , , , .
(Telecommunications Industries Association, TIA). , .
TIA EIA , EIA/TIA-232, .
(Electronic Industries Association, EIA). , . EIA TIA , EIA/TIA-232 EIA/TIA-449.
/ (channel service unit/digital service
unit, CSU/DSU). , .
(virtual circuit). , .
VPI/VCI (PVC)
(SVC). .25.
VC.

(time-division multiplexing, TDM).


, ,
.
- (D channel, delta channel). ISDN- 16 / (BRI) 64 / (PRI).
(demarcation). , . .
(data-link connection identifier, DLCI). PVC SVC Frame Relay. Frame Relay DLCI
(..
). LMI (.. ).
Internet (Internet Engineering Task
Force, IETF). , 80
Internet. IFTF ISOC.
"-" (point-to-point link). , , , , , . .
(switched virtual circuit, SVC). ,
.
.
(dial-on-demand routing, DDR). , , .
(local loop). ( ), .
(-) (modern, modulator-demodulator). , . -
, .
. .
(reliability). ,
. , .
(data circuit-terminating equipment, DCE). , DTE ,
.
(data terminal equipment, DTE). , "-", , . DTE
DCE (, ) , DCE. , , .
(toll network). ( ) .
- (fully meshed topology). , PVC .
(permanent virtual circuit, PVC). ,
. , , ,
.

, (post, telephone and telegraph, PTT). , . , .


.25. ITU-T, DTE
DCE . Frame Relay .25.
Frame Relay (Frame Relay). ,
, HDLC-
. Frame Relay , .25, .
(wide-area network, WAN). ,
, ;
, . Frame Relay, SMDS .25.
Bell (Regional Bell operating company, RBOC). , .
AT&T.
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode, ATM).
, (, , -
) (53 ).
,
. ATM , , SONET .
(Link Access Procedure, Balanced, LAPB).
.25. LAPB -
, HDLC.
1 (network termination I, NT1). , ISDN.
(carrier network). .
7 (Signaling System 7, SS7). , Bellcore. .
(committed information rate, CIR). , , Frame Relay .
(customer premises equipment, CPE). , , , .
(Central office, CO). , .
(terminal adapter, ). , BRI- ISDN , EIA/TIA232. , ISDN-.
"" (star topology). , "-".
"-" .
(point of presence, POP). , , .

(Synchronous Data Link Control, SDLC). SNA . SDLC -,


, , HDLC LAPB.
- (partially meshed topology). ,
Frame Relay PVC .
( 16) (hexadecimal (base 16)). ,
1 9 F 10 15.
, - , 16, 162=256 ..

ISDN Frame Relay,

2-

3-

(wide-area networks, WAN) , IP Web



, , (, Internet)

, ,
,

,
_________________________________________________________________________________
:



_________________________________________________________________________


. -

(.. ), (WAN link). . , .


8, " ", , , ,
. (packet-switching)
(circuit-switching) . . ,
, . ,
, "-" . , .
,
.
(.. ) ,
(campus) . ,
.
.

.
.

/, .

(, Push) .

, .

, , .

,
, , , /, Internet.

intranet extranet .

,
, . , 300%,
,

.
. , , . , , , , (quality of service, QoS) .
. 9.1 , .
9.1.

, (Point-to-Point Protocol). ,
"" (hub-and-spokes)

ISDN . (ISDN)
,

(Frame , Relay)
,
. Frame Relay
, ,


, ,
Internet . , (voice mail system).
.

.
. . , ,
, , .
Internet-, ,
. .
intranet-, , ,
IP- (voice over IP), , -

.
, ,
,
(QoS). , ,
"" . ,
, .


. ,
.
. ,
.
.

. . , .

. .
,
. , .

. , , ,
.

. , (, ).

. , .
,
, .
_________________________________________________________________________
:

, .

:
-;
(, SNA);
;
(, );
;
;
;
.
. , , ,
. .
:

,
;

,
. , , "" , , "" .
_________________________________________________________________________
,
. : .
, , .
. ,
.
, . , , ,
.


.
, .
, , ,
. .
. (response time), .
( ) ( ). ,
, ,
, .
, , ,
. . ,
(, ).
, , . , , . , , , .
.
.
. , .
.
. . ,
, , , .
, - . .
. , ,
- .
.
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.
.
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. "" , .
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, . ,
.
,
, .
_________________________________________________________________________
:
. , ,
.
, .

, ?

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,
. , , , . (Management Information Systems MIS),
.
.
_________________________________________________________________________


,
. ? , Internet? ?
(.. , )?
. , , .
. ,
. .
_________________________________________________________________________
:
, ,
, , . , , (, ).

, ,
, . , .
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,
.
: , , , .. .
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:

.

. .

. , .

. , (, ), . ,
.

(comparative sources). ,
, ,
, .

___________________________________________________________________________
,
, .

.
,
, ,
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,
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.
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: ,
,
. ,

. ,
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Internet;

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. , ,
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, .
. ,
,
.
, . | . ,
.
.
.
, ( ).
. , - , , . , . , Microsoft Office , , . Microsoft
Office .


,
. c
. -
, , ,
p . -

, ,
, .


,
, . ,
.


. (OSI), , .
, OSI , . , .
,
.
. ,
. ,
. . , ,
. , , , , .


:
. .
, . , , .
, . .
. , ,
. ,
.
.

. , .

.
, .
.

. ,
, , , .
.

.
, , .

. .


.
(core layer), .

.
(Distribution layer), , .
(Access layer),
| .

. 9.1 .

, 3- () OSI.
, .
. 9.1, ,
. ,
.
. , , , ( ) .
"-"
. (, 1/, Frame Relay, SMDS)
.
. . .
Fast Ethernet.
.
. ,
( Ethernet Token Ring), . , . 4, " ",
.
.
-
. , -
, . . - .



, . 9.2. - ,
, .
.
() ,
. ,
, . .

_________________________________________________________________________
:

,
. , .
_________________________________________________________________________



. ; .
, :
;
;
;
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;
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, . 9.3. , , , . , , 3-
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,
.

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. . , , ,
, .


,
, . 9.4. ,

. :
;
;
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.
. (CPU) , .
. (, , ). ,
. 4, " ". , ,
-
, Frame Relay, ISDN , .

. 9.4.


.
: . . 9.5 . ,
,
. .


, . 9.6. , -

. 96
_________________________________________________________________________
:


, Shaw Butte
_________________________________________________________________________


. 3- . , - -,
3- , ,
( 9 7)
,
1 . . 9.8 ,
1
2 , , .

. 9.7. ,
, . 9.9,
, ,
, .


, , . . 1, . 9.10, 1 2.
1.

9 10 ,

,
9 11, 1 2 , 1 9 12 , ,
, , .
,
.

Frame Relay ISDN


, . 9 . 9.13, Frame Relay ISDN .
, ISDN. ,
, Frame Relay. B . ,
. .
_________________________________________________________________________
: Frame Relay
Internet
Frame Relay
.
_________________________________________________________________________

, .

, .

,
.

, Frame Relay ISDN.

:
.
, .

.
1. , :
;
- ;
, CSU/DSU , ;
() , .
(:
.)
2. , .
3.
.


, , . .
1. ?
A.
, .
B.
, , , .
C.
, , .
D.
.
2.

, ?
.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
3. ?
A.
.
B.

C.
.
D.
.
4. ?
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
5. ( ) ?
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.

6. ?
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
7. ?
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
8. ?
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
9.
?
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
10.
?
A.
.
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.


1. , DS-1
1,544 / , AMI
B8ZS.
. , DS-3
44,736 / .
(leased line). , .
.
(dedicated link). , . , .
(link). , . . .
(WAN link). ,
.
(circuit switching). , .
. , -

.
(packet switching). ,
.
(core layer) . ,
,
.
(Frame Relay). , , HDLC-.
Frame Relay , .25,
.
(enterprise network). , ,
, , ,
.
(access layer). ,
, Ethernet Token Ring,
.
(distribution layer). , , .
. Fast
Ethernet.
(circuit). .

,
("point-to-point", "-").

LCP- NCP-

, .

CHAP

10

8, " ", . , ,
, 2-
, Ethernet.

*- "> .
, .
, ,
("-", Point-to-Point Protocol, ) ,
, (Link Control Protocol, LCP) (Network Control
Protocol)
.
(Password Authentication Protocol, PAP) (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, CHAP).
_________________________________________________________________________
:
8, " ", , . 2- ,
.
,
_________________________________________________________________________________


80- , SLIP (Serial

Line Internet Protocol, Internet ) Internet.


Internet. , IP- .

, (. 10.1).
,
:

IP- ;

,
.

. 10.1.


Internet
, .

.

"-" HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control, ).

LCP , .

NCP . . , IP, , (Internetwork Packet Exchange, IPX)


DECNet. . 10.2, -

NCP .
NCP


, . 10.3.
:

, ,
(Integrated Services Digital Network),
11, "ISDN ";

, , .

,
NCP. :

(Bridge Control Protocol);

IPCP Internet (Internet Protocol Control Protocol);

IPXCP (Internetwork Packet


Exchange Control Protocol).


, .

. 10.3.


. 10.4, .

. 01111110.

. ,
, (11111111).
.

. ,
00000011, , . , (Logical Link
Control, LLC) .

. , , .

. , , . . 1500 .

FCS. 16 (2 ). ,
.

2 4

FCS

. 10.4. HDLC- (International Organization for Standardization, ISO)


, , "-". "" .
1.

.
LCP- .

2.

.
. , .

3.

.
NCP-
, TCP/IP, Novell IPX AppleTalk.
.

4.

. ,
LCP- NCP- , -
(,
).

LCP-.

.
.

. .

. .

LCP- LCP,
.

1.

LCP- . LCP
, , ,
. LCP , .
(, IP-), LCP
. .

2.
LCP
. ,
.
,
. , , , .
LCP .
: CHAP. RFC 1334.
.

3. -


LCP , NCP-
.
NCP ( IP).
,
. LCP - ,
,
.
, LCP NCP
show interfaces.

4.
LCP . , , .
_________________________________________________________________________________

: -
IP . encapsulation ppp.
.
-:
Router(config)#
encapsulation ppp
_________________________________________________________________________________


, .

, . , .
,
, ,
. .
CHAP. , CHAP. .

. . 10.5, (handshake). - , ,
.
.
, -

. , .

CHAP. CHAP ,
. 10.6. .
CHAP ,
, .
, . ,
( ),
,
CHAP .

. .
, , . .
CHAP , .
. ( , ,
, Netscape) .


.
1.
, :
Router (config) # username password
:

; ,
;

Cisco .
_________________________________________________________________________
:
, ,
, . "" .
CHAP,
, . CHAP ,
.
_________________________________________________________________________
2. .
3. - :
Router(config-if)#

encapsulation ppp

4. :
Router(config-if)# ppp authentication {chap | chap pap | pap chap | pap }

5. CHAP PAP, . ,
.
6. Cisco 11.1
,
( , , ), . ; :
Router (config-if )# ppp pap sent-username password


CHAP
CHAP
.

