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S t a f f o r d P l a n t
22
Anderson Greenwood * Crosby * Varec
Company Overview Company Overview
Began in 1947 as airplane mfr
Developed Series 23 Pilot-Operated PRV in 1957
I t d th fi t M d l ti Pil t l H2B i 1964 Invented the first Modulating Pilot valve H2B in 1964
First non-flowing pilot series 200 in 1980
First non-flowing modulating pilot series 400 in 1985
Acquired Kunkle in 1992
Anderson Greenwood was acquired by Tyco in 1997
Acquired Crosby Valve & Gage in 1998
33
q y g
Acquired Varec in 1999
The largest Pressure Relief Valve mfr in the world
2
2
ASME approved Flow Test
Facility in El Campo, Texas
Clean Roomfor Oxygen
44
Clean Room for Oxygen
cleaning of PRVs
Most Product Literature is available
at on line at Tycovalves kr com
Sales Resources
at on-line at Tycovalves-kr.com
Home Study Course has been
emailed to CF Loong
Powerpoint presentations on most
AGC products CD ROM
55
p
Safetysize 2001 PRV sizing program
CD ROM
3
3
INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION
TO
OVERPRESSURE
PROTECTION
TO
OVERPRESSURE
PROTECTION
66
PROTECTION PROTECTION
Why Needed Why Needed
PROTECTION OF PERSONNEL AND PROTECTION OF PERSONNEL AND
PROPERTY PROPERTY
SATISFY REQUIREMENTS OF APPLICABLE SATISFY REQUIREMENTS OF APPLICABLE
77
CODES AND REGULATIONS CODES AND REGULATIONS
4
4
Most Common Causes
Of Overpressure
Most Common Causes
Of Overpressure
BLOCKED DISCHARGE BLOCKED DISCHARGE
EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL FLAMES EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL FLAMES
Of Overpressure Of Overpressure
88
THERMAL EXPANSION THERMAL EXPANSION
Blocked Discharge Blocked Discharge
PRD PRD PRD PRD
FULL INPUT FLOW FULL INPUT FLOW FULL INPUT FLOW FULL INPUT FLOW
OUTLET BLOCK
VALVE CLOSED
OUTLET BLOCK
VALVE CLOSED
Pressure Pressure
Vessel Vessel
99
(FROM COMPRESSOR (FROM COMPRESSOR
OR PUMP) OR PUMP)
(FROM COMPRESSOR (FROM COMPRESSOR
OR PUMP) OR PUMP)
5
5
PRD PRD
External Fire External Fire
STORAGE OR STORAGE OR
PROCESS VESSEL PROCESS VESSEL
10 10
Thermal Expansion Thermal Expansion
PRD PRD PRD PRD
11 11
LIQUID FULL PIPE OR LIQUID FULL PIPE OR
PRESSURE VESSEL PRESSURE VESSEL
6
6
Overpressure Relief Devices Overpressure Relief Devices
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
RUPTURE DISC RUPTURE DISC
RUPTURE DISC UNDER PRV RUPTURE DISC UNDER PRV
12 12
RUPTURE DISC UNDER PRV RUPTURE DISC UNDER PRV
Pressure Relief Valve Pressure Relief Valve
(PRV) (PRV)
OPENS AT SET PRESSURE OPENS AT SET PRESSURE
13 13
CLOSES AT RESEAT PRESSURE CLOSES AT RESEAT PRESSURE
7
7
Rupture Disc Rupture Disc
(RD) (RD)
A PREDETERMINED WEAK POINT A PREDETERMINED WEAK POINT
IN A PRESSURIZED SYSTEM IN A PRESSURIZED SYSTEM
14 14
OPENS AT BURST PRESSURE OPENS AT BURST PRESSURE
DOES NOT RE DOES NOT RE--CLOSE CLOSE
Pressure Relief Valve & Rupture Disc Pressure Relief Valve & Rupture Disc
RD BURSTS OPEN RD BURSTS OPEN
15 15
PRV OPENS IMMEDIATELY PRV OPENS IMMEDIATELY
PRV RE PRV RE- -CLOSES AT A PRESSURE CLOSES AT A PRESSURE
BELOW RD BURST PRESSURE BELOW RD BURST PRESSURE
8
8
Maximum Allowable
Working Pressure (MAWP)
Maximum Allowable
Working Pressure (MAWP)
DESIGN PRESSURE DESIGN PRESSURE
NORMALLY USED WITH PROCESS NORMALLY USED WITH PROCESS
VESSELS AND ASSOCIATED PIPING VESSELS AND ASSOCIATED PIPING
16 16
NORMALLY PRV SET PRESSURE OR NORMALLY PRV SET PRESSURE OR
