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2011

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ISBN 978-5-7417-0356-4

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....................................... ...................-...................... ..... .....................................11
1. . .......... ............................ 12
1.1. .................................................................... - ......................12
1.1.1. (12). 1.1.2. (13). 1.1.3.
(13). 1.1.4. (14). 1.1.5.
(14). 1.1.6. (14). 1.1.7.
(15). 1.1.8. ,
(16). 1.1.9. (17). 1.1.10.
(17). .

1.2. ......................... 19
1.2.1. (19). 1.2.2. .
(20). 1.2.3. (23).

1.3. ............................... ..................- ................. ........................................27


1.3.1. (27). 1.3.2.
(28). 1.3.3.
(29). 1.3.4. (29). 1.3.5.
(30). 1.3.6.
(31). 1.3.7.
(31). 1.3.8. (32). 1.3.9.
(33). 1.3.10. (33).
1.3.11. (34). 1.3.12.
(34). 1.3.13.
(36).

1.4. ............................................................ 37
1.4.1 (37). 1.4.2.
(37). 1.4.3. (38).
1.4.4. (39). 1.4.5. (40). 1:4.6.
(41).

1.5. .......................... ............... ............... 42


1.5.1. (42). 1.5.2. (43). 1.5.3.
(46). 1.5.4.
(46). 1.5.5. (47).
1.5.6. (48). 1.5.7.
(51). 1.5.8.
(51). 1.5.9.
(53).

1.6. ................ ............................ 54


1.7. ............. ............. .............................................. ......55
1.7.1. (55). 1.7.2.
(55). 1.7.3. (56). 1.7.4.
(56). 1.7.5.
(57). 1.7.6. (58).

1.8. ............................ ..........................................59


1.8.1. (59). 1.8.2. (60). 1.8.3.
(61). 1.8.4.
( ) (63). 1.8.5. (64).-1.8.6.
(64). 1.8.7.
(66).
2. ....... ...............

........

.........

...... ..... ....... 70

2 .1. ............................... .......... ........................................70


2.1.1. (70). 2.1.2.
(72).
2.2. .......... ................................
.................... 73
2.2.1. (73). 2.2.2. ( ) (74).
2.2.3. (75). 2.2.4. (76).

2 3 . .....

............

................................. 77

2.4. ........................... ............... ......................79


3. ................ .................. .......................83
3.1. .;................... .......................... .................. 83
3.1.1. (83). 3.1.2. (83) 3.1.3. (37).
3.1.4. (84).
3.2. - .............................. ........... ................84
3.2.1. - (84). 3.2.2.
(85). 3.2.3.
(86). 3.2.4. (87). 3.2.5.
(88). 3.2.6.
(90).

3.3.
......... ........................,............................................. ....................................... 9 0
3.3.1. (90). 3.3.2.
(92). ... (92). 3.3.4.
(93). 3.3.5.
(94).

3.4. ....................................................................... ..................96


3.4-1- (96). 3.4.2. ,
(96). 3.4.3.
(98). 3,4.4. ,
(98), 3.4.5.
(99). 3.4.6. (100). 3.4-7.
(101). 3.4.8.
(101).

4. .................................................. 10 4
4.1. .............................. .......................................... 104
4.1.1. (104). 4.1.2.
(104). 4.1.3. (105). 4.1.4.
(105). 4.1.5.

. (117). 4.1.6.
(8).
.
. ;
;

4.2. .......................................................................... ..................9


4.2.1. (109). 4.2.2.
, , (110). 4.2.3.
(111). 4.2.4.
(112). 4.2.5. (113).
4.2.6. (114). 4.2.7.
(115).

4.3.

............................. ............ -........ ..... -........ ...............-

4.3.1. (117). 4.3.2.


. (118). 4.3.3.
(120).
.

5.~
122
5.1.
...................................................... ............................. .................... 1?
5.2.
................................................................................................................... 124
5.2.1. (124). 5.2.2. (125). 5.2.3.
(125). 5.2,4. (126).
5.2.5.
(127). 5.2.6. (127). 5.2.6. (127).

6.
.....................
. .............
129
6.1. .......
.............. 129
6.1.1. (129). 6.1.2.
(129).

6.2. :........ ...................130


6.2.1. (130). 6.2.2. (131).
6.2.3. (132).
^

6.3. ..........................................134
7.
...............................................................................................136
7.1. ........ .v.......................... ...........136
7.1.L . (136). 7.1.2.
(136). 7.1.3.
|| (137). 7.1.4.
X (138). 7.1.5. (141).

7.2. ............ ............... 141


7.2.1. q/m (142).
7.2.2. qjm (143).

7.2.3. (144).

73. ........................................................................................... 145


8. . ................147
8.1. ............. ..... ........... .................................................................... 147
8.1.1. (147). 8.1.2.
(148). 8.1.3.
(148). 8.1.4.
(149). 8.1.5. ii? -, (151).
8.1.6. (152).
8.2. ................................................... .......... ...............153
8.2.1. (153). 8.2.2.
(154). 8.2.3. ( ) (155). 8.2.4.
(157). 8.2.5. (158). 8.2.6.
(159).
8.3. ......... 160
8.3.1. (160). 8.3.2.
(162). 8.3.3. (163).
9. ...........................

......165

9.1. .;........ ........................................................................... ...........165


9.1.1. (165). 9.1.2. (167).
9.2. .................................... .................... . ..................................169
9.2.1. (169). 9.2.2. (170).
9.2.3. (172).

9 3 . ........................................................ :............................. 173


9.3.1. (173). 9.3.2. - (175).
9.3.3. (176). 9.3.4.
(176).
9.4. ........................................ ............. 178
9.4.1. (178). 9.4.2.
(179). 9.4.3. (180). 9.4.4.
(181). 9.4.5.
(181). 9.4.6. (182).
10. ...... ... ;!..........

10.1.

.................... ...... ...............

......

..... .. .. ...184

........ ..............184

10.1.1. (184). 10.1.2.


(185). 10.1.3. (186).
10.2. ................. ................. ........ ...............188
10.2.1. (188). 10.2.2.
(188). 10.2.3.
(189). 10.2.4. (189).
10 .3 . .............. 191
10.3.1. (191). 10.3.2. (194).

1 1 . .................. ..........

198

1 1 .1 . ........................ ..........................................................198
11.1.1. (198). 11.1.2. (201).
11.1.3. (202). 11.1.4.
( ) (203). 11.1.5.
(205).
11.2 . ................................. ......... .........206
11.2.1.
(206). 11.2.2. (207). 11.2.3.
(208). 11.2.4.
(209).
11.3 . .............. .......................................2 16
11.3.1. (209). 11.3.2.
(210). 11.3.3. (211).
12.4. .......................................... .................... .......... 2 12
12. .........................2 15
12 .1. ...................... ........................ ......... ........................... ............ 2 15
12.2. ................................. ............................2 1 6
12.2.1. (216). 12.2.2.
(174).
12.3. () .................................. ......... .................220
12.3.1. (220). 12.3.2.
(222). 12.3.3. (223). 12.3.4.
(224). 12.3.5.
(225).
13. .......227
13 .1. ........... ......2 2 7
13.1.1. (227)., 13.1.2. .
(228). 13.1.3. (231).
13.1.4:
(232). 13.1.5. (233). 13.1.6. (234). 13.1.7.
(235). 13.1.8. (236).

13.2. ............ ............................. 237


13.2.1.

(237).
13.2.2.
(238).
13.2.3. 72?- (239). 13.2.4. (240). 13.2.5.
- (-) (241). 13.2.6. - (242).
13.2.7. (431).
13.3. .......... ...247
13.4. ............................ ................................ 249
13.5.
.......................................................................................252

13.5.1. (252). 13.5.2.


(254). 13.5.3. (255). 13.5.4.
(259). 13.5.5:
(259). 13.5.6. (262).
13.5.7. ,
(262). 13.5.8.
(263).
13.6. .................... ....................................... ................. 265
13.6.1. (265). 13.6.2.
(267). 13.6.3. (270). 13.6.4.
(272).
14 .

...... .................... ...............

...................274

............ 274
14 .1. ...........................................
14.1.1. (274). 14.1.2. (274). 14.1.3.
(277). 14.1.4. (279).
14.2. ............................................................280
14.2.1.
(280). 14.2.2. (281).
14.3.
.............. ....................... ................ .............................. ..........................284
15 . - ..................... .................................. ............

.287

15 .1. ................................... ..................... .

.287

15.2.

.288

15.3. -

.290

16.

. .................... . ......;......... ...... 292

16 .1. . .............................. ................. ......... ......... 292


16.1.1. (292). 16.1.2. (292). 16.1.3. (293). 16.1.4. (294). 16.1.5.
(295). 16.1.6.
(297).

16.2. ............................. ......... 297


16.2.1. (297). 16.2.2.
(299).

16.3. .......... ............. ............................ ........... 302


16.3.1. (302). 16.3.2.
(303). 16.3.3. - (305). 16.3.4.
z- (305). 16.3.5. z- (307).

17.
............ 11....... :......................... ............................. ...... ............................

309

17.1. ............................309
17.1.1. (309). 17.1.2.
(309). 17.1.3. (311). 17.1.4, -.

(311). 17.1.5. (312). 17.1.6.


(315). 17.1.7 (316).
17.1.8. (316). 17.1.9.
(318). 17.1.10. (319).

17.2.

.....,...:.................. ,.......:...-....- .......~........ ................ 319

17.2.1. (319). 17.2.1.


(323).
- :

17.3. . .............. ...........................325


17.3.1. (325). 17.3.2. .
(326). 17.3.3. (328). 17.3.4.
(330). 17.3.5. (332).
17.3.6. (333); 17.3.7. .(335).

17.4. ........................................
17.4.1.

17.4.4.
17.4.6.
17.4.8.

....................................336

. (336). 17.4.2.
(337). 17.4.3. (338).
(340). 17.4.5. (341).
(342). 17.4.7. iS- (343).
(345).

17.5.
( )........................................................... 346
17.5.1.
(346). 17.5.2. (347).

17.6. .................................................................... 349


17.6.1. (350). 17.6.2.
(351). 17.6.3. (353).

17.7. ..............................................................................355
17.7.1. (355). 17.7.2.
(356). 17.7.3. (357). 17.7.4.
- (358). 17.7.5.
- (359). 17.7.6.
(360). 17.7.7. (360).

17.8. .................................................................... 362


17.9. ................ ........................................................................ ....... 368
17.9.1. (368). 17.9.2. -- (369).
17.9.3. (371). 17.9.4.
(373). 17.9.5.
(373).

18. ...................................................376
18.1. .................................................................................................. 376
18.1.1. (376). 18.1.2. (377). 18.1.3.
(379).

18.2. ............................................. 382


18.2.1. (382). 18.2.2. (383). 18.2.3.
(385).

18.3. ................ ....................... 387


18.3.1. (387). 18.3.2. (392).
18.3.3. (394).

1.
...........................397
........................................................................................
.). .(397). . 1.2.
(400). . 1.3.
(401). . 1.4. (405),
2.
. ..........
................

..........407

3.
................ ....... ......................................................................................................414
.3.1. (414) .3.2.
(416). .3.3.
(417).
4. ...,.................

..........................419

. . . . . . . .......................................... .......................................... .......................420

10


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1.1.
1.1.1.

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12

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1.1.2.
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, . 1785 ., , ,
q Q,

, .

- .

- ( Q) q (. 1.1.1).
?
.
. 1.1.1. F,

q Q

1.1.3.
,
q, F,
, . ,
F/q , .

, :

13

F
E = , F = 9E.
4


Q
F

1.1.4.
,

(. 1. 1.2).

. 1.1.2. .

1.1.5.
, q ,
,
:
. . . . . .

!=1

)- = # ,
,
:
=
2=1

1.1.6.


=
.
i
- - .

14

.
:
= 0, i

. ,
,
- 0 . ,
- /, / =- 0,
(

' = ? ' = 5 - ) = - * =i
/
V i
() ,
,
(. 1.1.3).
. 1.1.3. 1 = q l

-q

1+q

,
, .
= ql.
,
( ) I
: / : .

, :
= (+ ? + (-)- = (*+- - ) = ,
1 = +-_ ,
,
. .
,
( ).
1.1.7.
(. 1.1.4)
/ :
=_ ++ = H )r- +

15

= 1 + +.

0 = q r j 3, r+ =. / +/_
l = (!x, l y , lz),

dz

. 1.1.4.

= . ,

:
. . 3 . 9 5
V = 1
I + k .
ay
dz
,
~ 1/3 .

, . 1.1.5.
. 1.1.5.

1.1.8. ,

,
. 1.1.6.
, ,
, F+ = F = gE,

16

M = lx F +=pxE, M = -p E sin .
,
. .
. 1.1.6.
(
,
)

1.1.9.
'
dV.
dq,
dq/dV.
.
dS, dq.

a = dq jd S .
,
(,
):
T = d q jd l.

1.1.10.
R,
Q.
(J Q ! R2
d (. 1.1.7).

dS = p d p -d (p , . 1.1.7.
crdS
.
dq = a d S dE -
dp,
, , ,
( p ^ p + d ),

17

w
"
\ |
-
( )"
g j

dE = dEr = a ' 27!? d p c o s 9.


,

, ,
p=R

\
pdp
1=
2
3/2
4r2
=

= J dE=2mjdj

(^ 2
)

d
:
= 2 d - >(),
_ 2

,
= =
d R.
d

,
.

. 1.1.7.

, ( < 0 )
, .
= 2 ,
,

. ,
, R -^ , ,
. ,
(i? >po) d/R 0. -

18

,
, = 2 ,
.

1.2.

1.2.1.
. ,

.
dS
dS = ndS, dS ,
(. 1.2 . 1).
dS
. 1.2.1.
dS


; - cos

dS
(. 1.2 . 1)
? = EdS cos - EJS.
= <$>.
.


= 4jzq <^E<fS = 4 ?<7, q = jp d V ,
(1-2-1)
. S
-,.
q , V,
S, .

divE - .
( 1.2 .2)
,

divE = - ^ +^ + ^ L = V-E.

dz

19

:
. .8

V
= 1 + 1 + .

dz
1.2.2.
1) q
.
: dS || (
dS ).
= q r/ r3,

d<S>= ^dS = \ d S :

,
:
= ArS = \ 4 2 = 47iq.
1

2)
,
dO = EdS = \ r d S = 4 - ^ ,

dS^ dS - (. 1.2.2).
dQ. , ,
(> = dS cos = 2dQ. , ,
dO = \ d S = \ r 2dQ. = qdQ,, = f q d fl = 47tq.

4
3)
,
, d fi.

(. 1.2.3).
</= d 0 1 +?2.

20

dS

. 1.2.2.

. 1.2.3.

, , :
JSj =

t/iVj

cl ,

E JS 2 -i~dS2 hqdl.
2

, c/Si dS2
-, q (.
1.2.3). , ,
, dO = d l +<^2 = 0.
,
.
4)
,

(.
1.2.4). .

, ,
, d = d l + d 2 +di .
, 1, 2 3
21

: (1= <12 = +(1^.


,
|c/Sj = 2d fl, = q j 2 ,
E(/S 2 . , ,
,


= <>! + ?2 +3 = <1 =>. = | qdCl = Artq.
An

. 1.2.4.


5)
{q,}.
, ,
= 1 *

i
i ri
,- - , -
. .
,
:
= <j)ErfS = ] [ $ E (.rfS = <>
S.

i - S.

<

:.

. ------- ...

:
, . ,
, . ,
,
. - = Ajrqi.
=

= 4 ^// = 4 -

i
i

, AV,
F:

22

='4 S L
AV
AV'
AV >0, S
, ,
/

lira

-0

S(AV)

<j) EdS - d iv E ,
V, W )
.

- , AV.
AV) = ,

divE = 4 .
1.2.3.
1)
dS

, ,

= |c/S21= dS (. 1.2.5).
fa st

| ,

. 1.2.5.

,
,
.

= Ej dSx+E2d$2 = 2EdS.
(.. ,
dq/dS) .

2EdS = AnadS => = 2.
(1.2.3)

23

2)

. ,
(. 1.2 .6).
,
dl (. 1.2.6 ). ,
dq rd l. ,
dS = I n r d l,

= 2nrdlE{r) = Anrdl => - -

(1-2.4)

( ).
. 1.2.6. - -

;
- - ,
'

>

3)
R,
{) (. 1.2.7).
. 1.2.7. ,

,
-: || . 1 . S
(. 1.2.7). :
()-4 2 -A n q (r) => ( )= ^ ~ ,

24

(1.2.5)

q (r) = J { )4 2d r ,

. .
= const ( {'1.2.5' :

(Q ).
4)
,
. ,
( . 1.2.8). .

. 1.2.8.

! - .
,

(-/?), .

,
(/?). ,
,
2 = (-)* 2 >

25

2 -
,

4. .
4 .
. 4.'
= ,+2 = /nj+ (~/>)2 = p (rj-r2) = /.
b = rj - 2 .
, (
> 0 ) (. 1.2 .8).
.
R
< (. 1.2.9 ).

.

. 1.2.9. -
<. - 0+ ,
; -

, ,
. , + _ -

(. 1.2.9 ). ,
,
4
4
= ~ , ~ - ( )_.
( - ) .

= ++_ ={+- r _ ) ~ - pS\.


(1-2-7)

26

r+r_ (. 1.2.9 ).

.
.
, .
ABC (. 1.2.10).
R, R - ,
, . R2 = (i? -x )2 + 2 (R -x )S lco s +(SI)2. :
SI ,
(SI)2 , x - S l c o s .
,
<r-f 7ocos 0 , <0 -- pS l.
(1.2.8)

. 1.2.10.

,
:
'
. 3()-2 _ '
4
,
=------- ------- , = ><, Q = - jc p R ,


, .
( .

1.3.
1.3.1.

Q, ..
- . q 1
2 (. 1.3.1)
27

(2)

( 2)'

J ?E(r)rfr. = qQ J ~ = q Q

'2
(i)
0) r
,
, . ,
.

. 1.3.1.
q ,
Q

,

E = E f, . =^ _ ( - 4),
; , - ,
. ,
. ,
,
q : 1 2
:
. (2> .
= | </E(r)fi?r = U\ - U 2- ,
(1)
1.3.2.

q\cp2 1 2
1
2 :
(2)

J E(r)rfr =

-q>2-

(1.3.1)

(l)

.
- 0 , .. (() = 0.

28

.
, (() = 0.
Q <p(r)- Q/r.

(() , , .
1.3.3.
(1.3.1) >r + d r

<p(r)-q>(r + d r) = -d<p = E(r)dr.


Eiir = Exdx + Ey d y + Ezdz,
v

d<p

d(p

d(p

* dy

0y dz

'

,'

Ex = - , E
Ez , E = -g ra d p .
Ox
dy
dz
,
:
= -V <.
.
0 = const. ,
dx

0z


< = - { + + 2 ) =

, <= 0
= 0 .
1.3.4.

= -g rad ^5, divE = 4^o,


:
divgrad^ = -4^o <-- -.
()

(1.3.2)
'

(1.3.3)

= div
1 2 + d1 + 2

grad, = 2
V =
1 dz2 .
, ( = 0 ),

29

= 0.

(1.3.4)

1.3.5.

1. D ,
, ,
-0,
:

=0

('5)

.
. , .. , D < 0.
<= 0, , - D .
, .
< _ _ <__ q
dz

dz
,
2 2
= \
+ < 0 .

1 dz2
( = 0 (1.3.5),
D.
.
2.
= -4 , ,
I
\
-3 -6)
. = )
.
, 1, D ,
, / ( ) .
. , (1.3.6) ,
, : ^ ( ) ^>2()>
:
[ ^ = -4, 2 = - 4 ,
(13 7)
U = )

I ^ L r = / ( )-

30

/{) = (]{) (2(). ^ ( )


(f>2() (1.3.7), (//()

$^ = 0,
1 / = 0.
D () = (2(), .
1.3.6.

