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..

..
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2003

, .
.
.
. , . - , - .
.
1

I.
1.
I.
2.
3.
II.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9. -
10. -
III.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
IV.
16.
17.
18.
V.
19. -
20.
21.
22. -
VI
23.
24
25.
26.
27.
VII. ()
28.
29. -
II. (SM)
1.
I. SM
2. SM
3. SM
4. SM
5. SM
II. SM
6. WDM
2

7. DWDM
8. WDM
III.
9. Rec. G.652 ITU-T
10.
III. (NZDS)
1.
I.
2.
3. (SBS)
4. (SRS)
5. (SPM).
6. (MI)
7. ()
8. (FWM)
II. NZDS
7.
8.
9.
10.
IV. (MM)
1.
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
II.
6.
7. , Corning
8. (OVD )
9. (VAD )
10. (MCVD )
11. (PCVD )
12. (APVD )
13.

.
1.
I. Alcatel
2.
3.
4. TeraLight Metro
5. TeraLight Ultra
6. Ribbon
7. GLight 50/125
8. 50/125
7. GLight 62.5/125
8. 62.5/125
3

II. Corning
9. SMF-28
10. SMF-28e
11. MetroCor
12. LEAF
13. 50/125
14. 62.5/125
III. OFS
15. Matched Cladding
16. AllWave
17 TrueWaveRS
18. 50/125
19. 62.5/125 15.
IV. YOFS
15. Matched Cladding
17 LAPOSH
18. 50/125
19. 62.5/125 15.


,
. , . - " ". : -
.
. 90 % .
. WDM
-
(NZDS - Non Zero Dispersion Shifted). .
, . , . , , ,
, . - "", , .

I
1.
,
(, ). (
) .
, 0 1.
.
. ,
.
. , , .
4

, , .
, .
, , , ,
2.5 / (STM-16) .
(~ 100 ) .
, ,
(SM Single Mode). 1550 0.18...0.19 /.
,
.
1000 , 10 000 .
10 / (STM-64), 40 / (STM-256). ,
- .
-
( ), - ( ).
(DS Dispersion Shifted) .
10 / (STM-64) .
. . ( ). , ,
, , SM .
,
.
,
, .
: 10.92 / (1 = 1012).
, , 273, 40
/.
(DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) 100
/ .
DWDM ,
, ,
.
,
, .
. ,
, . (DS)
(1550 ) DWDM .
DWDM (NZDS Non Zero Dispersion Shifted). , DWDM , ()
.
I- ( I) : ( II),
( IV) (VII). ,
( III), ( V) ( VI).

I. .
2.
, . . , .
, . , ..
, , .
.
: . , , 125 1
. 50 62.5 . 7..9
(. 1.1). , 8..10 . ITU-T Rec. G. 652 10 %.

250

125

79

250


125 50/62.5

.1.1. .
, ,
, , , , . .
: ,
. , , .
: (SM), (DS) (NZDS). DS , NZDS .
3. c
( ). , , (ITU-T
Rec.G. 652). : NDSF No
Dispersion Shifted Fiber ( ), SF Standard Fiber ( ), SSMF - Standard Single Mode Fiber ( ). : SM Single Mode ().
, , SM 90 %, .
( 1983 .) (~ 60 $/) .
( ) .
SM (DS - Dispersion Shifted) (NZDS Non Zero Dispersion Shifted).
SM () , ( = 1310 )
. = 1310
, . , SM 6


, (
0.02 ).

= 1310 0.31...32 /. ( = 1550 ) : 0.180.19 /, : 1720 /.
SM , Corning Lucent (), Sumitomo, Hitachi, Fujikura Furukawa (), Pirelli (), Alcatel (). SM
(): AllWave (Lucent), SMF-28e (Corning) SMR (Pirelli).
(DS Dispersion Shifted). 1985 .
, = 1550 . 1550 , (EDFA Erbium Doped
Fiber Amplifiers). DS , . DS , -

(DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) .
(NZDS Non Zero Dispersion Shifted) 1993 . , DWDM (. 1.2). ( 300 ). .
.
1
2
3
N

1 .N

1 .N

1
2

3
N

. 1.2. (DWDM). 1
, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 .
( ) DWDM , . , , ,
.
DWDM , .
, ( ).
.
.
,
DWDM ,
.
NZDS , NZDS () ,
.
ITU-T Rec. G. 652G. 655:
G.652: c (SM )
1310 .
G.653: (DS )
1550 1310 .
G.654: c (SM )
1310 1550 .
7

G.655: (NZDS ), (0.16 /) 15301565 .


.
, - :
(DC Dispersion Compensating),
.
, , , EDFA Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier.
, (PM Polarization Maintaining), .

II.
4.

. 1.3.. , : , ( ). ,
. = 1290
1383 . SM : AllWave (Lucent Technologies), SMF-28e (Corning), SMR
(Pirelli) = 1383 .
3


()

f ( x)

2.5
2

5 3 4
S C L


()
()
(L)
(S)

1.5
1

0.5
0
800

1290

1383

780 860
12601360
15301565
15651625
14601530

900

1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700

. 1.3. .
(~ 1/4), , , . = 1550 .
SM 0.18... 0.19
/.
, , . ,
. 1800 1/
GeO2 0.16 / 1550 0.29 / 1310 .
. - , . , , - ,
, .
SM () = 1383 3 . LWPF (low water
peak fiber) : AllWave Lucent Technologies ( OFS),
8

SMF-28e (Corning), SMR (Pirelli). 0.31 /,


= 1310 (0.35 /).
FOC 2002, Sumitomo : 0.151
/ = 1568 . 0.154 / 1986 . . , . : 0.128 /, 0.014 /, 0.004/ 0.004 /.
15201606 0.160 /. 30 % , .
5.
. 1.3,
, .
- , .
: 850 (1-), 1310 (2-), 1550 (3-).
1260 1675 .
, .
70- .
850 (GaAs). , - , .
() 80- ,
1310 . SM . .
() 90- . EDFA Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (
) . SM
, DS
, . ( ).
c
(DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing)
.
DWDM NZDS , .
: () (onventional band),
(L) (Long band), - (S) (short
band).
(L) DWDM
1620 . 3 4
NZDS .
(S) AllWave.

1390 0.31 /,
1310 (0.35 /). 1280 1650 .
, EXFO (), (ITU) 1260.1675 ( 1.1).
(G. 671) DWDM (G. 692).

1.1.

12601360
(Original)
E
13601460
(Extended)
S
14601530
(Short wavelength)
C
15301565
(Conventional)
L
15651625
(Long wavelength)
U
16251675
(Ultra-long wavelength)
6.
() SM , = 1300
, . 1.4. , . (1020 ),
( ).
SM 2040 .
. -,
. ,
d,
(. 1.5). d.
( w) ,
, , .

, ., .

f ( x)

0.8

. 1.4. () SM ,
= 1300 .

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

20

40

60

80

100

w
d

d
a)

. 1.5. , .
)
d
) d.
-, . -
, ( ). , ,
(. 1.6). , ,
.

10

. 1.6. ,

.
,

, - .
.
.
7.
. ~ 1/4, , = 1550 = 1310 .
, , .
SM ,
23 , . 1.7. ,
. , .
.
, , (), (a) (n1 - n2).
,
V:
V = k a NA = (2/) (n21 - n22)1/2,

(1.1)

k = (2/) ( ), , NA = (n21 - n22)1/2 .


0.5

f ( x)

. 1.7. SM ,
23 ,

.

1307
1544

0.75
1
1.25
1.5

1642

1.75
2

30

60

90

120

150

x
V , (. 1.8). , V < 1
, ,
V .

F ( z)

0.8
0.6

. 1.8.
,

0.4
0.2
0

3
2

4
2

5
1/2

V = (2/) z(n 1 - n 11
2)

,
V 0. ,
(.. ). , V 0
,
.
V > 1 , , V, V = 2.4 0.1. V . V , V > 2.4 .
8.
, , .
, V = 2.4. , , , ITU - T, G. 650.
, , .
2 28 .
( ) .
, , ( ), . , V > 2.4, , V = 2.4.

. .
.
SM V = 2.4. (
) (V = (2/) a NA) 2
8.3 , NA 0.12, : V /. V = 2.4
= 1310 .
,
, . Hitachi
. 1.9.
1800

15

1200
900

f ( x)

600
300
0
1140 1180

: 1302
. .: 9

12

f ( x)

18

: 1258
. .: 23

1500

9
6
3

1220

1260

1300 1340

0
1140 1180

1220

1260

1300 1340

x
,

x ,

. 1.9. Hitachi
(-).

,
, .. . , , (
- ), , .
(, ). .
12

9. -
: I(r) = I0 exp(- 8 r2 / w2), w - . ,
( , ).
- , - .
, , . , ,
: ( ) .
w V (.
1.10).
2

. 1.10. V.
:
w/2a = 0.65 + 1.619 V- 3/2 + 2.879 V- 6
( 1 % 1.2 < V < 2.4)
:
w/2a = 2.6/V = 0.83 /(2a NA)

1.5

f1 ( x)

w/2a

f ( x)

0.5
1.5

2.5

V = (2/) (n21 - n22)1/2

, . 1.10, V < 2.5 :


w = 0.83 /NA,
w = 7 ( NA = 0.118).

(1.2)
(1.3)

,
. ,
SM NA 0.12, : w = 9.2
( = 1.31 ) w = 10.8 ( = 1.55 ), ( ) ,
SM .
. 1.11.

0.25

. 1.11. .
:
d () = - 10 log(4/[(w + w)/w + w//[(w + w)]2
:
d () = 4/34 (w/w)2

0.2

f ( y)

0.15

f1 ( y)

0.1
0.05
0

0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25


w/w

ITU-T G. 652
SM 10 %. ,
. 1.22, w/w < 0.1
:
() = 4.34 (w/w)2.
w/w < 10 % , () < 0.05 .
13

(1.4)

, , , , , ,
. , SM = 1550 10.4 , (1.4)
:
w () = 0.04 w2,

(1.5)

w , .

10. -
, - d :
d () = 4.34 (d/w)2.

(1.6)

- . , Corning Hitachi, 0.5 . , -


1 . 0.05 .
,
, .
. ,
. - 4 .