.
, ,

, :
Router (config-if )# ppp chap hostname

.
" "
, ,
:
Router(config-if)# ppp chap password

, -; .

LCP NCP, .

;
;
;
.

CHAP.

CHAP
, .

-
encapsulation ppp.

, LCP NCP show interfaces.

:
,
.
, , .

, .

, .


, , . .
1.
?
2.
?
3.

?
A. Novell IP.
B. TCP/IP.
C. AppleTalk.
D. .
4.
NCP?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
5.

IPX TCP/IP?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. FCS.
6. LCP ?
A. , "-".
B. .
C. .
D. .
7. ?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
8. ,
?
A. .
B.
C. .
D. .
9. LCP
NCP?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Router>show interfaces
Router(config)# show interfaces
Router# show interfaces
Router(config-if)# show interfaces

10.
Internet?
A. .
B. .

C.
D.

Internet
.
.


Serial Line Internet Protocol ( Internet , SLIP).
"-"
TCP/IP. .
(asynchronous circuit). ,
. . ( ), .
(Password Authentication Protocol, PAP).
, .
, ,
, . CHAP, PAP
, (.. ).
, ; ,
. .
(Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, CHAP). , .
CHAP ,
; ,
.
(logical link protocol, LLC). , . LLC , , -.
LLC- IEEE 802.2, :
.
"-" (Point-to-point Protocol, PPP). SLIP, .
(Link Control Protocol, LCP). ,
, "-"
(Network Control Protocol, NCP). ,
.
(synchronous circuit). ,
. . ( ),
.


ISDN
ISDN
ISDN
ISDN
(Basic Rate Interface, BRI)
(Primary Rate Interface, PRI)
ISDN
(dial-on demand routing)

11

ISDN

, , .
10, " ", "-" (pomt-to-point, )
, , , (Integrated Services Digital Network, ISDN) ISDN

, , ,
. ISDN .
ISDN
ISDN . ISDN- , . - , , ,
, .
____________________________________________________________________________________
: ISDN-
,
ISDN- ISDN- ,

____________________________________________________________________________________

ISDN
ISDN , .
, , , , .
ISDN ,
.
ISDN
, "-" (User-Network Interface, UNI) . . ISDN . -

ISDN-, , , .
ISDN , .

ISDN .
, - .

ISDN ,
, (out-of-band) (Dchannel -). , ISDN- (calls) .

ISDN , , (-). - ISDN



(, - 128 /),
.

ISDN , -.
, , ISDN-. , ISDN.

. (Pubic Switched Telephone Network, PSTN),


.

.
ISDN ( Frame Relay).
ISDN, .

ISDN
ISDN , (terminal
adapter, ), (network-termination devices, NT),
(line-termination equipment), (exchangetermination equipment). . 11.1 ISDN-. ISDN- (. 11.1). ISDN- 1- (terminal equipment type 1, 1). , ISDN, (data terminal equipment, DTE), ISDN-, 2- (terminal equipment type 2, 2). 1-
ISDN .
2- ISDN . ISDN ,
2- . 2-
,
. ISDN 1- 2- 1-
(network-termination type I, NT1) 2- (networktermination type 2, NT2). 1- 2- , -


. 1- , (customer premises equipment, CPE). , 1- , . 2- ,
( ) (private branch exchange,
). 2- . 1- 2- (NT1/2),
1- 2- .
11.1. ISDN

1-
, ISDN; TE1

1- 2
2-
, ISDN

, ISDN, ,

ISDN

1-

2-


NT1 NT2
,

R-

11.1. ISDN

ISDN
, ,
.
,
, . .
(reference point). , (end-to-end) . , , , , , ,
.
. 11.2 , ISDN- (. 11.2).
11.2. ISDN

ISDN

, 2-

S-
2- ISDN
1-

1- ISDN-
.
, 1-

ISDN- . 11.3.
ISDN- (Central Office, CO).
ISDN- 2-
S. (, ISDN-) R.
( ) ISDN-.

____________________________________________________________________________________

: ISDN-
,
ISDN-.
____________________________________________________________________________________

TE1-
( )

. 11.3.
ISDN-

ISDN
ISDN ISDN. ISDN . , , .
, -

.
ISDN ,
. ,
ISDN .

ISDN
, , , (service profile identifiers, SPID) . ISDN SPID , .
SPID ( ), .
.

ISDN
ISDN 60- .
ISDN 1984
(Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and
Telephone, CCITT, , ITU-T). ITU-T ISDN
. 11.3.
11.3. ISDN
,


ISDN. , 164
ISDN

,
. 1.100 ISDN l-,
I.200 ISDN; I 400 UNI

,
. "" (signaling) Q.921
D- (Link Access Procedure on the D
channel, LAPD), 2-
OSI. Q 931
3-

Q.931 , ISDN. . -

Q.931.
, .
,
ISDN, .
, Cisco debug Q.931 Q.921
ISDN.

ISDN OSI
ITU-T ISDN ,
OSI.

. ISDN- (Basic Rate


Interface, BRI) ITU-T 1.430. ISDN-
(Primary Rate Interface, PRI) ITU-T
1.431.

. ISDN- LAPD
ITU-T Q.920 ITU-T Q.921.

. ISDN ITU-T Q.930 ITU-T


Q.931.

ISDN
ISDN- (1- )
, ( , NT) (
, ). 48 , 36
. . 11.4. .

(F) .

(L) .

D- () , ,
.

() .

(S) .

1, 2 D
.

,
1 1
8

B1 L

B1 L

B2

* i.
NT- ( )
,
1 1
8 1
1 1
1 1
8 1
F
L
1 D F
F
2

1
1
8 1 1
D S 1 D

1
8 3
S 2 ...

- ( )
=
B1= 1
B2= 2
D= D (4 4000 /=16 /)
= D-
F=

.
. ISDN . D- ISDN,
.

ISDN
2- ISDN LAPD. LAPD (High-Level Data Link Control,
HDLC) (Link Access Procedure,
Balanced, LAPB). LAPD (Link Access Procedure on
the D channel, D), ,
D (. 11.5).

SAPI = (6 )
C/RIP = /

=
. 11.5. LAPD HDLC
(flag) (control) HDLC.
(address) 1 2 . , 1 , 2 .
(service access point identifier,
SAPI), , 3- LAPD.
/ (command/response, C/R) ,
. (terminal endpoint identifier, TEI)
. TEI ,
.

ISDN
ISDN 3- : ITU-T 1.450 ( ITU-Q.930) ITU-T I.451 ( ITU-Q.931). ,
"-", -. , , , , , , , , , . . 11.6. - ISDN.

ISDN
. HDLC. ISDN rlDLC.
, .
(CHAP) . ISDN-
LAPD.
ISDN .
ISDN- , ISDN
, , IP,
.


. , , . . , IP IPX, .
, RFC
1661. , .
(Link State Protocol, LCP).
. (Password Authentication Protocol, PAP) CHAP .
.

. RFC 1662 HDLC.


.
, (,
ISDN), (, ISDN, ),
.
"-" ISDN.

LCP. , ,
"-". , (, IP), LCP
. ,
.

.
ISDN -.
( CHAP) RFC 1334 (
. 10, " ). , LCP -,
(Network Control Protocol). , LCP.
(
) ( , , ).

authentication. CHAP. CHAP


, .

ISDN
. 11.7, ISDN . ISDN:

/ (small office/home office, SOHO).


,
, .
, , , .
ISDN. , , .
, . , .
ISDN ,
. , ISDN, , , .


, . 11.8,
.
,
. ,
. .

.

. ,
.
.
, , . , .
.
. .
. ISDN (. 11.9). ISDN .
___________________________________________________________________________
: ISDN
. ISDN .
___________________________________________________________________________


, ,
, , . , . 11.10, e
, ,
ISDN-.
Internet , .

11 10 ISDN
, .

. ,
, , IP-.
___________________________________________________________________________
:
ISDN , ISDN- ISDN.
, ISDN- .
ISDN
.
, ISDN- ,
. 11.11.
___________________________________________________________________________

. 11.11 ISDN

ISDN: (BRI) (PRI)


ISDN : BRI PRI. BRI - D-
. 11.12. 2B+D. BRI 144 /, .
- 64 / . - 64 / .

. 11.12. BRI, ISDN, - D-


ISDN - / ,
. , -
64 / , - Web-.
, D, 16 / , , . BRI D
, . D- 1-3
OSI.
D , ( ), . - () , D-,
. ,
D-.
D- ,

.
,
D-. , , , .
PRI- ISDN 23
D, 1,544 / (D- PRI 64 /). PRI- ISDN , 30
D 64 /,
2048 /.

BRI
BRI PRI . , ,
BRI PRI. ISDN
BRI- PRI- ISDN.
BRI NT1. NT1 U-. . 11.13
BRI.

BRI
BRI ISDN CPE: (). BRI NT1 .
ISDN- BRI ISDN
(dial-on-demand
routing, DDR). DDR , ,
. DDR -
. - . ISDN- ISDN.

(, RS232) ( V.34)
.
-

ISDN , .
. - .
ISDN
Cisco 200.

ISDN
ISDN
.
.

, ISDN
. , ,
.

.
ISDN , ISDN-
.
.

. BRI
BRI-. IP- .

ISDN- DDR- , ISDN.


, , . ISDN .

,
, , ISDN
, .

, ISDN,
SPID. ISDN.
___________________________________________________________________________
: ISDN
interface bri , ISDN , 1. BRI (.. 2), . 2 interface serial .
ISDN, encapsulation ppp , , (, CHAP). , CHAP .
___________________________________________________________________________

BRI

BRI interface BRI . : interface bri


, .

show interfaces.
11.1 BRI 0 , CHAP .
11.1.
interface bri
encapsulation ppp
no keepalive
dialer map ip 131.108.36.10 name EB1 234
dialer map ip 131.108.36.9 name EB2 456
dialer-group 1
isdn spidl 0146334600
isdn spidl 0146334610
isdn T200 1000
ppp authentication chap


BRI ISDN isdn switch-type
, . Cisco isdn switch-type 112 RI ( 5ESS, DMS100 N1-1).
11.2. , BRI
kdt-3640(config)# isdn switch-type ?
basic-ltr6
1TR6 switch type for Germany
basic-5ess
AT&T 5ESS switch type for U.S.
basic-dmslOO
Northern DMS-100 switch type
basic-nets
NETS switch type for the UK and Europe
basic-nitl
National ISDN-1 switch type
basic-nwnetS
NETS switch type for Norway
basic-nznetS
NETS switch type for New Zealand
basic-tsOlS
TS013 switch type for Australia
ntt
switch type for Japan
vn2
VN2 switch type for France
vn3
VN3 and VN4 switch type for France

ISDN- isdn switch-type .