,
. ,
L

^ E,dr = ^[E xdx + Ey d y + Ezdz^ = Q.


( 1.3 .8)
/:
/.

L,
.
1.3.7.
L(AS)
AS. AS
:
AS = nAS, 2 =1.
L
(. 1.3.2).
. 1.3.2.
AS.
,

L

n AS

, :
(j) /--0.
L ( AS ) \ .

31

E Jr ,
)

, .
rot .
,
rotE = 0.
(1.3.9)

.

^ J 5 l =o ^ - ^

dz

dz

= 0, ^

'

- ^

= 0.

1.3.8.

.
1)

,
(. 1.3.3 ). dSi = dS2 dS, q = <rdS, dS2 = -d S 1,
dSx= ndS,
(j) Ea?S = 4 => EjrfSj +E2^S 2 = 4 ko dS.
s

:
(Ej - 2) = 4,
, ,

If;

| d s2

<&2

. 1.3.3.

2)
,
(. 1.3.3 ),

&= 0 => Ejtflj + 2<2 = /.

(2 =dlj, d\.x=xdl, ( [2) = 0.


:
= 0 .

1.3.9.
(. 1.3.4)
, (-q ) (+#):
(^<() = < \<,.

. 1.3.4.

_ + -
. _ = r++ 1, ,
= + = ql,
(/?):
'

'3 1 0 )

1.3.10.
{<^},
. ,
, . - '-
, - .
,
:

*r)= J> (r) = r S -

(131)

| ,| -
. , rt.

33

M l ^ ( r - r ,-)2 ~ <jr2 -2rr,. r


(1.3.11)
/ ._\
Z *
+- 5 * 0 = ' +5 1-3-12)
I \ *-) i

Q :
= Z?;> P = Z ^ rr
I

Q * , ,
Q. (1.3.12)
. Q = 0 , ,
(. (1.3.10)):
<z>(r) = L, () = -grad () =

- -

(1.3.13)

1.3.11.

. , ,
= -p E sm d .
, ,
.

= j M d6 = (cos - cos 0 ) = U(0O) - U(0).


0 = /2, U(<90) = 0,
U .
(1.3.14)
1.3.12.

(. 1.3.5). , ,
, , .
:
F = (+?)++ (~#)_.

34

+ _ ,
.
. 1.3.5.
,

, + = 1 + _, + = (+), =(_).
F = 9 (E+-E _ ) = ?[E (r_+ l)-E (r_)] = g (iy )E .
(_+1)(_) 1,
|l| ||, - ( - q) -
: _ =,
X
F = ?(1V)E.
(1.3.15)
,
-

F = (pV )E .
(1.3.16)
, F = 0. ,
.
Z : ||OZ.
, .
, F = Fz= pdE jdz .
, , dE/dz > 0 F > 0. ,
.
(1.3.14)
.
(1.3.16),
F - - g r a d U = grad(pE).
(1.3.17)
(1.3.16) (1.3.17) ,

E = -grad<z>.

<
<''
^ +P v + P y ~

dz

F = V(pE) = -V (p V ^ ) = -V

35

F = - (<)+ {Vp)+pz (Vp) = (pV)E.


ox
ay
dz
V
, grad(pE) = (pV)E
= grad^p.
1.3.13.
, ..
.
, ,
.
,
. , ,
.
, ()
, (
).
I,
:
1 - qE.
, p = q l

p ^ - = f iE .

/? .

W2'
/ = .

= q E jl,

_ 12 _ qEl _
, ,
.
:
/ = -^-.

(1.3.18)

36

1.4.
1.4.1.
,
. (),
.
, ,
= 0. ,
, 0,
, .. . ,
, .

1) : = 0 ;
2 ) div ^ , = 0 , -


: = 0. ,
.
1.4.2.
1) 1 , 2 (. 1.4.1).

, , :
EiiS = Anq => EjifSj + E2<iS2 = AncrdS.
s
, dSl dS2 =dS, q = crdS. dS2 = -d S },
c! = ndS, to (Ej - E 2)n = Ana. , 2
, 2 = 0. ,
1=.
2) ,
(. . 1.4.2),

= 0 '=>
+2*2 = 0.

d l2 = dl1, 1 = td l, 2 = 0,

37

,

.
. 1.4.1.
:

dS

. 1.4.2.
:

1.4.3.
:

{?}+{?'} {q} ={qi,q2,-,q}, {q'} ={q{, q^ -> qm}


S (
< = (0),
: I II.
{q} {</'} (. 1.4.3).
{?}

. 1.4.3. ,

, ,

I
{q} ( = <0
. , ( !)
, {q'} {q},
( {q})
S < = <. ,

38

I , , {q'}
, <= <0.
, {q}
S ( = <0,
{q},
{q} S (=(0.
{q }
{q}.
1.4.4.
1)
q
q' = q,
(. 1.4.4).

,
{q, q'} .

. 1.4.4. ,
,

2)
) q>= ( ).
- q\ , b = R2/d (. 1.4.5).
, OBq B qq ,

39

- q' = q ,
d
< 0.

. 1.4.5. ,
,

)
q0,
.
: = R1j d
q =q ( ).

, - q",

R

= - ' = <1+


, . ,
, q0: q" + q' = q0.
<p= q"/R.
1.4.5.
.
1. q
(. 1.4.6). ,
,
, : q + q' = 0.
. S,
. ,
.
(j) EJS = 4( + q') = 0.
40

s
. 1.4.6. q,

(
)
2. ,
.
. , ..
.
, -
,
. ,
,
(. 1.4.7).
(L)
<> 0, = 0. -

. 1.4.7.

/'

,
, .
, -
. ,
, .
1.4.6.

(. 1.4.8).
: Ew = 0. ,

41

,
:
- (,+ ;- 0 .
,

- 0 .

"I

. 1.4.8.


1.2.3,
= <0 cos ,

4
= - ^,

, (. 1.4 .8).
= - 0,
3

= +er0 cos#, 0 = 0.

1.2.3,
+
<51, <0 = pS l. R

=| p r A s i ^ * ^

--R30.

:
= + 3 ) ^

1.5.
1.5.1.

.
42
\

,
(
). , , .
{) ,

,
, .
,
1. ,
. .

( ).
.

AV:
1

(1.5.1)

, .
(
p dqfdV ), ,
( = dq/dS)
( T = dq/dl).
.
1.5.2.
(
) , .
,
, .

.
,
: = const, ,
.
1 .

, .

.
1)

.
, (. . 1.5.1).
S
, / ,
V - SI cos = SI.

(. 1.5.1),
= (crS)l, 1 , S
.
= /,

(.. S):
. = ^ - = ls
S
S\ SI j
, = .

==.
<

(1,5.2)

. 1.5.1.

2)

.
.
.
dS dq = crd S ,
,
(dq)ax =- dq = - crdS .

/ - - - (j) PdS | PJS.
(1.5.3)
s s
s

- ,
/:, --\A\vVdV.

44

Pn0ud v >0

=J

(1.5.4)
= -d ivP .
, = const,
-

,
. ,
,
{, , z) dx, dy, dz
(. 1.5.2). , = . ,
x +dx
() = ( + z)dydz = Px(x + dx, , z)dydz,

(dqBK) = - ( , , z)dydz = (, , z)dydz
( = ~,
, () = ).
--------

dz\
y

P x(x+dx)

P&)

. --- ,
-- -------,

L I Z " s dx

...

. 1.5.2.

,
(dq)x =(dqBK)x - ( d q BbJX)x =[Px( x , y , z ) - P x(x + dx, y ,z )] d y d z =

- dxdydz.

,
. ,

dqmm = {dq)x + ( dq )y + ( dq)z = -

45

8x

oPv

dy

dz

dxdydz.

dV = dxdydz,
:
Pnoa=dqaaa-ldV = - ^ v T .
1.5.3.


( )
, (
) :
div = ( + ),
(1.5.5)
, . = -d iv P ,
divE = 4 ( - divP).

D = + 4".
(1.5.6)

divD = 4 .
(1.5.7)
(1.5.6) D
.
(1.5.7)
.
.
,
^ = 4 (? + 4); ?=^PdS.
(1.5.8)
s '
' s ' ' ' '
(1.5.6),
j>DdS = 4nq,
(1.5.9)
s
q , ,
S.
,
. D.

46

1.5.4.


.
= <.
(1.5.10)
.
(1.5.6)
D = (1 + 4) = .
(1.5.11)

= 1+ 4
(1.5.12)
.
> 0, s > 1.
= const, D = :
divE = 4.

(1.5.13)

, , ,

- .
(1.5.14)
sr
11 s >1, ,
- , ,
. ,
.
1.5.
5.
1)
,
(. 1.5.3),
(j)D<iS = 4q => Dj^Sj + D2dS 2 = AmjdS.
s


dSl = dS2 = dS, q = a d S . dS{ = - d S 2 = ndS,
(I), - 1 )2) = 4 .
1\ -= 4 -

( 1-5 . 15 )

2) ,
(. 1.5.4),

47

d l2 = d l1, ( = r d l, ( 2) = 0.

- '2
^

0.

(1.5.16)

. 1.5.3.


' dS2

. 1.5.4. ,

(2
1.5.6.
,
.
,
,
. ,
,
.
.
, , :
,
..
1.5.7.

,
(. 1.5.5).
.
.
dV\. dp = dVx.
d<p = Rdp/R3.
. 1.5.5 -

R = r - r ls ] -
. , ,
<:

-.

:r _ r il

. 1.5.5. ,
.


,

Ei
,
= 1.
-

. ,

-.

3
' , ,> 3 -

(1.5.17)

= ^4"3/| .
= -grad#>
: _ ^ |
3( ) "~
(1.5.18)

..........
3

, ,
, .
D,

D = > ,
&
8
(1.5.19)
= +4-= < .

49

,
, 1.2.3.
.

<

(. 1.5.6 ). .
+ _ -
(. 1.5.6
). ,
,
4
4
=
_ = -- _ .
(- ) .

= ++_= j7 r p (r +- r _ ) .
. 1.5.6 , +-_ = - S I .
= 8\,
4
= -----.
3

0+__ _____ jb

. 1.5.6.
. 0 _ 0 +
; -

50

3 (p r)r-p r2

QS\, Q = ~Kpa3,


.
.

(. 1.5.7)
= = P c o s 0 .
.
4

= ------ , ~------ cos ( , 3

,
<0).

1.5.8.



. ,
,
, .
.
. 1.5.7.


0.
.

= 0 :
({
<,(0
.0)
,(0
(1.5.20)
<

51

/
. Dn
.
,
0,
= - 0 :
^Uoo=^o(r ) = - Eor (1.5.21)

. , , .
, ,
0 ,
. ,
,< = - ^ > ()]> = 0 + 3()" ?'2-,

(1.5.22)

pwL=

pwL

= 43 / , .

(1.5.22)
.

divD = 0, rotE = 0,
,
,
. ;
.
(1.5.22) ,
0. ,

.

,
,
:

Et(0 =Et(e), D = D%\


. (1.5.23)
i
.
(1.5.20).
52

. 1.5.8, ,
(1.5.22) (1.5.23),
=

> => | 0 - ^ p j sin 0 =

sin ,

D = Dn ] => ^ j + y i j c o s * ^ cos + &


. ,
(1.5.22) .

. 1.5.8.

, .
,
. ,

= + 4 => ("-1) = 4/.
|< (1.5.22):
(--1 )( 0 - ^ ^ 4 ,

- 3 1

1
^ = 30.
= - ------- -0>
\ +2

+2

, ~\

-5*24)

,
,
=^ - =-0.
(1.5.25)
0 3
s+ 2 0
1.5.9.

,
.
: 1 . .
53

1.2.3,
= 3.
= = , D = +4 = .

= \+ 4.

1 .6 .0
.
1)
,
.
, .

.
.
20 , NH3, 1, S 02.
2) () ,
,
. ,
, .
N2, 02, 4, CCI4.
NaCl,
Na 1.
,
.
, (
).

.
, .
,
.
, .
S i0 2.

, . .
, (
) ,
54

. .
^^ .

,
. >
,



-,
: -
, -
.
-.

() ,
.

1.7.
1.7.1.
q, (.
,

. ,
. , cpjq
.
C = q/(p, q = C<p.
(1-7-1)
.

= q j s a => = qjq> = .
1.7.2.
(. 1.7.1).
(-<?), (+q).

.
( = <+-<_
q. (
)
55

- q / , q = CA<p = C(<p+-<pJ).
. 1.7.1. ,
,
,

+q

1.7.3.
-
(. 1.7-2). ,
, (
)
, .
,
,

= /
( 2/ ). s
, ,
<T= q/S, S .
+9
. 1.7.2.
-


< = tp+ - (_ = [ Edx = Ed = ^ ^ -d =

sS

47td

(1.7.2)

1.7.4.

, ,
, (. 1.7.3).
( ).

56

,
,
.
. 1.7.3.


if2.
(+q), (-<?).
< < r 2
<p(r) = q j s r .

( = <+-<_ =

sRx s R2

=4
-=2 Ri
(

(1.7.3)

, ,
d = R2 - i? x R\,R2,
. ,
R[R2 ~ R2 = 8/4, S
( ). ,
sS /4nd.
1.7.5.

,
(. 1.7.4).
,
. 1.
(+q), (-<?).
, ,
:
<j) D(/S -- 4nq
2 n rl 4nq > D lq / rl.

..

2q

= = ,
srl

(-)

In.
9+ - Jf Edr =
si a
(+)

. _ 1,7.4. .

:
si

=-

(1.7.4)

2 In (/)

2 1 ( / ) '

. ,
, d = b ~ a < s.a ,b , (1.7.4)
. , (b )/ < 1

1+^

,
sa l
sS
2 In (ft/a) 2d A n d

si

S = 2 al
()
.
1.7.6.
()
(), Q 2 -

d , d {, d 2. ,
.
+q \ q
2. :
q q
q
2 = - +^ , T*
d <

1
1
^< = 9\~<=

() :
2;2 1
1
CjC2
=1( _1_ J __2^ Cj + 2
-i 4- d
q .,2 d
, , ,
R\ R2,
2 ^ 2 1
Cj i?x, 2 R2, =
1i?l + i ?2 fi?
^ 1+^2

1.8.
1.8.1.
q\ q2 12,
12 =
,

^12 = \!\ ..
{qx, q2, qn},

U .. '^Jj4k_ _ 1 ^
, ik 2 i,
i<k
ik

. , {ql , q2, <h)
:
4\4i \
'12

'13

59

'23

,
.
:
fflg2
*?1?
3 2
9

\2

2\

13

31

23

32

(1/2) .
- ,
, -,


(1.8.1)

( , ..

{ ) ,
(), (1.8.1)

( 1.8.2)
V .

1.8.2.
,
,
.

1) ,
R Q,
.

.
. q,
dq dA = dZJ = (pdq,
( = q/R . ,

60

(1-83)
(1.8.2),
= 0, = Q j AnR2, <p= QjR\

2) ,

dq
r + r + d r :
dTJ = (pdq =

dq.
r
q (r) , .
,
4
9
q(r) = , dq = 4 d r - .

"= ]
dq = f
Jn r

3
155R
r=0
r=0
,
4 V
"" "
Q = - x R 3p.
1.8.3.
(. 1.8.1).
S, d. ~

. 1.8.1.

dq
dU = <pdq, < .
<p= q/C { ),
(+ q) (q)

61

dU = 2*L =*.XJ = 2 - ;

2C
q = Ctp ,
:
.U = ^

= -qq> = ^
(1-8.4)
2 2
2 '
.
,

= Ed, q = Cq>,

:
U = Cq>2 = - {E df = ,
2
2 And
8
V = Sd .

(1-8.5)

U sE 2 ED D2
=V
8
8
87is
D = ^,
:
u = e ? = ED=D1
(186)
8
8
8
D sTL, .
, , .
, dU = (pSq.
, ( = Ed.
:
S
SD = ^ - 8 q , d q = SD.
S

:
SU

<p8 q (E d )^ -S D = F,

V Sd .

62

,
SD

(1.8.7)

-
D, , .
D.
, D = sE, s = const;
4

: u=E 2 j%7i.
,
( ),
.
, ,
.
,
, .
1.8.4. ( )

, .
.
],I :
SU =~jSp(r)-<p(r)dV.

(1.8.8)

8 .

&>= div^D.
4

(1.8.8):
SU = \<p&vSDdV = f [div(^JD) - <>grad^] dV.
(1.8.9)

8 .
.
.
,
,
J div(<p<!>D)dV = { < D)<3?S = ,

63

Sm .
(1.8.9)
: = grad^j. ,
S U = \ ^ ^ -d V ,
( 1.8 . 10)
3
8
5 ,
, .
1.8.5.
,

= 2 /8 .
,
= /2.
, ,
, .
, ,
.

= /?, - .
,
= .

= /2 ,

- ~

- -

,
2 ( + 4-) ED
= . + =----- 1----- =--------------- = -----
8
2
8
8
,
.
1.8.6.
1.8.1 :
2a

i*k

64

- 8-1

, .
,
UE j f dV.
( 1.8 .12)
- ' 8 . ,
, ( 1.8 . 11), ,
. , U = qyq 2 /2 ,
U > 0,
U <0. (1.8.12)
,
.
,
( 1.8 . 11) ( 1.8 . 12)
, .
. q x q2.
q\

q 2
U2 = \ dV.
J
= Ej +2,

U = f dV = +) dV - U 5 + U .
J 8:
J
8 ,
2

tfcofe = + 2 = = ]^ -d V + \ ^ d V ,
J
J

(1.8.13)

Um = \ ^ d V .
(1.8.14)
J 4 (1.8.11),
,
.
, ,
, Uco5c[
, ,
65

.
( 1.8 . 12) ,
, .
1.8.7.

*
,
:
.
= const.

F, .

,
8 = fS x
&,
/ = SAfSx.
.
1) ',
q = const, .. .
:
(SA)m = fS r = -(d F )^ T.
(1.8.15)
.
:
F= -^~ , (dF ) r =
1 = ^ r S C = - (p2 SC.
2
JgT 2 U J
2 C
2
, (p= qjC . (1.8.15) ,

(1.8.16)

(S A ).m ^ -< p 2S C .

2)
: <= const.
,
.
, (. 1,8.2).

66

F - -= > { d F ) 9 iT = -SC..

(1.8.17)

(1.8.16) ,
'XdF);r = -id F )b .

(1.8.18)

. 1.8.2.

,
.
.
Sq = S(C(p) = cpSC.
5 = tpSq = <2 SC.

(SA)6 aT= (dF )^ r + (S A )^

(SA)m_=(SA)6 a j - ( d F ) PtT = <p2SC - l- (p 2SC = ^<p2SC = (dF )p T .


, : :
(5). = ~(dF)qT = ( d F ) J = \ 9 2 S C \

:^

,
.
1.
(. 1.8.3).
, ,


.
q = const.

< - q/C, E = <p/d
( ).
&

67

()11 = f S x - ~{dF)qT =^<p2SC.

(1.8.19)

. 1.8.3. f'

f
()

d
0

= sS/Anx,
,

1
2
JOX =----
.
2

^ -S x = - 5x

= d ,
SC-

1 sS
/ = - 2
S.
(Ed ) 2
( 1.8.20)
2 d
2d And
,
.

: ( = const,
{8) = fdx = (dF\v J

. 25 .

,
q = const, ( 1.8 .20).
2. ,
(. 1.8.4.)
,
.

,
2

I*

--

=>

.L

"

d 1

. 1.8.4. - - ,
, ;
--
68


, ,
, .

S,
sSo
= ,+2, . =, 2 =
1 2 1 And
2
And
,

5 ,+ -5 ,

S 2 = v S,

5,= (1-- )4\

v = - ,

S^ fA

,
4

And
And
,
, U = q 2 /2C.
( 8 )=~(dF)q T ,
c

:
/ =-

dU

dU d C

8U

q2

---- =

2 2

S ,
1V1
= ------ ( - 1 ) ,

And


f = _ 8 U _ q2 ( -1 )5

5 2 2 AnLd '
: q = CEd.
, S = hL (. 1.8.4
),
J

Sn
L
8n
Stm
8n
Sr!JI = h d
. > 1, / > 0. ,
.