III.
11.
. ( ) ,
.
, (),
( ). ,
, , - , .
, L,
N q L,
.
() = q L + (N +1) + 2 ,

(1.7)

q (/), N = L/L
, N + 1 , L
(. 1.12).


( )

. 1. 12. .
14

(
). (
). ,
, .
L = 80 ( ). ,
L = 5 , = 0.05 ( ). -
, q = 0.2 / = 1550 q = 0.33 / = 1310
( ).
( = 0.3 ). 1.2.

. ,
, . , , ,
. , . , , , .
1.2. () .


1550
1310


0.280 = 16
0.3380 = 26.4

0.0517 = 0.85
0.0517 = 0.85


0.32 = 0.6
0.32 = 0.6

,

17.45
27.85

12.
SM ,
, .
, 0.02
. (~ 0.01 )
, . .. ,
SM .
SM : , ( 0.5) .
, . . 1.13
, .

. 1.13.
.
,
, .
.
( . 1.13)
. , 15

, .
(w() = 4.34 (w/w)2 (1.4))
. G.652 10 %. w/w = 0.1, w() = 0.043
. 0.05 ( ),
10 %.
,
.

. -
.
= 1310 0.5 . , 1
. 0.04 . Corning Hitachi
0.4 , , 0.025 .
0.5 ITU-T
G. 652, 10 %. ,
10 %, , ,
- 0.04 .
, , - .
. , , Hitachi 1 % (.
1.14), - 0.004 .

1400
: 9.2
. .: 0.12
1200
1000
800
f ( x)
600
400
200
0
8.7 8.8 8.9 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7

. 1. 14. SM
Hitachi
1310 .


,
x

< 0.05 : ,
, ,
..
13.

1025 PC (PC Physical Contact) 512
APC- (APC Angled Physical Contact). ( 812 ).
(. 1.15).

FC/PC
SC/PC

R = 1025

FC/PC
SC/PC

FC/PC
SC/PC

R = 512
FC/PC
SC/PC

. 1.15.
.
16

,
. , , . . PC
ETSI
35 . , , 40 .
, 55 . - -. ,

. - .
, 55 ,
.
8 (. 1.15). 60 , .
70 80 .
,
. , , . , - , ()
, (. 1.16).

,
D = 125 + 2


( , D = 2.5 )

,
D = 89
,
D = 125 1

. 1.16. .
,
, ETSI, 0.5 . d (1.6): d () = 4.34 (d/w)2. ,
w 10 , , 3.4 .
( , ). , ,
( -).
,
(. 1.17).
)

. 1.17. : () - ()
() - .
17

. ,
.
, ( ). 1.5 , ( )
2 (. 1.18).

f ( x)

8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0


: 0.30

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2

. 1.18. ()
( ).

() . ,
( ).
( IEC) (. 1.19).
)

. 1.19. : () -
() - .
,
. 1.19, . ,
. ,
.
.
, , , .
(
90). (
) (. 1.19). ( )
(. 1.20).

18

f ( x)

8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0


: 0.15

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2

. 1.20.
( ).
,
( 1.3), , , . IEC , .
1.3. , .

0.20

0.14

94 %
< 0.30
95 %
< 0.30
, .
97 %
< 0.40
99 %
< 0.40

0.30

0.15

60 %
< 0.30
94 %
< 0.30
, .
85 %
< 0.50
98 %
< 0.40

1.2

0.71

( ) 0.5 .
, .
14.

Pz, z , P, .
(z), S - Sz z
:
Pz/P = 2(z) (Sz/S).

(1.8)

- , z : ( ) . ,
(z) = - 10 log(T(z)),

(1.9)

. (1.8)
(1.9)
5 log(P/Pz) = (z) + 5 log(So/Sz).

19

(1.10)

,
( ) z = const
z = 0. , -
, - . , , , .
, (Sz = S), log(Sz/S) = 0, ( ).
(Sz S), log(Sz/S) 0, , ,
.
-
, . , NA
( 1.2). , , , ( 4) .
(1.10), (Sz/S = (wo/ wz)2), , w = wz wo << w = (wo
+ wz)/2, :
5 log(Po/Pz) = (z) + 4.34 w/w.

(1.11)

,

(w/w). (1.4) w/w.

(z) = (z) + 4.34 (w/w)2.

(1.12)

(1.12) (1.11), , .
5 log(Po/Pz) = (z) + 4.34 (w/w)2 + 4.34 w/w.

(1.13)

, w/w , . , , , ,
. , w/w << 1, (1.13) . , , .
, , . ,
, , , . ( > 10 ),
(0.02 ).
,
10 %, (1.13) (~ 0.4 ). , . .
, -
, , ,
.
. , , , . 1. 21.

20

1.

2.

. 1.21. , , .
, .
,
. .
15.
, .
1.22. , ,
, , .

. 1.22. .
, ,
, . . , ,
. ( - ) , . (
)

() = .
21

(1.14)

:




(, AQ
2150) 0.02 , (0.01 ).
, , 5 % - (50100 ).
0 30 .
, - ,
.
- , .
, , ,
.
.

, .
, . 1.18 1.20,
. 0.3 , 0.15 (. 1.3). ,

. , , 0.4
0.2 .
, . ,
. , ( ) . (.. ),
, . , , ,
, - , .

IV.
16.

,
. (D) (PMD).
, ,
10 /
. .
- , ,
(. 1.23).

22


1, 2, 3


()

1 2 3

. 1.23.
() D() . 1.24. (D() = (1/L) /)
() /L , L .
0

()/L

,
/

, /

25

10
1200

,
1300

1400

1500

1600

D() = (1/L) /.

15
5
51200

1300

1400

1500

1600

15
25

. 1.24. ()
D() SM
.

( ) (. 1.25). : 1t1 = 2t2 ( ). : q =


10 log(1/2).
q = 10 log(1/2) = 10 log(t2/t1).
q = 2 , 1.6 .


t1

t2

. 1.25. : q = 10 log(1/2) = 10 log(t2/t1).


17.
0 (. 1.24) ,

23

()/L = (S/2) ( - 0)2.

(1.15)

D()

D() = (1/L) () / = S ( - 0).

(1.16)

(S) . > 0
, < 0 .

: D() = (1/L) /. (1 =
10-12), L , (1 = 10-9 ).
, [/]. ,
S = D() / ( - 0) [/2].
: D() , ( ).
D() . . ,
.
18.
:
D = D + D. . ,
- , .
- , .
, , (. 1.26).

. 1.26.
- ,
.

. -, -
, ( ). . -,
, , , , ( ).
- .
. SM
(~ 8.3 ) (~ 0.34 %). DS NZDS
SM .
, , . , , . . ( ) (. 1.27).
n1

n1
a)
0.75 %
n2

n2
6

. 1.27. DS NZDS
0.90 %
)
24 ) ( W).

D(), D() D()


DS . 1.28.
0 = 1550 S0 = 0.080 /2
( = 0) : D() = 0 S0 ln(/0) (G. 653).
, /

35

D2

DS

. 1.28.
D() D()
D() (DS).

25
15

EDFA

DM()

5
51200

1300

D()

1400

1500

15
25

1600

1700

D()

35

. 1.28,
DS
( ). NZDS
, EDFA. NZDS 1500 , NZDS 1600 .

V.
19. -
, . ,
. , , ,
, .
, , ,
(. 1.29).

f ( x)

f ( x)
F3 ( x)

F1 ( x)

F1 ( x)

F1 ( x)
F2 ( x)

F2 ( x)

F2 ( x)
x

. 1.29. , .
, ,
, ( ) , (). (. 1.29) , ( ).
, ,
( ) .
,
. , , . , , . . . .
, . 1.29, ,
, .
, 25

( ) . ,
.
, ,
.
20.
. . 1.30
. , - -
, .
, (.1.29). , ,
.
.
, .. , (. 1.30).
t0

f0

f ( x)

F3 ( x)

F1 ( x)

F1 ( x)

F2 ( x)

F2 ( x)

f0

x
( )


( )

. 1.30. .
.
,
(. 1.29). ( )
(). ,
, . ,
, . , , , .
21.
DFB (Distributed Feedback Laser) , (. 1.31) .
( )
, p/n . , ,
.. .

26

I ~

DFB

F3 ( x)

F1 ( x)

F2 ( x)

) I
= U ~

f ( x)
F1 ( x)
P

F2 ( x)

DFB

. 1.31. DFB () (). , , , .


, 1
. , , 2.5 /
(STM-16) SM
(. 1.32).
DC

SM

EDFA

F( )

F( )

500 /

F( )

500 /

50

500 /

. 1.32. (2.5 / (STM-16)) DFB


( = 1550 ) SM .
. 1.32, ( ) ,
(DC ). (39 ), , , DFB . , ,
, , .
, ,
(MetroCore Corning WideLight
Pirelli .). , +
.
(
2.5 / (STM-16)) SM ( ) MetroCore ( ) 1.33.
: q = = 10 log(t2/t1), t2/t1 . , SM
q = 2 (t2/t1 = 1.6) 150 . MetroCore
400 .
27

f ( x)

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5

.1.33.

DFB ( = 1557
) 2.5 /.
MetroCore 418
4 3 .

SM

MetroCore

100
200
300
,

400

500

x
22. .

SPM

t0

F3 ( x)

f ( x)

F1 ( x)

F1 ( x)

F2 ( x)

t0

f0

F2 ( x)

f0

(SPM - Self-Phase Modulation) .


,
.
, , .
- SPM
- ,
. ,
, .
, .
, SPM . , SPM , (. 1.34).

. 1.34. (SPM ) . , ( ). .
SPM , . ,
, (. . 1.30).

. , SPM
, .

, , .

. (
) ( ),
.
28

,
- SPM . ,
. .
(
) ( ), .. , ,
. , ,
, ,
. .
DWDM
.
VI.
23.
, , , ,
(. 1.35).
1

t0

. 1.35. 101 . 1 0 , , . 0 , ,
, 1 .
, t = T/4 =
1/(4B), = 1/ , . 95 %
( ) . , B
= 2.5 / (STM-16) T = 1/B = 400 , t = T/4 =
100 . t0 , , ,
, , 100 .
24.
t0 :
t = (t20 + t2D)1/2,

(1.17)

tD - . D
L .
tD = D (/) L () ().