:
isdn switch-type
;
none, ISDN. ISDN
isdn switch-type none
5ESS:
isdn switch-type basic-5ess
___________________________________________________________________________

Cisco 11.2 , , (, , Cisco


BRI PRI). 11.3 .
___________________________________________________________________________

SPID
SPID ISDN, , . , , DMS-100, SPID
.
___________________________________________________________________________
: DMS-100
DMS-100 SPID
: SPID -. -
,
SPID ( -). - . SPID
, -
.
___________________________________________________________________________
, ISDN . SPID .
isdn spid2
SPID, c ISDN 2.
:
Lsdn spid2 -spid [Idn]
no isdn spid2 SPID,
. no- LDN,
, -, ,
. :
isdn spid2 -spid [Idn]
-spid , ,
. ISDN
10 .
SPID .
___________________________________________________________________________
: Idn
Idn (LDN);
. , .
DMS-100
ISDN-1 (N1-1). LDN ,
1. ISDN LDN , . LDN , 2. - -

.
2 SPID LDN:
isdn

spid2

41555121202

5551214

SPID .
ISDN,
D- 2- , TEI.
D- 3- . SPID
, , 3- ISDN
.
SPID SPID .
SPID Cisco :
Interface bri 0
isdn spidl 0835866201 8358662
isdn spid2 0835866401 8358664

LDN, , . ISDN- LDN , , 2. LDN , SPID (, DMS N1-1). SPID LDN. LDN , 2
LDN ,
2 .
___________________________________________________________________________

BRI
, 11.3,
BRI.
11.3. BRI
! ,
! ISDN Cisco A
isdn switch-type basic-5ess
ip route 172.16.29.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.126.2
dialer list 1 protocol ip permit
i
! BRI ;
interface bri 0
ip address 172.16.126.1 255.255.255.0
i
!
!
dialer-group 1
!
! ,
! ISDN
dialer wait-for-carrier time 15
dialer idle-timeout 300
isdn spidl 0145678912

!
dialer map ip 172.16.126.2 name cisco-b 445
____________________________________________________________________________________

, 11.3.
/
isdn switch-type
dialer-list 1

AT&T ISDN

IP- 1-

protocol ip permit

ISDN 1-

interface bri 0

encapsulation ppp

dialer group 1

BRI 0

dialer wait-for-carrier
time
: 15
Dialer idle timeout

,
ISDN. , ,

dialer map 11.3.


dialer map

ip

172.16.126.2

name

445

ISDN-, , DDR

BRI
BRI, show isdn status, BRI. 11.4 TEI 3- () ISDN .
11.4. show isdn status
kdt-1600# show isdn status
The current ISDN Switchtype = basic-nil
ISDN BRIO interface
Layer 1 Status:

ACTIVE
Layer 2 Status:
TEI=109, State=MULTIPLE_FRAME_ESTABLISHED
TEI=110, State=MULTIPLE_FRAME_ESTABLISHED
Spid Status:
TEI 109, ces=l, state=8 (established)
Spid1 configured, spidl sent, spidl valid
Endpoint ID Info: epsf=0, usid=l, tid=l
TEI 110, ces=2, state=8 (established)
spid2 configured, spid2 sent, spid2 valid
Endpoint ID Info: epsf=0, usid=l, tid=l
Layer 3 Status:
0 Active Layer 3 Call(s)
Activated dsl 0 CCBs=0
Total Allocated ISDN CCBs =0


,
ISDN , . DDR ISDN
. DDR
,
.
, , DDR, .

?
? ?

DDR?
?

DDR-?
?

DDR
DDR .

ping/telnet

ping telnet
, ,

show dialer

, DDR, ,
, ,
(fast idle

timer) -. , , ,

show isdn active

show isdn status


show ip route


ISDN. ,
ISDN-
,

DDR
DDR .

debug isdn q921

ISDN

debug dialer

clear interface



, . . ,

, SPID debug
isdn q921. 11.5 , isdn spidl
11.5. , SPID
kdt-1600# debug isdn q921
ISDN Q921 packets debugging is on
kdt-1600# clear interface bri 0
kdt-1600#
*Mar 1 00:09:03.728: ISDN BRO: TX -> SABMEp sapi=0 tei=113
*Mar 1 00:09:04.014: ISDN BRO: RX <- IDREM ri=0 ai=127
*Mar 1 00:09:04.018: %ISDN-6-LAYER2DOWN:
Layer 2 for Interface BRIO, TEI 113 changed to down
*Mar 1 00:09:04.022: %ISDN-6-LAYER2DOWN:
Layer 2 for Interface BRO, TEI 113 changed to down
*Mar 1 00:09:04.046: ISDN BRO : TX -> IDREQ ri =44602 ai= 127
* Mar 1 00:09:04.049 :ISDN BRO : RX <- IDCKRQ ri = 0 ai = 113
* Mar 1 00:09:05.038 :ISDN BRO : RX <- IDCKRQ ri = 0 ai = 113
* Mar 1 00:09:06.030 :ISDN BRO : TX -> IDREQ ri = 37339 ai = 127
* Mar 1 00:09:06.149 :ISDN BRO : RX <- IDREM ri = 0 ai = 113
* Mar 1 00:09:06.156 :ISDN BRO : RX <- IDASSN ri = 37339 ai = 114
* Mar 1 00:09 :06.164 :ISDN BRO : TX -> SABMEp sapi = 44602 tei = 114
* Mar 1 00:09:06.188 :ISDN BRO : RX <- Uaf sapi = 0 tei = 114
* Mar 1 00:09:06.188 : %ISDN-6-LAYER2UP:
Layer 2 for Interface BRIO, TEI 114 changed to up
*Mar 1 00:09:06.200 : ISDN BRO : TX -> INFOc sapi=0 tei = 114

ns = 0 nr = 0 i = Ox08007B3A6383932393833
* Mar 1 00:09:06.276 : ISDN BRO : RX <- INFOc sapi=0 tei = 114
ns = 0 nr = 1 l = Ox08007B080382E43A
* Mar 1 00:09 :06.283 : ISDN BRO : TX -> RRr sapi = 0 tei=114 nr = 1
* Mar 1 00:09:06.287 : %ISDN-4- INVALID SPID: Interface BRO
Spidl was rejected

____________________________________________________________________________________
ISDN- Cisco 700 show status,
11.6.
11.6. ISDN- Cisco 700
kdt-776># show status
Status 01/04/1995 18:15:15
Line Status
Line Activated
Terminal Identifier Assigned
SPID Accepted
Terminal Identifier Assigned
SPID Accepted
Port Status
Interface Connection Link
Ch: 1
Waiting for call
Ch: 2
Waiting for call
____________________________________________________________________________________

ISDN / .

ISDN , , NT- ISDN.

ISDN , , , 1 NT1.

SDN ITU-T ,
OSI.

ISDN HDLC.

ISDN , , , ,
.

ISDN BRI PRI.

BRI 144 / .

BRI BRI-,
ISDN SPID.

DDR .

: ISDN
, IGRP
. ISDN .
1. , ISDN.

2. , ISDN , :
, ;
;
,
.
3. ,
ISDN.


, , . .
ISDN?
- ISDN?
D- ISDN?
ISDN (ID). ID?
5.
ISDN ?
6.
?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
7.
ISDN ?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
8.
...
A. .
B. .
C. ISDN.
D. ISDN.
9.
ISDN CHAP,
?
A. HDLC.
B. SLIP.
C. .
D. PAP
10.
ISDN?
A. Router>isdn switch-type
B. Router# isdn switch type
C. Router(config-if)# isdn switchtype
D. Router(config)# isdn switch-type
1.
2.
3.
4.


2B+D. BRI ISDN - D-.
-, - (bearer channel, channel). ISDN-
64-/, .
D-, , -,
(delta channel, D channel). ISDN- 16-/ (
BRI) 64-/ ( PRI).
Q.931. ,
ISDN-.
. ISDN- .
(service profile identifier, SPID). ,
,
ISDN-. SPID ISDN- , .
(Basic Rate Interface, BRI). ISDN-,
- D- - , .
( ) (Primary Rate Interface, PRI). ISDN . D- (64 /) (
1) 30 ( 1) - .
"-" (User-Network Interface, UNI). , ( ), , . Frame Relay.
/ (small office/home office, SOHO). , ,
, .
(customer premises equipment, CPE) ,
, , , .
D- (Link Access Procedure, LAPD). ISDN
D-. LAPD LAPB , , ISDN. ITU-T (International Telecommunications Union, ) Q.920 Q.921.
(Link Access Procedure, Balanced,
LAPB). .25. LAPB -
, HDLC.
1- (network termination type 1, NT1). ,
.
2- (network termination type 2, NT2). ,
NT1. NT2 , .
(signaling). ISDN ( ). , , , , ,
, , , .
(reference point). ,
.
(Central Office, CO). , -


.
1- (terminal equipment type 1, 1). , ISDN-. 1 1-, 2- .
2- (terminal equipment type 2, 2). ,
ISDN- .
(terminal adapter, ). , ISDN , EIA/TIA-232.
, ISDN-.
(private branch exchange, PBX). ,
.
(Integrated Services Digital Network, ISDN).
, ,
, , ,
.

Frame Relay

(DLCI) Frame Relay

Cisco- Frame Relay

Frame Relay

Frame Relay

Frame Relay

12

Frame Relay

10, " ", "-", 11,


"ISDN - ",
, ISDN , , , , (Frame Relay) , Frame Relay ,
:
,
, ,
Frame Relay Internet
,


(Frame Relay) (Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone, CCITT, , ITU-T) (Amencan National Standards Institute, ANSI),
(public data network, PDN). .
OSI, , TCP.
ISDN. ,

(High-Level Data Link Control, HDLC) . .


, , , , . - ,
( , )
( ). ,
(data terminal equipment,
DTE), , DTE, (data circuit-terminating equipment, DCE) (. 12.1).

12.1. (Frame Relay) ,

Frame Relay
,
Frame Relay.

(local access rate) ( ) Frame Relay. .

(data-link connection identifier, DLCI).


Ka . 12.2, DLCI , .
DLCI
.

(local management interface, LMI)


, () Frame Relay,
. :
, ;
(multicast), DLCI;
, DLCI -

( );
DLCI DLCI ( ) (
);
, , . LMI
LMI. LMI: Cisco, ansi
q933a.

(committed information rate, CIR) /.

, .

CIR ,
. , ,
.

(Forward Explicit Congestion Notification,


FECN). ,
, FECN , .

(Backward Explicit Congestion Notification, 1

BECN). . 12 3, , BECN- .
, 25%

(discard eligibility indicator, DE). , Frame Relay DE-. DE

(.. ).

. 12.3 BECN-

Frame Relay
Frame Relay , , , . ( ,
) .
,

.
, Frame Relay, ,
. Frame
Relay
, 12.4,
, , .