RD BURST PRESSURE RD BURST PRESSURE
PRESSURE % PRESSURE %
110 110
WHERE PRDS NORMALLY
SIZED (EXCEPT FIRE CASE)
WHERE PRDS NORMALLY
SIZED (EXCEPT FIRE CASE)
ALLOWABLE ALLOWABLE
OVERPRESSURE OVERPRESSURE
ALLOWABLE ALLOWABLE
OVERPRESSURE OVERPRESSURE
SET PRESSURE
TOLERANCE
SET PRESSURE
TOLERANCE
100 100 100 100
95 95 95 95
MAWP MAWP MAWP MAWP
OVERPRESSURE OVERPRESSURE OVERPRESSURE OVERPRESSURE
TYPICAL SET
PRESSURE
TYPICAL SET
PRESSURE
BLOWDOWN,
% OF SET
BLOWDOWN,
% OF SET
17 17
90 90 90 90
TYPICAL
OPERATING
PRESSURE
TYPICAL
OPERATING
PRESSURE
TYPICAL
RESEAT
PRESSURE
TYPICAL
RESEAT
PRESSURE
9
9
% MAWP % MAWP
USUALLY USUALLY 110 110% MAWP % MAWP
ALLOWABLE ALLOWABLE
ACCUMULATION ACCUMULATION
(SYSTEM) (SYSTEM)
ALLOWABLE ALLOWABLE
OVERPRESSURE OVERPRESSURE
(PRD) (PRD)
18 18
100 100 MAWP MAWP
SET PRESSURE SET PRESSURE
Orifice Area Orifice Area
AA
N N
= AREA OF D = AREA OF D
N N
(NOZZLE DIAMETER), (NOZZLE DIAMETER),
OR OR
AA
CC
= CIRCUM. OF D = CIRCUM. OF D
NN
X X
LIFT, [CURTAIN LIFT, [CURTAIN
AREA] AREA]
WHICHEVER WHICHEVER DD
NN
19 19
IS IS SMALLER SMALLER
LIFT LIFT
NN
10
10
A PRV ACTUATED BY STATIC PRESSURE A PRV ACTUATED BY STATIC PRESSURE
RAPID OPENING (POP ACTION) RAPID OPENING (POP ACTION)
Safety Valve Safety Valve
FULL LIFT FULL LIFT
SET SET
PRESSURE PRESSURE
LIFT LIFT
ALLOWABLE ALLOWABLE
O SS O SS
20 20
USED ON COMPRESSIBLE MEDIA (GAS, USED ON COMPRESSIBLE MEDIA (GAS,
VAPOR, STEAM) VAPOR, STEAM)
PRESSURE PRESSURE
OVERPRESSURE OVERPRESSURE
A PRV ACTUATED BY STATIC PRESSURE A PRV ACTUATED BY STATIC PRESSURE
OPENS GENERALLY IN PROPORTION TO OPENS GENERALLY IN PROPORTION TO
OVERPRESSURE OVERPRESSURE
Relief Valve Relief Valve
FULL LIFT FULL LIFT
SET SET
PRESSURE PRESSURE
LIFT LIFT
ALLOWABLE ALLOWABLE
21 21
NORMALLY USED ON NORMALLY USED ON NON NON- -COMPRESSIBLE COMPRESSIBLE
MEDIA (LIQUIDS) MEDIA (LIQUIDS)
PRESSURE PRESSURE OVERPRESSURE OVERPRESSURE
11
11
Safety Relief Valve Safety Relief Valve
(SRV) (SRV)
A PRV THAT MAY FUNCTION AS A PRV THAT MAY FUNCTION AS
EITHER EITHER A SAFETY OR RELIEF VALVE A SAFETY OR RELIEF VALVE
WITH SATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE WITH SATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE
22 22
Pressure Relief Valve Pressure Relief Valve
(PRV) (PRV) (PRV) (PRV)
A GENERIC TERM WHICH INCLUDES A GENERIC TERM WHICH INCLUDES
SAFETY VALVES, RELIEF VALVES, AND SAFETY VALVES, RELIEF VALVES, AND
SAFETY RELIEF VALVES (A SAFE & SAFETY RELIEF VALVES (A SAFE &
23 23
SAFETY RELIEF VALVES (A SAFE & SAFETY RELIEF VALVES (A SAFE &
ALL ALL- -ENCOMPASSING TERM) ENCOMPASSING TERM)
12
12
The Ideal PRD The Ideal PRD
PRV PRV
Protected System Protected System
LEAK LEAK- -FREE TO SET PRESSURE FREE TO SET PRESSURE
OPENS AT SET PRESSURE OPENS AT SET PRESSURE
24 24
RELIEVES ONLY THE INPUT INTO RELIEVES ONLY THE INPUT INTO
THE PROTECTED SYSTEM THE PROTECTED SYSTEM
STABLE DURING RELIEF CYCLE STABLE DURING RELIEF CYCLE
RE RE- -CLOSES AT SET PRESSURE CLOSES AT SET PRESSURE
((00% BLOWDOWN) % BLOWDOWN)
Typesof Types of
Pressure Relief
Devices
25 25
13
13
Weighted Pallet Valve Weighted Pallet Valve
WEIGHT WEIGHT
PPPP
26 26
Weight Weight- -Loaded PRV Loaded PRV
(Breather Vent)
27 27
14
14
Typical Weight - Loaded PRV Typical Weight - Loaded PRV
YY
100 100
Much Overpressure Required
To Get The Valve Into
Significant Lift
Much Overpressure Required
To Get The Valve Into
Significant Lift
%