(1.18)

- , , - . (DFB Distributed Feedback Laser ) 10100 ,


STM16 (f = 1/t0 = 10 ). DFB ,
, t0.
29

t0 t = (t20 +
t0 t0. t0 t tD t0. ( tD ~ 1/t0). , t0, t , , ,
.
t2D)1/2

25.
, . ,
, , , , (.. ).
,
( /)
D L = 105 / B2.

(1.19)

, , . -, , , tD - . -,
, ,
.

.
( ) SM (D = 16 / = 1550 )
2.2.
1.4.
SM .

2.5 / (STM-16)
10 / (STM-64)
40 / (STM-256)



, /.
16 000
1000
60

,
1000
60
4

D L 2.5 / 16 000 / 1000 .


, 2.5 / . 10 /
D L 1000 / 60 .
.
26.
: ,
, , , . , , .
DC (DCF - Dispersion Compensating Fiber). DC : ( 1.5). 10 / (STM-64).
30

1.5. DC .

DCM-60

DCM-80

DK-40

DK-60

DK-80

,
, /

, /2
,
, /
PMD,

DCM-40

Lucent Technologies

DCM-20

Corning

20
- 329

40
- 658

60
- 988

80
-1317

40
- 680

60
-1020

80
- 1360

< -1.2

< -1.9

< - 2.5

3.2
103
0.8

5.0
132
1.1

6.8
145
1.4

8.6
153
1.5

5.2
131
0.6

7.0
146
0.75

8.9
153
0.9

DC SM (. 1.36), DC SM
.
( EDFA). ,
. ..
.
, DC
SM . SM
DC
. DC :
0.5 / (. 1.36), 2.5 SM .
. - DC (. ) (- ) (~ 15...20 ).
: SM 5 .
DC SM , -
. D 19 2, SM 85
2. , ,
.

f ( x)

0.6

85

, /

, /

80
90
95

f ( x)

100
105

0.5

110
15001520 15401560 15801600

0.4
15001520 15401560 15801600

,
x

,
x

. 1.36. DC
. - , ,
, ,
, /.
- - DC
.
.
, , ,
, . .
DC ,
(. 1.37).
31

. , , , .
, ( )
.
, .
2.5

2.5

a)
DC

n (%)

1.5

f ( x)

n (%)

f ( x)

SM

0.5

1.5
1
0.5

0.5

0.5

20

10

10

20

,
x

60 40 20 0

20 40 60

,x

. 1.37. () DC - 100 / () 1800 / 24 .


, , ( ) . , , SM .
DC ( D = - 100 /, S = - 0.15 /2 = 1550 )
(. 1.38)

,
/

40
20

f ( x)

20
40
60
80
100

D() = D(c) + S(c) ( - c)

SM

1540

1560

1580

DC

1600

1620

DDC() = DDC(c) + SDC (c) ( - c)


EDFA

. 1.38. DC SM
, (D < 0), (S < 0).
DC SM ,
DC . NZDS , . 1.39,
.

32

SM DCM

DCM

DCM

DCM

DCM

EDFA

EDFA

EDFA

NZDS

EDFA

EDFA

. 1.39. STM-64 (10 /) 240 .


NZDS , c SM ,
DC ~ 20 .
(CR- compensation ratio) SM DK-80. CR . , , SM D() DC
DDC() (. 1.38).
: c, , . SM DK-80 1.6.
1.6. SM DK-80 = 1550 .

, /
, /2
,
, /
, /2

SM
17
0.058
80
1360
4.64

DK-80
/
/
/
- 1360 40
< - 2.5

, , , .
, :
D(c) L = DDC(c) LDC.

(1.20)

(1.21)
S(c) ( - c) L + SDC (c) ( - c) LDC,

(1.21)

(1.22)
CR() = [D(c) L + S(c) ( - c) L + SDC (c) ( - c) LDC] / D(c) L.

(1.22)

(1.22) 2.4,
CR() =1 + 16 ( - 1550)/1000.
CR() . 1.40.

33

(1.23)

150

100

f1 ( x)

CR %

125

f ( x)

75
50
1535

1542.5

1550

1557.5

1565

,
x

. 1.40. SM 80
DK-80
. 1.40,
25 %, 1360 / 340 /.
DK-80. , 10 / (STM-64) 1000 / ( 2.2), ,
380 = 240 . 40 / (STM-256)
,
(60 /) 340 /).
27.
, DWDM ,
(PC photonic cristal). . PC ( , )
,
(. 1.41). , , .

. 1.41.
PC . ,
.

, /

PC
. 1.42. 2000 /,
SM 100 .
500

. 1.42. PC

1550 .

500

f ( x)

1500

2500
0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

(R) . 1.43. , PC 34

( ()), 15001600 CR 50 %.
PC .
0.98 CR 100 0.2 % ( ()). 1550 2.3
/2, 680 /, SM
35 .
120

f ( x)

CR %

110
100

()
(a)

90
80
1500

1525

1550

1575

1600

,
x

. 1.43. PC () = 1550 (2000 /) () (-680 /),


.
PC SM
(~ 1.5 ). ,
, .

VII. ()
28.
, ,
.
. , .
(), , .
,
. , . , , LP01
(LP linear polarized). , , , (. 1.44).
E

I(r)

E
2a

w
r

. 1.44. (I(r) ~ exp[- 2 r2/(w/2)2]) E


. w , 2
, , .. , . - , (. 1.45). ,
.

35

. 1.45. .
,
.
. , , .
:
v = /n v = /n.

(1.24)

(n = n
n) L:
= (2/) (L/ v L/ v) = (2/) n L.

(1.25)

, L (. 1.46).
, 2
:
L = /n

(1.26)

= 1550 5 , n = 3 10-7.

. 1.46. , , , ..
, (DGD differential
group delay) , , (. 1.47):
() = (/) L(),

(1.27)

- .

, (1.24) :
(1/v 1/v) = n/.
(1.30) n = 3 10-7 = 3 105 /, = 1 /.

36

(1.30)

. 1.47. .
( ) , - DGD. ,
, .
, -
. . ,
.
29. -
, , . , ,
.
, , .
,
. , . , , - .
, .
1.48. (1) .
(2).
(3). (4). (5).
, , .
.
, -
.
1

2
3
4

. 1.48. - .
, DGD ( ).
DGD (<>)
, (1.27), .
<>() = PMD(/ ) L ( ).
1/2

1/2

37

1/2

(1.31)

DGD L . ,
.
- PMD ( ) Lc

PMD(/1/2) = (/) Lc1/2(1/2).

(1.32)

Lc 0.3 ,
PMD. = 1 / Lc = 0.3 (1.32) : PMD =
0.55 /1/2. , .
PMD, (1.32) , , ..
, Lc.
10..30 ,
. Lc. .
, Lc 110 . = 1 / Lc = 0.01
(1.32), : PMD = 0.1 /1/2. PMD
.
PMD, DGD (<>).
DGD () . (. 1.49).

f ( x)

1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

x
: / <>

. 1.49. () DGD
.
(1.49), DGD (<>) . , 2<> 1.7 %,
3<> 4.210-5. .. DGD 3<>
22 .
- . t t0
DGD <>:
t = (t20 + <>2)1/2.

(1.33)

,
DGD , .
t0 <> (1.33) , , <>
t0. t0 1/(4B), , tPMD 12 , .. 1/B.

PMD 1.7.
38

1.7. PMD.

2.5 /
STM-16
10 /
STM-64
40 /
STM-256

DGD


1/2
PMD = 1 /


1/2
PMD = 0.1 /

400

40

1600

160 000

100

10

100

10 000

25

2.5

625

, ,
. , , ,
.
, .

II.
1.
. 90 %
(Rec.G. 652).
: SF Standard Fiber, SSMF - Standard Single Mode Fiber, NDSF No Dispersion
Shifted Fiber. : SM Single Mode.
, . , , 2.5 /, SM , .
, (25 ) , SM - .
SM I- .
SM G.652 =
1310 ,
(WDM). (Dense WDM), (20...25 ) (Coarse WDM). II- SM , DWDM, CDWM.
SM
G.652 ITU-T. ,
. , III-
Rec.G.652 ITU-T.
2. SM
.
2.1. ;
SM 0.180.19 / = 1550
0.310.32 / = 1310 .

39

2.1. SMF - 28 (Corning).


= 1310
= 1550
1.
= 1383 3
:
12851330 15251575
100
75
= 1310
2.
= 1550
1 32
= 1550
3.

0.34 /
0.20 /
2.1 /
0.05 /
0.05
0.05
0.5
11501350
< 1260

2.1
. < 1600 ~ 1/4. = 1550 = 1310
.
2.1 , . , . ,
100 75 , 0.05 ( =
1550 ), (32 )
(0.5 ).
. (75 ) ,
- , (100) . ( ) , (32 ).
.
= 1550 = 1310 , , , . , ,
.
, 0.05 ,
1550 .
2.1 . (<
1260 ) G.652 (
).
.

. ,
1260 . , .
2.1, ( =
1383 3 ) = 1310 = 1550 .
1310 1550 . SM = 1383 3 .

40

. 2.1.

SM
SM

(OH).

4-

F( ) 0.3

3-

, /

0.4
0.35

5-

0.25
0.2
0.15
1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700

(LWPF low water peak fiber) : AllWave (Lucent Technologies, OFS ), SMF-28e (Corning), SMR (Pirelli). 0.31 /, , = 1310 (0.35 /) (. 2.1). ,
(S) (1480...1520 ), ()
(13601460 ).
(Extended) .
SM = 1383 3 :
1280 1625 ,
50 % , SM .
1400 , SM
10
/ (STM-64).
CWDM (
(2025 ) ) 33 % ( 16 ).
, LWPF - DWDM CWDM .
.
, . ,
. SMF - 28
2.2.
2.2. SMF - 28.
: = 1310
9.2 0.4
= 1550 10.4 0.8

0.5


125 1.0
1.0 %
4.0

I, w SM
(1.3): w = 7 . = 1310 = 1550 : w = 9.1 w = 10.85. , 2.2, , .
, .
SMF - 28 Rec. G.652, 10-% . , 2.2 (1.4) (() = 4.34 (w/w)2), , 0.025.
, , 0.05 .
, , ,
(. . 1.14),
41

1..2 % -
.
, 2.2
, .
, Rec. G.652).
,
,
.
2.2 .