Ethernet

. 12 4 Frame Relay
,
, ,
, . 56 /
2 /, ,
.

DLCI Frame Relay


(
12.5), Frame Relay
( , virtual circuits) (medium) DLCI .

. 125.

, Frame Relay, .
, . , , ,
Frame Relay. , , . () ()
, , . , Frame Relay , .
Frame Relay (permanent virtual circuit, PVC), Frame Relay . DLCI (. 12.6). DLCI Frame Relay . ,
. DTE, , DLCI , . 12.6.
, Frame Relay ,
, DLCI .

.
.

. 12 6. DLCI

Frame Relay
Frame Relay . 12.7. . ; 10 ID ( . DLCI).
.

.
2 ,
.
.
DLCI DLCI 10 .
3 , . FECN,
BECN DE ( ).

, .

FCS (frame check sequence, FCS), .

DLCI, FECN,
BECN
DE

FCS

12 7

Frame Relay
12.8 PVC, -,
- PVC -
DLCI 22, DLCI 82. , - DLCI 22 PVC . , PVC
.

12.8. DLCI Frame Relay

Frame Relay
Cisco LMI
1990 , Cisco Systems, StrataCom, Northern Telecom Digital Equipment Corporation
.
, ,
. (Local Management Interface, LMI).

LMI
LMI :

PVC, ;

, , PVC
, (. 12.9);

PVC;

LMI
ansi, Cisco q933a.

. 12.9. LMI

(LMI)

LMI- ,
.
(common) , . LMI (optional). , LMI.

,
PVC ,
.
.

( ,
multicast). ,
. , .

() , Frame Relay. Frame Relay


; .

()
XON/XOFF, .
,
.

LMI-
Frame Relay LMI. LMI , LMI (DLCI), DLCI=1023. . 12.10.

LMI

FCS

. 12.10. LMI- ,
Frame Relay
LMI 4 . ( , unnumbered information indicator)
, LAPB- (unnumbered information, UI), (poll/final) . ,
(protocol discriminator), , LMI. ( , call reference) .
(message type). : . -.
(keepalive) (,
, ) PVC . LMI, ,
, , Frame Relay.
, ( ) . , ,
.
(information element, IE), . IE. IE, IE
, .


LMI , , , . (global addressing). , DLCI- (, ).
. 12.8.
, () Frame Relay
DLCI, .
, ,

. . , , , DLCI
.
, . 12.8
. , -. - 22, 22 DLCI Frame Relay. DLCI
62 , . , . .
. Frame Relay
.


LMI
. DLCI ( 1019 1022). , , DLCI, , . LMI, ,
. , , .
DLCI.
.

ARP
ARP
Frame Relay, . 12.11.
DLCI LMI. ARP DLCI , . ARP .

. 12.11. DLCI
ARP DLCI


, ,
DLCI , . 12.12.
,
Frame Relay (Frame Relay map).
DLCI .
ARP.

Frame Relay
Frame Relay : DLCI DLCI,
. 12.13. , DLCI
. " , DLCI .



P1 DLCI200

. 12.13. IP- DLCI


IP-
____________________________________________________________________________________
: Frame Relay

:

. 12.15. DLCI,
1. Frame Relay
.
2. ,
CSU/DSU ( / ) Frame Relay.
3. , - Frame Relay.
.
4.
, DLCI ,
.
5. DLCI
ARP,
, .
6. DLCI, ARP,
, DLCI
, . , DLCI , , .
.

, .

, , ;

, LMI
Frame Relay.
7. 60
ARP.
8. 10 ( ) Frame Relay . .

Frame Relay
,
Frame Relay , (). . , ,
"-". , . 12.16.

. 12.16.
,
,
(.. DTE)
PVC, . 12.17.

. 12.. ,


Serial
0.1 7777



Frame Relay, . 12.18.


, , .
, , ,
(. 12.19).
,
(PVC) ,

(. 12.20).

. 12.20. ,
,

"-".
PVC .
DLCI.
"-" . ,

PVC-
DLCI

Frame Relay,

Frame Relay
, Frame Relay (. 12.21), a LMI
ARP (). LM1
DLCI. ARP ,
. Frame Relay :
1. :
Router(config)# interface serial 0
2. , , IP-:
Router(config-if)# ip address 192.168.38.40 255.255.255.0

3. ,
.
Router(config)# encapsulation frame relay [ Cisco | letf ]
-

cisco , ,
Cisco;
ietf

Cisco

4. Cisco 11.1 ,
LMI, Frame Relay:

Router(config-if)I frame-relay Imi-type { ansi I cisco |

q933I }

cisco
112 LMI ,
5. '
Router (config-if)# bandwidth

, IGRP,

6. ARP ,
( ):
Router(config-if)# frame-relay inverse-arp [] [dlci]

,
IP, IPX, Apple Talk, DECNet, VINES XNS

dlci DLCI ,

ARP.

12 21 Frame Relay
Frame Relay
___________________________________________________________________________
:
, , ,
1. , , , ,
Router(config) # hostname 1600
2.

:
1600(config)# enable password 1600user

____________________________________________________________________________________

Frame Relay
Frame Relay , , show.

show interfaces serial

DLCI, , DLCI, ,
, DLCI
(LMI), LMI

show frame-relay pvc

.
, BECN- FECN-,

show frame-relay map


DLCI , -


show frame-relay Imi

LMI. , ,


.
1. (EXEC) show
interface serial 0.
:
1600# show interface serial 0
SerialO is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is QUICC Serial
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit,
DLY 2000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255
Encapsulation FRAME-RELAY
loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
LMI enq sent 163, LMI stat recvd 136,
LMI upd recvd 0, DTE LMI up
LMI enq recvd 39, LMI stat sent 0, LMI upd sent 0
LMI DLCI 1023 LMI type is CISCO frame relay DTE
Broadcast queue 0/64, broadcasts sent/dropped 27/0,
interface broadcast 28
Last input 00:00:01, output 00:00:05, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops);
Total output drops: 0
Queuing strategy: weighted fair
Output queue: 0/64/0 (size/threshold/drops)
Conversations 0/1 (active/max active)
Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated)
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
1813 packets input, 109641 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 1576 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
13 input errors, 0 CRC, 13 frame, 0 overrun,
0 ignored, 0 abort
1848 packets output, 117260, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 32 interface resets
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
29 carrier transitions
DCD=up DSR=up DTR=up RTS=up CTS=up

2. , () :

SerialO is up, line protocol is up ,


Frame Relay ;

LMI enq sent 163, LMI stat recvd 136 , . ,


, ;

type is Cisco , LMI


.
LMI

3. ,

, :
LMI Frame Relay
;

LMI.
4. , ,


, , .
1. (EXEC), show
frame-relay map. , status defined, active ( ) .
16001 show frame-relay map
SerialO.1 (up): point-to-point dlci, dlci 17(0x11,0x410),
broadcast, status defined, active

2.

, :

, ;

Frame Relay, .
3. , ,


, , .
1. (EXEC), ping, IP- .
2. Success rate... ( ).
1600# ping 192.168.38.40
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.38.40,
timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5),
round-trip min/avg/max =32/32/32 ms
1600#

10% ,
.
3.
.
___________________________________________________________________________
: Ethernet-
Ethernet- ( ), IP- IPX- ,
.

1.

Ethernet:
1600 (config)# interface ethernet 0

2.

IP- :
1600(config-if)# ip address 172.16.25.1 255.255.255.0

3.

IPX-:
1600 (config-if)# ipx network

4.

,
:
1600 (config-if)# no shutdown

5.

:
1600(config-if)# exit


Frame Relay
,
Frame Relay, .
1. :
1600(config)# interface serial 0
2.
:
1600(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay
3.

:
1600(config-if)# no shutdown

Frame Relay
, PVC Frame Relay. .
1. encapsulation frame-relay 60 .
2 -
show frame-relay pvc
3.

, ( ) PVC STATUS=ACTIVE:
1600# show frame relay pvc
PVC Statistics for interface SerialO (Frame Relay DTE)
DLCI=17, DLCI USAGE=LOCAL, PVC STATUS =ACTIVE, INTERFACE =SerialO.1
input pkts 45 output pkts 52 in bytes 7764
out bytes 9958 dropped pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0
in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0

in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0


pvc create time 00:30:59, last time pvc status changed
00:19:21

4.
5.

, DLCI= ... ( 17). .


,
show interfaces serial 0
. . :
SerialO is up,

line protocol is up

SerialO is up, line protocol is


down, LMI. LMI
type is CISCO, .
| 6.
.
_________________________________________________________________________
:
, , , ,
, .
1.
:
1600(config)# line console 0
2.

,
EXEC :
1600 (config-line)# exec-timeout 5

3.

:
1600(config-line)# line vty 0 4

4.

:
1600(config-line)# password lineaccess

5.

:
1600 (config-line)# login

:
1600 (config-line)# end


,
. 12.22, .
1
, .
2.
, -

3.
4.

. ,
.
,
" Frame Relay".
, :
Router(config-if)# interface serial . { multipoint | point-to-point }
:

.- ,
1 4 294 967 293. , , , .

multipoint , ,
. IP- (. 12.23).
point-to-point , , , , , "-" (. 12.24).
: point-to-point multipoint ; .

5.

. point-to-point IP, ip unnumbered:


Router(config-if)# ip unnumbered

, , . ,
,
, , .
multipoint point-to-point, DLCI , ,
:
Router(config-if)# frame-relay interface-dlci -did
:

-did DLCI,
. LMI , LMI .

. 12.24. point-to-point no-


point-to-point.
, ARP. , .
.
____________________________________________________________________________________

point-to-point, multipoint
.
, .
____________________________________________________________________________________

:
router(config-if)# frame-relay map - dlci
[broadcast] [ ietf | cisco | payload-compress | packet-by-packet ]
.

dlci

DLCI,

broadcast

( ) ,
, ,

ietf I cisco

( )
. Cisco, cisco,
ietf

payload-compress
packet-by-packet

( ) (Stacker)

ARP .
(.. , . 12.25). . ARP, OSPF ,
. (static
map).
, .. ,
. 10 , :
router(config-if)# keepalive
.
23 , . .

12 25 ARP
ARP
LMI , DLCI

router(config-if)# frame-relay local-dlci

DLCI .

, ,

.

-
(,
, ) (, ).

LMI :

PVC, ;

, , PVC
, ;

PVC;

ARP,

DLCI

,
.

:
,

. , , .
1. , :

DLCI;

CIR;

,
.
2. ,
Frame Relay .


, , . .
1.
?
A. ;
B. ;
C. ATM;
D. .
2.

?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
3.