R
A
T
E
D

C
A
P
A
C
I
T
Y
%

R
A
T
E
D

C
A
P
A
C
I
T
Y
75 75
50 50
25 25
28 28
%%
25 25
00 100 100
% OVERPRESSURE % OVERPRESSURE
50 50
00
Pressure/Vacuum Vent Pressure/Vacuum Vent
Overpressure Protection Overpressure Protection
29 29
Tank Connection Tank Connection
Vacuum Breaker Vacuum Breaker
15
15
Adjustable Set Pressure Adjustable Set Pressure
FFFF
Adjustable
Spring
Adjustable
Spring
PPPP
30 30
Less Simmer
Longer Blowdown
Less Simmer
Longer Blowdown
FFFF
Blowdown
Ring Position
Blowdown
Ring Position
PPPP
Huddling Huddling
Chamber Chamber
Huddling Huddling
Chamber Chamber
31 31
More Simmer
Shorter Blowdown
More Simmer
Shorter Blowdown
Chamber Chamber Chamber Chamber
16
16
Spring
Bonnet
Spring
Bonnet
New Factor New Factor
Back Pressure Back Pressure
P
1
P
1
P
2
P
2
32 32
Body Body
P
1
P
1
Spring Loaded
Pressure Relief
Valves
Conventional Closed Bonnet
Adjustable Blowdown
33 33
17
17
Spring Loaded
Pressure Relief
Valves
Conventional (Open Bonnet)
34 34
Spring Loaded
Pressure Relief
Valves
Balanced Bellows
35 35
18
18
Spring Loaded
Pressure Relief
Valves
Balanced Piston
36 36
Nozzle Design
Full Nozzle Design Full Nozzle Design
37 37
19
19
Nozzle Design
Semi-Nozzle Design
38 38
Valve Trim
Nozzle
Pressure-containing Pressure containing
Component that
Constitutes the Inlet
Flow Passage.
Includes the Fixed
Portion of the Seat
Closure
39 39
Closure.
20
20
Valve Trim
Disc / Disc Insert
Pressure
Containing
Movable
Component in a
PRV which
Affects Closure.
40 40
Function of Nozzle Ring
Nozzle Ring Nozzle Ring
Alters Shape of
Huddling Chamber
Controls Opening
& Closing
Characteristics
41 41
21
21
Valve Trim
Seat
Pressure containing
contact between the
fixed and moving
42 42
fixed and moving
portion of the PRV
pressure containing
components.
Bonnet Components
Spindle
Adjusting Bolt Adjusting Bolt
Adjusting Bolt Lock Nut
Spring
Spring Washers
Bonnet
43 43
22
22
Conventional PRV Conventional PRV
44 44
100 100
Typical Lift Characteristics Typical Lift Characteristics
%