. , . 4 .
3. SM
. SM
. : (. 2.2).
SM (GeO2),
,
(F).
n1

a)

n1

8.3

0.34 %
n2

8.3

0.30 %

n2
0.9 %

46

. 2.2. SM
) ( )
)
SM
,
. 0 .

S0 :
D() = S0 ( - 04/3)/4.

(2.1)

(2.1) Rec. G.652


12601360 . 1550 . (2.1) D() S0 = 0.092 /2 0 = 1310 , .2.3.

, /

25

15

DM()

SM

.2.3.
D() D()
D()

(SM).

D()

5
5

D()
15
25
1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

42

SM
(. 2.4). ( 0) .
, , .
3000

2500
2000

: 16.5 (/)
. . : 0.36 (/)

f ( x) 1500
1000
500
0

13 14 15 16 17 18 19

x
1550 (/)

. 2.4. 1550 SM Hitachi


(S() = dD()/d), . 2.3, . (2.1),
S() = S0 (1 + 3 04/4)/4.

(2.2)


2
, /

S() S0 = 0.092 /2 0 = 1310 .2.5.

f ( x)

0.1

. 2.5.
SM (
0 = 1310 . S0 = 0.092
/2)

0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600

,
x

SMF - 28 2.3.
,
Rec. G.652 (13001324 ).
2.3. SMF - 28.

1301 < < 1321

0.092 /2
D
0.1..0.2 /1/2
(PMD) SM , , (10.5
/1/2), B = 2.5 / (STM-16) (L ~ 100 ) . ,
PMD 1 /1/2, 100
tPMD = PMD L1/2 = 10 , t =
1/(4) = 100 STM-16.
= 10 / (STM-64), L ~ 1000 . tPMD
PMD, 1 /1/2, 30 ,
t = 1/(4) = 25 STM-64. SM PMD 5 0.20.1 /1/2.
43

4. SM
DWDM (100300)
/
.
. , , .
Hitachi SM
(LESMF large effective area single mode fiber) DC
(DSCF dispersion and its slope compensation fiber) (.
2.4).
2.4. LESMF DSCF .

/
= 1550

/
20
/
= 1550

/2
RDS (/)
1/


2
PMD
/1/2

LESMF
0.183
1370
4.0
20.0
0.064
0.0032
12
112
0.022

DSCF
0.266
1266
/
-41.1
-0.13
0.0032
6.2
30
0.043

LESMF DSCF . 2.6.


40 SM . 20 DC .
LESMF

DSCF

MUX

DEMUX

1
2
3
n

EDFA

EDFA

1
2
3
n

. 2.6. DWDM .
LESMF.
, (~ 0.9 ). 0.26 ,
(. 2.7). NZDS 83 .

44

LESMF

DSCF

NZDS

. 2.7. LSMF (112 2) DSCF c


(30 2) .
5. SM

( ). , . , , , . , .
. ,
SM . 2.4 2
3 ,
.

7.5
1

Furukawa
(OFS)

0.34
0.23
75
0.5
0.6

0.35
0.22
75
0.5
1.0
4
10
1

Alcatel

0.5
1.0
4
10
1.2

0.35
0.21
75
0.4
0.5
4
5
1

Pirelli

0.35
0.22

Fujikura

0.35
0.22
75
0.5
0.8
2
10
1

Sumitomo

0.34
0.20
50
0.4
0.5
4
5
1

Hitachi

/,
= 1310
= 1550
**,
,
,
,
,
%

Lucent
(OFS)*

Corning

2.5. SM
.

0.34
0.20
60
0.5
1.0

0.34
0.21
60
0.5
0.6
4
10
1

10
1

* Lucent Technologies () 2001 . - Furukawa Electric () CommScope ().


OFS Optical Fiber Solution - .
** 100 = 1550 0.05 .
. , , Hitachi SM =
1310 : max. 0.350.40 /, = 1550 : max. 0.210.25 /. ,
, . 1.13, :
0.33 / = 1310 0.2 / = 1550 . ,
, , ( 0.18..0.19 / = 1550 0.31.. 0.32 / = 1310 ).

45

f ( x)

: 0.333 /
: 0.005 /

5 00 0
: 0.195 /
4 50 0
: 0.004 /
4 00 0
3 50 0
3 00 0
2 50 0
2 00 0
1 50 0
1 00 0
5 00
0
0 .1 6 0 .1 7 0 .1 8 0 .1 9 0 .2 0 .2 1 0 .2 2

3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0.3

f ( x)

0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36

= 1310
x , (/).

= 1550
x , (/).

. 2.8. 1310 1550 SM Hitachi.

f ( x)

130
120
110

100
90
80
70
f ( x)
60
50
40

30

20

10
0
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

, . ,
SM . SM , NZDC .

1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

. 2.9. ( ),
( ).

II. SM
6. WDM
, - ,
Internet .
, , .
: , .
.
, .
.
.
- . . . , , 2.6.
46

2.6 , :
.
,
, .
(10 /, 40 /, > 100
/).
, , .
(, ..).
, ,
.
.
(WDM - wavelength division
multiplexing).
.
(. 2.10). 90- , / . 1995 . 2.5(5.0) / . 1998 . 10(20) / ,
WDM. WDM 100 /

1
0.1
1985

1990

1995

DWDM

WDM

10

100

1.55

f ( x)

1.3


//

1 10

2000

. 2.10.
.

2005

x
.
, , ..
. 1310 1550 ( 2.7).

2.7. WDM .

WDM, STM 4 (625 ).


.
WDM, STM-16 (2.5 /)
/ 1555 , 400
Dense WDM, STM-64 (10 /)
8/96 1550 50/100
DWDM, STM-256 (40 /)
100/200 1550 , 25/50
WDM:
47

1. c WDM , N, , B
.
= N B.

(2.3)

2. , WDM, ,
, -,
. , Internet,
SONET ATM. -, , (. 2.11).

4
4

. 2.11. WDM
.
3

3. , , (. 2.12). , .
1
2
N

Demux

Mux

2
N

. 2.12. WDM
, .
(1000
10 000 ). 50150 ,
, . , - ,
.
WDM .
, (EDFA Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier)
15251565 . 400 .

.
WDM
: (dense-WDM (DWDM)) 80 (coarse-WDM
(CWDM)) , , (wide WDM (WWDM)) 40. .
DWDM 200 ( 1000), WDM 40.
7. DWDM
DWDM , .
48

(ITU International Telecommunication Union) ITU Rec. G. 692, 100 . (15301560 ), G. 692, 40 ( 100 0.8 ).
50 25 , , 80 160. WDM 100
DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing).
DWDM (N) (B)
. 50 . , STM-64, .. 10 /. ,
1- fc = 10 STM-64 ( ). f f + f f f (. 2.13).

, ..

1-

2-

50

f ( x)

192,1

10

192,15 x

192,2

f,

. 2.13. DWDM .
10 (STM-64), 50 = 0.05 .
. 2.13, STM-64 (10 )
(50 ) , ..
.
STM-256 (40 ) 100
. DWDM
, ,
. STM-256 (40 ) 50 .
DWDM ,
, ,
. , (SPM Self
Phase Modulation), , : (FWM Four Wave Mixing) (XPM Cross Phase
Modulation).
SPM , 10 (10 ). FWM XPM, .
, .
DWDM , .
, ( ).
(. 2.14).

49


:
N2 (N 1)/2, N
2 f1 f2

f1

f2

N2 (N 1)/2

2
2
4

2
24
224

2 f2 f1

. 2.14. ( f1 f2).
,
DWDM, G. 692 + 17 (50 ).
+ 23 . : .

, DWDM . ,
DWDM ( DS ),

. ,
DWDM , .
. SM (1618
/) , , - FWM, - XPM . ,
DWDM SM ,
.
DWDM , ,
,
( ). - ( (DFB Distributed Feedback Laser)
). Lm B:
Lm 105/(B2 D).

(2.4)

D [/], B
[/].
D = 18 / 2.5 / (STM-16), : Lm
~ 1000 . .. SM . 10 / (STM-64)
: Lm ~ 60 , (~ 100 ) ,
( ).
, ( 2.5 /) SM , , ,
- FWM XPM . DWDM .
DWDM, . DWDM 2.5 /
(STM-16). ~ 30
. 0.8 (100 )
N = 40, 0.4 (50
), , : N = 80. N = 40
100 / (402.5 /), N = 80 - 200 / (802.5 /).
50

DWDM N, B .
N DWDM , (15251565 ), , L (1570...1620 ). B STM-64 (10 /) SM . , .
SM
,
. DC (DCF Dispersion Compensating Fiber) .
, . DCF ,
.
DWDM 32
10 / (STM-64) , , = N B = 320 /.
DWDM . ( - ).
2001 .,
1,2 / ( STM-4 (620 /)). 2001 . DWDM .-
20 /.
DWDM TDM (.. ) . DWDM .

(L ), (S ),
- .
DWDM . (DWDM) , . DWDM .
, DWDM
(50/100 )
. , ,
, ,
.
DWDM
, , , . ,
, ,
.
8. CWDM
( )
CWDM (Coarse WDM). DWDM CWDM ,
. CWDM
(20 ) , WDM . : DWDM (. 2.15).

51

CWDM
13

0.4
50
DWDM

1.6
200
DWDM

0.8
100
DWDM

20
CWDM, - 30

. 2.15. CWDM 20 DWDM 100 .


CWDM . WDM . , ,
.
, ,
DWDM , .
,
. 13 ( 1
) 30 20 (. 2.15).
WDM
. DFB
2 , 0.09 . WDM
, , 13 .
DWDM
, . ,
,
20 .
CWDM . CWDM .
. SM , 1385 (. 2.16). 20 1280
1620 16 . SM - E, 12 .

1.2

f ( x)

, /

0.9

SM
0.6
0.3

SM (ZWPF)

1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650


,

. 2.16. SM () () SM (ZWPF),
CWDM .
. CWDM .
.
( ) , ,
70 .
2.5 /, DFB .
52

DWDM CWDM
DWDM . :
CWDM , (1470, 1490, 1590 1610 ),
16 DWDM .
, . 10 Gigabit Ethernet.
3.125 /.
12.5 /. , , 10 / ( ).
CWDM . CWDM 40 / 10 /.

