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Radiographic Film
Interpretation of Welds
ASNT
Saudi Arabian Section
Jim Carswell
RTFI Presentation Outline

Morning 8:00am 12:00noon

Interpretation/perception
Welding processes
Appearance and classification of defects
Review acceptance criteria:
ASME B31.1
API 1104
AWS D1.1
Interpret radiographs

Afternoon 1:00pm 4:00pm

Interpret radiographs
This presentation reviews the
process of detecting, classifying
and evaluating to acceptance
criteria discernable defects on
radiographic film.

Factors affecting Interpretation

Heredity/Genetics and visual perception
Can you see it?
What do you see?

Perception
Distortion
Illusion
Detection

Perception
Distortion
Illusion
Detection
How many faces can you detect?
There are eleven faces

Scoring:


1-4 average
8 extraordinary
9 above average
10 very observant
11 extremely observant
Factors affecting Interpretation

Heredity/Genetics and visual perception
Condition of the human eye
Eye examinations 20/40
Wear your glasses/contacts, if scratched
replace.

Factors affecting Interpretation

Heredity/Genetics and visual perception
Condition of the human eye
Equipment
Viewer/densitometer
Viewing conditions
Tools

Factors affecting Interpretation

Heredity/Genetics and visual perception
Condition of the human eye
Equipment
Film and radiographic techniques
Discussing throughout




When in doubt
Ask for 2nd opinion
Re-shoot
Grind & re-shoot
Radiography
Contact - DWSV
Elliptical - DWDV
Single wall single view
Radiographic film
Film processing
Results: good technique
Welding
Joining materials at the atomic/molecular level
Welding equipment
Welding is generated by an electric arc

Terminology
Five Basic Weld Joints
Common Welding Processes Used
In The Petrochemical Industry
SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding)

GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding)

GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding)

SAW (Submerged Arc Welding)
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
(SMAW)
Welding is generated by an electric arc established
between the flux covered electrode and the base
metal and melts the two together.




Benefits of the electrode coating


Arc stabilization
Provides gas shielding decomposition of
cellulose and limestone
De-oxidation of weld pool
Strengthens the weld - adds alloying elements
Increases deposition by adding iron filler
Slag provides oxide barrier for solidifying metal
Slag provides thermal insulation of the cooling weld

Common defects associated
with SMAW

Porosity
Cracks
Slag
Incomplete fusion
Incomplete penetration
Burn through
Lack of fill
Root concavity
Undercut
Excessive penetration
The SMAW process is almost totally operator dependant






Gas Metal Arc Welding
(GMAW)
Welding is generated by an electric arc
between a continuously fed solid wire
consumable and the base metal




Common defects associated
with GMAW

Porosity
Cracks
Incomplete fusion
Undercut
lack of fill
Incomplete penetration

The GMAW process is automated, semi-automated and
machine.






Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
(GTAW)
Welding is generated by an electric arc
between a tungsten electrode, a solid wire
consumable and the base metal.
Common defects associated
with GTAW

Porosity
Tungsten inclusions
Cracks
Incomplete fusion
Undercut

The GTAW process is almost totally operator dependant






Submerged Arc Welding
(SAW)
Welding is generated by an electric arc
between a continuously fed solid wire
consumable and the base metal while
totally submerged in a protective flux.



Common defects associated
with SAW

Porosity
Cracks
Slag
Incomplete fusion

The GMAW process is automated, semi-automated and
machine.






Welding Defects

Common causes of defects

Welder-technique
Cleaning
Joint preparation
Joint design

Welding technique
Cleaning
(Porosity, Fusion, Tungsten & Slag)
Cleaning - slag removal
Joint preparation - poor fit-up
(Fusion, Penetration & Mismatch - Hi-Lo)
POROSITY






Causes:
Contamination
Moisture
Environment wind, etc.


Porosity
Porosity
Cluster Porosity
Cluster Porosity
Aligned Root-Pass Porosity
Hollow Bead
Incomplete Fusion







Causes:
Incomplete penetration of arc
Inadequate welding current
Poor joint fit-up


Incomplete fusion - Sidewall
Incomplete Penetration








Cause:
Poor joint design
Welding technique


Incomplete Penetration
Incomplete Penetration
Incomplete Penetration
Incomplete Penetration
Mismatch - Hi low








Cause:
Poor joint fit-up


Mismatch
Mismatch
Cracks






Causes:
Stress - thermal/mechanical
Welding technique
Electrode material (wrong alloy)


Transverse Cracks
Transverse Cracks
Longitudinal Root Crack
Longitudinal Root Crack
Slag Inclusion






Causes:
Non-removal
Welding technique

Interpass Slag
Interpass Slag
Burn Through






Cause:
Welding technique
Poor joint fit-up

Burn Through
Burn Through
Root Concavity






Cause:
Welding technique
Poor joint fit-up

Root Concavity
Root Concavity
Undercut








Cause:
Welding technique excessive heat


Internal Undercut
Internal Undercut
External Undercut
External Undercut
Excessive Penetration








Cause:
Welding technique excessive arc
penetration
Poor joint fit-up
Excessive Penetration
Excessive Penetration
Lack of Fill








Cause:
Welding technique


Lack of Fill
Lack of Fill

Tungsten Inclusion








Cause:
Welding technique


Tungsten Inclusions
Tungsten Inclusions
Weld Spatter


Cause:
Poor joint fit-up
Welding technique

Miscellaneous
Film Handling And Processing
Defects
Scratches
Finger prints
Crimp marks
Light Leaks
Chemical Stains
Roller Marks & Artifacts
Scratches
Chemical Stains

Light Leaks
Static Marks
Store film upright
Artifacts
Water marks
Crimp marks
CODES & STANDARDS
in the petrochemical
industry
What is the purpose for Codes &
Standards?
They ensure uniform practices throughout
industry

Three common codes used in Saudi
Arabias petrochemical industry
ASME B31.3
In-Plant Process Pipe
API 1104
Welding of Pipelines And Related Facilities
AWS D1.1
Structural Welding Code - Steel
ASME B31.3
and
Appendix 4
Film interpretation acceptance criteria for
Process Piping on-plot facilities
API 1104
Film interpretation acceptance criteria for
pipelines
AWS D1.1
Film interpretation acceptance criteria for
structures

END