DLCI ?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. DLCI .
4.
,
?
A. (CIR).
B. .
C. .
D. (/).
5.
DLCI?
A. .
B. .
C. DLC1.
D. .
6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

DLCI?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
PVC ?
A. "-",
B. Windows.
C. .
D. PVC .
ARP?
A. IP- -.
B. - IP-.
C. - .
D. IP- DLCI.
?
A. ARP.
B. RIP.
C. .
D. IGRP.

?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .


(data-link connection identifier, DLCI). ,
PVC SVC Frame Relay. Frame Relay
DLCI- ( ),
LMI ( ).
(local management interface, LMI). Frame Relay. :

(multicast), DLCI;

, DLCI- , Frame Relay

, ;

, DLCI-. ANSI LMI LMT.


(backward explicit congestion notification,
BECN). , Frame Relay, , , ,
. DTE-, BECN- , .

(public data network, PDN).


( ) ( ) ,
, . PDN
.
() (permanent virtual circuit, PVC). . , PVC , .
(Frame Relay).
, HDLC-. , .25, .
(Forward Explicit Congestion Notification,
FECN). , Frame Relay DTE, , .
DTE-, FECN- ,

.
( ) (local access rate). ( ) . .
(physical media, media).
(medium), (media).
: , - , ( , ).

1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

9.

10.


. ,

-


. ,
PDU ,
,


ICMP TCP/IP ICMP IP
ICMP- ping destination unreachable.




,

2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

.
. 800 .
D. : .
D. , 2- .
. , ""
.
. ; .
D. ,
.

8.

9.

10.

, , ,
. .
Ethernet () (RX)
. Ethernet TX RX
, ,
.
,
.

3
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

,
,
.
. , , VLAN.
VLAN , .
.
. .
D. .
. ; .
D. .
D.
.
. .

4
1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

6.
7.
8.

,
, .
2- : ,
, .
3- , , .
, Internet.
:
. , .
, . ,
.
D. .
D. .
. 2- ; 1- .

9.
10.

400 .
D. .

5
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

(3-
OSI).

.
-
.


. ,
, , , IP IPX,
.
:

;
, , .
D. .
D. ( ) ( ).
. -; .
D. IGRP .
D. router igrp.

6
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.


.
.
. , .

. , .
, .
.
,
.
1 99. 100 199.
. show ip interface .
. .
. " ."
. .
. .

7
1.

-.

2.

ipx maximum paths.

3.

4.

show ipx interface.

5.

debug ipx sap.

6.

. ; .

7.

D. ( Novell) ( Cisco).

8.

. RIP; SAP.

9.

A. ipx routing [].

10. . show ipx interface; show ipx route; show ipx servers.

8
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

. .
. .
D. DCE.
D. .
A. Frame Relay.
. .
D. .
D. .
. Frame Relay.
. LCP.

9
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

D. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
D. .
. .
. .

10
1.

SLIP.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

, ISDN ./
D. .
. .
. .
. , "-".
. .
. .
. Router# show interfaces.
. Internet .

11
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

128 /.
-.
D-.
SPID.
D-.
. .
. .
. .
. .

10. D. Router(config)# isdn switch-type

12
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

. .
. .
. .
. (CIR).
D. .
. .
. .
D. IP- DLCI.
. .
. .


, , , |
Cisco

access-group


(ACL)
access-list
IP-
clear interface

debug dialer
, , ,

debug ipx routing activity
RIP
debug ipx sap

(SAP)
debug isdn q921

( 2), D-
(LAPD) ISDN
debug ppp

,

deny

dialer-group
-

dialer idle-timeout

dialer-list protocol
DDR-

dialer map


dialer
wait-for-
carrier-time
enable password
encapsulation
relay
encapsulation
ether


frame- Frame Relay
novell-

encapsulation ppp

6
6
11
11
7
7
11

6
11

11
11

11
11
12
12

,
7
Novell
8, 10, 11
ISDN

,
Ethernet 802.3. IOS sap

,
EXEC
EXEC

(Local Management Interface, LMI)
Frame Relay
,



IP- IP-
ipx delay

ipx ipxwan
IPXWAN

ipx maximum-paths
,
Cisco
ipx network

(Internetwork Packet Exchange, IPE) , ,

ipx router

ipx routing
IPX
ipx sap-interval
SAP-
ipx
type-20-input-
checks
IPX 20
isdn spidl
(service profile identifier number), ISDN
1
isdn spid2
(service profile identifier number), ISDN
2
isdn switch type
ISDN
keepalive
LMI
Frame Relay
line console

1,6,12
12

encapsulation sap

end
exec-timeout

exit

frame-relay local-dlci

hostname

interface
interface serial
ip access-group
ip address
ip unnumbered

12
12

12

12

12

6, 7, 8,
11
12
6

7
7
7
7,12

7
7
7
7
11

11

11
12
12


line vty
login
metric holddown
network

network-number
permit

ping

authentication

chap hostname

chap password

pap sent-username

protocol
router igrp
router rip
show access-list
show dialer

show frame-relay Lmi


show frame-relay map
show frame-relay pvc
show interfaces
show interfaces serial
show ip interface





IGRP
NIC- ,
.
IGRP-.
IGRP;

IPX


ICMP- - .

.
(Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, CHAP),
(Password Authentication Protocol, PAP) ,



,
CHAP
, ,
. /
sent-username password
,

IP-,
RIP, IGRP, OSPF EIGRP
IGRP
RIP



DDR
LMI-


PVC Frame
Relay
,

IP-

12
12
5
1, 5, 7

1
6
1, 7, 11
,12

10

10

10

10

1
5
1
6
11

12
12
12
8, 10,11
12
6


show ip route
show ipx interface
show
show
show
show

ipx route
ipx servers
ipx traffic
isdn active

show isdn status

show protocols
show spantree
show status
term ip netmask-format
timers basic
username password


IPX-, Cisco
IPX-
IPX-

, , , , , ,

ISDN . (digital signal link, DSL) ISDN

(VLAN)
ISDN-
,
show
IGRP

, CHAP .

11
7
7
7
7
11

11

7
2
11
1
5
10


, . ,
, , .
,
.
. , ,
, , ,
.
, . . ,
.
, ,
.


2B+D. BRI ISDN - D-.
4/5 local fiber. 4/5- - ,
FDDI ATM.
100 /.
4-byte/5 byte local fiber . 4/5 local fiber.
8B/10B local fiber. 8/10- - .
149,76 /.
8-byte/10-byte local fiber. . 8/10 local fiber.
lOBasel. Ethernet 10 /
50 . 10Base2 IEEE 802 3. 10Base2 185 . .
Ethernet IEEE 802.3.
lOBaseS. Ethernet 10 /
() 50 . 10Base5
IEEE 802.3. 10Base5 500 . . Ethernet IEEE 802.3.
lOBaseF. Ethernet 10 / , Ethernet- lOBaseFB, lOBaseFL lOBaseFP. .
lOBaseFB, lOBaseFL, lOBaseFP Ethernet.
lOBaseFB. Ethernet 10 / . IEEE lOBaseF. ,

, .
lOBaseFL. Ethernet 10 /
- . IEEE lOBaseF,
FO1RL, , , . lOBaseFL 1000
FOIRL 2000 . . lOBaseF Ethernet.
lOBaseFP. Ethernet 10 /
- . IEEE lOBaseF
"" .
lOBaseFP 500 . . lOBaseF Ethernet.
lOBaseT. Ethernet 10 /
( 3, 4 5). ,
. IEEE 802.3. lOBaseT 100 . . Ethernet IEEE 802.3.
10d6. Ethernet
10 / . IEEE 802.3. 10Broad36 3600 . . Ethernet IEEE 802.3.
100BaseFX. 100-/ Fast Ethernet, , .
, lOOBaseFX- 400 . IEEE 802.3. . lOOBaseX, Ethernet IEEE 802.3.
100BaseT. Fast Ethernet 100
/ UTP. lOBaseT ,
100BaseT , . , ,
lOBaseT. IEEE 802.3. . lOBaseT, Fast Ethernet
IEEE 802.3.
100BaseT4. Fast Ethernet 100
/ UTP- 3, 4 5.
100BaseT4 100 .
IEEE 802.3. . Fast Ethernet IEEE 802.3.
100BaseTX. Fast Ethernet 100-/, UTP STP. , . 100 . IEEE 802.3.
lOOBaseX. Fast Ethernet 100
/ - , 100BaseFX 100BaseTX.
IEEE 802.3. . 100BaseFX, 100BaseTX, Fast Ethernet IEEE 8G2.3.
lOOVG-AnyLAN. Fast Ethernet Token Ring
100 / UTP- 3, 4 5. Hewlett-Packard
lOBaseT Ethernet. IEEE 802.12. . IEEE 802.12.

A
& bit signaling. , 1, 24 1 1 .
ABM. 1. Asynchronous Balanced Mode, .
HDLC ( ), "", . 2. Accunet Bandwidth
Manager.
Access method. 1. . . 2.
SNA-, .
. . (acknowledgment)
Adapter. . (NIC).
Address Resolution Protocol. . .
Advanced Research Projects Agency. .
AppleTalk. Apple Computer,
. , Phase 1, ,
. Phase 2
. .
(zone).
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency). . -
. . DARPA, 1994 . ARPA.
ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). , 1969 . 70- . XX ARPANET BBN,
ARPA ( DARPA). ARPANET Internet. ARPANET 1990 .
Asynchronous Balanced Mode. . ABM.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode. . .

Banyan VINES. . .
Basic Rate Interface. . BRI
Bootstrap Protocol. . .
-, (bearer channel, channel). , ISDN- -

64 /, .

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. . CHAP.


Cisco IOS (Internetwork Operating System software, Cisco IOS software). Cisco, , CiscoFusion. Cisco ,
, , , .
Concentrator. . .
Connectionless. . . . connection-oriented. . .
Connection-oriented. , . . connectionless .

D
D channel, delta channel. ISDN- 16 / (BRI)
64 / (PRI). . -.
DAS (dual attachment station). 1. . , FDDI. FDDI:
, . DAS . . SAS. 2. Dynamically Assigned Socket,
. , DDP- , .
AppleTalk , 128 254, .
DECNet. ( ),
Digital Equipment Corporation.
DECNet/OSI ( DECNet Phase V). DECNet/OSI OSI
Digital Equipment Corporation. Phase IV Prime -,
DECNet ,
-. . DNA.
Destination service access point. . . Dial-on-demand
routing. . . Dual attachment station. . DAS.
D-, , -,
(delta channel, D channel). ISDN- 16 / (
BRI) 64-/ ( PRI).

1. 2,048 /. . 1
. . 77.
. 34,368 /. . .
EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory,
). , ,
.
EIA/TIA-568. ,
UTP .
ES-IS (End System-to-Intermediate System). OSI, , () ().
Ethernet. , Xerox
Xerox, Intel Digital Equipment Corporation. Ethernet CS MA/CD
10 /. Ethernet
IEEE 802.3.

F
FDDI II. ANSI- FDDI-. FDDI II
,
, ,
. . (FDDI).
Fiber Distributed Data Interface. CM. FDDI
File Transfer Protocol. . .