III
9. Rec. G.652 ITU-T

:

1310 . 1310 ,
1550 ( ).
:
, . 1310 1550 , 1550 .
Rec. G.654.
1.
1.1. .
9...10 . 10 % .
:
1. 10 ,
9 . .
2. , 10 % .
:
, , 1..2 %.
1.2.
125 . 2 .
:
SM 1 .
1.3.
()
1 .
1.4.
1.4.1.
( ), , ,
.
53

.
.
:

. , ,
.
1.4.2.
2 %.
1.5.
:
) , RTM ( ).
) ( )
RTM ( ).
:
RTM (reference test method Rec. G.650) - ,
.
, .
, . , ,
< . ,
.
:
1) , : 1100 < < 1280
2) , 1260-1270
:
1.
.
2. ,
, . , RTM (G.650)
1240 .
3. , , . , , . , , - ,
,
RTM , .
:
1. ( 2)),
1240 .
2. ( 1)),
.
3. ,
. ,
. ,
.
4. , , .
:
, , , . , V = (2/) a NA =2.4. > V < 2.4: .
54

NA
.

. ,
. , V. , V
2.4 , . ( V ~ 2.4) , ,
.
1.6. 1550
, ,
1310 , 1550 , ,
1550 , 100
37.5 , 1.0 .
:
1. 100 . 37.5
, - .
2. , ,
100 ( 40), , ,
.
3. , , 37.5
(, 30 ), , 100 1.0 , , , .
4.
. - .
5. 100 .
1 , 100
37.5 .
:

, 1550 . , 1550
(Rec. G.654).
1.7.
1.7.1.
, .
: .
,
.
1.7.2.

( ) .
1.7.3.
p 0.35
(1 = 109 ), 0.5 %. t 1 . ,
:
= (t/t)1/q.

(2.6)

q . q
( nd), Rec. G. 650 q = 20.
55

.
, 0.7 1.4 ( 1 % 2 %), .
:
L/L
(L/L) E = ,

(2.7)

= 70 - . L/L = 10-2 (1
%) = 0.7 .
0.7 .

F(L,,t) = 1 - exp[-(L/Lo) ( /p)m (t /t)n],

(2.8)

L - , L - . : m = 3 1, n =
0.2 0.05. , q = m/n = 15. , m, n q , (IEC
60793-1-3, 2).
1.8
. , , Rec. G.651.
1.9

2.
, .

.
2.1
1
1310 0.5 1500 .
:
.
1310 0.3...0.4 /, 1550 0.15...0.25 /.
2.2.
:
- omin = 1300 omax = 1324
- Somax = 0.093 /2
1260...1360
D1() = (Somax/4) ( - 4omin/3),

(2.9)

D1() = (Somax/4) ( - 4omax/3).

(2.10)

56

:
1.
.

,
, /
1288-1339
3.5
1271-1360
5.3
1550
~ 20
2. 1550 .
3.
omax omin , , Somax.
4. .
3.

.
, .
, .
A = n Ln + s x + c y

(n = 1.m).

(2.11)

3.1
:
n n-
Ln n-
m
s

c

, (
, , , ..).
.

, .
3.2
( /) (. 2.2) : Dn Ln, n = 1m.
10. ,
. ,
.
. , ,
,
.
SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) . , .
SONET SDH -
.

57

.
. ( ) .
2.8. , .
1. ANSI

Bell Tele phone ().
2. Bellcore
Telcordia Technologie.

3. CECC

4. ENELEC
5. CEPT

6. DIN

7. EIA

8. ETSI

9. FTZ
()
10. IEC
()
11. IEEE

12. ISO
()
13. ITU-T
: (-)
14. NIST
()
15. TIA

16. WTO

, .
: ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). IEC , ITU .

.
2.9. , .

ITU
IEC

ETSI
CENELEC

,
TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association) Telcordia Technologies ( Bellcore). ETSI
(European Telecommunication Standard Institute).
ITU
. ITU ,
, . ITU ITU-R, ITU-T ITU-D. -
ITU-T. 14 SG (Study Group), -
ITU.
ITU-T ,
. , SG 15 ( , ),
DWDM.
SG 15 - 345 26 78 . WP (Working Party):
(Network Access), (Network Signal Processing),
58

(Multiplexing) (Switching and Transmission). WP 4/15 , , .


WP 4/15
, ,
, .
WP 4/15
.
WP 4/15 WDM.
WP 4/15 50 ,
100 , ( 128 )
. 16201660 .
TDM
10 /, WDM.
TDM 40 /.
2.10 ITU-T IEC .
ITU-T Rec. G. 650
(03.93).
ITU-T Rec. G. 651
50/125 (03.93).
ITU-T Rec. G. 652
(03.93).
IEC B 1.1
ITU-T Rec. G. 653 IEC B 2
(03.93).
ITU-T Rec. G. 654 , IEC B 1.2
1550 (03.93).
IEC B 3
.
ITU-T Rec. G. 655 IEC B 4
(10.96).
IEC . IEC , - IEC ( 50
). IEC ITU
, ISO (International Organization for Standardization), WTO (World Trade Organization),
CENELEC (European Committee
for Electrotechnical Standardization). TIA IEC.
IEC 200
700 .
10 000 . TC 86 ( ).
, , , . , TC 86 IEC ITU . TC 86 IEC ITU PMD, WDM, , .
, ITU PMD, TC
86 IEC PMD. , TC 86 IEC IEC 61282-3 PMD - .
PMD (IEC 61941).
PMD
. PMD
PMD .

59

III. (NZDS)
1.
NZDS (Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted)
DWDM , . - , 10 / (STM-64). ,
NZDS DWDM , TDM
(Time Domain Multiplication) ,
, .
1 10

f ( x)

1.6
800

3.2

6.4

12.8

TDM

400

100

10

2.5
40
10

,
/
x

100

. 3.1.
, .
NZDS DWDM.
NZDS , . NZDS , ( , SM ).
NZDS 50 % ,
.
. NZDS , .
NZDS Rec. G.655 ITU-T. NZDS DS (G.653) , (. 3.2). NZDS ,
DWDM
. NZDS
Rec. G.655, ITU-T.

60

WDM

0.36 /
0.21 /
1310
(+)

1550
NZDS (+)
DS
NZDS (-)

SM

():
1525..1565
(L): 1565..1620

(-)

. 3.2. SM, DS
NZDS .
NZDS
. (. 3.3) .

(W).

. 3.3. NZDS


, /2

NZDS Hitachi
. 3.4.

f ( x)

0.11
0.1
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05

8.5

9.5

10

10.5

11


x ,

. 3.4.
Hitachi .
NZDS
. 80- . - . NZDS ,
.

.
, NZDS ,
. , (1525
61

1565 ), : 15701610 , 1290..1310 , 1420..1500 1650..1700 . ,


,
NZDS .
NZDS .
NZDS (+D NZDS)
. , PMD
DWDM , ( ). , +D NZDS , L (15701620 ).
(-D NZDS) . ,
-D NZDS SM ,
C (~ 17 / ) .
-D NZDS L,
.
-D NZDS .
(MAN metropolitan area network).
, + .
, NZDS , DWDM 10 /
(STM-64). , . () (FWM) , , .
NZDS ( )
FWM . , , 10 / (STM-64) 300..400 . -
, - FWM . NZDS .
DWDM c 1.6
/ (16010 /). FOC 2001 DWDM 10.92 / (27340 /).
DWDM 100 /
.
, . , (
). (SPM), (),
(FWM) (MI).
.
( , , 1000 )
(+ D NZDS). , + D NZDS - SPM - D NZDS .
- D NZDS . - D NZDS (MAN)
.
I.
2.
,
.
-
.
62

, ,
. Rec. ITU-T G.662 17 ( = 1550 ), 19 . (Siemens, ) DWDM , 30 .

, .. .
:
. , (. 3.5).

. 3.5.

( ) . , / () L:
M = L/.

(3.1)

L (. 3.5a) - / ( ).
L = /.

(3.2)


:
M = / .

(3.3)

,
. -,
. -, (. 3.6).

. 3.6. ()
().
, -
,
. :
L = [1 exp(- L)]/.

(3.4)

L , - . 0.22
/ 20 ,
, .
63

SM w 7 ( I), , ,
= w2 /4 = 12.5 2. (3.1), L = L, :
M 0.1 L /( 2).

(3.5)

(3.5) (3.3) :
M/ M 0.1 L/,

(3.6)

SS

SRS

a)

L = 20 = 1.55 109.

DWDM . . () (SRS stimulated Raman scattering) (SBS - stimulated Brillouin scattering). : () - ().
SBS SRS , , , , ( ) ( ),
(3.7).

. 3.7. SS SRS.
) (SBS) (30..60 )
11 .
) (SRS) (~ 7
55 ) 13 .
SBS SRS , :
SS ( ). SRS , .
SRS
SS.
SS SRS.

( ): (SPM - SelfPhase Modulation), (FWM Four Wave Mixing), ( Cross Phase Modulation), (MI Modulation Instability).
, , , , , , DWDM (.3.8).

64

1 10

SRS

100

XPM

10

SS

f ( x)
1

FWM

0.1
0.01

10

1 10

100

xDWDM

. 3.8. .
3. (SBS)
, , (
). , .

(. 3.9). , ,
.
, . SM
(G.652) 11 (+ 0.088 ) fB = 30 . DS (G.653) 10.7 (+ 0.085 )
fB = 60 . , DWDM . , . 3.8, .

fo = 194

x)

fo f

va = 5.8 /

0.53

f ~ 11

. 3.9. .
PB (
)
PB L (21 A/gB) (1 + f /fB) = 0.03 (1 + f /fB) ,

(3.7)

f . 0.03 gB = 5 10-11
/- SBS ( ) A = 70 2 (SM ).
(f < 1 ) L = 20 PB = 1.5 ( . 3.7). DWDM
110 ,
, ,
100200 .
65

, . , . , ,
L = L = /2 n,

(3.8)

- , n 1.5 .
= 1 L = L = 0.1 , (L = 20 ) . ,
200
, .. 300 .
SBS
24 ( 5 ), ,
. 50 1 . (3.7) f =
1, , 30 ( 50 ).