69

2.
2.1.
2.1.1.
(
).
.
. (, ,
) ,
: [J] = /.

( ).
,
.
.
= .
. N .

(2 . 1. 1)


. (2.1.1) .
dS ,
. dt ,
dV = u d td S (. 2.1.1).
dN = n u d td S ,
dq = en u d td S = p u d td S .

5
en u d td S
j =----------- = = .

70

: j = .
:
^/.
(2 . 1.2)
. 2:1.1.
. ,

,
dS
dt

udt

S (.2.1.2),
L. , ,

./=JjrfS.

. 2.1.2. j
S,
Z

(,
),
:

. 2.1.3.

dJ' ---- dl
1t
L

(. 2.1.3),
: ,
, ..
,
i = dJ/dl.

71

2.1.2.
()
S(V). V. dS
j dS,
V (j) jd S .
: s
V Q,
:

1'

S(V)

(
): ,
.
V Q = j dV.
v

-jp d V = <f> jd S = j d i v j d r .
d t y
SQT)
V

. V
+divj = 0.
(2:1.3)
dt

.
, dp/9t = 0,

divj = 0 .

^ j</S = 0 . ,
, ,
S, ,
.

72

2.2.
2.2.1.
1827 ,
/, ,
, U
:
./ -U /R .
: (
) .
1)
, ()

:
--,
(2.2.1)
. = l/
.

: ^ = FCTOp/e,

; j = (+).

2) . ,

(. 2 .2 . 1).
J
+
. 2.2.1. ,
I

"

S .

J = j S r j = b{E + Eatop),

+ ' ~ = --- -

: AS

1 4, ,
:

(4>

J,

(4)

(1)

(1)


- J

(2 .2 .2)

(1) ^

.
. S
, R = l/AS = p J / S .
(4 )

, | Edl <f\ .
(1)
() :
(4 )

J Emn>d !- .

(2.2.3)

(1)

:
> 0 - +,
< 0 + .

:
</\-+ = .
(2.2.4)
, .. 1 4 ,

= JR.
(2.2.5)
2.2.2. ( )
1900 ,
.
.
.
.
= /.
,
v = a t = [eE jm )t.
,
. ,
74

eVj
U

V --------- .

:
2

= .

, ,
:
j = =

2
2

(2 .2 .6)

2.2.3.
1) , (
), :

:
.
2)
i


, .. ,
( ).
,

....

. 2.2.2. -2-3-1,

75

,
. 2.2.2.
. 2.2.2. 12,23, 31:
(P2~<
P i+J 2^2 &21
< \ + J 3R3 = 3 .
,
2^2
~
^2 ^3*
.
, .
2.2.4.
v
: F = .
()
v ^ ,
() :
y = u + v ca, ( ) = 0.
dt \ d t ,
dA = E\dt = F(u + v cs)dt.
{ ) = 0 v CJI.
,

w = nFu = jE .
(2.2.7)
: j = = .
.


() . ,
j = :
w = j 2 / = 2. .
,
.. - ,

76

.
S, I, ./,
/ ==.//5, dV Sdl,
W = ( L ( l ? \ s d l = J 2 [ = J 2 R,
j as
.

J AS
W = J 2R -
.
, ,
JR :
W = 2/r = J.
(2.2.8)
= ^ <, ..
, , W = J , ,
.
( ).
, ,

. .

2.3.

(. 2.3.1).
, ,
,
<j>A (. .
:
,,..
..
-
- ,

(2.3.1)

9 ~<

,
If/ q.

11

. 2.3.1.

.
1) +q

-*
.
(2.3.1)
/
4-
-7
6 EdS = q = C(<pA-<pB).
(2.3.2)
J

2) , ,
j = ,
. , ,
J = ^jrfS = A|ErfS.

(2.3.2),
Ajr
(2.3.3)
J = A-----CitpA-q>B).

3)
r

- Pa ~ (

J
(2.3.3) ,

R = ^.
(2.3.4)
4*1
:
~ ,

, ,

78

(2.3.5)
+
(. 1.7.6). (2.3.4)

1
1
1
+
4 ;
, R
.

( S d),
C = sS jA nd.

R = dfX S,

d, S .
=

2.4.
()
( ) ,
V. () ,
,
. .
II J.
,
J ;
V .
,
.
,
. .
, , S
(. 2.4.1). ,
.
, :

79

i Iit

d 2qj
- = Anne,
(2.4.1)
dx2
e < 0 - ,
. ,
, = (),
, (0) = 0 .

. 2.4.1. ,

( j = J / S )
/ = ()(), > 0, j < 0.
(2-4.2)

,
=..
(2.4.3)
dt

2()

- = ()

(2.4.4)

( : (0) = 0 ).
*J2 e(p/m ,

2 (
e^ 2 eq>/m
(2.4,1)
d 2 q>
= - = ==, 2 = Anj . - > 0 .
(2.4.5)
12
4< .
V 2

/.
(2.4.5).
, <(0) = 0.
J

---------

1 J

--------

80

. ,
(>= -ed fp jd x >0,
, V
. = edcpfcbc < 0, '
V, . ,

d(p
^( 0 ) = 0,
= 0 .
(2.4.6)
dx
(2.4.5)
< :
1
<
p Y = -=(' => <'2 = 22^[< => <' = 2<**
\'<
2
( (2.4.6)). ,

4/3
4 -/
, (3
d(p
- = 2 adx => <3/=la x => fp(x) = I ax
9
3
v2
<p(d) V.

a= V3/\ .
3d
] ( 2 = 4||/-/2 > 0 ,

(2.4.7)
4, V
9*/ ^ /
,
(. 2.4.2).
.
=-

=cv3/2,c=- 1

. 2.4.2.

1)
J(V ) ,
.

81

2)
V ,
J >/,
.
,
. ,
, ,
,
(. 2.4.3).
( = 0 2 . 2.4.2)
,
.
.
2.4.3.


( = 0 )
( = d). 1 - - ,

,
2 - -


,
.
. ( > 0)
.
,

.

3.
3.1.
3.1.1.
,
, , .
(
), .
.
.
,
, .
3.1.2.
,
q :
F;i ~ v x B ,


.
, ,
:
F = gr^E+v x b J.

3.1.3.
( ) ,
.
j dV ,
J d l .
,
1) , j dV,
83

rfF=-jxBfi?F,

2) , Jdl,
dF = ,

: ,
, .
.
S.
dl = n dl,
. j = (J/ S ')

jVF = ^ n j ( 5 ^ / ) = J d l .

.
3.1.4.
, dq,
dF V .

dq = pdV \ = j, ,
: dF = j dV.

3.2.

3.2.1. -
- (1820 .)
,
.
-
(. 3.2.1), ,
jdV,
1 , ..
, (1820 .).

84

(3-2.1)

J d l
(3.2.2)

. 3.2.1. () ()

3.2.2.

R
(. 3.2.21.
z

. 3.2.2. - -
; - - ,

- (3.2.2) ,
, -
. ,
, ,
.
- - R. ( )
,
(. 3.2.2),
\dlxr\ = d ! r c o s a = Rdl.

85

z
. dl = dz. ,
R da
R
z = R tg a , dz- ' 2
cos
a
cos a

J Rdz J
R2d a
dB = cos a d a .
cR
c
cos a {R jcos a )
(
(/2 ,/2 )),
:
j
2j
........
- cos a d a =f.-r-.
(3.2.3)
* cR

cR
-/2
3.2.3.

,
J\ J 2 (. 3.2.3).
W85
'////, /

7;
. 3.2.3. ; , d
, J\ J 2 ( ); ,
, ; ,
,
, J\ ,
J 2,

cd
,
2 dl:
86

-(ilxB j, dF =:

, 2 I,
2 -J\J 2
I.
F=
c 2d
, --
(( . 3.2.36).
,
(. 3.2.3).
tW-

3.2.4.
R (. 3.2.4).
z .

. 3.2.4.
,

, , , J
- d& - & . _1_,

J
>[: dl.

z- .
dB* = ^ -~
d lsm a .
cr z
dBz ,

'
2nR
2 .
= J s m a = /sin ,
(3.2.4)
cr
cR

87

, I = 2k R, R = sin .
:
2 nR
2 nR?
(3.2.5)
J= J.
=
3/2

:(i? 2 +z2f
, ( = -/2, z = 0 ) = 2J jc R .
3.2.5.
, ,
,
.
X, R
1 (. 3.2.5). /.
. .
dz

\R

zo

. 3.2.5. . z

( z = z0)

z = 0 z = 1. dz,
ndz . (.
(
(3.2.4))
2 Jn dz
. 3
=-----------sin (.
cR
, (
R (.3.2.5)
z - z 0 = ctg

Rd<p
( . 3.2.5 z0 < ,
dz =
sin2 (p
z > 0 ). ,
, :
2 J n
(3.2.7)
=[ sin q>d(p = ^ -(co s/ ? - cos a ) .
3


0,
2J n

=-

( l- c o s a ) .

, ( = /2 )
= 21/ , , ( ^ ), = 4]/ .
( = z L/2),

()-

Jn

L/2
sjiL -x f+ R 2

L/2 +
7 (L/2 + x f+ R 2

. 3.2.6 ,
L/R = 10 1 . ,
.

. 3.2.6. .
L/R = 10, = A jmJjc ,
B J2

,
- R .
R , -

89

. , R<szL
( = 0 )
'
AnJn

(3.2.8)

3.2.6.
-

j = \ , j dV = ( dV )v = pdVw. q = pdV
dV. ,
dB - >,

= q r j 3 ,
q.
v .


, , ( )
V.

3.3.

3.3.1.
, -.
- , -
, , ].

- , -
.
N
/

90

V .
:
f . \
dV
1
= ~Kri)x v

vir

V ( = - rot(ap),
= const.
jfr )
<() = rot
dVv

|-,|

, , ,
() = rot f ftri) dV,.

() = 1 f jfri) dVx,
4 l r ~ril

(3.3.1)


= rot A.
.
,
< .

:

i F-*i|
, V, - - ,
, .
L,
:
J dxx
() =

1| 1
, divA = 0. ,
2 = - |, (3.3.1)
:

91


div j = 0, div = 0.
3.3.2.
div rot = 0, = rot
:
divB = 0.

S(V)

:
= 0 .
s
, ()
,'
.
. . .
:
rotB = rotrot = grad div - = -,
, div = 0.
:

, rotB = -,
'.

92

.. .
rotB = j .

- S
:
J rot BrfS = J j d S .

s
c s
| jc/S = J
s
, S.
:
JrotBrfS= <,
L(S)

L - , S.
'.
dl = J .
L(S)

( 3.3.4.
(
) ,
-.
J d lx
- dB =

,
(. 3.3.1).
R, :
<6 = J => -2 = J ^ = .
J

cR
. 3.3.1.

.
dB,

Jd\,

93

(|| = 1),
R:
R
%~ R
z.
:

= -2-- .
cR
3.3.5.
(. 3.3.2).
.
,
( ) .
, (. 3.3.2).

: ] = 2.
,
, ,
dR = j + 2,
J tfljxrj ^
J di 2 x r 2
dB j = {

2
, <} = <2 = <, =2 ^ .

J d lx (r i +r2)

3
ij +2 <
, < . ,

.
. 3.3.2. .

'

94

1) ( )
R. ,
> R
, .
,
: J aep =0 (. 3.3.3 ).

4
= / = 0 ,
L

B (r)dh B(co)dh = 0 (
, d\ ). ..
, :
() = 0 r> R .
2) ( )
,
( < R ) (. 3.3.3 ).
.
, J,
i = n J ,
, dh, J nep = n J -dh = i-d h (i
).

. 3.3.3. . -. -
( ).
- - (
)
4

:
4
Ajr
<= J m => B(r)dh-B(<x>)dh = n J-d h .
*

L
5(<>) = 0,

95

,
.

3.4.
3.4.1.

.
m = S ,

S (. 3.4.1).
S m

(3.4.1)

.
3.4.1.

J
,
,
.

3.4.2. ,


. dh,
( 3.4.2). ,
Jd\l J d l2,

,
dF1 , <2 .
< d l 2 1 2 ,
|dFj |=dlxB^ sin , \ 2 |= dl 2 B^ sin a 2.
dlxsinarj = dl 2 sin a 2 = d h ,

|| j \dV21 R dh.

dFl dF2 ,
.

J
^
dM = a dF1 = ,, dh.

,
, ,
:
.,
= J S jc.

. 3.4.2, .
.
d2)
,


, :
" : = +.
,
.
(-),
.
. , ,
,
= .
(3.4.1)
m = JS/c.

97

, m
.

3.4.3.

, ./.
S, m = JS/c. ,
,
. ,
, (
), .
, ,

:
M = -m B sm 9 :
,
,
.

6*
,
<%

= | M (9l )d9 1 = - ^
= m B (cos9 0 -cos# ).

= U( 6 ) U(90)
U - - cos9 - -mB.
(3.4.2)
, (U )
9 = 0, ,
( m T t ).

3.4.4. ,


U = - . , ,
F - - grad <7 = grad(mB).
, ,
, rotB = 0 .
= m rot = m (V ) = V(mB) - (mV)B,

98

V(mB) = (mV)B.
:
F = (mV)B.
(3.4.3)
, ,
z, z
<14 .
F, , =
dz

3.4.5.


m=
(3.4.4)
'
,
2
. , v,
- '- qt.
j(r).
,
(3.4.4). , ,
dV,
v(r). dV dq = pdV.
(3.4.4) dq,
m = f x v(r)p (r)d V = f j(r)dV .
2 J
2 ,

(3.4.5)

j = p v .
. ,
.
, / S (. 3.4.3).
dl
: jdV = Jdl.
' (3.4.5) :
J l
J
< = ^.
(3.4.6)
m
, ,
, ,

99

, . , :
d\ -> dr.
m 'J S
. 3.4.3. ,
,
J
, (3.4.6). (. 3.4.3),
-
dt.
dS =r x ( r + ^r) =rxdr.
2
, (3.4.6)

(3.4.1).

3.4.6.
, q
, .

.
(3.4.4)
:

,
L = 2 > r; x V
, ,
,
m = yL.
(3.4.7)
= q jlm c .

100

3.4.7.
.
^?,
Q.
> .
,
: m ;/L, Q /lM c,
, Q . ,
,
L = 1, I = -M R 2,
5.'' - I . ,
. = -Q MR2 g>= QR2 o> .
2 5
5
, ,
,
m - 1-QR . ?
3
, (2/3)MR 2 >.

3.4.8.

, ,

B(r) = rotA,
(3.4.8)
- ,, ^ , |--|
- - .
L.
L. , rt .
,
-.i| = /(-)2 *<Jr2 - 2 rr,

1.

1 -Z; ^vi(r2+r,
! ):=^
3'S^ Vi(rr^4
~

'

101

(3.4.9)

(3-40>

:
v^ rri) = | [ vi(rri) - r^ rv i)]+ | [v ! (rr!.) +r!-(rv/)]
(3.4.11)
= - (, ) + - (,(,)).
2
2 dl

, ,-,-(,)
,
. (3.4.11)
:


m xr
3 ,

,
1
==rot
3(mr)r - m 2
=---------:-------

(3.4.12)

(3.4.13)

,
. ,

, N viS,
. 3.414.
qm
I,

,
,
. . 3.4.4
.

102

. 3.4.4. ()
()

,
,
.

103

4.
4.1.
4.1.1.
,
. (..
)
. .
,
- (.. ),
:


.
,
, :
.

4.1.2.
Totai
.

( ) (
) .
, ,
, .
.
.

104

4.1.3.
( )
:
I -eim /dV .
(4.1.1)
, I
. , .. 1= const. I ^ const,
.

4.1.4.

,
.
. . 4.1.1
() (). ,
, ,
. ,
.

. 4.1.1. ,
, .
,
;



= VI.
,
S J m

m =
_ ^ .

105

V = LS cos ar = LS, ,
,
L S c o s a I =^ - S .


/cos = .
cL
, . . ,
, im = JmjL ,
V =c^

(4-1-2)


IL -- I cos
.
L
(.. ,
L) (. 4.1.2).

im = c l ^,

d J m = imdl = c l td l = cld l.
, L,
J m =cj> .
(4.1.3)
L


.
. 4.1.2. L

.
,
dl
dl


J m = c j rot MS,
s
106

S , L. ,
, , S,

s
L S
,

\ = crotI.
(4.1.4)

.

4.1.5. .
, , L,

L
, :
L

J ./ ,
L.

(4.1.5)
(4.1.6)

.
(4.1.5)
.
. ,
,
.

107


:
rotB = '+),

(j) (jM).

: j m = rotl,
4rotB = (j + cro tl).
, = -4:1,

--

rotH = j.
(4.1.7)
'

4.1.6.
1)

, (.
. 4.1.3),
= 0 => B ^ S j +B 2 dS 2 = 0 .
s
c/S] = -d S 2 =ndS, (Bj - B 2)n = 0.
Bln =B2n.
(4.1.8)
Wg

. 4.1.3.
.
, .

2)
,
(. 4.1.4),
:

.7

A JT

1 = J =>
....

+ 2(2 = iNdl.

108

N , iN
,
.
,

. 4.1.4. . ,
, :
, N
,
>)
<2 = , d\x = r d l , (Ht - 2) = iN

4 .
(4.1.9)
~ 2
lN ,
N . , (. 4.1.4)
x= N xn .
(H j 2 ) = ^ ,

(H 1 - H 2)(N xn) = ^

iV.


,
[ ( ,H2)]N = iN.

'

N
0 (Hj 2) = ~~i

(4.1.10)

(4.1.9), .

4.2.
4.2.1.


,
109

I - /ell.

: .
= +4\,
.
= /, = 1 + .
//
.
, / = const,
. ju = fi(H ) const.

4.2.2. , ,

.
1) > , > 1, .
2) < 0, / < 1, .
.
1845 .
, , Al, Pt, FeCl2, 0 2,
.
Bi, Sb, Si, 20 , 2, N2 .
1 ^ 0
.
. , , Fe, , Ni.
-
|| ~ 10
7 10 5.

fi ~>1. ,
.

(: ,
).

() ,
.
= /,

A=S.J, ro, it ' i

z
w
, > \ ( )
, < \ (
) .
.
1)
,
.
2)
, ,
1,
.

4.2.3.

. 4.2.1.
, :
Hl sin , = 2 sin 2,
cos = 2 cos 2.
-- jiB.,
,sinar, = # , sin 7,
_
.
=> tg a 2 = tg a ,.
, cosci^ = 2 cosor2
M
, /2 > //,
: \> \.

, . 4.2.2.

. (
) ,
,
(. 4.2.3).
. ,
1 :

.
111

, ,
.

. 4,2.1.
.

.
4.2.2.



/; /I2 > /4

.
4.2.3.

4.2.4.

,
/, (15.

(. 4.2.4). (!)
I.

. ,
, :

" -2.
112

. 4.2.4.

(e),
1
'.(


, , (,) = ().
/i = 1, () = (<1),
(0 =().
<1) = 5 (,)//. :,
(0 = ()
:

- ( - \ ((
(0 =1(0
1"+41 =>1 =
. .
4
4
, (,) =

<1>=(),
-1 ()

4.2.5.
.

. (
) ( ):
div(E +4-) = 0, Dl n = Dln ,
div(H + 41) = 0, 1 = 2,
rotE = 0,
-.i t
rot = 0,
Hlt = H2t , ,
. ,
:
, D <>,
I.
(, : <- , D <- ).
, -

113

. ,
R
4
8
: = , D = + 4 = ,
,
3 ( )- 2
= D = - - ,
/

:
=


,,
47
' 1
: = I, = + 41 = I ,

... 3 (m r)r-m r 2
= =----------------- ,

4
m
^-R I .