G
Gbps. /, .
Get Nearest Server. . .

Horizontal cross-connect. . -, Hypertext Markup Language.


. . Hypertext Transfer Protocol. . .
IEEE 802.2. IEEE , LLC . IEEE 802.2 , , ( 3). IEEE

802.3 IEEE 802.5, . IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.5.


IEEE 802.3. IEEE ,
- . CSMA/CD . Fast
Ethernet. IEEE 802.3 10Base2, lOBaseS, lOBaseF, lOBaseT 10Broad36. Fast Ethernet , 100BaseT,
100BaseT4 lOOBaseX.
IEEE 802.5. IEEE ,
- . IEEE 802.5
4 16 / STP UTP; Token Ring. . Token Ring.
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. .
.
Integrated Services Digital Network. . . Intermediate
distribution facility. . .
International Organization for Standardization. . .
Internet Protocol. . IP.
Internetwork Packet Exchange. . .
Internet Control Message Protocol. . .
Internet. 1. ,
. "", . Internet
. Internet ARPANET DARPA Internet. internet. .
ARPANET. 2. internetwork " ".
Internet. . .
internet. " ".
Intranet. , .
IOS (Internetwork Operating System). . Cisco IOS.
IP- (IP address). 32- , TCP/IP. IP-
(, , , D ) , . , .
, .
IP . IP-
Internet (Internet address).
IP- (IP-datagram). , ; , ,
, , ( ) .

L
Link Access Procedure on the D channel. . d-.
Link Control Protocol. . .
Local Management Interface. . .
Local-area network. . .
Logical link control. . .

MAC-layer address. . MAC-address.


- ( ) (Media Access Control Address, MAC address). ,
, . ,
. - 6 IEEE.
, - .
Management Information Base. . .
Media Access Control. . .
Media access unit. . .
Media attachment unit. . . .
Multistation access unit. . .

N
NetWare Link Services Protocol. . NetWare.
NetWare Loadable Module. . NetWare.
Network address translation. . .
Network Basic Input/Output System. . -.
Network Control Program. . .
Network File System. . .
Network interface card. . .
Network management system. . .

Network operating system. . .


Networking. , , , , - ..
Novell IPX. . .

-
Open Shortest Path First. . .
Packet internet groper. . .
Password Authentication Protocol. . .
Permanent virtual circuit. . .
Physical address. . MAC-address.
PHY. 1. Physical sublayer, . FDDI. 2. Physical layer, . ATM , ATM. PHY : PMD .
Point-to-Point Protocol. . "-". Protocol address. . . Protocol analyzer. . . Proxy Address Resolution Protocol. . ARP.

Q-R
Q.931. ,
ISDN-.
. ISDN- .
Random-access memory. . .
Request for Comment. . .
Routing Table Maintenance Protocol. . .

S
Sequenced Packet Exchange. . .
Serial Line Internet Protocol ( Internet ,
SLIP). "-" TCP/IP. .
Service Advertising Protocol. . .
Small office/home office. . / .

Subnet. . .
Synchronous Data Link Control. . .

1. . 1 DS-1
1,544 / , AMI
B8ZS.
. . DS-3
44,736 / .
Telnet. TCP/IP. Telnet ,
, . Telnet RFC 854.
Time To Live. . .
Token Ring. ,
IBM. Token Ring 4 16 /.
IEEE 802.5.
Token Talk. , Apple Computers AppleTalk Token Ring.
Traceroute). , ,
. . , RFC 1393.

V
Vertical cross-connect. . -.

(autonomous system, AS). , .


. Internet (Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority) 16- .
(agent). 1. ,
. 2. NMS , .
ARP, (proxy Address Resolution Protocol,
proxy ARP). ARP, (, -

) ARP . ARP
. . .
Internet (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, IANA). , ISOC,
IAB. IANA IP- InterNIC . IANA , TCP/IP, .
(address). , , .
(source address). , . .
.
(subnet address). IP-, .
(destination address). , . .
.
OSI (OSI presentation address). ,
OSI. OSI
, ,
.
(next-hop address). IP-, IP .
(host address). . .
(address mask). , , . . . .
(active monitor). Token Ring.
- . ,
, .
(spanning-tree algorithm). , . STA. . .
(American Standard Code for Information Interchange, ASCII). (7
).
(advertising). , ,
, .
() (hardware address). . -.

(asymmetric switching). , . , 10
/ 100 /.
(asynchronous circuit). , .
. (
), . . .
(Telecommunications Industries Association,
TIA). , . TIA
EIA , EIA/TIA-232,
.
(Electronic Industries Association, EIA). , . EIA TIA , EIA/TIA-232 EIA/TIA-449.
(authentication). .

(Management Information Base, MIB). , , , SNMP CMIP. 1-


SNMP CMIP ()
GUI-. MIB- () () .
(byte). , (, 8
= 1 ).
(cut-through). ,
: ,
. , -syioLuee , , , . (on-the-fly packet switching) .
(classless interdomain routing, CIDR). , BGP4 . , . IP- . IP- 4
, , 2-
.
(count to infinity). , -
. ,
. .

(bit). . .
(bit bucket). ,
.
(nearest active upstream neighbor, NAUN). Token Ring IEEE 802.5 , , .
/ (channel service unit/digital service
unit, CSU/DSU). , .
(firewall). , .
(ACL) .
(memory buffer). ,
.
Ethernet (Fast Ethernet). Ethernet
100 /. Fast Ethernet 10 , lOBaseT; , , MAC MTU.
lOBaseT
Fast Ethernet. IEEE 802.3.
(Rapid Transport Protocol, RTF). APPN, APPN.
RTP ,
. RTP , .


- (vertical cross-connect, VCC). , .
(Open System Interconnection, OSI). , ISO ITU-T
, .
(Virtual Integrated Network Service, VINES).
, Banyan Systems.
(virtual LAN, VLAN). , ( )
, , . .
, ,
.
(port-centric VLAN). ,
.
(virtual circuit). ,
. VPI/VCI (PVC) (SVC). .25.
VC.
(exterior protocol). , , .
(interior protocol). , ,
.
- (fiber-optic cable). ,
. - , , . (optical fiber).
(time-division multiplexing, TDM). , ,
.
(Time To Live, TTL). IP-, ,
.
(propagation delay). , ,
. (latency).
(call setup time). ,

DTE-.
- (firmware). , ,
- .
(secondary station). , HDLC, , .
(Leased line). , . .
(dedicated link). , . , .
(designated router). OSPF-,
LSA-
OSPF. OSPF- ,
, , OSPF. , , , .
(high-speed channel, H channel).
ISDN 384 /. . -.
(High-level Data Link Control, HDLC).
- ISO.
SDLC . .
.

(insured rate). ( ), ATM .


. . .
, (Gb). 1024 , 1 073 741 824 .
(hybrid network). , LAN WAN.
(main distribution facility, MDF). . , , .
- (horizontal cross-connect, HCC). , , , ,
.
(graphical user interface, GUI).

, .
. GUI , ,
(, ). , GUI, Microsoft Windows Apple Macintosh.
(multicast). ,
, .
(multicast address). , .
(zone multicast address). , NBP, .

(data). , .
(binary). (1
, 0 ).
(dual homing). , ( ).
,
.
(datagram). , , , . IP- Internet. , , ,
(cell, frame, message, packet segment) OSI .
(demarcation). , . .
(demultiplexing). , () , . . .
( ) (cut sheet).
, .
(dynamic VLAN). , , .
(dynamic routing). ,
.
(adaptive routing).
- (distance-vector routing protocol). .
-

. - , , , . - (Bellman-Ford routing algorithm).


(tree topology). , , , . .
(catchment area). , , (, ).
(full duplex). -. . .
Ethernet (full-duplex Ethernet). .

(header). , .
NetWare (NetWare Loadable Module, NLM). , NetWare.
(delay). ,
. , , .
(s). , .
(backoff). , .
(Get Nearest Server, GNS). ,
IPX- .
IPX GNS-
, , . GNS IPX SAP.
(Request for Comment, RFC). IETF
Internet . RFC IAB Internet-. RFC ,
Telnet FTP, . RFC
Web-.
(attenuation). .
(area). ( CLNS, DECNet OSPF) . . . .

(zone). 1. ,
(multipoint control units, MCU), .
. , MCU.
. LAN LAN, . 2. AppleTalk
.

(data-link connection identifier, DLCI). , PVC SVC . DLCI (..


). LMI (.. ).
(service profile identifier, SPID). , , ISDN. SPID ISDN- ,
.
(redundancy). 1. ,
. , . 2. , , .
Internet (Internet Engineering task
Force, IETF). , 80 ,
Internet. IFTF ISOC.
(encapsulation). () . , Ethernet
Ethernet. , , . . .
(Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers, IEEE). ,
. IEEE .
(keepalive interval).
(keepalive messages), .
(interface). 1. . 2.
. 3.
, . 4.
OSI.
(Basic Rate Interface, BRI). ISDN-, - D- -
.

(Local Management Interface, LMI). Frame Relay. , , ,


DLCI-, , DLCI- , Frame Relay, ,
DLCI-.
ANSI LMI LMT.
( ) (Primary Rate Interface, PRI). ISDN . D- (64 /) (
1) 30 ( 1) - .
(attachment unit interface, AUI).
IEEE802.3 () MAU . AUI
, AUI-.
Cisco LightStream Ethernet.
(transceiver cable).
(Application programming interface, API). , .
"-" (User-Network Interface, UNI). , ( ), , . Frame Relay.
Internet (InterNIC). , ,
Internet, .
NIC.
(congestion avoidance). ATM
.
,
.
- (MAC address learning). , - . , . . . - IEEE 802.1.
(uninterruptable power supply, UPS). , .
.
(seed router). AppleTalk,
.


AppleTalk,
. AppleTalk
. .


1 (category I cabling). UTP-, EIA/TIA-586. 1 . . EIA/TIA-586 epaupoaa^ (UTP).
2 (category 2 cabling). UTP-, EIA/TIA-586. 2 4
/. . EIA/TIA-586 (UTP).
3 (category 3 cabling). UTP-, EIA/TIA-586. 3 lOBaseT
10 /. . EIA/TIA-586
(UTP).
4 (category 4 cabling). UTP-, EIA/TIA-586. 4 Token Ring 16 /. . EIA/TIA-586
(UTP).
5 (Category 5 cabling). UTP-, i EIA/TIA-586. 5 100
/. . EIA/TIA-586 (UTP).
(cable range). ,
AppleTalk. . .
(circuit). , .
(link). , . . ? .
"-" (point-to-point link). , , -, . .
(WAN link). ,
.
(circuit group). , . , .
.
(data link layer). OSI.
. ,
, , ,
. IEEE : MAC LLC.

(data link control layer) SNA.