( I) .
2.5 / (STM-16) SBS 100200 .
,
- SBS ( . 3.7 1.5 ),
.
4. (SRS)

, , .
DWDM ,
(50100 , ), (~40 ).
PR (
)
PR L (16 A/gR) 17 .

(3.9)

0.03 gB = 5 10-11 / A = 70 2 (SM ).


L = 20 ( = 1550 ) PR 1 , (~ 23 ). , DWDM ,
.
, SRS, SBS,
. SRS , ~13 (100 ).
. 3.10.

66


gR/A, ( )-1

3.5
3

2.5

DS
NZDS (TrueWave)
SM

f ( x)

1.5
1
0.5
0

1450

1500

1550

1600

x
,

. 3.10. .

.
,
, DWDM.
, ( 20 ) - ,
(.3.11), /.

.
WDM


.3.11. .


, .

,
. . DWDM (3.12),
. ( 0.51 ), SRS ( ).

f ( x)

0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
1530

1540

1550

1560

1570

,
x

. 3.12. 20 100 NZDS 100


1.5 .
5. (SPM)
(SPM - Self-Phase Modulation) - ( ):
n = n0 + n2 (P/A),

(3.10)
67

n0 (~ 1.46 ), n2. n2 2.23.4 10-20


2/.
, ,
,
= t - Ln/c = (t - Lno/c) - SPM,

(3.11)

SPM = (2/) n2 (P/ A) L = P L.

(3.12)

, -1-1

= (2/) (n2/ A) A,
(.
3.13).

f ( x)

2.5

2.2
1.9
1.6
1.3
1

50

60

70

80


( = 1550 ).
85 2

SM :
NZDS :
TrueWave RS (Lucent)
TeraLight (Alcatel)
LEAF (Corning)
90 100
FreeLight (Pirelli)

55 2
66 2
72 2
72 2

x , 2

. 3.13. .

SPM , - ,
. , , (. 3.14).

t
0

. 3.14. SPM .
- SPM - , ( ).
, , .

(. 1.34, I):
= - dSPM/dt = - (dP/dt) L.

(3.13)

, SPM ,
. . SPM , (. 1.34). ,
(. . 1.30).
68

. 3.15.
NZDS ( TrueWave) .

SPM .

()

f ( x)

+ 2.3 /

4
2

- 2.3 /

0
2

0
5
10
15
()

20

. 3.15. NZDS (TrueWave) . 145 , 10 / 10-9.



, .
, ( DFB
) , .

. , SPM
( ). . , .

. ( ) ( ),
.
,
- SPM , .
,
.
, . 3.14
15 .
. (
) (
), .. , , . , , , , . .

DWDM .
6. (MI)
(MI Modulation Instability)
. (. 3.16), (. 3.16).
. , . ,
.
, , . 69


, ().

, 1000 .

f ( x)

f ( x)

30
20
10

0
10

100
0
100

. 3.16. () x ()
2.5 / ( 9 ) 600
(+ 3 /).
x

7. ()
- (SPM ), - XPM (Cross Phase Modulation) -
, , DWDM . i- , SPM (3.11)
L:
i = L [Pi + 2 m i Pm].

(3.14)

DWDM , , (3.14),
XPM , - SPM ,
2 N , N DWDM ,
.
, , (~
1/N), . 3.8.

(. 3.17). , .
.
1
t

. 3.17. , (XPM ).
8. (FWM)
(FWM Four Wave Mixing) ,
DWDM .
, , ,
(w1 w2).
(2w1 - w2 2w2 - w1) (. 3.18).
70


(wi , wj wk), wi wj wk
DWDM . (
).

:
N2 (N 1)/2, N
2 f1 f2

f1

N2 (N 1)/2

2
2
4

2
24
224

2 f2 f1

f2

. 3.18. FWM .

10 /

10 /

, - FWM , ,
.
NZDS , DS (. 3.19).

F( )

F( )

) 25 DS

) 50 NZDS

. 3.19. DWDM ~ 3 . )
. ) .

, FWM ()

FWM ,

. - FWM . 3.20.

f ( x)

0
D = 1 /

20
D = 17 /

40
0

50

100

150

200

,
f ()
x

. 3.20. DWDM SM NZDS .

II. NZDS
9.
(+ D NZDS - Non Zero Dispersion Shifted)
( , ,
1000 ), SPM , . + D NZDS SM DS . SM 1310 , DS
71

= 1550 ( EDFA). + D NZDS


( DS
), , EDFA
(15301565 ) (. 3.21).
, /

25

+ D NZDS

D()

15

DM()

D1

(C)

D()

15
25
1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

. 3.21. D() D()


D() + D NZDS , .. , 3-
() .

FWM

, . , - FWM
XPM , (. 3.22). NZDS
Rec. G. 655 0.1.6 / . , NZDS . .

f ( x)

20
30

D=0

40

= 1 /
L = 100

D=1

50

D = 17 /

60
70

0.5

1.5

2.5

. 3.22.
DWDM . : 0.8 (100 ), 0.4 (50 ), 0.2
(25 ).
NZDS FWM XPM DWDM
, 10 / (STM-64) 250 ( SM ~60 (. 3.23)).

72

1 10

4000

1 10

f ( x)

NZDS
D = 4 /
250

1000

100

60
15

10
1

SM 3.5
D = 17 /
1

10
100
1 10
2.5
40

x , /

. 3.23.
SM NZDS .
NZDS 90- (TrueWave Lucent).
( ) TrueWave 4...6 / (
SM 16...20 / ) (3.24).

f ( x)

, /

20
16

SM
TeraLight
PureGuide
E-LEAF
TrueWave RS
TrueWave Classic
DS

12
8
4
0
4

1520

1540

1560

1580

1600

,
x

. 3.24. .
, 80- 90-
DS . , ,
,
DWDM . . , DWDM DS ( EDFA
(1530...1570 )), , , -
FWM .

L (1570...1610 ), DS 2...4 / ,
FWM XPM ( ,
NZDS ).
DWDM NZDS
:
( 3 (), 4 (L) 5- (S) )
.
.
10 / .
DWDM
(~ 8 / ) .
NZDS .
(. 3.25): (LEAF (Corning)),
(TrueWave RS (Lucent)) (TeraLight, Alcatel).
73

f ( x)

, /

10
9
8

NZDS
3
2
1
0
1475 1500 1525 1550 1575 1600

1625

. 3.25. + D NZDS (G. 655).


. , , ,
. NZDS
3.1.
3.1 + D NZDS .
= 1550 LEAF Corning TeraLight Alcatel TrueWave RS Lucent

0.25 /
72 2.

0.25 /
66 2.

0.22 /
55 2.

4.2 /

8 /

3.8 /

0.085 /2

0.058 /2

0.045 /2

1500

1440

1450

PMD

< 0.1 /1/2

< 0.08/1/2

< 0.1 /1/2

LEAF TrueWave RS , (. 3.1). LEAF


(72 2) .
LEAF - (0.085 /2),
S ( ),
.
Corning LEAF 1999 .
(. 3.26) , , + ( 30-40 %).
LEAF 45 .
.
(0.045 /2)
TrueWave RS, : C, L S.
TeraLight (0.058 /2) , LEAF, - ,
TeraLight 8 /.
, , DWDM, .

74

f ( x)

90
80
70
60
50
40
50

70

90

110 130 150

, 2

. 3.26. .
NZDS ( 3.1) 10 % ,
SM . NZDS
( 3.2) SM . TrueWave RS
( 3.2) 0.04 ,
SM (0.02 ).
3.2. NZDS .

TrueWave RS TrueWave RS
FreeLight FreeLight
FreeLight NZDS

NZDS SM
TrueWave RS Lucent VAD-MC
TrueWave RS Corning SMF28
TrueWave RS Corning SMF28
FreeLight Pirelli SMF


0.037
0.046

0.018

0.053

0.011

0.084
0.10
0.16
0.097

0.014
0.027
0.025
0.011

Sumitomo Type 36SE

Ericsson FSU 975


Ericsson FSU 975
Fujikura FSM30S

10.
ND (Negative Dispersion, - D NZDS G. 655)
C (. 3.27). ( ) 3-7 /, , (FWM).
25

, /

- D NZDS

D1

15
5

DM()

D()

15
25
1300

D()
1400

1500

1600

1700

. 3.27 D() D()


D() NZDS , (- D NZDS) 3- () .

(~1000 ), . , 75

SM (. 3.28), ,
DC .

. (~ 80 ) - , . , , (~50 ).

LMF RSF

SM

LMF RSF

EDFA

EDFA

EDFA

EDFA

LMF RSF

LMF RSF

EDFA

EDFA

, /

200

f ( x)

1555

200

1545

400
600

1550

800
1000

50

100

150

200

250

300

,
x

. 3.28. (LMF - large-mode field),


(RSF - reduce slope fiber) (SM).

, , , 300 . 2.5 / (STM-16) SM DFB
. 10 / (STM-64) SM
. , , , , . ,
+ .
, ND DFB
DFB .
DFB 10 ( ).
, ,
, (chirping) . . .
(
2.5 /) SM ( ) MetroCore (
) 3.29.
: q = = 10 log(t2/t1), t2/t1 . , SM q = 2
(t2/t1 = 1.6) 150 . MetroCore,
400 , .

76

f ( x)

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5

SM

MetroCore

100
200
300
,

400

500

. 3.29. DFB ( =
1557 ) 2.5 / . MetroCore 418 4
3 .

, /

(.
3.30.). TrueWave XL (Lucent Technologies) SMF-LS
(Corning). MetroCore (Corning) WideLight
(Pirelli).

f ( x)

0
1 SMF-LS
2
3
4
5 TrueWave XL
6
7
8
C
9
10
1540
1560

MetroCor

WideLight
L

1580

1600

1620

.3.30. ( ) L ( )
11.
. .
(.
3.31). , . .

f ( x)

f ( x)

10

,
x

D, /

6
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0
0.002
0.004
0.006

6
1.52

1.57

1.62

,
x

. 3.31.
. , .

77

TrueWave RS (
NZDS ) . 3.32. ,
. NZDS 3.3.