L
I
F
T
(
C
A
P
A
C
I
T
Y
)
%

L
I
F
T
(
C
A
P
A
C
I
T
Y
)
75 75
50 50
25 25
USUAL DIRECT SPRING USUAL DIRECT SPRING
OPERATED PRV OPERATED PRV
45 45
90 90 100 100 110 110
% SET PRESSURE % SET PRESSURE
23
23
Direct Spring Operated PRV Direct Spring Operated PRV
100 100
%

S
E
A
T
I
N
G

F
O
R
C
E
%

S
E
A
T
I
N
G

F
O
R
C
E
75 75
50 50
25 25
46 46
%%
25 25
00 50 50 75 75 100 100
% SET PRESSURE % SET PRESSURE
Back Pressure
Definition: Definition:
Static Pressure Existing at the Outlet of a
Pressure Relief Device due to Pressure in
the Discharge System.
Two Types
47 47
Superimposed
Built-up
24
24
Effects of Back Pressure
Increase in Set Pressure in Conventional
PRVs
Valve Instability
Reduced Capacity
48 48
Corrosive Attack of Process within the
Spring Chamber
Back Pressure
Superimposed Back
Pressure
Pressure Existing at the
PRV Outlet Prior to
Opening
Two Types:
Superimposed
P
2
49 49
Constant
Superimposed
Variable
25
25
CLOSED CLOSED
DISCHARGE DISCHARGE
HEADER SYSTEM HEADER SYSTEM
TO FLARE TO FLARE
AND/OR AND/OR
BURNER STAC BURNER STAC
TO ATMOS. TO ATMOS.
Possible Pressure Source Possible Pressure Source
PRV PRV
(Closed) (Closed)
HEADER SYSTEM HEADER SYSTEM Possible Pressure Source Possible Pressure Source
Possible Pressure Source Possible Pressure Source
50 50
Protected System Protected System
SUPERIMPOSED BACK SUPERIMPOSED BACK
PRESSURE PRESSURE
Purge? Purge?
Built-up Back Pressure
Develops After PRV Opens.
Usually due to Friction and Pressure Drop
through Discharge Piping.
Can be up to 10% of Set Pressure on
Conventional PRVs.
51 51
Will Cause Reduced Capacity or PRV
Instability if over 10%.Balanced Bellows
Valve should be specified.
26
26
Bellows Design
Bellows Effective Area
Eq i alent to Seat Equivalent to Seat
Area.
Isolates Top Side of
Disc Holder.
Offsets Effects of
Variable Back
52 52
Pressure
Set Pressure Stability
Bellows Design
Other Functions of the
Bellows: Bellows:
Protects Spindle Guiding
Surfaces from Corrosive
Fluid.
Isolates Spring Chamber from
Process Fluid
53 53
27
27
54 54
Balanced Spindle PRV Balanced Spindle PRV
A
Seat
= A
Spindle Seal
A
Seat
= A
Spindle Seal
Type 81P Type 81P
A
Seat
A
Spindle Seal
A
Seat
A
Spindle Seal
Spindle Seal Spindle Seal
55 55
Seat Seat
28
28
Pilot Operated PRV Pilot Operated PRV
Pilot Pilot
Pressure
Sense Line
Pressure
Sense Line
Piston Seal Piston Seal
Piston Liner Piston Liner
Unbalanced
Moving Member
Unbalanced
Moving Member
Out Out
Resilient
Seat
Resilient
Seat
P
1
P
1
P
2
P
2
56 56
In In
Moving Member
(Piston)
Moving Member
(Piston)
Pitot Tube Pitot Tube
P
1
P
1
100 100
Pilot Operated PRV Pilot Operated PRV
Effect Of Back Pressure On Lift
Of Pressure Relief Valve Types
Effect Of Back Pressure On Lift
Of Pressure Relief Valve Types
90 90
80 80
70 70
%

R
a
t
e
d

L
i
f
t
%

R
a
t
e
d

L
i
f
t
(Standard) (Standard)
Balanced Bellows
Spring Operated PRV
(Extra Cost)
Balanced Bellows
Spring Operated PRV
(Extra Cost)
57 57
60 60
50 50
00 10 10 20 20 30 30 40 40 50 50 90 90 100 100
Conventional
Spring Operated
PRV
Conventional
Spring Operated
PRV