4.2.6.

, .
.

I.
( ()) ,
:
B(i)=Bw +AB, = I.
3

>- >
4

- 1 (
4
4


= + ^ (1\
3 4 /
:

114

( _

()
pi + 2

//- 1 (0 _ 3 1 1 - 1
00.
1=
/ + 2

4.2.7.

() .

, , (
) (. 4.2.5 ).

. 4.2.5. () ()
I

.
(. 4.2.5).
,
. /,
S h N , J,
= N ^JS/cy ,

1 NJS 1
!
:----- = Jn
IS

(V = IS - ). 3.2.5,
B = 4 jm J jc .

. = 4:1.

115

; = 4\.
.
Bs - 2 I.

, = 1, , = .
.
,
(. 4.2.5). ,
<^. = 0, ,
L , ,
, < , ..
, ,
, .
.
,
I. ,
: divB = div(H + 41) = 0 ,
div = - div I = 4.
= divl
\ ( ,
*
). z ,
z < 0 .

31
---- = , ,
dz
dz
(0) - Hi (0) = 1
( i
). , I
().

, .
, =1, - = - -\ = 0.

# (0) = , (0) - 1 = -2/, ..
(0) = (0) = 21.
"

116

,
. , (3.2.8)
L R
= ,

R2 ^ -. _!-----2
AT1 = 2 i r 2
-2 => H = D-
L2
L2

1 2L2

Ba = ! .
qm = nR 2 I, H = - 2 q mf l } . -
,
. , qm = 21
,

.
,
(. 4.2.6). ,
.
<j)^ = 0 ,
= 0. - \ 0.

. 4.2.6.
: = 0, 0

4.3.
4.3.1.
,
( . 1 ) .
(),
(. 4.3.1). , ,
.. \.

H f ~ 1:\
117

,

() = (<0 = (0 = B(i)jju .
. 4.3.1.

-

( (

, p i 1
: () (}.
.
, ,
,-


() .

4.3.2. .

1 ,
N , J (. 4.3.2).
,
-JlW S
.'
S
. (S ). ,
:
= const
, ,
. 4.3.2. ,
,
, N
.

S , I ,
.
1)
S l/2 . S ^ 2
( ). ,
118

,
.
2)
/ S 1/2.
,
- BS.

, , . 4.3.2:
4
) = NJ.

Hc l +H3a = NJ.

, 3
. , ,
- 3 ( ,
):
3 = 3 =
( , = 1 ).
, , /. . .,..
:

l +Bc a = N J.

'
: = BCS.

Ij
- +- \ = F ,
MS

S '

F = NJ. F j..

.
I
s

.-* ' Rm ,
.

119

,
().

4.3.3.
,
.
1. ,
, :
1 ,= (
)

S

(. 4.3.3) ,
.
2- ^
1> ,
i

,
.
.
. 4.3.4
.
.

. 4.3.3. ,
. S
,

-,
1 +2 + 3 =0.
, , 1 2,
'
"
1- 2^ 2 ^ . + ^ , 1 3,
120

U
Rmj = ------- z'-ro , , S;
MS,
( )
( z = 1,2,3 ). ( Yi)
, .
. 4.3.4.
,
(^ 2),

1 , 2
3 ( )

3
,
, .

121

5.
5.1.

, ,
(. 5.1.1).
. ,
.
J
. 5.1.1.
.
,

J ( .
5.1.1), :
F = 1,

I . . 5.1.1
J F
dx
dA = Fdx = - B ld x = ~d<S>.~

(5.1.1)

dS = Idx. d<S? = d(B S )


.

12= - ( 2 - 1)

122


(). = +, ,
, .
, ,
,
. ,,
, :
- S - BS.
,
,
(. 5.1.2).

,
, / .
/

. 5.1.2.
,

,
dA=-d<$>,


-. JB</S,
(5.1.2)

,
.
, ,
(
).
,
(),
(u) : u = Uj_ + .
: AF = eux /,
123

J.
.
.

5.2.

5.2.1.
,
(. 5.2.1).
, .
v, :
F = vxB . . 5.2.1,
,
. ,

V 1
= = VXB
q
I ,
1
-1.
=< ,
- ,
( ), -,
-

<"'

__
.

v
,
q v x B /c

. 5.2.1. .
, ;
,

lu = dS/dt, S ,
'

__1^

d t
124

(5.2.1)

= BS .
,
,
,
F =vxBn , ..
. ,
..
= = S.
,

,
. ,
, :
= |.
s

5.2.2.
.
, J VBJl .
,
. , :
,

, .. ,
.
, ,
.
5.2.3.
) , (
), ,
: = - (l/c) (d<b/dt).
) , ,
, .
)
.
, ,
125


.
, ,
,
,
- (1;)().
5.2.4.
R
(. 5.2.2 ).
, (
) :
1 d<t>
(5.2.2)
IR
RC dt '
()
, (,).
, R 0,
1
= , = + = const
(5.2.3)
dt
( ).
'' ''

<1

. 5.2.2.
, (
)

,
. , , ,
, , . ,
.
. 5.2.2.

126

5.2.5.


.
.
,

,
; .

.
5.2.6.
= j BJS,
s
1
= <j)Ed\, ;
-------
dt
L

: cpEiil = J rotE JS . L

:
(5.2.4)
dt

.
rot 0. ,
, .
5.2.6.

(5.2.4).

= rot :

,

. ,
127

E = -grad ip .
dt

: = - grad tp, , <
.

128

6.

6.1.

6.1.1.
S
v .
1 v x B
F = q\( +
I

,
S', v,
.
(
):
F' = qE'.
, .. F = F'.
:
' = +vxB.
(6.1.1)

S', S
:
= '- vxB'.

(6.1.2)

6.1.2.
- , ,
V,
B = - v x E ' , ' = -.

129

( S )
.
2 .
k
S, v.
rk

Bj. = vxEJ^.,

= v x E r .

, , ,
.
' (, ,
),
= ' + v x E ' .

(6.1.3)

S S'
' :
B' = B - i v x E .
(6.1.4)

(6.1.1), (6.1.4) (6.1.2), (6.1.3) . .


S' S

5 S'

=E ' - i v x B '

: ' = +vxB

='+vxE'

B' =B - - v x E

6.2.
6.2.1.
:
dt
130

, .
. ,
, .. , q = q ( v ) . ,
. .
, (,
= / ~ 1!2 ).
.
.
.
6.2.2.
|| ,
, 1 ,
.
:

.
,
.
:
1=2 - 2 =inv,
I2 =EB = inv.
, , , -
/2 ^ 0 , ,
. ,
.
S' 12 = 0, .. ' '.
/j > 0, |'| > |'|,
S, .
131

,
,
B ' + - v x E ' = 0 => v =

'2

< 0,
, .
,
E ' - - v x B ' = 0 => \ =

'2
{', ', v} . 6.2.1.
'

. 6.2.1.

,

(

~^

' -L ' )

6.2.3.
q>
,
1 <
E--grad^>-------- , = rot .
dt
,
, 4-
A = (<p,Aoc,Ay ,A z),


:
<' + ( / )4 _ + (/)<' _ 1
<

.---------------------------

------------

V1~ { lc ) V1 ( )
^ _ - ( / ) . , _ - { 1)<

f-------------- --

^ l- ( v / c )

I--------------

-y

a,

Siy, SLz

_ a

(v/ c)

, x v.

.
132

-' (. 6.2.2).
, , (
) V.
z,

,3

x,i
. 6.2.2. ,
, v

, ,
z . ,
, .

:
- 2 ,
, z (
z > 0 ).

' = -2 ''.
' = 0. ,
,
2 '
.
2 '
9 = , , \2
, z : z = z.
:

2 '
: -grad^ = - k
dz y jl- ( v / c f
,
z, :
i
J k
. aAr
. 2'
B = V x A = 0 djdz


,

, . 6.2.2.
,2


, ,
1) ,
:
&
_

-( / )2
2) i = ,
.
:

2
2 .
= ------a v =------ 1.

,
,
= 2,

6.3.

m
(. 6.3.1).
,
, .
v (. 6.3.1). ,
,
. . , u< s.c.

/
'

- 0

. 6.3.1. ( )


, .

' =

134

= mxH' = - m x (v x E ).

,
(v x E ) , .. ,
rn.Lv, m .
m , :
= - [(m E)v-(m v)E] = (mv)E .
, , m 1. V, .
,
.

135

7

7.1.
7.1.1.
= const,
mi/ - qE

<? 2
v = v0+ t, r = r0 +x0t + f - t ,

.. ,
.
7.1.2.
,

\ = vxB.

, v _L v ,' v -L .
: v = + Vj_.

mv,|=0,
.

= vxB.

= const.

.
</
Vi

= (j)X V i !

= - .

136


>= q B jm c, -
. 7.1.1.

vj_ ( ) ,

R _ v
' \
a)
qB

. 7.1.1. q> 0
();
()

7.1.3.
||

\q'E+v x B

v = V||+Vj_, V|( ||
vx 1 .
% = q%
m v I ,

, -

) = qB/mc.

137

,
(. 7.1.2).
, ,
. 7.1.2.

7.1.4.
, ,
: V= V||+ VX (. 7.1.3).

m v ||=0,
(
1
^
m vx =#l +vx B j.

(7.1.1)

= const,
, .
1^

. 7.1.3.

vx v = u +v'
, :
+ - = 0.

u J. , = 0 .
:
+ ( ) = 0.


:
138

(u X) = 2 - B(uB) = liS 2 .


U= c

( )
, ( ) (. 7,1.3).
v'
.

wv' = v'xB,

-
( -- / .

1) () ,
,
2) ,
3) .

,
= / .
liam ,
.
(7.1.1).
, .
7.1.4.
. 7.1.4.

,

{i, j, }
{, , z}. v x B = iBzv y -\ B zv x, ,
= , 2 = , :
() 02 =0, () = , () v = -
^ .
' .
.

139

(7.1.2)

(7.1,2)
:
Oz =Lj| = const, z = z0 + V^t.

= 0. (7.1.26) (7.1.2)

; '
Vx = vx - u , = / .
(7.1.3)
(7.1.26, )
Vx = ojuy , v y = ~<oVx,
(7.1.4)
>= yJqB/mc.
V
:
.
= - ,
(7-1-5)
:
= u0cos(firf + ^0), y = j>0 + sin(ftrf-t-^0).
(7.1.6)
(
(7.1.4) (7.1.3) v x(t) (1):
v x = u - =u + v 0 sm (w t + <pa\

(7.1.7)

x = x0 +ut - cos(cot + <0).

(7.1.6), (7.1.7)
. ,
(0) = 0, _(0) = 0.
x = ut + ^ [cos< p0 -cos(a> t + <p0)],
1

V0 . ,

fu
1

+ u sm (0 Jt + ( p l
,
v

IPV =t>0 COS(fitf + (Z>0 ).

(7-1-8)

, (7.1.8), .
>,
. ,
:
*(0) = (0) = 0..
< = ;/2, 0 = - , (7.1.8) :

140

v x = ( l cos cat), uy = sin cot;


x(t) = ut - sin a t, y (t) =(1 - cos /).
CO

(7.1.9)

(!)

(. 7.1.5).
,
.
z
= q B jm c.

2!

2 !
. 7.1.5.
,

7.1.5.

, : 0.
\^ = . ,
, ,
.||. = /i?2
,
= -q ll/ .

7.2.
q [m ,
.


dv
(
]
^
= q\ v x B .
dt
{

)
., .
,
q jm , .

141

7.2.1. qhn


,
q j m . . 7.2.1.

. 7.2.1. .
,


,
v0.

= , aJ_ v0.

,
(. 1).

2 '2
at
A t2
\
'~2
2 ". 2
t = 1/0 . ,
,
= const = v 0.

qE I
Ur,
,
,
qE I
lt
tg 2 I \ = - t g a at -

142

,
y^ L tga .
tg a = - ^ - l [ l+L

,
q j .

1 + 2

1 +

7.2.2. qlm


,
(. 7.2.2).
F = vxB, = = -^-vxB.

. 7.2.2. , . ,
.


,
.
, v0 , = |[ v 0B.

t = l/u0
j ] =a t2 = S B .
2
2 0

143

v = at = B ,

, ,

0
2
,
2 = L tgfi.

= 1+2 =| \ 1+ L t g p = ^ - l ( U + L
0 \2
, q jm .
7.2.3.
. . ,
,
.
- .
( )
:
0
,
( J_ ), ,
,
j>= 0 . qE = v 0B,

v0 = .

y ^ 4 - l ( h +L
v2
^
q jm .

144

. . 1897 .
.
,
/m = -5,273-1017 .-1 =-1,795-1011 --1.

7.3.
.
. 1909 .
. . 7.3.1.

.
, ,
.
-

/
,,

>

. 7.3.1. (
r/ q < 0)
. ,
, q < 0.
:
1) ;
2)
Pip = ^ r 3( p - /70)g,

(7.3.1)

,
;
3)
= - 6 ]\.
(7.3.2)

v0, ,
....
r 3( . p - p 0) g = 67tri]u0.

145

(7.3.3)

,
,
(7.3.4)
(7.3.3)
6nrTi(v0 +uE) = qE,
:

(7.3.5)
(7.3.6)

.

i%. (7.3.3) :
(7.3.7)
,
(7.3.6) (7.3.7)

q.
,
. ,
, , .
, ,
Aq q
:
4,80-10-10 . = 1,602 1(19 .
/
:
- j = 9,11 10~28 .
/
,
.

146

8. .

8.1.
8.1.1.

L
S,
- J b js.
s
J. ,
: ~ J .
: ~ ./. (
)
= -

( ). L
.
,
J |. , , - J u
: 2! ~ J\-

21

.
, 2 ,/2,
1,
|2

-TrzJ i

147

8.1.2.
, .. ,
,
. S 1
, N .

,,

'" ,


cl
N

4 KfiN2
=,
=---- S J ^ -1L J .
cl

, :

i/ ---! !---/

8.1.3.

N (. 8.1.1). ,
//.
J.
.
L (. 8.1.16).

,
TTJ =4
- 4..NJ
=>
rf = -----2NJ => =
2 U.NJ

>NJ
=> -2 =
.
L
c

.
,
, <J>j = J"BdS, , dS = b d r (. 8.1.1). :
's

148

- - I J , :

L = 2fiN 2b\n^l+-j^

R
2ii N2S
L=
R
S = ab .
,
(~ ) (~ ).
. . .

)
dr

-----

. 8.1.1: ;
. ,
;
,

8.1.4.


N\ N2 (. 8.1.2). ,
149

I S: ,

. .
. 8.1.2.

1 'Jj.-
411 7,./,
1 =---------~

I

,=

c l
N2 ,
:
/ N{N2J i _ 1
21= 1 = , :
La

4^ NlN2 .

, J 2
, ,
= / s
12
/

= /^-^2 '
, -, ,
, ; -, ,
.
1 \ 2 = L2\ , / = /()
Nj * N2-
, 1^2 2]

150

,
L \i

h .\-

8.1.5. LR-,

, (,
, ), 1 = - d ^ j d t . J,
= L J ,
dJ

dt

(. 8.1.3 ).

j _ +
R

L +JR = .
dt

+
. 8.1.3. - - i i f -, ,
, - -

= const. , t = 0
: /(0) = 0,
/(/) =

R
1-|I t

= , f.mK= d0/dt.
.151

, t >< :
J J 0 =/.#, , .
. 8.1.3 .
= L/R. ( J ( t) = t/L.
8.1.6.
, . 8.1.4.
, ,
.
R

. 8.1.4.
LR-
J,

. R
L
j

j
_
R

( )
R .
.

= L dJ/ dt.
J R ~ D J L,0 ~

J L0, , LR-Kowiype.
LK-
(R + r ) J = , (R + r ) J = - L .


J (0 ) = J 0 = JL fi=/r.
,

152

8 f .
J = exp
r
V
i)
, :

, d J L
( c Rir
f 1
4 = ~ - = ------- ---- = --------- -----at

\ )

v 7
,

^ =
^

/?, r J J ,
-

R,
, ./^ q = jr, ,
, ~ R/r,
. L/(r +R)
(
):
,
.

8.2.
8.2.1.
,
(. 8.2.1).
( . 8.2.1).
,
: FA = IB. dx.


SA = FAdx = \^^<1 = - , <1 = BdS, dS = ldx.
, ..
. .
153

. 8.2.1.
.
,

SA = J(- mdt = J - dt==-Jd.


")
dt

, Q = J , = - .
= / . A = L J - d j l c 2 .
/

LJ_
2 2 2
(
= / ).

U= \SA =

8.2.2.
, J.
/, N, S.

jj
. N.J

I
NJ /. ,
NJ , .
d = SdB,

.dU = -J.d<S> = H-.SdB = ^ - V .

V- I S .
- ,
, ,
154

. =
:
,

8 /i

(j i = 1)
-- ~

U~ V ~ 8
,
, .. ,
.
8.2.3. ( )
,
- .

. ,
,
, ( )
.

j jE .
dt V
SAm :K -:dl\iE dV .
.
( )

, *
.

div(E ) = rotE - rot
:

155

< - ~ j [Hrot E-div(Ex \l)}dV.


-7
. ,

,
( , >),
f div(E H)dV = (6 (ExH)^S = 0.
v

S(V)

,
^ dV.
v

15
rot =

dt

J SB
dB = d t
dt
, :
;
:
1
dUm = - f dBdV J (dum)dV,
^ n 'v

dum :
1
= //,
:
/2 2
=8

156

8.2.4.
, J {.
:
U = U (Ju J 2, . . . , J j
(8.2.1)
, .
z'-
= - -

(8-2-2)

<; -\

, Lti = L*\i= - - ,
I

i*k i-ro - .

Lik = const.
:
^

=1

(8-2-3)



dU = - Y J i d u

(8-2.4)

i=i

, (8.2.3),
dU = ^ f j LikJ i d J k.
i, &=1
:
.- - '
82
I
8Jk 2 * ^ d Jtd Jk ~ 2 * '
,
d2U
1
8Jk8Jf 2
d2U
d2U
: ---------=--------- , :
8Jxd Jk c J k8Ji
(8.2.5)

157

8.2.5.

U = U (JX,J 2, ..., J ) .
:
dU = dUc +dUs , dUc

L ^ d J ,.
c

i=1

i,k=1;
tek

dUc , a dUB
: ,
, .
,
.
, :
(8.2.6)
2
i=i

dUB :
dUb = \ [{ L X2J ld J 2 + Ln J 2d Jx) +

+ {b3J xd J 3 +Li l J 3d Jx) +(L23J 2d J 3+L32J 3d J2) +..^


.
,

dU , = [LX2{Jl d J2 + J2d Jx) + Ll3 {Jxd J 3 + J3d J x) +

+L23( j 2d J3 + J3d J 2)4-...] =


=

) + l , 3d { J XJ 3) + /J ( J 2J 3) f ...].

,
:
dU* "

h l d {-J v h ) + hxd ('/2'7 )] +

+[LX3d { J xJ 3) +Li l d { J 3J x) y . . ] = ~
2

158

Likd{JtJ k).

,
:
*= ^2
2

/; i-tk

L* J iJ k-

(8-2.7)

,
,
:
U.-.U6 +L\

(8.2.8)
- ,
--,'
,
:

2


U = UC+Ub = - ^ ( L xlj l +L22J 2z +2/,I2./j./2).

(8-2.9)

(8.2.10)

,
, .. U > 0,
U(JUJ 2) (8.2.10)
1?. - 1^228.2.6. .


.
|2 , .
, fi = 1.
,
. ,
, = JS/c, S- , ..
/ = cm/S.
12 = L ^ J/ .
J\ .
= AnnJxf c , nordK
21 BS = AnnJ^Sjc
159

. 2\

Zj2 = L2l. J 1 = J 12
21 . J = cm/S,
12 :
>
4
i2 = 2i = nJS = 4nnm.