, /

f ( x)

TrueWave RS
6

0
1.52

1.54

1.56

1.58

1.6

1.62

. 3.32. NZDS
( , )
TrueWave RS ().
x

3.3. NZDS
.
= 1530
3.94 /
= 1550
4.18 /
= 1565
4.34 /
= 1550
0.015 /2

7.7

< 1100

1
32

< 0.5

12.
3.4.
(SM). ,
.
( , ).
SM , Corning Lucent (OFS) (), Sumitomo, Hitachi, Fujikura Furukawa (), Pirelli
(), Alcatel () . .
SM ().
SM DWDM
(S) .

78

3.4. .

(SM)

, ,

,

SMF-28 SMF-28 Duraclad (Corning), VAD-MC


(Lucent), SM (Sumitomo, Hitachi,
Fujikura, Furukawa, Pirelli, Alcatel).

SM
():
AllWave (Lucent), SMF-28e (Corning), SMR (Pirelli).

()

(+ D NZDS)

+ D NZDS
:

()

(-D NZDS)

- D NZDS c
():

(DC)

LEAF (Corning), FreeLight (Pirelli),


TeraLight (Alcatel)

+ D NZDS
:

,
,



TrueWaveRS (Lucent), TeraLight (Alcatel)

TrueWaveXL (Lucent) SMF-LS (Corning).

- D NZDS c
DFB
:
MetroCor (Corning), WideLight (Pirelli).

:
DCM (Corning), DK (Lucent), P-DCFM (Sumitomo),
15DC 15DSC (Fujikura)

3.4. NZDS . DWDM, () .


(+ D NZDS). ,
,
.
NZDS -
( SM ) .
, ( ~ 4 /) () , : 4- (L) 5- (S).
(72 2) LEAF (Corning)
FreeLight (Pirelli). (0.045 /2 ) -
TrueWaveRS (Lucent). TeraLight (Alcatel) , TrueWaveRS, , LEAF FreeLight, (S) .
, , NZDS (TrueWaveXL
(Lucent) SMF-LS (Corning)).
, . .
Corning , , ,
300 .
(Metropolitan NetWork), , , 300 , MetroCore (Corning) WideLight (Pirelli).
, + .
, 3.4. . DC SM, (DWDM).
,
79

. DC .
DCM ,
, .
,
. Alcatel, , 3.5, .
3.5. Alcatel.
40
TeraLight Ultra
TeraLight
Metro
10
40
10
10
TeraLight Ultra
2.5 10 E-SMF SMF
(
TeraLight Metro)
2.5 2.5

(/)

0-20

(Acces)

0-70

70-200


(Metro)

200-500

500-1200

c
(Long haul)

>1200

(Ultra long haul)

:
(SMF E-SMF), , , .
.
(G.652) 2-
( ). TeraLight
Metro.
E-SMF ( (Water Peak Area))
( )
70 .
50/125 62.5/125 . MM Glight 300 10 /.
SMF, E-SMF TeraLight
, L S, SMF E-SMF 70 .
TeraLight Ultra
, 10.2 / 300 .

:
Metro ,
10 / 100 . TeraLight Metro 1310
( ).
Long haul (> 200 ) (10 40
/), .
TeraLight Ultra , .
.

IV.
1.
.
-
80

. Gigabit Ethernet . ,
, Gigabit
Ethernet. ,
Corning Lucent (), Alcatel () .
,
. . , ,
, .
.
.
, 20 /, - . . .
I.
2.
, , (). , . , (.
4.1). , .
1-

. 4.1. . , . .
,
, . , , , (. 4.2). ,
. , ,
.

. 4.2. .
, , .

. , , . , ,
, , , , ,
81

. , ,
. (. 4.3).


()


1
2
3

. 4.3. .
3.
,
( ),
. .
(, ) . 4.4. , () ,
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
. , ,
.
- 13

0
- 13

. 4.4. . NA = sin .
4. .
,
.
. , - ,
( , , ).
- (~ 200 ) Gigabit Ethernet.
82

. - VCSEL
(Vertial Cavity Surface Emitting Laser), 850 .
.
, - , , ,
. (.
4.5). - GeO2 .
n(r)
n1


NA = (n21 - n22)1/2
n2
r

2a

. 4.5. . - GeO2 .
, , .
, ,
.
, 10..20
. MCP (mode
conduction patch-cord) . ( ), InfiniCor CL Corning,
MCP.
, , . -
1.5 (. 4.6).

7 00 0

SM

6 00 0
5 00 0

( L)4 00 0

MM

3 00 0
2 00 0
1 00 0
2 00

8 00

1 40 0

2 00 0

L
,

. 4.6. Fast Ethernet .


5.
Gigabit Ethernet
, ,
1 /. , , (.4.7).
100

n(r)
83
f ( )

10
1

n(r) = n1 [1 - (r/a)] : r < a


n(r) = n1 [1 - ] = n2 : r a,
=
=4

. 4.7. ,
n(r) , n1 n2 (r = 0) , , = (n1 n2) / n1
, ( ~ 2) , .
( 4.1).
, , .
1300
( ). (. 4.8),
,
, 1 2 .
1 00 0

9 00

F,

F( )

8 00
7 00
6 00
5 00
4 00
3 00
2 00
6 00

8 00

1 00 0

1 20 0

1 40 0

1 60 0

1 80 0

. 4.8. .
, .
Gigabit Ethernet 1 1-2 .
( ).
Corning 4.1. , GLight
Alcatel, . 4.9.
4.1. Corning

62/5/125 CPC6
50/125 CPC6
InfiniCor-300
InfiniCor-600
InfiniCor CL-1000
InfiniCor CL-2000

62.5
50
62.5
50
62.5
50

NA
0.275
0.20
0.275
0.20
0.275
0.20

850/1300
, /
3/0.7
2.5/0.8
3/0.7
2.5/0.8
3/0.7
2.5/0.8

,
200/400
400/1000

. ()
Gigabit Ethernet

300
600
1000
2000

, 50/125 , , 62.5/125, , , 50/125


. ,
84

. ,
50/125 , ,
TIA/EIA-568-A .

GLight 62.5

f ( x)
1300
850

200

400

600

800 1000 1200

. 4.9. ( ) 1 GLight 62.5


(Alcatel).
.
. 850
1300 , .
4.2. , (): ISO/IEC 11801 TIA/EIA 568.
, Fast Ethernet, FDDI
ATM, . , 2000 .
, Gigabit Ethernet, - 500 .
4.2. .

, /

,
,
= 850
= 1300
= 850
= 1300
62.5
3.5
1.5
200
500
50
3.5
1.5
500
500
Gigabit Ethernet, (ISO) : 1, 2 3.
.
( ) ISO/IEC 11801,
1, 2 3 850 1300 3.5 1.5 /.
4.3.
4.3. .

VCSEL,
,
,

= 850
= 1300
= 850
1
50 62.5
200
500
/
2
50
500
500
/
3
50
1500
500
2000

6
5
4

85

35

30
25

. 4.10. .
II.
6.
: ( ) ( (CVD - Chemical Vapor
Deposition)). , (1000100 /). .
(CVD ), (~ 0.2 / = 1550 ).
: . ,
. ,
. , , .
, ( 250 ), ( 50
). 125 ,
2.2 /3. , 250
3125 3 6875 .
( ). , 7 . 1
6.3 (. 4.11). : ( VAD
Vapor Axial Deposition) 80 ( 2 , 15 ), ,
, 100 ,
. 1.2 / , , 250 3.5 .
)

100
6.3

15
200

. 4.11. .
) 7 , 250 3.5 .
) ( VAD) 80 . 3
000 .
, , ,
86

t = / v = (D2/4) L /v,

(4.1)

= (D2/4) L - (D , L , =
2.2 /3 ), v .
CVD
0.5 / 6 /. 7 , ( ~ 6 /)
(~ 20 ). ,
.
. CVD
, () -
.
CVD :
(IVD Inside Vapor Deposition),
MCVD - Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition
.
(OVD Outside Vapor Deposition).
(VAD Vapor Axial Deposition).
, VD ,
.
, .
7. CVD , Corning
CVD Corning. 1960- ( 20 /). , 20
/ - .
.
CVD , Corning, . , SiO2 GeO2, .
(Sil4) (Gel4) O2
(.4.12).

SiCl4 + GeCl4 + O2

. 4.12. , Corning .
,
, .
.
(. 4.13).

87
2000

. 4.13. .
, , , :
.
CVD ,
(58 ). , (
) . , ( ) . -
. .
, (, , , ), (0.6-1.6 ). , , .
.
SM .
, . SM ( , ).
, Corning ( 1973 .), , , ,
. (
), .
10 . 510 . , 5 , . ,
,
.
(IVD) :
(~ 1 ) (0.1..0.5 /)
.
.
, ,
( = 1.37 ).
8. (OVD ).
1977 . Corning (OVD), (IVD). , 510
15 (. 4.14).
, .
.

. , OVD , , , ,
OVD .

88

. 4.14 (OVD).
( , ).
(, ), ( 1500)
(. 4.15). , ,
.

. 4.15. OVD
, , ( = 1.37
).
.
OVD - (
PVD Plasma Outside Deposition) -
. ,
. , -
,
, ,
. , , .
(~

2000 ), () . .
,
.
. - , , ,
.
- -
.
, .
() ( ( 2))
.
(, PMD
) .
OVD , IVD
Corning:
89

(34 /) .
, , OVD
.
() .
9. (VAD )

(Sumitomo, Hitachi, Fujikura, Furukawa)


() (VAD)
. , , . , (. 4.16).

SiO2, GeO2

SiCl4,
O2, H2
SiCl4, GeCl4
O 2, H 2

. 4.16. VAD.

SiO2, GeO2

- - , OVD. ( 46
/).
, . , ,
(. 4.17). 1600 ,
.

SiO2

SiO2

. 4.17. VAD .
VAD ,
. 25 % , ,
VAD. 90

,
.
10. (MCVD )
Bell Laboratory ( 1972 .) , .
Bell Laboratory, Corning, CVD, , MCVD. MCVD ( 1974 .).
MCVD (. 4.18), ,
,
. , , Corning,
, , .

O2
SiCl4

. 4.18. (MCVD).