(route map).
.
(quality of service, QoS). , .
, (kilobyte, kB). 1024 .
/, (kilobytes per second, kBps). , , .
, (kilobit, kb). 1024 .
/, (kilobits per second, kbps). , , .
(handshake). ,

(client). (
), .
/ (client/server). .
/ (client/server model).
() .
(DNS), , .
/ (client/server computing).
, : (front end) (back end). ( )
, . (distributed computing). . . . .
(coaxial cable). , () , , , .
: 50 75
, .
(coding). .
(encoding). .
(hop count). , .
RIP.
(collision domain). Ethernet , . , , -

.
(collision). Ethernet . , ,
, , .
(ring topology). , , .
. .
(ring). . .
Token Ring, FDDI CDDI.
(switch). , ,
. OSI.
(patch panel). , . , .
(switching). .
(fragment-free switching). ,
, .
.
(circuit switching). ,
. . , , ,
.
(packet switching). , -
.
(fast-forward switching). , . .
(store-and-forward). , ,
CRC .
, , (, ).
(dialup line). ,
.
(switched virtual circuit, SVC). , . .

() (convergence).
, . .
(contention). ,
.
(console). ,
.
(watchdog spoofing). ,
, NetWare, NetWare . .
.
(watchdog packet). ,
NetWare. , . , , , .
(watchdog tinier). 1. ,
. 2. NetWare , , .
, ,
.
(trailer). ,
.
(hub). 1. , ""
(multipart repeater). 2.
, . ( ,
) ( , ).
(caching). , , , .

(flooding). , . , , , .
(latency).
.
(local-area transport, LAT). ,
Digital Equipment Corporation.
(local-area network, LAN). , -

, ( ). , , , .
OSI. Ethernet, FDDI Token Ring .
(local traffic filtering). ,
() - ,
,
. IEEE 802.1.

(backbone). ,
.
(backbone cabling).
, (POP),
, .
(maximum transmission unit, MTU). , , .
(maximum rate).
, . , .
. ,
, , .
/ (small office/home office, SOHO). , ,
, .
(token). , . . . .
(token bus).
. LAN IEEE 802.4.
(router). ,
. , .
(gateway), .
(routing). .
, .
(shortest-path routing). ,
, .

(dial-on-demand routing, DDR). , .


(routed protocol). , . , . : AppleTalk,
DECNet, IP.
(mask). . .
(subnet mask).
IP .
, (megabyte, MB). 1024 , 1048576 . , (megabit, Mb). 1024 , 1048576 .
/, (megabits per second, Mbps). , , .
(flash update). .
.
(International Organization for Standardization, ISO). , ,
, .
OSI.
(International Electrotechnical Commission
IEC). , .
(Consultativ
Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone, CCITT). ,
. ITU-T. . ITU-T.
(local loop). ( ), .
(metric). (, ), .
(routing metric). , . . , ,
, , , MTU, . .
(microsegmentation). (
).
(Department of Defense, DOD).
, . CLLL

.
- (multimode fiber). - , .
(point-to-multipoint connection).
. ATM , - ( )
- ( ).
(carrier sens multiple access collision detect, CSMA/CD). , , , . , . ,
, , .
.
Ethernet IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD.
(-) (Modulator-demodulator, modem). , . - , .
.
.
(protocol data unit, PDU). ,
OSI.
(bridge protocol data unit, BPDU). ,
.
(multistation access unit, MSAU). Token Ring
, ,
MSAU . MSAU Token Ring . MAU.
(bridge). , ,
, . (
) OSI. , , -.
(bridging). , (LAN).
(multiplexing).
.
, (multiprotocol routing). , , TCP/IP
IPX .

(load). , , , , .
(reliability). , . ,
. .
(American National Standards Institute,
ANSI). ANSI , . ANSI ,
. ANSI , , . ANSI IEC ISO. . IEC ISO.
(bootstrap). , , , , . " " (best-effort delivery). ,

. (nonseed router). AppleTalk
, ,
. . .
(multivendor network). , -

. , .
(nonextended network). AppleTalk Phase 2,
253 .
(carrier). , .
(nonstub area). OSPF-, , , , . OSPF ASBR.
. .
(unshielded twisted-pair, UTP). , . UTP , . UTP. .
(socket number). , .
AppleTalk 254 .
(host number). IP-, .
.

(routing update). , . .
. .
(split horizon updates). ,
, . .
(Defense Data Network, DDN). , (MILNET), . DISA.
(customer premises equipment, CPE). , , , , .
(data circuit-terminating equipment, DCE). , DTE , .
(data terminal equipment, DTE). , -, , . DTE
DCE (, ) , DCE. ,
, .
(Reverse Path Forwarding, RPF). , ,
.
(poison reverse update). IGRP, . ,
.
, .
(Backward Explicit Congestion Notification,
BECN). , Frame Relay, , , ,
. DTE-, BECN-, ,

.
(punch tool). ,
.
(internetwork). ,
. . internet.
Internet.
(unicast). , . -

(unicast address). , .
(peer-to-peer computing). .
,
OSI.
(single-vendor network). , . . . .
(window). , .
, (octet). "", |
"", .
, (Random-Access Memory, RAM). j
, .
NetWare (NetWare). | , Novell.
.
(path determination). ,
. OSI.
(core layer). ,
, .
(public data network, PDN).
( ) ( ) ,
, . PDN
.
(Open Data-Link Interface, ODI). Novell,
(network interface cards, NIC), NIC. . .
(address mapping). , . , IP-
.25 IP- .25. .
(address resolution).
(cost). , ,
, .
(queuing). , .
(queue). 1. : , . 2. : , .

(signal quality error, SQE). , -


. (heartbeat).

(packet). , ,
, () .
. ,
, (datagram, frame, message, segment) OSI
.
, (content-addressable memory, CAM).
, , .

(parallel transmission). , / . . - I .
(congestion). , .
(token passing). ,
,
-. (circuit switching)
(contention). . .
(redirect). ICMP ES-IS, , .
(forwarding). .
(frame forwarding). , , HDLC SDLC, ATM.
(hop). (, ).
(loopback test). , .
.
(loop). , , .
(toll network). ( ) .
(repeater). ,
.
(border router). ,

.
(autonomous system boundary router,
ASBR). , ,
OSPF , OSPF .
OSPF , RIP. ASBR OSPF.
(subnetwork). 1. , . 2. IP , .
() (acknowledgment). ,
,
(, ). .
(subinterface). -

.
(payload). , ,
().
- (fully meshed topology). ,
PVC .
(half duplex).
, . BSC.
. .
Ethernet (half-duplex Ethernet).
.
(port). 1. (, ). 2.
, , RJ-45. , , . (), . 3. IP
, . . , SMTP 25.
, (well-known)
(serial transmission). ,
. . .
(read-only memory, ROM). , , .
(permanent virtual circuit, PVC). , .
, , , .
(flow). , (, LAN- ).
.
, (post, telephone and telegraph, PIT). ,
.
; , .
(address resolution).
. ( 3) ( 2). . (address mapping).
(name resolution).
.
(trap). , SNMP NMS, ? ,
, -

.
(application). ,
. FTP Telnet .
/ (client/server application). ,
.
.
(priority queuing). ,
,
.
( ) (common carrier). , .
(packet internet groper, ping). - ICMP
. IP- .
(Network Control Program, NCP). , .
(programmable read-only memory,
PROM). , .
PROM . . EEPROM.
(proxy). 1. , , , . 2.
, .323 .
, (intermediate distribution facility, IDF).
,
. .
(flat network). , ,
. .
(Trivial File Transfer Protocol, TFTP). FTP, .
(Simple Network Management Protocol, SNMP). , TCP/IP. SNMP , , , .
(protocol). ,
.
"-" (Point-to-point Protocol, PPP). SLIP,
,
.

IP (Internet Protocol, IP). TCP/IP, . IP , ,


, . RFC 791.
IP (IP version 6, IPv6). 4 IP. . IPng (IP next generation). IPX
(IPX wide-area network IPXWAN). , .
IPXWAN .
IPX. RFC 1362.
.25. ITU-T-, DTE

. (Frame Relay).
(Password Authentication Protocol, PAP). , .
, ,
, . CHAP, PAP
, (.. ).
PAP , ' ,
. .
(Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, CHAP). , .
CHAP , ; ,
.
(Open Shortest Part First, OSPF) ,
RIP Internet . OSPF ,
.
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, DHCP). IP-.
(Datagram Delivery Protocol DDP).
AppleTalk, AppleTalk.
D- (Link Access Procedure on the D channel, LAPD). ISDN
D-. LAPD LAPB , ,
ISDN. ITU-T (International Telecommunications Union, ) Q.920 Q.921.
(Zone Information Protocol, ZIP).
AppleTalk, . NBP
ZIP, , .
(logical link protocol, LLC). , IEEE. LLC , -

, -.
LLC- IEEE 802.2, :
.
AppleTalk (AppleTalk Update-Based Routing
Protocol, AURP). AppleTalk ,
AppleTalk
(, TCP/IP) Apple-Talk. AURP-. , AURP AppleTalk
.
(routing protocol). , .
IGRP, OSPF RIP.
(Interior Gateway Routing Protocol, IGRP).
Cisco , .
(shortest path first
protocol, SPF). .
(Dijkstra's algorithm).
(link-state routing protocol).
, (
) ( ) . ,
( -
).
(Routing Information Protocol, RIP). ,
UNIX BSD.
Internet. () .
(Internetwork Packet Exchange, IPX). , Novell NetWare . IPX IP XNS.
(Internet Control Message Protocol, ICMP).
,
IP . RFC 792.
(Bootstrap Protocol, BOOTP).
IP- Ethernet .
(Intermediate System-toIntermediate System, IS-IS). OSI, DECNet Phase V. IS-
.
(Reverse Address Resolution Protocol, RARP).
TCP/IP, IP- -

.
(Routing Table Maintenance Protocol,
RTMP). Apple Computer. RTMP , , AppleTalk - -. RTMP, , .
RTMP RIP. . .
(Common Management Information Protocol,
CMIP). OSI, ISO
. . .
(Service Advertising Protocol, SAP). IPX-, .
(packet level protocol, PLP).
.25. .25 3 .25. . .
25.
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol, HTTP). , Web- Web- , .
(File Transfer Protocol, FTP). , TCP/IP, . RFC 959.
(Border Gateway Protocol, BGP).
.
(Exterior Gateway Protocol, EGP). BGP BGP
RFC 1163.
(Sequenced Packet Exchange, SPX). , , , . Novell SPP
XNS.
(Address Resolution Protocol, ARP). Internet- TCP/IP, IP- -. RFC 826.
(Spanning-Tree Protocol). , /
' . BPDU- ,
, . Spanning-Tree Protocol
: 802.1 Digital
Equipment Corporation, . IEEE LAN. IEEE
, Digital.