8.3.

8.3.1.

( ) ,
f :
^ 4 me=f<Sr.
,
, , ,
~ f 5x >,
1) ,
2) .

, ,
.
, ,
. , .
,
, ,
( ) .
, :
= const. dF = -S d T -P d V ,
^
, .
1)

.
. ,
160

, (
): ; = const. ,

.

= / 5 = - { )' -

if'1
1
'4
2)
|.(), /= 1,2, ...j,
. ,
, :
g( ) _ _g(mm.) _ 1

1
1
dt


. =

:
^ ^. ^'^lio ic (^^ ) /_j j Sj4no:ae SAaT ( dF 'jj y
1 H
F = 7;-; ,
-c i


= .- i dF)j,r = - ^ /

161

S ^ saB= fS x -= -{ d F )tbtT=+{dF)JtT .

8.3.2.
,

S
(. 8.3.1). , = N/1,
J.
. 8.3.1. ,
,

&
' , ,

=/<?* = ( ^ ) ; 8 ,

ju,
. F = J<5>/2c (d F )j = /2.
,
. -
,
, = A nijc = AjinJ/c. : J = /.
,
(d F ). T = H d .
v > JJ

8.
= BS
, /1 = 1. 8
, ,
8. ,
/

162

dQ ?= nSx(B
S)/ n S x (B
S )/ ,
\
V
BS .

, ,
(
)
=
,5 (5
)
= .
\ /

V /

d<f>= nS x (ji-\ )H S .
(dF )

, :
:

} J ^ } L L ^ ! L H 2S .

8
8
, , , > 1
, ju< 1
.
, .
8.3.3.

N. J.
(. 8.3.2).
, ,
. ,
, . 8.3.2.
:
.
S ,
/ ,
N ,
J ,
( / ~ 102 ),
.
, <H'ifs, I -Js.
. N ,

163


4
1= NJ
1

HMl + 2H3x = NJ.

, 3 .
. 8.3.2.
( )
,



:
=2 => = .
:
4
4 NJ
{1 + 2/) = NJ
~

1 + 2 f ix


= 8 = N J S.
i+2jux
U = /2,
J = const
Jd<S>
-f-dx.
dU = 2
, :
^ Jf&b}
42 NZJ 2
/j

(l + 2jux)

/ < 0, .
= 0

164


:
F

9.
9.1.
9.1.1.
1905 . . ,

.
.
,
.
,

U = = cos .
.
:
=J e x p ^ - ^ jjQ ,

(9.1.1)

dQ, = 2?rsin Odd ( 9


).
/,
(9.1.1)
dn = 2 ? r A ex p (^ -co sd \ sm edd.

\ dn = n,
0=0

0 (-3).
, :

165

=^ ^ .
4;rsh
, z.

J = nfhz = mzdn.

/* ,
= =0.
mz = cos ,

' '

/ = 2^ cos^sin^fi?# = 0^- j , = ~ ~ .

(9.1.2)

, . ,
7 = nQm : ,
, ,
.
1) , /kT 1 .
cth - 1,

J -> / =0.
2) , = /kT 1 .
cth ~ .
................
3
/~/
~

2 - 2 '

, 02/, ,
.
. ,
( I = )
:
= 0 21, // = 1+4.
(9.1.3)
1(B) . 9.1.1. ,
( ),
.

9.1.2.

: = 2/. , , 3 .
,
( , , .
,
, . 1926 .

.
9.1.1.



= /


s,
(sz) :
sz = /2 , sz = + /2,.

, : m g sy s,
:
mz = ~ f * E 2 = + ,

\\ h

/ =-U= 9,27 10 /
2
, . ,
m = g sy s ,
= /2 < 0, g s =2,
g - 1.
m , U = - ,
:
t/j = fiEB, U2 = +,
1
.

167

.
, , , . ,
.
17}

.
. - '
(9.1.4)
ni =Aex\~ =
)
. =
/,

= m ,
2 = ~ .
1+2 =0

'

=2sha
( ).

I = njm+ 2( - ) = m-2A sh = n0m th a .
, ,

:
1 = |.

(9.1.5)

, / = 0 ,
,'
.
.
1) : = mBjkT 1.
tha >1,
'

/ - > /

= -

2) : = mBjkT : 1.
th .
=

j ,

168

(, , , = 02 / <gcl). ,
-

. = 2/,
(9.1.6)
.

9.2.
9.2.1.
, ( )
().

m = /L,
(9.2.1)
= ej2 m ec .
.

= .
' :
dL
=
dl
, ,
dh
= mxB.
dt
(9.2.1) ,

dm
dm '
---- -- ym , ------ S i x m .
dt
dt
, (
' )
1 = - = ---- -,
(9.2.2)
2
KUK . 9.2.1.
, , Q. = eB/2mec .
< 0 ( ), ( 2t TB ).
169

*
( ^ ) .
. 9.2.1.

<

9.2.2.

,

2 = -

,
2
. 9.2.2. .
Z
.

9.2.2.

Q
:
=

/=

= - ------ 2
2

AJ 2 = - 2 =------2*"2 .
-

2
4
R,
R1 = 2 + 2 +z2 => R2 = x2 + y 2 +z2.
,
(, ,

s).

7 = 7 = 7 2, 7 = 7 + / = - 2.
'
'
3
3
, ,
, Z :

Ze2r 2 Ze2R2
m z = Zm =------ = y 4 mec
6mec
,
.
(-3)
I = nm z :
1 = *,

(9.2.3)
6
, , = 1+ < 1.

(.. ):
= /, [^] = 3/,
.
. ,

- = -0,18-10-6 3/,
: = -1,34-10_ 3/.
.

NA = 6,02-1023:
NAZezR2
.6
2
= ,
.
:

171

9.2.3.
.
,
: F = v x B v . ,

,
.
: ,

1 11
i E Jr = dt

, . 9.2.3:
= -----
^ (1 \
2,=
|> =-------------.
dB
2
d t\ c
)
2 dt

:
2 dB
-- - = ---------- .
2
dt
.
9.2.3.


( < 0 )

, d<b/dt>0


dL/dt =

( L = , = 0).
:
'
2

- .
- =------
') , .

9.3.
9.3.1.
,
.
, .

,
, -.,
, . 9.3.1 9.3.2. ,
. .
. 9.3.1 9.3.2
:
,
Hs, Bs ,
Is ,
.

= 0, .. ,
( = 0) .
, ,
: ,
,
// > II
.
.
.
\\ >5, ()

.
,
,
. :
,
173 -

(.. , -
IIs).
10-3 104 .

. 9.3.1. I
().

:
Bs
.
~HS

/
-,.

|
|
1

\
,

. 9.3.2. - -
() ( ).

,
, .
, ,
.

, .
,
.
, ,
,
174

= (>,
*

(. 9.3.2). ,
I I . , , .
9.3.2. -
, = ,
. < ,
. >,
, :
I , = fiH. . 9.3.3
.

1. 9.3.3.

.
9.3.4.

() >

const
---------~
' )
. <
- , (
) .

. 9.3.4. ~^ ,
.
:
Ni: = 627,4 ; Fe: = 1044; : = 1388 .
.

175

9.3.3.
<
,
,
.
,
(),
.
( , )
.

. , ,
.
,
.
,
.

. 1907 ., ,
, (
). "
. 1926 . . ,
-
.

, -
.
9.3.4.
,
. (
) .
,
, .
: ().
,
.
( ) .
.


, . 9.3.5.
. ,
(.
9.3.5),
.
,
:
1)
(
),
'
2)
,
3) -

.
.
,
.
.
9.3.5.

.
t I t i t


.
9.3.5 , ,

, . 9.3.6.
,

.

,
(. 9.3.7).
. 9.3.6.

1 f i t

. 9.3.7.


. , .
.

, .
, ,
.. .
.
,
.
.

.

.
.
,
. ,

. ,

.

9.4.
9.4.1.
1911 . . ,
4,2 .
,

(. 9.4.1) ,

178

,
.

,
( ).
. 9.4.1.


9.4.2.
,

(. 9.4.2).

)
1. 9.4.2.
I () II (). s . II
() , ,


() = (0) 1-{/ )
I II ,

. I <
.

179

II (
, . 9.4.2)

( ).

9.4.3.

: = - 4 \ , I .
= 0, I = -(1/4) .
, - = -1/4/ < 0 .
,
.

()
1

B(i) = 0,

. 9.4.3.
.

=()

-4 1

-Anlk
,

. 9.4.4.
1 () II ()

. 9.4.5.
I () II
()

180

,
(>.
,
(. 9.4.3).
Hw = ().
I = -(1/4)(0 = -(1/4)(> => = = -( / 4 ) ().
. 9.4.4 9.4.5
I

.

9.4.4.
,

(. 9.4.6)
: .

>

1. 9.4.6.
. ,

,
<.

<1,
(< < 2 .

9.4.5.
= 0 ,
= 2 ,
- 0. ,
.

181

9.4.6.

. , ,
(. 9.4.7 9.4.8).

. 9.4.7.
,

.
9.4.8.

0
.
. :
3() 2
() = 0+(9.4.1)
(.. - ) = = 0,
()|= = 0,
2m
=> .B0 cos# +cos# = 0.

0 = 0 +
r=R

: m = R3B0/2 .
:
.

(9.4.2)

'4!2.6
,
:
^ 0, l = - L i f J L Bo.
/-2
+ 2

182


,
= 0, , , // >0.
:
1 = - 0, m = R31 = ~ 0.
8:
3
2 0
.
const,
.
Bt = 4/ (
). , (9.4.1) ,
, = I

|sin# = sin#.


i = B0 sm&.
8
. 9.4.7.

(9.4.3)

1 0 .

10.1.
10.1.1.

4 .

= J rotH = j

L
L

.
, div
div rot = 0, divj = 0.
, , dp/ dt^ 0,

+div = 0
dt
divj 0. ,
. .
j CM
rotH = ( j + jCM)

, .
, , div ,

div(j + j CM) = 0 => divjCM= -d iv j = ^ .


div D =

div D.
4

div j CM,

184

') ,

JcM ~~An dt '


, ,
,
" dt

11 , L,

,
,
.
10.1.2.
Q,
(. 10.1.1). ,
.
.
. 10.1.1. ,
,
j
jCM
S,
Q (. 10.1.1). ,
( ), , ,
(pBJS 0, (j) Bc?S = 0.
S

185

,

, , .
, = = 0.
4
rotH = (j + j CM) j CM= - j. ,
J = -dQ / dt ( ,
), : J CM= dQ jdt.
D = Q/ 2 , Q = r 2D.
3D .
J cu
1 dD
dt
4/ 4 dt
,
.

10.1.3.

. 10.1.2. J.
,
(. 10,1.2).
j = dQjdt.,
. 10.1.2.

| f f f
+ Q

^
.
L, . (.
10.1.3) :
$ 1 = (/ + /) =
L

j(jnep +j CM) dS.

C S

j nep , S,
L. , ,
Js (jnep + Jcm)

S:

186

1) S] (. 10.1.3 )
J m p = J, / ^;
2) 5 (. 10.1.3 )
/ =0, S2
, ..

. 10.1.3. L, , ,
: Sb ; (),
S2,
()

,
:
Si (. 10.1.3 ) / =0,
..
S2 (. 10.1.3 ) J CM= J.
: ./ + JCM= /.
,

dt

- Q/S, :
D = 4<= 4 => Q = ^ - S .
S
4

,
:
- - * > 4 ,
4 dt Jat
S
d t '
. .
.

187



, .
,
,
. , , ,
-.

10.2.
,
.
10.2.1.
1) (,

):
D JS= 4 ttQ, Q= \pdV.
S(V)

2) (
):

* = s dt dS.
)
3) (,
):
= 0.
S(V)

4) (
- ):
R dl = ( J + J cu ) = J + - l ^ - d S .
0

s at

10.2.2.
1) :
divD = 4 .
2) :
1 5

3) :
div = 0.
4) :
4 * , . . 4 * . 10D
r o tH = (j + JCM) = J + - T 7

at
10.2.3.
,
.
1) :
D = E +4?rP,
.
= ,
D = -, s = 1+ 4 .
,
.
2) :
= - \,
I .
I = ,
= /, // = 1+ 4 .
, /
.
3) ,
, :
\= .
10.2.4.
(1 2)
:
D2 - Din = 4r,
^21 = ,
2 = 1>
4
H2r- H l t = iN.

189

n x H 2 - nxHj = i.

(, N, ),
, . 10.2.1.
. 10.2.1. ,

,
-
,
.
.
,
(. 10.2.2),
:
<6 ( = - - f dS =>
= -
S.
J
c Js dt
\ dt ) 0
US)
(8Bn/8t)Q,

, L(S).
S,
( |BJS = J BndS ).
S

. 10.2.2.
, Ht. ,
,

) ^

W
/'T't

S= hdl

<2

, S = hdl,
(.El - E 2)dl = -

190

hdl.

h 0,
= Elt, .

(. 10.2.1, 10.2.2):
|
L(S)

< =

J S =>
S St

An . 1 ,
S =>
+H2fifI2 = iNdl +

v dt 0
'
1 ( flf) \
4
( 1( - H 2t)d l =
+
hdl >//., H2t = N
^ 0
A->0 ..

10.3.

10.3.1.

.
.
:
4 An . 1 SD
1
u n i 1
rotH= j +------ , rotE =-------- .
(10.3.1)

dt
dt

:
dw = <) + Ht.

(10.3.2)


= + .
(10.3.3)
dt An dt An dt .
3D/dt dB/dt
(10.3.1):
= { - j l ! =
dt
I- ^
) An
J
= [ErotH -Hr otE l- jE.
An

191

(.3.4)

d iv (E x H ) = -E ro tH + HrotE.

(10.3.5)

(10.3.4)

(10.3.6)

S = .
(10.3.7)
4

,
,
, .
(10.3.6)
( ) .
(10.3.7)
V:

V
W = \ wdV.

divS
-,
(10.3.8)
H(V) ,
V, a Q .
(10.3.8)
.
.
:

, V
.

192

,
,
I z (. 10.3.1 ):
.
= Ex(z, t). = Hy {z, t).
(10.3.9)
(10.3.7) z,
. 10.3.1 ,
S' = t

E^

z,S

,
,
. 10.3.1. , z
(); ,
()

(10.3.6)

dw _ dSz
(10.3.10)
JE.
dt
dz
V=
(. 10.3.1 ).
~ - = [Sz{ z )-S z{Z+l)\ T l-Q , Q = \&dV,
ut

(.3.11)

W = J wdV V,
v
, I . Q
(
) .
, V

:
[Sz{ z )-S z(z + Ij\ , Q.

10.3.2.
)
R
J (. 10.3.2).
q,
D = 4 = 4nq/Tl, = 2
. = D/z
.
j CM= D/ =
,
:
Ayr
2
= /()
2 () = j CM( r ) => {)
-q
2

c R

+<?

+.+ + + + +

. 10.3.2. .

,

F
. , , q > 0 ,
, .
, ,
. 10.3.2.
S =/4
( = R )
5 = ^ = - - 1 ^ : J_2qq_
4
4 \ nR 2 cR
h, ;
, dW jdt = S 2nRh
dW

1 qq

= 7rR2jAnh. - . ,
q , W = 2/2.
, .
2) ,
R /,
J . 10.3.3.
= 2J/cR.
U
E=U/l.
. 10.3.3.

1
S = -^ =
=
UJ.

I cR 2

= 2 nR l, , ,
Q = STI = UJ. ,

: jE dV = UJ.

. 10.3.3. ,
,
( ),

3)
,
R.
; s = l.
+ q
q (. 10.3.4). ,
().
( )
,
. (
), .

195



E = Ana = 4nq/Tl.
(10.3.12)
= nR 2 .
,
:
J = ~dq/dt.
(10.3.13)
+q-

i J ++
+ + + +/+

E
h

\h

. 10.3.4. ,
./

, , :
= ^ ( 7 + /).

(10.3.14)


, .

. = 1, D=E, (10.3.12), (11.3.13)
J CM= n r 2 {t>/An),
, ,
_ ___2 1 dq _
J.
cm , 2 ___ 2A1n
dt
nR 2 dt
(10.3.14)
2
2J
J
(10.3.15)
= 2 = 1R2

, -

J =7jr.*=~-- - =

. 10.3.4. S =
4

. S

196

(10.3.16)

(10.3.17)
U Eh (
). Q0 = UJ,
(10.3.18)
Q0 .
(10.3.18) , = 0 Q = U J,
: S 2nRh = 0.
,
.
Q - UJ, .. .
,
.
*
( / = / = < = 0 ). , ,
( ),
Q = UJ.
Q\r_R = U J 0,
.

( ),
( , ).

197

11.
11.1.
11.1.1.
,
.
,
.
. ,

.
,
. 11.1.1. ,
, .
.
' ,
={').
(11.1.1)

. 11.1.1.

.
() ()
' = x u t:

u{x,i) = f{ x - u t) .
(11.1.2)
, (') = a co sk x ',
(. 11.1.2)
198

u(x, t) = a cos[(* - ut)\.

(11.1.3)

ku = ,

(11.1.4)

(11.1.3)
(, t) = acos(kx cot).
(11.1.5)
, . ,

tp(x, f) = cat

( 11.1.6)

(11.1.5), ,

= ,
(11.1.7)

, : (, t) = ( + , t). , .
, , ..
: <- - 1 - const. ,
<= ,
= < - cat.
:

dx
= codt => = = .
dt

, .

199


=
1 .

(11-1.8)

,
(: ). -.
. = nr,
<{, t) = kar cot. k = .

(p = \ x -cot,
(11.1.9)

(, f) = acos(kr-firf).
(11.1.10)

,
, . (11.1.9)
:
k = grad q>.
,
( = <0 t, . (11.1.9)
1 ml.
,
. , (11.1.10)
. .
,
(.. , > 0 ),
, ,
( - ) . , , .
,
: ={ vt)
=u2(x + v t) ,
'.
= ( - ) +2( + {).
(11.1.11)

(') = 2 (') = a cos(for').
1 (11.1.11)
200

u(x, t) = acos{ bc-(Q t) + qcQs{kx+a)t) = 2a c o s kx c o s cat. (11.1.12)


(1, 2, 3, 4)
. 11.1.3. ,
2
= (2 + 1) = - (2 +1), = 0,1,+2,,..,
(11.1.13)
2
4
(, t) = 0, .
.
, ,
, .
, .
( )
.

(, )
L, ( , - = L ) -
,
'( >0 = (,t ) = 0. ,
>-- - 1 = L, (11.1.13)
:
L = , = , = 1,2,...
(11.1.14)
2

, 0>1, L .

11.1.2.
,
.
'
(, t) = f{ x vt),

201

/() .
u (x ,t). g = x v t
,
4
d u _ d fd ^ _
df
2- _ a (f
d f ') . 2 ^2/ .
- = "

rffj

du d f d% _ d f d _ d
#
dx
dx d% 9x2 5x
rf#2 '
7 , ,
2,
1 d 2u d2u
(11.1.15)
u2 d t 2 ~ dx 2 '
.
2. ,
( +),
( ).
:
(, t)= u l ( x - v t ) + u2{x + ot),
(11.1.16)
M[(z) u2(z) .
, ,
v,
u = f( r ~ v t ) = F ( x - o xt , y - o y t , z - u zt).
, ,
3- :
4 ^ = ,
2 dt2

(11.1.17)

2 8
2
= - + ----- .
2 d y2 dz2
11.1.3.
(, t) ,
(11.1.17), :
= a(r)cos(firf + <p(r)).
(11.1.18)

202


(11.1.17)
- = 0.

11 .

(11.1.19)

11.1.4.
( )
, 11 ,
. , |'(1
01 , . 11.1.4. ,
z.
1
:
(11.1.20)
( 11. 1.21)

| ] 2, . 11.1.4. , ,
.
I) (11.1.20)

0 (11.1.20):
v

1 (11.1.20)

1
{BdS=--------^
, dS dxdz).
!, (11.1.20)

dy

dx_.