. (: < 2 %, < 1 %,
< 1 /). ,
. (60 /) 20 / -
, 1500 - 1700 , SiO2 GeO2.
.
.
, ,
, .. . SiO2 GeO2 ..
( ).
, 110 .
19002100 ( ),
. . ,
. 2 1
30 .
, .
MCVD VAD OVD
051 /. , CVD . : ( )
27 ,
0.5 /, .
, ,
.
, ,
.
CVD (
91

, , ). , , .
SM (D = 8..9 ), (D.
~ 30 ) (D = 125 ).
(D = 50/62.5 )
D (. 4.19).
Do = 125

Do = 125

D, = 70

D, = 30

125/50

S 125/50

D./D = 0.56

D./D = 0.24
D = 50

D = 89

. 4.19. MM SM .
, MCVD ,
, , , SM
, ( ) .
( ) , ,
. :
2025 , 1620 , 1 .
(125/50),
1 = 25 2 = 20 . (. 4.20).

(/4) (d2 d.2) = (/4) (12 22)

(4.2)

,
.
d. / d = D. / Do = 0.56.

(4.3)

d L, ,
d. , :
L = (d/Do)2 L
t = (/4) d.2 L /v.

(4.4)
(4.5)

: d = 18 d. = 10 . ,
( L = 1 ) L = 21 ,
t = 6 ( v = 0.5 /). , ,
.
do = 18

1 = 25

d, = 10
,

2 = 20

d = 7
92

. 4.20. MM (50/125).
SM . ,
: d. / d
= D. / Do = 0.24. , (1 = 25 2 = 20
), SM (d) 16.4 ,
17 SM ( L = 1 ). (d. = 0.24 d = 3.9
) (. 4.21). SM (1 v. = 0.5 /).
, ,
. 1 = 20 2 = 16 SM 10 , 6 ( L = 1 ).
1 = 25

do = 16.4
d, = 3.9

d = 1.1

2 = 20

. 4.21. SM .
. . 4.21, SM
. , (~ 1 ),
, , . ,
,
() . , , ,

.

() .
, OVD (.
4.22).

()

. 4.22. .
MCVD .
, , , MCVD
.
11. (PCVD ).
93

. , , (PCVD - Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition).


, , .
PCVD ,
, , NZDS . PCVD
YOFC (Yangtze Optical Fiber and Cable Company Ltd, ) . . 4.23.
PCVD

. 4.23. PCVD.
PCVD . PCVD
(~ 10 10-3 .).
SiCl4, GeCl4, C2F6 () O2, (. 4.24). 2.5 .
(SiCl4), , (Si2). (GeCl4) (Ge2), . , .
SiCl4 + GeCl4 + C2F6 + O2.

. 4.24. , .
(~ 10000 C)
(~ 1200 ), . ,
. 1...2 /, .. 3 , MCVD .
, .
10 / ( MCVD 20 /) , , .
, .
. , 94

( NZDS ), .
v t:
N = t v / L.

(4.6)

MCVD ( )
1 . , v = 20
/ L = 1 , 12 .
. , .
,
. PCVD , . , , 10 /. 5
3000 , .
. .4.25.

. 4.25. .
.
, ,
(~ 2200 ). .
( - ) , - . ,
, . ,
. ,
.
- . - , , , . Ge2 Si2, . .
.
.
. 95

. . , , CVD (. 4.26).

PCVD



125

. 4.26. .
RIT (rod in tube) . 4.27.
, , OVD (Outer Vapor Deposition) . .
PCVD, OVD .

RIT

. 4.27. RIT .

RIT .
RIT .
, .
, , ..
.
. - , . , ,
. ,
.
.

.
: -
. -
, .
, , , , SiO2 . 96

, , , .

, 2100 . ,
(125 ).
, .
, (. 4.28).
.
. , .
.
He-Ne .

. 4.28. YOFC.
4.4. PCVD .

(SM)
c (matched cladding)
50/125 (MM)
62.5/125 (MM)
(DS)
(NZDS)
(DC)

ITU-T Rec. G.652


IEC 793-2, B. 1.1
IEC 793-2, A1a
IEC 793-2, A1b
ITU-T Rec. G.653
ITU-T Rec. G.655

97

12. (APVD ).

Alcatel , . APVD (Advanced Plasma


and Vapor Deposition). APVD MCVD , . Alcatel ,
, , . .

f ( x)

0 .0 7

8.7

0 .0 5
0 .0 3
0 .0 1
0 .0 1

80

60

40

20

20

40

60

80

. 4.29. SM , APVD.
. 4.29 SM , APVD
. , (~ 90 %) ,
. ,
( MCVD ) , . ,
,
(. 4.30).

. 4.30. .

.
, - , .

. 10 000 ,
(. 4.31).
70 . 1 70 300 .

98

. 4.31. .
APVD
SM . , SM
10 % , , ,
CVD . 90 % ,
, ,
Alcatel.
. 4.32.
, .
.
19002100 . ,
. .
: ( 1 )
(, ..). ( ). ,
- .







()

. 4.32. .
. , . ,
, . , - .
99

, .
, :
, . , (~ 1.2 /).
Alcatel
, ( ColorLock).
, , , . ,
, .. .
13. .
.
( )
= .

(4.7)

- , - ( = 72 000 /2).
,
(Si O)
18 000 /2 (1/4) .

(4.8)

= = (1/4) , (1), = 25 %. , 25 % D = 125 , :


P = (/4) D2 = (0.012 2) 200 20 .

(4.9)

. (~ 1 )
5...6 ( ~ 7 %).
(, , , , ..).
.
,
. .
-
. , , ,
.
, .
.
(~ 1 ) , , 7 % 5000 /2. .
.
, 500 /2 . . (. 4.33), 1 . (~ 1000 /2). ,
1000 /2 ( = 1.4 %) , .

100

. 4.33. (proof-test) .

.
, .
, , .
, .
, , ( )
.
. S. ..
. . 4.34.

S = So
S = S
=

S =

t
t

. 4.34. S
.
. 2. S .
S , . (,
S ) .
.
.
( ).
,
. 25
.
.
, - .
( )
T() = (/)n

(4.10)

= {[1 - (1/L N) ln(1 - F)](n + 1)/m} t


101

F , L , N , -
, , m , n ( m n ), t .
.
4.35. : L = 100 , N = 1/20 -1, F = 0.001, m = 40, n = 20, t = 1
, = 1 %. , . ,
, ( ) .
, []

25

T( x 20 1)

20
15
10
5
0
0.2

0.23

0.27

0.3

0.33

0.37

0.4

,
(/)
x

. 4.35.

n (4). Rec. G 652. n 20 , m n . m n .
4.36.

. 4.36. .
m. m (
). (
SM Hitachi) . 6. 0.5 , 20,
20 /. 4.37 5.8
. 5.8 , (3), 7.5 %.
20 / 0.5 7.5 % (37.5 ) 2
.

102

F( x 40)

0.1

[]

10

x
. 4.37. SM Hitachi.



F = 1 - exp[- (/o)m] = 1 - exp[- (P/Po)m]

(4.11)

Po
.

m = 40 = 5.8 4.38.

F( x 40) 0.1

0.01

[]

10

x
. 4.38. . m
= 40 = 5.8 .

m .
, .. :
f(/o) = dF/d(/Po)
f(/ Po) = m (/ Po)m - 1 exp[-(/ Po)m

(4.12)

m . 4.39. , m.

103

f ( x 40)
f ( x 20)

20
15

m = 40

10
m = 20

5
0

x
[]

[]

. 4.39. Po = 5.8 m = 40 20.


m (
) , F
: Log ln[1/(1 F)].
n. , , - (~ 20) (4).
n
. . 4 ( SM Hitachi)
. 4.40. 0.5 , 20, n = 20.3.
10

F1 ( x)

Ln P = 0.047 ln V + const
1

10
100
[/]

1 10

x
. 4.40. SM Hitachi.

,
v:
V/Vo = ( /P,)n + 1

(4.13)

(7) . ,
( ), . , . ,
, ,
. (7)
Ln = [1/(n + 1)] lnv + const

(4.14)

, Ln lnv
1/(n + 1).
. , 40 , . ,
.. .
104

, , Corning .
5 . , . 150 .
, ( ),
. ,
, ( ).
. ( ).
: .
, , . , ,
.
:
( ): - 0.26 , - 0.29 ,
- 0.1.2 .
5.5

Bellcore (0.53 /)
(~ 5 C)
:

.

1. . . .: . 1974. 576 .
2. .-. . .: . 1977. 656 .
3. - . , : . . . . . . . .: , 1982. 270 .
4. ., ., ., . . . .: . 1984. 502 .
5. Agraval G.P. Fiber-Optic Communication Systems. John Wiley, New York, 1992. 541 .
6. - . . . .. . .: . 1992. 416
.
7. . : . . / . ... .: , 1996.
324 .
8. .. , . . . , 1997.
9. .. . , , . . Syrus. Systems,
.: 1999, 672 .
10. Briks T.A., Mogilevtsev D., Knight J.C., Russel P., Dispersion Compensation Using Single-Material
Fibers, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 11, 6, pp. 674-676, 1999.
11. .. - . -, .: 2000. 267 .
12. - : , , . / . . .., .. .: . Connect, 2000. 367 .
13. Tsujikawa K., Tajima K., Ohashi M., Rayleigh Scattering Reduction Method for Silica-Based Optical
Fiber, J. Lightwave. Technol., Vol. 18, 11, pp. 1528-1531, 2000.
14. ., . - . . . . Corning Cable Systems. 2001. 351 .
15. . WDM. / . . . ..
., .. , .. ./ .: EXFO. 2001. 194 .
105

16. Lee J., Song H., Paek U., Seo Y., Design and Fabrication of a Nonzero-Dispersion Fiber with a Maximally Flat Dispersion spectrum, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 13, 4, pp. 317-319, 2001.
17. Mitra P.P., Stark J. B., Nonlinear Limits to the Information Capacity of Optical Fiber Communications, Nature, Vol., 411, 28 June, pp. 1027-1030, 2001.
18. Optical Fiber Telecommunications, Vol. IVA,B, ed. By I.P. Kaminow and Li Tingye, Academic Press,
2002. 876 p., 1022 p.

106