(Resource Reservation Protocol, RSVP). IP-. , IP-,


RSVP ( , , ..), . RSVP IPv6. Resource Reservation Setup Protocol. . IP
6.
Frame Relay (Frame Relay).
,
, HDLC- . Frame Relay , .25,
.
(Network Time Protocol, NTP). , TCP, - , Internet. NTP .
NetWare (NetWare Link Services Protocol, NLSP).
, IS-IS. Cisco- NLSP
MIB-, SAP NSLP IPX- .
(Routing Table Protocol, RTP).
VINES, RIP. VINES , . .
AppleTalk (AppleTalk Transaction Protocol, ATP). , . -,

. ,
"-".
AppleTalk (AppleTalk Remote Access, ARA).
Macintosh , AppleTalk.
(Sequenced Packet Protocol, SPP).
, ,
. XNS.
(Link Control Protocol, LCP). ,
, "-".
(Transmission Control Protocol, TCP).
,
. TCP TCP/IP.
/!- (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol, TCP/IP). , 1970- . .
TCP IP.

(User Datagram Protocol, UDP).


, .
TCP/IP. UDP
.
. UDP RFC 768.
, "", (flat addressing). , .
(Forward Explicit Congestion Notification, FECN).
, Frame Relay DTE-, , . DTE, FECN- , .

(layering). , OSI. , .
(load sharing).
; ,
.
(window size). ,
.
(load balancing).
, .
.
, , .
(wide-area network, WAN). , . , .
Frame Relay, SMDS .25.
(spanning tree). 2 .
- (Fiber
Distributed Data Interface, FDDI). LAN, ANSI X3T9.5 100 / 2 . FDDI
. .
FDDI II.
(Copper Distributed
Data Interface, CDDI). FDDI

. CDDI
( 100 ), 100 / . ANSI TPPMD. . - (FDDI).
NetBIOS (NetBIOS Extended User Interface,
NetBEUI). NetBIOS, , LAN Manager, LAN Server, Windows for Workgroups Windows NT.
NetBEUI . NetBEUI OSI LLC2.
(Enhanced Interior Gateway
Routing Protocol, EIGRP). IGRP, Cisco.
- . EIGRP.
(extended access control list, Extended ACL).
, .
(scalability). -
.
(split horizon). IGRP, .
.
(metropolitan-area network, MAN). , . MAN , LAN,
, WAN.
Bell (Regional Bell operating company, RBOC).
, .
AT&T.
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode, ATM). , ( ,
) (53 ). , , , . ATM , , SONET .
(bandwidth reservation). , .
. . ,
. (bandwidth
allocation).

(power-on self-test, POST). , .


(balanced- hybrid routing protocol).
- .
(Link Access Procedure, Balanced, LAPB).
.25. LAP -
, HDLC.
(Link Access Procedure, Balanced,
LAPB). .25. LAPB , HDLC.
(reassembly). IP-, , -. .
.
(session). 1. . 2. SNA
NAU.
(session layer). OSI. , .
, (segment). , , .
(segmentation). . (International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector, ITU-T). ,
. ITU-T CCITT. .
. (server). , .
(name server). , .
(enterprise server). , , , (e-mail) (DNS).
(workgroup server). ,
( ) , ,
, , .
- (Network Basic Input/Output System, NetBIOS).
API-, IBM , ,
.
1- (network termination type 1, NT1). , -

.
2- (network termination type 2, NT2). , NT1. NT2 , .
(Network Operating System, NOS). ,
, , , Novell NetWare Windows
NT.
(network interface card, NIC). , . .
(Network File System, NFS). , Sun Microsystems, . NFS,
RFC, XDR . , Sun ONC.
(network management). , , .
(network administrator). ,
.
(network address). , , . (protocol address).
(network analyzer). ,
, , , .
(network interface). -
.
(Network Information Center, NIC). ,
InterNIC. . InterNIC.
(LAN switch). . , .
-.
, : . Cisco Catalyst
5000.
(network number). IP-, ,
.
(network byte order). Internet , .
(network layer). OSI. ,
.
. SNA.
(mesh). , -

,
.
(network). , , ,
, - .
(enterprise network). , , , , ,
.
(carrier network). ,
.
(negative acknowledgment, NAC). ,
- - , .
(signaling). ISDN (
). , , , , , , , ,
.
(signal reference ground). , .
7 (Signaling System 7, SS7). , Bellcore.
.
(simplex). -. (. ).
(synchronous circuit). ,
. . ( ),
.
(Domain Name System, DNS). , Internet
.
(Terminal Access
Controller Access Control System, TACACS). , DNN,
, .
, ,
.
(network management system, NMS). ,
. , . NMS-
.

(System Network Architecture, SNA). ,


, , IBM 1970- .
OSI, . SNA .
Xerox (Xerox Network Systems, XNS). , PARC. , , 3Com, Banyan, Novell UB Networks
XNS .
(sliding window). ,
TCP-.
( ) (local access rate). ( ) .
.
(Common Management Information Service,
CMIS).
OSI, ISO . . .
(adjacency). , .
.
Internet (Internet Architecture Board, IAB). , Internet , IANA, IESG IRSG.
IAB ISOC.
(committed information rate, CIR).
, , .
(reference point). , .
(socket). 1. ,
. 2. , AppleTalk;
, . AppleTalk : SAS, ,
AppleTalk, DAS, DDP .
AppleTalk TCP/IP.
(message). ( 7),
.
OSI , , .
(keepalive). ,
, .
Internet (Internet Society, ISOC). , 1992 .,
Internet. , ISOC , Internet, -

IAB. - ISOC , (Reston, Virginia).


(neighboring routers). OSPF , . OSPF.
(Dual counter-rotating rings).
. FDDI CDDI.
(access control list, ACL). ,
Cisco, (, ).
(spoofing). 1. , , , () . "" , , . DDR, ,
. 2. , . ,
.
(standard). , ,
.
(default route). , , .
(standard access control list, standard ACL). ,
. TCP/IP.
(dual-homed station). , (points of attachment).
, ,
.
(Single Attachment Station, SAS). 1. , FDDI. 2. -.
(static VLAN). ,
.
(static routing). . , .
(protocol stack). ,
OS1. .
.
TCP/IP.

(Structure of Management Information, SMI).


(RFC 1155), MIB. .
.
(route summarization). OSPF
IS-IS. OSPF .
(routing table). ,
, ,
, , .
(timeout). , , , . - - .
(tick). ,
( ). 55 . 1/18 .
( ) (Central Office, CO).
,
.
1- (terminal equipment type 1, 1). , ISDN-. 1 1-, 2- .
2- (terminal equipment type 2, 2). , ISDN- .
(terminal adapter, ). ,
BRI- ISDN , EIA/TIA-232. , ISDN-.
(internetworking). , , . , .
(topology). .
"", (star topology).
,
"-". (ring topology), "",
"-" .
(dotted-decimal notation).
32- 8- ,
. IP-
, 192. 67. 67 .20.
(service access point). , IEEE, .
(source service access point, SSAP). SAP ,
.

(destination service access point, DSAP).


(SAP) , . .
.
(point of presence, POP). ,
.
(network address translation, NAT). ,
IP-. Internet

.
(Real-time Transport Protocol, RTP).
IP-. RTP , , , . RTP
, , , .
(Transport layer). OSI. . .
(tunneling). , , "-".
(stub area). OSPF, , , . , ASBR. . .
(Stub network). , .

(Link-state advertisement, LSA). , . . LSA . (linkstate packets).


(remote-procedure call, RFC). . RPC , , , .
(remote monitoring, RMON). MIB-,
RFC 1271, . RMON , .
(holddown). IGRP
.
(node). . .

, . , , . "" ,
. "" "" .
(organizational unique identifier, OUI). 3 ,
IEEE 48- .
(security management). . .
(Media Access Control, MAC).
, (48-) , . . .
(configuration management). . .
(fault management). , ISO OSI. . (accounting management), (configuration management), (performance management) (security
management).
- (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA). ,
Internet. ARPANET,
1994 . ARPA. . .
(flow control). . ,
, ,
. IBM- (pacing).
(sliding window flow control). , . , , . TCP
, .
(performance management). . .
(Synchronous Data Link Control, SDLC). SNA . SDLC -,
, , HDLC LAPB.
(traffic management). ,
.
, .
(accounting management). . .

(access layer). , ,
Ethernet Token Ring, .
(presentation layer). OSI.
, . , , ,
, , , ,
.
(application layer).
(OSI). . , .
(distribution layer). ,
, .
. Fast
Ethernet.
(presentation services layer). 6
SNA. ,
.
OS1.
(transaction services layer). 7 SNA.
, , ,
. OSI.
(path control layer). 3 SNA.
,
. , .
OSI.
(transmission control layer). 4
SNA. , SNA,
. OSI.
(data flow control layer). SNA.
, , , . OSI.
(Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking, APPN). IBM SNA. APPN () , , .
(media attachment unit, MAU).
Ethernet IEEE 802.3. AUI- Ethernet. MAU ,
Ethernet, () .
(media access unit.
MAU) (transceiver).

( ) (private branch exchange,


PBX).
, .

AppleTalk (AppleTalk Filing Protocol, AFP). ,


, . AFP AppleShare Mac OS
File Sharing.
(Media, physical media).
medium, media
: , - , ( , ).
(physical media).
(physical control layer). 1 SNA. . OSI.
(physical layer). OSI.
, ,
, . SNA.
(filter). , , , , .
- (flash memory). , -
Intel .
ATM (ATM forum). , 1991 . Cisco Systems,
NET/ADAPTIVE, Northern Telecom Sprint
ATM-. ATM Forum ANSI ITU-T,
.
(fragment). ,
.
(fragmentation). , . . .
(frame). ,
. , , ,
. , , (datagram, message, packet, segment) -

OSI .
(interoperability). .

--
(host). , .
(node), , ,
, . . .
(Integrated Services Digital Network, ISDN). , , , ,
.
- (partially meshed topology). ,
Frame Relay PVC .

(wildcard mask). 32- , IP , IP-


IP-.
.
( 16) (hexadecimal (base 16)). , 1 9 F 10 15.
, , 16, 12=256 ..
(bandwidth). , . .
(broadcast storm). , , , , ,
.
(broadcast address). ,
,
- . . (multicast) (umcast) .
(broadcast domain). , , . , , ,
.

(broadcast). , . .
" " - (gateway of last resort). , , .
(gateway). IP- , ,
,
. . .

-
(shielded twisted pair, STP). , .
(nonvolatile RAM, NVRAM). , .
(OSI reference model).
, ISO ITU-T. , , , , , . () . ,
. ( )
. OSI . OSI SNA.
- ( channel, echo channel). ISDN- 64
/. ITU-T ISDN 1984 ,
1988 .
- AppleTalk (AppIeTalk Echo Protocol, AEP). AppleTalk.
() .
(Hypertext Markup Language, HTML). , ( Web) .