,,

dz
A

. 11.1.4.

.

2) (11.1.21)

(11.1.20):
,
dHv
ij) dl = (z)dy (z + dz)dy =
dydz.
(11.1.21)
1 8 \l)dS = - ^ dydz
dt
'
dt Js.
(, dS dydz).
(11.1.21)
,
1 dDr
(11.1.23)
dz
dt
, :
D = fE, = //,
(11.1.22), (11.1.23):

dz
dz
Hv:
d zE^
/
dt dz
dz

dt

(11.1.24)

*
dt
d
dt

204

s dEx'\ _ iid1Ex
dt J c 2 d l2


v = , n = ^[eju.


1 d2Er 2

(11.1.25)

(11.1.26)
2 dt2
dz2
, , v.
(11.1.25) .
, (11.1.24) ,
:
1 82H v 2
-------' ------- ^
(11.1.27)
2 dt2
dz2
11.1.5.
.
,
, :
1 11
(a) divD = 0, () rotE = -------- ,
dt
(11.1.28)
1 3D
() divB = 0, () rotH
dt
D = sE, = /.
,
. rot (11.1.286):
1
rotrotE = rot .
(11.1.29)

dt
:
rot rot = grad div = ,
(11.1.27): divE = div (D/s) ==(divD)/^ = 0.
(11.1.29)
(11.1.28):
1
1 ,
e2D ^ s
2e
rot = (rotH) = - =
.

dt
dt
dt
dt
,

205

1 5 =,
2 dt

(11.1.30)


(11.1.31)

:
1 2
= .
(11.1.32)
2 dt2

11.2.
11.2.1.

,
z.
Ex = f{ z - u f ) , H y = g ( z - v t ) .
(11.2.1)

(11.1.23):
_
dH
dEx

dt
dz
dt
(11.2.1)

A<f)=-^m
g'(<r)=y/m

= z u t ,

= - g it),
( .2.2)

,

. ,
L =iLM. =>
> 0,
g
s f
{4 s f = - J j u g , v< 0.

206

,

4^E = 4Ji H.
(11.2.3)
11.2.2.
,
:
^
( ) = 0'(-), H(r, 0 = H0ei(kr.
(11.2.4)

. :
divE-, div =
(WO , D = , = /
).
divE (11.2.4).
= k r - cot, :

8 8 dE d,
0 = divE = - ++ - =

dz
d^

dE
d

dEz
d%

8
=
dz

= i (EQxkx + E0yky +E0zkz) e (kr- ^ = ikE.


, kE = 0. , divH = 0
', = 0. ,
, P0M :
E J , 1 .
.
.
14) .
OMJIJia:
1 8
1 8 0
rotE =-------- , rotH =--- :.
dt
dt
(11.2.4)
zkxE . juH., = - ,

= , = - .
pico
)

207

(11.2.5)

, ,
(. 11.2.1).
. 11.2.1.
,

JJ


. ,
, (11.2.5), ,
:
= , = sE.

,
k =- 4 w = - n .
(11.2.6)

,

4 s E = 4 mH.
(11.2.7)
11.2.3.


. ,
(11.2.7)
.
(. 11.2.1).
S
J

* F

S = - =
.
(11.2.8)
4
^js/i

sE 2 2
w = wE+wn =------ 1------- .
(11.2.9)
8
8
, (11.2.7) (wE)
(wfi) ,

208

sE 2 sE 2
w = 2 ------ =----- .
8
4n

S ow ,
(11.2.10)
= /js / j .

11.2.4.

.
,
, , .

:
S =L
(11.2.11)

11.3.
11.3.1.
( = 1, = 1).
2 + 2 2
8/
4
,
, W

W\

=^

W = 2/ y jl- ( v / c ) 2 , = \/y jl- ( v / c ) 2 .
, , - ,

p = W/c.

, .. , .
,

209

g w

g = w/c.
(11.3.1)

S = cw , w = S / c.
g = s / c 2.
,

:

g =-LS=J _ .

(11.3.2)

11.3.2.
:
(. 11.3.1).

. 11.3.1.


= / = 1
.
j = ,
( )
f = - j x B =- E x H = ^ S .

d t
d g = fdt =
S dt.
(
)
dw - jE dt = E2dt = dt.

210

2
S = - ,

,
1
1
1
0
=
g = n =
S =----.
w

dw

, .

, .
, , ,
( = 0 = 0), . ,
, ||.
11.3.3.

(. 11.3.2).
. 11.3.2.

.
, ,

dt

cdt

, , ,
. . dt ,
dV = cd t -.
dp gdV g c d l II.
:

d p id t
=------------- = - = c g .

(
, ,
.)
, ,

2 .
P = c g- = w- =

211

.
:
^

,
:
= + P oip = W

= (1 + . R) W.


I = S. I = S = cw ,
P={\ +R)~.

,

.
(
)
1 = 2 2 -| = 0,14 /2 .

( = 0 )
= 4,7 -105 /2 = 4,7 10-6 /2.
.. . 1900
. , 1 910 . .
, F = 1 (
), ,
Q = 0,3 *.

11.4.
,
, (.
11.4.1). ,
,

: E_LH. S =

, ..
.
1 : 6 .

212


, .
:
h = jr x g d V .
(11.4.1)

(11.4.2)
-

, (11.4.1)
. .
11.4.1, L
.
-q

+q

\_L

. 11.4.1. ,
. R,
() . S
. L

, (11.4.1), (11.4.2) E l H l r ,
:
L = f r g dV =
\rEH dV.
3V
4 *

2
q
= const; = , = .

ch. I

2 ch

213

(11.4.3)

, V = n R 2h ( ,
, ).
(11.4.3)
L =- ^ - H .
(11.4.4)
2

, (11.4.4)
; +
. ,
,
, = ,
(11.4.4)
= /1, / .

214

12.

12.1.
,
.
, v = const.
( )
, H = - v x E

-2,

= 4 *

W~ -4
, .
, ,
, .. : = v 0 .
()
, ..

. : ,
t0,
.

=t0 +

i?(f0)
t0. , ~ R/ ,
,
,
.
, ,
,
: = ().

.

3() 2
=5
, ,
(~ -3 ). .
.
.

12.2.
12.2.1.
.
, .
, .. , (, /).
, ,
:
u (r, t).

1 2 .
~ = 2 dt

2 2 8 1 2{)
AU=: +


,
g ( r , t ) = r -u (r ,t),
g ( r , t ) :

I d 2g d2g
2 dt2 d r2 '
,
:
g ( r , f) = wl ( - c t) + w2 ( + c t ) ,
w i W2 .

216

(,1 ) = ( ~ ( * ' \

, = ,
= 0. ,
, ,
.

,
,

(,0 = ^ ~ :- '
(12.2.1)

, ( = 0 ) Q(t).
,
, = ] .
.
(/), u(r, t)

1 52
= .

2 /2

u(r, t), ,

u(r, , ) = P zZ M
(12.2.2)

,
~ -1.
12.2.2.
,
= fj. = 1.
. ,

- f(r --ct).

, ,
.
,

= ,
217

n (
- ).
, 12.2.1.

, = cos cot,
,
E(r, t) = Em() cos( - (at),
(12.2.3)
H(r, t) = (r) cos( - cot).
,

(12.2.4)

. 12.2.1.


. , . ,

,
. ,
,
Q. :
Q = S 2 = const.
(12.2.5)
= .

s = IexhI

1

218

2 - 2 = const,
(12.2.5)
, ~ -1.
(12.2.4)
:
S ~ ^ -sin 2 .

(12.2.6)

,
(. 12.2:2). ,
, .

. 12.2.2.

,
.
.
,
= 4 - sin<9, = -% -sinfl, = .
(12.2.7)

1 ... .

1 ..
2 sin2
= (pxn)xn, H = -r p xn ; S = ^- r i -11


4
, (
),
2
7 2
Q = i S d a = - ^ { s m 20 - 2 n s m 0 d 0 = - ^ r ,
(12.2.8)


, ,
= mffl .
, / - r zd i l 22 smOdO.
,
t / .

219

p =p0 C O St ft f.
( )

_
2
Q = PJLW\

(12.2.9)

,
~ . .
, 0
Vj = 5 0 (, = 6 - 1 0 7 ), v 2 = 5 ( 2 = 6 -1 02 )

..

\4

Q(v2)
= 20.
Q(v2)
, , ,
,

12.3. ()
12.3.1.

. :
= 1, // = 1, D = , = .
(12.3.1)
,

.
:
1
(a) divE = , ()
rotE =--------,
8t
(12.3.2)

..
4?. 1
() divH = 0,
() rotH = j +--- .

dt
. rot
(12.3.26). rot rot = grad div -
(12.3.2)
1 52
4 8\
= --------------------------------- 47Tgrad>
0.(12.3.3)
2 dt
2 dt2

220


rot (12.3.2)
(12.3.26):
1 32
4
(12.3.4)
= rotj.
/
2 8t2 '
(12.3.3), (12.3.4),

,
,
15
(12.3.5)
(6) H = rotA
( 5.2.6, 3.3.1).
(12.3.3), (12.3.4)
1
_1_
-grad ( 4 grad ,
dt
2 dt2
-2 dt
(12.3.6)
4
\_tf_
- rotA = rotj..

2 dt2
,
1 d2
4
= j.
(12.3.7)
2 dt2

(12.3.7) (12.3.6)

JL.il

grad <= 4 grad .


2 dt2
,

1 d2<p
-( = 4 .
(12.3.8)
2 dt2 '
, ( )

dp
(12.3.9)
+ divj = 0.
dt

. ,
cd t
221

(12.3.8) div (12.3.7),


(12.3.9),
2

N/

+div A I = 0.
, dt
J

(12.3.10)

,

- ^ + divA = 0.
(12.3.11)
dt
.
: (12.3.11) .
12.3.2.
, , .

. ,

,
,
.

1
() = grad^, () H = rotA.
dt.
, rot grad / = 0

- '= A + grad^
:
= rot = rot '= '.
/ 1 .
, :

,
Id,.,
,
, , 1 '
= grad^----(A - g r a d ^ j = -grad^>------- = .
dt
dt

1 dy/
< =<
dt
,.
{(, } {(\ '}

222

' - A +gradi/',
,
1
* ~

01
.
^
12.3.3.


1 2

- ^ - ( = ,
(12.3.12)
2
,
= p (r , t).
.
(12.3.12) ,
: .
,
, .. ,
t0,

4=<+ ..
(12.3.13)

r(t0) t0.
, (12.3.12)

<p(r,t)

(12.3.14)
v lr ~ r i l


:
/7 ( , , | ,

y(r,0= f V ,
|
d v v (12.3.15)
V
Ml .

:
1 , j(r,, ~ |r-rJ/c)
(, 0 = I
,
I
d v \-(12.3.16)

lr - ril

ci

223

(12.3.15), (12.3.16)
, .
, ,

12.3.4.
, (12.3.16)
:
c i
; --|
.
,
,

A(r, , ) = Z * ! i f c i M
C i
r

( ) :
9t (* ~1) =Z (*_ ! ) = (*

i
i
,
(,

(12.3.17)

,
(12.3.11). (12.3.17),

( t- r / c )
i f - r j c )

= - a i v 5-^-
= - d i v -----
(12.3.18)
dt


:
;
^ - f { t - r l c ) =f ' { t - r l c ) - ^ - { t - r l c ) =- - f ' ( t - r l c ) ,
or
or

= t - r j c
f : / ' = /.
,
(12.3.18):

224

div M?
r

= A. div
r

_ rj c ^\+ p (t~ rj c) V f
\r

- =_ 1 _
r \ c
J
cr
r
, (12.3.18)

,
^> ~ -2.
,
: ( ~ -1.
. ,
=

(12.3.19)

,
(12.3.19) t - r / c .

12.3.5.
(12.3.17), (12.3.19),

1
= - g r a d ^ ,H = rotA.
(12.3.20)
dt
:
( t - r l c ) \(\

= rot-----'- 1 = - - r o t p - p x V - =

\
)

'

V )

v '
~ 2,
, ~1.
.
, = / ,
:

-pxvf-l-p xv-

(12.3.21)

225

, (12.3.17), (12.3.19), (12.3.20)


:
_

=- g r . d f - E - ' l - i l f i ' l . C f c fc d d ..
dt
J c d t\ c r j
r
,
-1,
.
: = /,
E

;
(12,.22)

, (12.3.21), (12.3.22)
:
;
= .
(12.3.23)
(12.3.21), (12.3.22), (12.3.23)
12.2 ( ).

226

13

13.1.

13.1.1.
,
.

, .
.
30- XIX
, XIX .

1) (, )
(. 13.1.1 ),
2) (,
) (. 13.1.1 ).
1-
2-

1-

'

2-

. 13.1.1. ()
() -

227


, (
) .

, (. 13.1.2).

. 13.1.2. , (
) () . Za
,
,
.

:
,
.
( )
.

13.1.2. .
,
.
(. 13.1.3). . ,
,
1.
.
( 1). q\
, . dx
qxdx . dt
qx(, t + d t)d x -q 1(, t)dx = [ *, i) J (x + dx, f)] dt,

228

dqx _ 8J
(13.1.1)
dt
dx
,
dx,
(Qdx) (Lidx) (. 13.1.4).
)

J(x +dx)

.
13.1.3.

-dx
.
13.1.4.
,

.

,

j t

_______i i

L\dx
-1- ]
' j " -* w
C\dx
T f
dx

, ,

dq = qxdx = VdC => q = ,


V 1 2. ,
dx dC = Cj dx.
(13 .1.1)
^ - 1 ^ :
(1.2)
dt
Cj dx
, .
, , L\.
dx dL = Lydx.
:
1
dt
:

229

= - L ld x -J.

S Jjdt :
LydxdJ
=
"


mm=V(x + d x ,t)-V (x ,t) = ^ d x .

, :
8V
L BJ
' 13-1-3)

2^7dt

.

:

fot- J -Cj fdx. fdx =4 fdt

<13.1.4)

,
.
(13.1.4) .
d jd t d/dx
.
d 2jjd x d t, ,
:
1 d2V d2V
(13.1.5)
2 dt2 dx2

=
(13.1.6)
(13.1.5) ,
,
(13.1.6).
(13.1.4), (13.1.5),
. !,. :
(),

230

J = x = L;
(),
V- 0 x - L .

13.1.3.


F = F0sin(fcc-fitf)> J = J 0sin(kx-(O t).
(13.1.7)
(Jo) (F0)
(13.1.4):
^ = ~ 0, kV0 = \ a> J0 .
q

,
Cj

(1 -8>

, .
, ,
.
,
.
.
(13.1.4)
V = V0 sin cos (at, J = J 0 co s kx sin (at.
(13.1.9)

- (13.1.8).
(13.1.9) , .. ,'
(cos = 1),
( sin = 0). .

(, ).
(cos 0)
(sin = 1).
, .

231

13.1.4.


. (. 13.1.5).
1)
.
. ( 1)
(+) ,
().
= 2 / ,

J E{f)dr = Inf\

( = <+-<_ -

\ J


,=
, Atp

(13.1.10)

2 In (d/a)

+
dr

.
13.1.5.



()
()

2)
.
J.
= 2/j J / . /,
, a < r < d ,

dr
*

2 u J 1 ( d
-1

\ ,

'

(dS = l- d r ).
= ([/)7/, L\.
I ^ ^ lft^ d / a ).

232

11itifi?i11il fi SiiiiiiiiHBti

(13.1.11)

, (13.1.6)
:

= - ^ = -^ = .
(13.1.12)
v A c i. 4
,
.

13.1.5.

,
, d
(. 13.1.6). .
+Q
.
13.1.6.

1)
.
, :
2
2
=!
er s ( d - r )
I
( ).

A(p = d~\ Edr = ^]a{
1
s
la
(, ,

).

(13.1.13)
1 =< 41n (d/a)
2) .
_ 2u J
2u J
= -^-+
c{d r)

233


d - a ,

=[& = ^ /
J

d-a

dr
dr
f ^ + f - 2
*
d

i^ / ln

d a

= {Lyl)J, t o

X1 =4//ln -

(13.1.14)

, a <: d .
,
( 1 3

'1 5 )

, ,
( (13.1.12)).
13.1.6.
,
,
Z = V/J.
(13.1.16)
, ,
.
:
V = V0e i(kx~a>t\ J = J Qe i{-kx~at\
(13.1.4):
dt

(13.1.17)

2 dt


-iwV = J , ikV =y ~J(13.1.18)
Ci


V k
Z
(13.1.19)
J eoCy
(13.1.18),
\2

LyCy
234

, /
(13.1.19):
J
,

(13.1.20)

(13.1.21)
, Z ,
(
). V = JZ
.
13.1.7.
,
,
.
,
, .
()

:
(13.1.22)

( ) ( Fm, ). = 1, ,
, .
():
I V -V
d = - =
(13.1.23)
^ ^niin
d = 1 , a d = 0 .
.
:
= +V0Tp = V0 cos( - a t) + pV0 cos( + i)
( , ,
> -).
:

V = (1 - p)V0 cos(kx - cat) + pV0 [cos(foc - cot) + cos(foe + cot)] =


= (1 - p)V0 cos(/bc - a t) + 2pV0 cos kx cos cot = V5er + FCT..
.
:
V = Vne i(kx- m) + 1{+<01) - 0 - ( , + ~).

\V\- V()^ e ikx + pe~ihc) ( e - i!a + p e iix) = + 2 + 2/7cos2fo.
, cos 2kx = 1,
- , cos2fcc = -1.
+ \ =V0( l - p ) .
, .

V +V=_
1 = .
(13.1.24)
_ _---V

r max -V

13.1.8.
.
Zg, Z.

,
J (~^ V(~\
/(+)= F (+)/z, J H = F H /Z,
( ):

(13.1.25)

J H: , . (13.1.25)

(+) _

z ~zH;

,
:

vH=v(+)+vH.
,

236

r (+)_F(-)

yi+ l+ yi-)

z
~
X
:
.

vc-)

za- z

(13.1.26)
ZH+Z'

:
' -

=(+ )

k =z j z .

k- 1
~ -\

= 1
, . ZH-> , = 1,
.

13.2.
13.2.1.
( ) ,
.
, : ,
.

(. 13.2.1).
, .. ,
.

. 13.2.1.
,
z

237

.
,
, ,
.
.
,
. ,
. , = j//L
.
, = 1
// = 1, , ,
.

:
), = 0, ) 0.
(13.2.1)
,
,
=2;, = 2. ,
= (, / =1).

, .
z.
:
1) .-, -: H z, 2 0,
2) if -, -: z, Hz 0.
( . tran sverse )
, ( )
.
13.2.2.
,
,
:
1 52 32 d2E S2E
5 ? - I---- --------(13.2.2)
dt

= j
.
= .
238

:
,1) = ) ,
(13.2.3)
(13.2.2) :
32 32 52 2

. . . . ..
+ -+ + = 0.
(13.2.4)
2 2 dz2 2

13.2.3. -

IE-, z
(.. , z, Hz 0):
E (r,?) = E0(jc, y)ex.p{ikzz - i c o t y
(13.2.5)
(13.2.4)
= 0.
(13.2.6)
1 1
' 0
,
.
, .. = (, z, t). ,
(divE = 0) , / = 0.
.
(13.2.6) :
?-^L+.k*E0,= 0,

(3.2.7)


2 = ^ - - 2.


= ^sinsrx+5coss:x.

\ =0, \ = 0,
1=0
\=

(13.2.8)
(13.2.9)
(13.2.10)

,
= 0 = . = 0,

K = n n ja , =1,2,3, ...
(13.2.11)
( = 0 , .. =0).

239

,
= (, z, t) = Ea sin^ x|jexp(zzz-jfi>).

(13.2.12)

0,
.
1 . 13.2.2.

.
13.2.2.
-

(

z)

---^---'

13.2.4.
: (13.2.11) (13.2.7)
2

(13.2.13)
+

, ,
,
= W a (13.2.14)
2 = 0, = 1
.
. , (13.2.14)

4 - 0 < 2 <0, k2 = ia.


(13.2.12)
1
~ ex p (-a z ), a = - yja?p -o>2,
(13.2.15)

.

240

13.2.5. - (-)
-
,
(. 13.2.3). , * ,

(13.2.16)
.
(. 13.2.1) ,
0 < < , 0 < < ,
,
,
.
(13.2.17)

. 13.2.3. -.
,

V
= 0

"

, , , :
= 0(, y)ex p (ik zz - ic o t ) .
0(, )
(13.2.18)
,
(13.2.19)
(13.2.16). , =
0 - ( ,

241

). = 0, ,
.
(13.2.19)
(13.2.17),
= / , = 0,1,2,...,
ky - 7 im jb , = 0 , 1 , 2 , ...

, (13.2.19)
(13.2.20), -.
,
(13.2.16):
+ =0
, (13.2.20),
+ = 0.

(13.2.19) (13.2.18)
^ = k i +e y + ki,
(13.2.20)
2 22 2 2
2
- +..- + .
(13.2.21)
c a
b
0, 1, 2, 3
.. ,
, (13.2.19), (13.2.20), = 0.

:
> >1=/,
< (^=1.

13.2.6. -
, ,
. -.
( // = 1):
8.
rotE =------- dt
, , ,
= 0(, ) exp (ikzz - ico t ) = (, , ),
1

242

( z).
= -rotE , ,

ico

_ _ _
ico dz
.

1(0

hd - 1
dz dz


dl~ = iK Ey ^ ~ = iKEI ,
dz
dz

=(
) =^
'

' 1.

-
1 1

(13.2.19), (13.2.20).
, -
, . ,
:
= 0.
-
Ev = s i n ]exp (ikzz - icot), EX=EZ= 0,
H=-

ck
CO

E0 sin exp (ik2z - ico t ) ,


\ a J

(13.2.22)

Hy = 0,
Hz = - i E0co s(^ -\ ex p (ik zz-ia> t).
am
ya )
-
. 13.2.4.

13.2.7.
77?! -:

(13.2.23)
exp (ikzz icot).
= sin
V

243

?
2

+
**

(13.2.24)

. =

>
2 2

(13.2.25)

" ~ *
:
= 27t/kz .

(13.2.26)

,sE

. 13.2.4. -

(13.2.23)
z. <>
,, =2ncja>.
(13.2.27)
(13.2.25),
:

(13.2.28)
'1-1
, > . , ^ >2, ,
, &>> = n c j a , >.
.
(13.2.23) z t
244

exp(ikzz - icot) = exp\j.kz (z v^

(13.2.29)

== = _ J L = = -= = = = .'

(13.2.30)

, :
> . , , ,
1:

dkz

]) \>)

\^- )

(13.2.31)

v ^ 2 < .
, >>
. 10- (13.2.23)
= sin (ttjc/a) exp (ikzz icot)

E = E0sin ( 2' =
1 (13.2.32)
= ^-0
]' = Ej+2.
= /.
(13.2.32) ,
,
. . 13.2.5.

k, =(kx,Q,kz), ] = (- ,0 , 2)', = /.
(13.2.33)

') 2 ,2 (
k =4 k l + k l = ^ j + % = f ,

(13.2.34)

.
, ,

14.

245

n c
sin a = = :

aco

2a

(13.2.35)

. 13.2.5.

,

, > >/2 , ..

E = E0s(/)~
(13.2.36)
.
.
, , ,
, ] 0-
S = - = -^{ - .
4
4
(13.2.22), (13.2.25) -
[?

"?

1 2

(13.2.37)

Y .

= ikz ^-sin^^jexp (ikzz icoi).


^
>0, ->0, S .= /'
An '
.
Sx .
(13.2.22) 2 :

. (
51 ----- - cos (kzz - c o t ) ,
= sin

246

TC L rJ-jn / * \

__

Hz =----
^-cos
a a>
,

sm (kzz - w t ) .

, kz = 0
, .

= 2 / .

13.3.


,
, .
( )
.
, ,
,
(. 13.3.1).
, z.
, = / = \.
-,
z ( (, ))Z
h
.
13.3.1.

axbxh
- , ,

. , z

f ( z ) = Aeik*z +Be~ik*z
(13.3.1)
, ,

247

2 22 22
2
= ~ + ^ +1

(13.3.2)

( x ,y ,z ,t ) = ( x ,y ) f( z ) e - i0*.
(13.3.3)
z = 0 z = h,
(
)
/(0) = 0, f ( h ) - 0 .
(13.3.4)

+ = 0, Aeikh + B e-ik*h = ,

f ( z ) = Asm{kzz ), kz = ^ f - ,p = 1,2,3,...
(13.3.5)

(13.3.2),
:
2

2 2

. = iL . +fL 5 L +iL | _ .
( 13.3 .6)
2 2
2
h2
,
, > ( ,
).
. ,
.
, z .
(13.3.5),

, , ..
. ,
.
,
. = 1, = 0 (13.3.5)
=0 , , = 0. ,
( ) (..
, ),
= 0. (13.3.6) ,
:
248

> = 1, = 0, = 1,
< b = 0 , = 1, = 1.
, ^01, 011.
, = 1 ,
h > h > .
0-,
:
EV= 0 sm (kxx )sm (2)~ , = ,. = ^
(13.3.7)

1
ro tE = dt
rotE = icoiL/c.
:
i

j
/

= rotE =
-1
dz

1(0 dz iw y

0 0
(i, j, k , , z).
(13.3.7)
>
[ - i kz sin {}cos(kzz) + cos(^xx)sin(Azz)].

103


. 13.3.2.
-
-.

13.4.

( 1) ( 2) (. 13.4.1).
.

. -

249


.
X

. 13.3.2.
2
, ||OX, ||O Y .
, z,
:
E = E J {kz^ m ), = Bne l(k^ - at)
' .
(13.4.1)
' = E'0e i(-k'z*-at), ' = ' ^ 2~ ).
,

,
, . . ( )
:
<=+',
(13.4.2)
B f = B y +By .

(13.4.3)

. 13.4.1. ( 1) - (2)

z = 0 : ( = ^
(13.4.4)
,

z =0 :.e P = 0 .
250

(13.4.2)
z = Q : E x =-E'x.

(13.4.5)

(13.4.1)
:
=-'.
(13.4.6)

:
.............................

dt

rotE --------- .


= </ .
(13.4.1) :
kzEx = - B y , ' = ' .
(134.7)

= /. kz = ,
k'z = - .
:
Boy ~
Boy=-E(Sx(13.4.8)
, (13.4.6)
= ,.

( 1 3 .4 .9 )


. 13.4.2.

'

()'

' ^

. 13.4.2.
( );.
1 , 2

. 13.4.2
, ,
. 13.4.3.

251

. 13.4.3.

(13.4.6) (13.4.9), (13.4.1) (13.4.3)


:

= 2iE0e sinfe,

='2B0e 4at c o s kz.


. (13.4.8),
(13.4.9) 0 =0
,
,
/2. i = e'^ 2 (13.4.10).

13.5.

13.5.1.

,
. ^ .
,
,
, , (
. 13.5.1
).
,
.

252

,
.

:

N.

-Z / * '

~\

"

1Z

"\

. 13.5.1. ,
:
= E0ei(to-, =
.
z = :

E0t exp [i(kxx + - *)] + E0t exp\i(k'xx + - fflV)] =


= Et exp [i(k"xx + ky - o f t )\.


.

{, } . ,
= >' = ",
(13.5.1)
.. ;
=' = ,
(13.5.2)
=' = ;.
(1.5.)
{x,z}.
^ ' - ; - .

253


&= &w/c.
kx=ksm6, '=' sin#', ="sin #",
(13.5.2)
] sin # = sin #' = 2 sin #".

# = #',
(13.5.4)
.. .

H1sin# = n2 sin^''
(13.5.5)
(1621 .).
2 (
1) n2i= n 2/nl ,

sin#
-------= 71.
sin#/% *-1
13.5.2.
1 , 2
, 2 <nv , ,
1, 2 ,
(. 13.5.2).
. 13.5.2.

1 2 ,

,
sin# = 2 sin#. #
",
. ,
sin = 2, :
= /2. ,
254

^ .0 . =arcsin 2i, 21 = 2/ < 1,


2 , ..
, 1. ,
>
.

(13.5.6)
0.. = arcsin 21
.
13.5.3.
, 1, , :
E-Lk, H k , E -LH .


(. 13.5.3):
1) s-,
,
2) ^-, .

,
. .

0
I
. 13.5.3. : - - s- ,
- - ^-


,
.
()
(d) :

1.

S_
(13.5.7)
E
En
E0 , Eq Eq (),
( ) .
s-

,
(. 13.5.4 ).
,
, . 13.5.4 .

. 13.5.4. s-
:
, ;

{, , }

1 2

. , . 13.5.5,
Eq +E'q = Eq,
(13.5.8)
Hq c o s 0+Hq c o s 9' = H cos 9".
, .. / = 1,
:
10 =0, ^= , ^ 0V
(13.5.9)
(13.5.8),
:
+ =1
(13.5.10)
- n rEn cos 9 + cos 9' = - 2 cos '.

256

(13.5.10)

(13.5.7), :
1+ r = d,
cos # + nxr cos ' = - n 2d cos #".
-
(1
sin#
d
1+ r = d,
,
sin# cos#"
1- r = d -------------- .
sin# cos#
:
sin(#-#")
2 sin#'cos#
, =------i-------d , = --------------------.
(13.5.12)
sin(# + #") x
sin(#+#")
s- ,
.
(13.5.12) ,
" , sin - 2 sin 9
21 = 2 /]:
ri =

cos - / - sin 2 #
cos#+ ^/2! - sin 2 #

d =

^ 5 ^

2 cos#

cos# + ^/|] -s in 2 #
-

. ,

, . 13.5.5 .
(. 13.5.5 ),
,
- .
(El )t = (E2)t , (H^)t = (H2)t

257

E0 c o s 0 + Eq c o s ' Eq c o s ",
- -
(13.5.9),

0 cos 9+E'q c o s ' = Eq c o s ,


^- =h2Eq.

. 13.5.5. ^-
;: ,
;
{, II,

(13.5.7),

cos<9" . .
sin# ,
1+ r =------- d , 1 - r = ------ -d .

sin <9
,
tg(d ~ e" ) j
Asm " c o s
(13.5.14)
11
tg(#+#") 11 sin 20 +sin 2 0 "
|| ^-,
.
"
21 =2/1,
(13.5.14) :
=

21 cos ~ yjn h - sin 2

21 c o s

n2l cos 0 +yJn2l sin2

2\cos + yjn 21 - sin2

258

. (13.5.15)

(13.5.12) (13.5.15)
.
.s' /^-
.
, , .. 0 >/2,
, d >0.
, .
, - -1, /j| >1.
13.5.4.


,
(. 13.5.6). . 13.5.6

EQ+ E '^ E l H0 +H q = - .

. 13.5.6.

0 = :0, = '0, = 2$ ,
1+ r = d, nl ( l - r ) = n2d,

(13.5.16)
,
9 = " = 0 .

259

13.5.5.

F,
d l l (. 13.5.7).

dn2

. 13.5.7. ,


dH =|<3Hi| =|^2|


( ):
+ divS= 0
\ ^ -dV = - (6

dt n h
U(V) , V, w
, S .
V ,
S,
+ 8 2<12= 0
d l l l = <2,

:
A z

^2z

( z).
,
( ):
^=

(13.5.17)
C U )z
(/)2, ( i 0lp)z (/0)
0U ) Z

, ,
.

.

260

(13.5.18)
I .= S . = nE2 c o s d ,
' z- z 4?r
0 S z ,n
. , .
.

nxE g c o s 6 '
cos#
^

?2

(13.5.19)

c o s " 2
d\
D=
nxc o s 9
co s

D - 1,

C O S#" _ 2

~~^) z

( ).:'

R D
.
(. (13.5.16))
r i - 2 > d _ 2ni
1+2
1+2

\ 2

22
1 -2
(13.5.20)
>=
11
( 1 +)
1+W2
. 5 + D = 1.
. 13.5.8
R(6) - (R) /^- (/?)
.
. 13.5.8.

s- -,

()

- 261

. , s /(- :
1 =1 =//2 , I .

i m p -R i + m = \ (R + ^ i)i

:
( +^,).

(13.5.21)

^ ( ) . 13.5.8.
13.5.6.
^- .
. 13.5.8, 9 = , ,
, . #
. s-
) * 0, , ,
( .s ).
.
. (13.5.15),
, tg(6>+ ) = , ..
+6" = /2. sin = 2 sin ".
= /2 - , , sin = 2 cos ,
tg =1! .
(13.5.22)
, = 1
2 = tg 0 =.

:
,
, ,
i?ecT.

262

13.5.7.
,
1
2 ,
\ >2.
> <90 = arcsin( 2/i)
.
, ,
:
,
'.. = arcs ( 2 ! \) >

= arct ( 2 /1 )

= ,
= /2, cos " = 0. cos#"

D = n1 COS^d2
WjCOS#

:
Al(#b..) = 0, ^ (# .^ = 0 .
R+D = 1
(#.0> 1, ^(# .0;) = 1.
> R = l, D = 0.
, = #

.(#,;) = 1, ^ (# ..) = 2 ;
2
'
'
?1](6, . .) = 1> 4 ( ^ . 0
. ) = ---- 1
2
,
dn(#0) ^ 0 d x(0BO ) 0, ,
D = 0.
, , , ,
2 z > 0. ,
2 , , D
> .
~ 263

13.5.8.
1 : 2
,- ,
.
2. .
, (. 13.5.9)
:
=" => sin 9= " sin#".
.

= 0, " = 02, 0 = .

z- 2:
"2 - 2 - "2 = 2 - 2 =% (2 - 2 sin2 }.
(3.5.23)

. 13.5.9. 1 2
( 2 < 1). , 9 <

sin <n2jn { < , "2 > 0,


.
( ). .
,
&>2/ > ,
"2 < 0. 2 = 2
= ]-2 = k0<Jnf sin 2 - 2.
(3.5.24)
2 . . ,,
" = Eq exp (ikxx + ikzz - m t) = Eqexp (ikxx - icot) e~az.

. .
264

,
.
,

. ,
1 ( ), 2 (
2) , > (. 13.5.10).
1 2.
, > ,
. ,
2 ,
,
. ,
2 ,
/ ~ (-2 ), =
sin 2 - \ ,(13.5.25)
>
/Iq = 2-/0 = 2:/ .
. 13.5.10.
1 2
,
,


2 h

14
h

* 1
.
l'v :

. .


. .

.. 1914 .
2
, .

.

13.6.
13.6.1.
()
, .
265

,
-. , ,
, .
1970-

. ,
.
, ,
: ,
(
).
, ,
, , 1.
-
, .

.
, ,
.
.
.
. (
) ,
-.

-, . 1
, 2 (. 13.6.1). z
1 2 ,
z = 0 . ,
.
(, z, t) , ,
= Ar.e~KlZexp i(k - co t)!, z> 0 ,

-
= AeK7-z exp [ (ksx cot) J , z< 0.

(13-6)

1 , ,

. ()
.

266


.
,
, . 13.6.1
, = 0, * 0.
(13.6.2)
, -, - ( ,
). ,
- .

. 13.6.1.
1 () 2 ().
ks

,

2 <0.
"
(13.6.3).
- ().
13.6.2.
.
,
:
^ = ,
'
(13.6.4)
( ). ,
, (. 13.6.1).
.
1 2
2 2 /
- --- ----7 0,

dz
(13!6.5)
52 2 ' ...
Y +- +- , = 0,

dz2 2

267

et - i ( i = 1 ,
= 2 ).
,
z:
I l f ( x , z, t) = Hw e - ^ j k*x, z> 0,
(13.6.6)
H f (*, z, t) = 20 * * , z< 0 .
(13.6.5)
- kj2 + +

= 0, -k%

+~y 2 ~ 0

Ki

, 2 >2

\,2
2 = ~~^-

(13.6.7)

(13.6.4)
=
= 0.
(13.6.4),
, .
, , (
rotH =------ ,
dt
~ ~ ,
^

rotH =-------.

(13.6.8)


i
j
k

rotH : / / d/dz =I- -+kdz


dx
0
0
, (13.6.8)
:

i0j
8
ICOS
_.,
.
(13.6.9)
>
-=-----
dz

(13.6.4).

, (13.6.9),
268

dz

dz

(13.6.10)
z=0

2= 0

(13.6.6),
(13.6.11)

*'iM> <.
,
1> 0, 2 <0.
(13.6.7), (13.6.11):

/-,
Ks

s2

1 72
=> \ .

/
_ 1 ,2
~ 2 k s
2

to

. l

(13.6.13)

(13.6.12)


(13.6.14)

=*.2|
+ 1'!
V
1 1
% S*.

"

,
, 2 > 0,
> 2|>*!.
(13.6.15)
(13.6.14)
.
:

1 1
(13.6.16)
- = ! + ----k,
V \
2
,
1, = / ; 2
, 2 < 0 .
,

-> =-

269

(13.6.17)



= ~ = \ 1 + , >=
(13-6.18)
ks
//?, 2

, ,
\
(13.6.7) (13.6.14)
:
\ 2 _=
\ = ^ ~

(13.6.19)

13.6.3.
(13.6.9),
, :
8\, } } * \ z >,
Ez = i----- ^ = J 0

[ ^ ^ ^ , z< 0 .

h
$ = 0^ = - 0
06
F i ( h l - ~*i

(13.6.20)

1
si
<2
lh | ( | ^ | - ^ l)
\21>
Ez
, .
(13.6.20)

AEZ = E(J }- = ~H0J Sl+2 ^ )
(13.6.21)
V * 1*2
( )!
,
cr = AEz/4k ,
(13.6.22)
.
. 13.6.2.

270

. 13.6.2.



.
,
4 2
(13.6.23)

,
.
~1016 '.
(<~1014-10 15 -1) < , |.?| 1 . ,
s x = s B ~ 1 ( ),

(13.6.24)
~/ = 0.
,

.
(13.6.19),.,(13.6.23)

, ,

14.2.2.

271

(13.6.25)


2 ~ 10 2 .
, ,
(13.6.26)

Aj ~ 1-100 .
13.6.4.

. , ks
.
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
. 13.6.3.
. 13.6.4.
.
,
.
( )
. 1
2. - ( 3),
, ,
(2) - (4) (.
13.6.4):
> arcsin y . S 4/ s 2 ) , 7 ^ 4 < 4 ^ 2

. , -,
, .
272

. 13.6.3. . 1 ,
2 , 3

4
. 13.6.4. ( ).
1 - (), 2 , 3
, 4 (), 5 , 6

.
'



(2
). ,
( ),

=ks .
( 6 . 13.6.4)
-
.
- ( 1 4 . 13.6.4).

.

1.

14.
14.1.
14.1.1.
, , ,
() :
0) = ,
(14.1.1)
(
>) ,
. ,
=>/,
(14.1.2)
.
(, t) = a co s(k x -co t) = flCOs[^(x ]>
(14.1.3)
,
<(, t) = (otkx = const.
,
:
= (),
(14.1.4)
.
= &>/ , ,
, = 2/ : = ()..

. , ,
.
14.1.2.
, >2
}= {(\) 2 = 2(2).
,

274

.

(x ,t) = asm [k lx colt'),
(14.1.5)
u2 {x,t) = a sm (k 2x - m2t).

(, t) = (, /) +2(, t) =
(14.1.6)
= 2a cos h ~ k\ <>2--t sm k 2 + k \ x C02 +C l t
k\ k2, k2 > kx, , .. k2 - kt : kt. ,

kl +k2 _ u
2 ~~k\ Ak,
2
2 +
dm
~~ A k,
= m,
dk
(14.1.6)
Ak (
dm
(14.1.7)
u (x ,t) = 2a cos x ------ 1 sm (k x -m t).
2 v
dk
:
(.
14.1.1)
2 71

2 tz

= -----------~ Ak\dm/ dk\


\rn-y .

/i/I

(14.1.8)

, ,
,
2 cos

Ak (

dm

TV

1)

(14.1.9)

,
, .. ,

(14.1.10)
- = dm/dk.
(14.1.9)
. . 14.1.1 (14.1.7).
. Be-

, (14.1.10),
.

. 14.1.1.

, (14.1.10)
,
. :
h
(, t) = ^ a(k') exp [/(foe - a>{k)i)\,
(14.1.11)
=\
,
: \, 2], 1 - 1 . 1.
<>() :
<()~ 0 + ( - '

dk =,
\
=))

+
0

(14.1.12)

(14.1.12) (14.1.11)
q = k kx,
92

(, 0 = expp (*0jc - )00 ] ^ + ) e*P[ig(x - ^)] =


9=91

(14.1.13)

= [ -^ )] F(x - % t ) .

276

dco
dk =

(14.1.14)

(14.1.13) q

g e k i , ? 2]> \ = ~/2, q2 =Ak/2,Ak = k2 - k v


q ~ < F(y) ^
, [(0 0)].
(, t)
0 >0,
F(x Drpt).
.
,
,
.
.
, ,
(14.1.11)
a(k) = [A()/Ak)dk, kx<k<k2,
kl =k0 -Ak/2, k2 =k0 +Ak/2.
, ,
2
( , 0 = 4 ) j exp\ i k ( x t-rpO] =
r_

h
Ak f
\
sm
= A0 exp[i(k0x-a>t)] ----------- .

-2- (x- v )
,

\

[x v ^ t ^
~2/.

14.1.3.

,
, , , .
, (14.11)
:
277

() ~ 0 + ( - 0)

dco
dk

j n2 d~(

(14.1.15)


, ,
(/2)(/- 0) 2 (^ 2 / 2)|

,
:=

F = ^Texp

iq ix-U rp O -i

ydk \

= F ( x - v Tpt, t)

( ,
= 0 ). , .
t

, d v
m

max 2

,
k=ko
, .
q ~ /2,
:
2 ~q

dk

(14.1.16)
()2 \d2a)/dk2
.
,
d 2a> _ ^
dk2
dk
,
= 2/:
d v vy _ d v ^ ! d l ^ 2 ^
dk
dkjdX
2 dX

= -^ 2 / 2^,
:
4 2
() ^ u ^ / dX ^

278

14.1.4.
. (14)
= ^ ,
du M

(14.1.17)
dk
2/ ,

dv.
(14.1.18)
= + ~

.
(14.1.17), (ify = const)
:
> =tV
. 14.1.2 (14.1.18),
. .
. 14.1.2.


Lfy = (). , ,
.


=/.
(14.1.19)
= /, .. = / = /.
,
: = ().
. (14.1.19)
(14.1.18):

= , -
3

14.2.
14.2.1.

, .. ,
, ,
.
, , .
FB03Bp = fir , -
.
. 14.2.1 ,
, .
R = Rq . ,

. ,
,
.
.
14.2.1.

,
,

, F.Ip ,
( ) . -

280

,
, ,
, .
0 , .
coq =yj/3/
= ]/2, (14.2.1)
+2 + $ = ^ - - ,

(14.2.2)

= 2 elj .
(14.2.3)
(- - 2iyco
= .
N , = Np. ,
D = + 4\ = , :
/

2 4 2
? = 1+^ ---------------,> 1= -----
(14.2.4)
- -2 iy co
.
> .
,
.
.
14.2.2.

= +.
(14.2.5)
= Re / ,
= h n -J e ( ).
(14.2.5)
, .
.
:

7 -
.
7
.

= 1= + = +.
(14.2.6)

. 2 .
= ,
---->
>
,

-281

Aq
(14.2.6)
~ e lkx = e ik>xe~ax/2.
(14.2.7)
, ( I ~ 2 )

1 = 10 - .
(14.2.8)
.
.
,
. , ,
1 ~ \/.
, ( 0 ) ,
. ,
- : < 0 ,
= 4 - s 0.
, .
,
. , F.lp = - 77 V 0, ..
) 0. 0.
.
. 14.2.2
, = (), = (>).

. 14.2.2. n(ai)
k(oJ). (.)
(.)

:
= (0) = yjl + a)2 j 0 Jq > 1,
282

1 <->.

(14.2.9)

(14.2.4), (14.2.5) , ( >0 )


&>0

(14.2.10)
,
,
:
. (14.2.11)

= {), = (>), . 14.2.2.
, :
dn jdco > 0 dnjdX < 0,
(14.2.12)
, ,
dn/dco < 0 dnjdX > 0 ,
(14.2.13)
.
,
.
() (>),
.
~ 0, ..
.
,
, = 0 .
, .
:
.
(14.2.14)
:
(14.2.15)
V

283

1 ^ 1

CSI

kc2

J w 2p +k2c 2

(14.2.16)

11

dco
dk

4-

CO



4 * % = 2.
(14.2.17)
(14.2.16), v > c. <.
,
, .

14.3.


, ..
: = (>).
= 0 [ (foe - )],
= 0 [ (foe - w t) J .
,
.

.......... 2 = ~ (> ).


:
I = S = ,
4
.

'JsE - -JJtH.

284

/1

= 1. = 4.

I = - ,

:
*
+
+
1 =

:
-( +* +* + * *) =
)
16\
_
-(*+*) = R e (E x H * l
16'
-
'8
V
)
, **
~
,
* * .
,
I = R e ( M * ) = R e ( y f e M * ) = l i f = Efc

'8
'
> 8 '
> 8' I 8
n = K e^ fs
0 = ^|i?| .



. ,

(j = 1) ( 2 = = [ )
.
1-/ ^,
-----1+ /7

?
1+ -\/~

, 4 =n + iK,
:
\n i K .
2
= 1 + n + iK
l + n + irc
,

285

/ /( 8 - ^ / s J E\
(
)
_ I

|2'._

I ,|2

> = ------ =

( -\ )2 + 2
( +I)2 + 2
4

= -------------- = - ------- : --------

\1 +

( + 1)2 + ^

,
:
R +D = 1.
,
:
. ,
,
. , 1,
.

286

15 . -
15.1.
- 1
.

: j = .
, ,
:
4 dt 4 dt
: = 0 cos co t,
icos _ .
/. \ .
Jcm = -^- sm (? = ( jCM)0 sm a t,
j = = 0 cos cot = j 0 cos cot.
/1~1015-10 17 -1. ,
1013
co sf 4 (
10-100). ,
(/)0 ^ J q,
. ,
, , /2: ~ 10141015 .
,
= , = jj H, s = const, jd = const.

:

. skin .

287

U SH
'
4.
ro tE -- , - - ,,

(1511)

divE = 0,
divH = .
,
,

divD = sd iv E = 4 = 0 .
, :

rotE = ---- , rotH =--------- .


dt

. rot
:
-
9 ,
( 4 -\
rot rotE =-------(rotH) = ------ ------- .
8t
dt
)

rotrotE = grad d ivE -.
divE = 0 ,
:
_

= .

dt

( 15-2)

15.2.

J = J 0 coscot.
,
j = .
.
. ,
- (. 15.2.1).
,
, .. z.
( = E(z, t), j = j(z , t))
(15.1.2)
dz

288

dt

(15.2)

,
or.
E (z,t) = EG(z )e-ia,t.
(15.2.2)

. 15.2.1.


(15.2.1)
0( ):
(15.2.3)

(15.2.4)

(15.2.3),

z > ,

Eq{z) = 0(0)exp(-fc) = 0(0) ^-(1 ) .


(15.2.5)

:
j{z, t) = AE(z, ) = 0(2) - (15.2.6)
= /( 0)
, ( )
, -.
,
. ,
- .
.
-.
, ( = 5,4-10 17 -1, / = 1), :

289

= 50 => = 0,7 ,
v = 5-107 => = 0,7-1( 3 .

. (15.1,2)

1 8F . . .
------- = AF
D dt
D = 2/4. ,
. ,
,
/~ *JDt .
,
~ /2, .
, , = 27tj ,
2

yj4A/jeo

(
) (15.2.4).

15.3. -

- ,
. .
J (. 15.3.1).

.
, : d J jd t> 0.

L(NNM 'M ).
1 ?
= - , dt
L
, .
J
(. 15.3.16).

290

, ( )
.
: dJ/dt <0.
(. 15.3.1).
J, .
N'

'

N'

J*

1 1 J
1
J 11 J
I

<i>AB
t.

'

Jm
''!

< 4 >

.7
)

. 15.3.1: - - ,
- - , J
.
,

,
j +j
, (
) .
.

291

16.
16.1. .
16.1.1.
^
( . plasm a , )
,
.
1929 . . .
,

. ,
.
.

,
.
,
, ,
(
).
, .
,
< 105 , , > 106-10 8 .

( ).
16.1.2.
, ,
, .

.
292

.
,
.
,
Z ,
Z; = ,
ene + (-Z e)nf= 0.
(16.1.1)
< 0 .
16.1.3.

.
,
.
I V = Sl
,
, (. 16.1.1).
, Z =1.
; = =.

. 16.1.1.

,

I ____

< = neV/S = nel.


= 4 = 41.
wE = 2/&.
w T
. , ^
( . 16.1.1),

()
(

wr = + wt
~-^ + ~ ~ = .
2
2
wE = wT. ,

293

- /,

Awnel = -JSnnkT => I =

2; 2

rD = 1/2

4> - ' l s s ?

<

'2 )


,
.
16.1.4.
() q.

,
.
, , .

.
,

0>() ~ q/ .
<^
, .
: Z = 1.
() (,)

( ).
, ( )
,
:
< - 0, - , -> .
:
( = - ,
(16.1.3)
,
294

= + (-) = -

<
<
-

\

, \</\ : 1,
2
~

(16.1.3)
%
(16.1.4)
( -<
, , :
1 d 2{r(p)
, (16.1.4) :
( = <(). <=
d r1
1 d 2irq>) _ 2

(.

rD =

u = rq>,

0
<=
=> = 0

1
rD j


= q jr ,
d 2u


(16.1.5)
<=

V D
,
.
rD .
16.1.5.
. ,
, rD.
,

295

, , ----4 n r nn

N
3 D
.
d ~ ~1//3.
N~{rDl d ) \
.
1)
N 1 . , rD "S>d ~ -1/3. , .
, rD, ,
, .
rD d , rD:

_1/3 =3> (3

rn ~ J '

18
V
, N 1 ,
. ,
, .
,

e 2/ d k T , d~ n~ 1/3.
,
.
.
.
, ; 2) N < 1. rD d ~ ^3.
:
3> (/2)3.
.

.
.
.

296

16.1.6.
:
,
(. 16.1.2).
V = Sx ( < 0 ):
neV
;
= 4, =------- = =>. ~ Annex.
S

() .
= eE jm . ,
( . 16.1.2), :
> 0, < 0.
_______S
. 16.1.2.

tE

:
d 2X
d 2X 2
= => -= -4 => . =2 ~.
dt
d t2

= ^ 4 2/.


(16.1.6)
/ -

(16.1.7)

( 1) .
,
.
.
. , rD
(. (16.1.2)).

16.2.
16.2.1.
.

, 104 .
1 . ,
.
297


. (
,
).
( < ), ,
. ,
,

, :
= 0 cos cot.
,
.

= = 0 cos cot,

X=------ cos cot =

'

,
,
. ,
,

, ,
N ,
( )
Ne2
= iVp = = .

, D = .+4 = sE, ,

4 :Ne2
s = 1+ 4 = 1
?2

298

^ATiNe2fm = p ,

= \- 2 .
(16,2.1)
,

: <1. ,
.

16.2.2.
,
~0 (ikx - icot)
(16.2.2)

2 ~ ( ) .

(16.2.1)
,
^ f
2
V


2 =2 + 22.

(16.2.3)

. 16.2.1.
, ,

2
2

< (. 16.2.2).

2 2 - 2
2 =-.---- ^ < 0 .

= i/. (16.2.2)

- 0 (-/? -ico t).

299

,
.
. 16.2.1.

. 16.2.2.
,
,
>
= 0

,
( . <)
.
,
. , (
) .


1/'
1+

< < = 1.

'

1- ir e
1+ is:

1.


, .

,

300

, Op. , >
= \[ <1.

=.

,
, :
1 > ^ ~

-> , ) ,
,
.

, . 16.2.3. ,
.


2{ )= \

. 16.2.3.

,

JVgp = >2j 42 .

.

. ( ,
50 ) ,

, .
,
( 103-105 1 3) ,
301

(X ~ )
. ,
,
. 16.2.4.

\
. 16.2.4.

16.3.
16.3.1.



>0 =

(. . 16.3.1).

. 16.3.1.

J
f m

302

,
, . =
.

e_v_
0-
2 )
2
,

~2
, ,
:

=
.
22
,

I = 1 4 .
, ,
I = :, : < 0. ,
. ,
.
:
, ,
,
. ..
.. 1950 .

16.3.2.

dV = dxdydz (. 16.3.2). .
dx
/
()

/ dz
P(x+dx)
/

. 16.3.2. ,

303

,
(, , z).

dfx = \{, , z ) - ( + dx, , z)l dydz =------dV.

d f = - dV, d f = - dV.

\ Jz
dz
d f = - grad P-dV.
.
,
dm - p udV.
d m ^ - = -giia.dP -dV , = -gradP.
dt
dt

- , .
, ,
.
, .
, dV,
j,
d^--\x\ldV.


dv
1,
- = - & ^ +- 3.
dt

.

j = rot
4( , ..
).
:
d\
,_ 1

= -grad P + rotBxB.
dt
4

.
304

16.3.3. -
.

,
. , ,
-.
- ( . p in ch , )

, .
,
, ,
.
- 1934 . .
.
- JI. 1937 .,
.
-:
1) z-,
,
2) #-,
, ,
.
. 16.3.3 .
z-.

. 16.3.3: z-, 0-

16.3.4. z-
,
1) :
2
j ( r ) = const, J = R j ;
2) : n(r) = const.

305

1 = 2 = J (r).

,
J{ r) = j - 2 , (. 16.3.4).

2 jr.
=


27


grad.P = jxB .

. 16.3.4.
z-.

j -LB, , . 16.3.4, jx B
,
(jx B ) r = - jB = - j 2r.


dP
2 .2
.2 7
=----i r j => P + J = const.
dr

306


= , j = ~,
2
:
= const.
,
() (2/4:)
.
T(R) = 0,

1
, ,

,
NlkT(0) = J 2/ c2

= 2.

( ).
.

16.3.5. z-
,
, , .
.

, ,
.

307


, . 16.3.5.
z-.
. 16.3.5.
z- - -


. -
. , , ,
j = j j 7 1 R2.
B(R) = 2J/cR. ,
:
1
1 J 2J
2 J2
Fa = -JB (R ) = jzR2 cR
2 - 3
,
,
.
.

[ ).
:
= 7 iR 2 B {*] = const,
:
^ ~l/j?2.
AU ~ ^ 2 ~ \JR4. ,
:
SAn(me= fS R = -SU ~ SR /R 5.
, / ~ l/R5 > 0, ..
. ,
,
(Fa ~ l/i?3). z-.
308

17.

17.1.
17.1.1.
,
( ) ,
, .
.
,
. ,
, = 2i t c j ( 0 = cT , = 2j
. I ,
/ : , I ,
,
. ~1/,

<..
17.1.2.
, (
) , L, R
() (. 17.1.1). ,
1.
= {12341} :
(12341)

, = ,

E=-^d<$>!dt.
309

,
.

. ,
R.
, . 17.1.1 J.
R
. 17.1.1. ,
,
,

,
:

E,dl = | Ejdl+ J E,dl+ J Etdl+ J Exdl.


(12341)

(12)

(23)

(34)

(41)

| Etdl = 0, , (41)

| ^1^---<?

(12)

12
() .

~ >~\
.
23.
X.
S. ,
j = , , J = jS
,
f E,dl= f i-dl= f dl = J f = JR,
J
2
J
J 3?
( 2 3 )
(23)
(23)

(23)

310


- [ * .
J}) AS
34 . ,
(+ q), ( - q).
q J = d q jd t
.
V = ( (^.
j ^1 = <3-<= = ^ ,
(34)

= q/V.

- + JR +-^ = -

dt
,
=:
.

L + JR + = .
dt

(17.1.1)

17.1.3.
, . 17.1.1,
. (17.1.1)
L + JR + = 0.
dt

'
0 4
, J d q jd t. :
q+ 2yq+ 6}^q = 0.
(17.1.2)


.
17.1.4.
: R = 0. = 0,
:
311

-q + m lq^Q .

q(t) = q0cos(a)(lt + (p0).
q0 <0
.
,^ 7 1 '

= = 2 .
0
.
, , .
,
, ..
q (t)^ q ^ co s(o il + (pQ).
qo ,
( = co t+ ( .
17.1.5.

q + 2yq + a%q = 0.
q(t), , R eq (t) = q(t),
, q ( t) :
s . + 2 r * f +a$ q = 0.
dt
at

q(t) = q0e ini.
(17.1.3)
+ 2i)l + g)q q ,

(17.1.3)

Q:
Q2 - 2z>Q-) = 0 => 12 = iy
- 2.
(17.1.3)
,
:

312

q(t) = qwe n' +q2Qe ^ .


qi0 q2 .
(17.L2) q(t) = R eq(t).
.
1) '. 0 > .
= ^Ja>l - 2. Ql 2 = iy co,

q(t) = e ^ [ q we ^ +q2de - ^ ] .

,, = cos(p +ism<p
q(t) = R eq(t),
q(t) = e~r (a cos eot+ b sincot) = q0e~r>cos(erf+ <p0).
(,) (qg , <).

q0 = J a 2+b2, tg<pg

2) : >0 < .
= 4'/2 ~ 0)1 = i(y T ),
q(t) = e~rt [q10e Tt + qwe~r ].
3) \ = , , = 2, :
q { l)^ e-? ( C +C2t)
(Q ).
. 17.1.2 .
()
:
q(t) = A (t)cos(cot + p0), A(t) =q0e~/1...
(17.1.4)

.
^,
A(t) = q^eTr l, .
ZCif- y -R l2 L .

313

= 1/ , ,
.
-

. 17.1.2. -

,
q q. {q, q}
.
,
, .
. 17.1.3
( = 0).
. . 17.1.36
{q(t), q(t)} (aft > > 0).
{q = 0, q = 0} .

. 17.1.3: ;

314

.
,
.
(R = 0, f = 0)

q = q0 cos(cji + ).
J - q
q = coq0 sin(otf + <pQ).

2 2
= 1.
.
q0n q0.
17.1.6.

:
L q + ^ = -R q.
q
d

=dt
1 *
q = J ,
.
d_ LJ~ q
=-R J a
dt 2
2
4

(17.1.5)

w =wL+wc, wL=
, wc =^

(17.1.6)

, (W l )
(Wc)-
( -N = R J ) , -,
. ,
dW
-N.
dt

315

17.1.7.
, ,
N = 0, .

q(t) = q0 cosOv), J{i) = q(i) = - J 0 sin(fi0f) = J 0 cos I( a>0t +
/0 = a>0q0. , q(t)
J ( t) / 2.
:
=
1

2f
0

2)

L 4 1-! (2 0
2
2

=i l = i - c o s W ) , 3 i l 2 ! e V ) .
2 2
0
2
2
,
+ =^ l +l i = ^ + i o . = const.
^
L
2
2
2
2
, /0 = 0g0, &>q = \/LC
w p = L 4 = L4_ 2 = q t = w (o)

2
2
2

,
, ,

.
(R ), .
,
,
(N----RJ2).
17.1.8.
(. 17.1.4):
q(t) = A (t)cos(a)t + ), A(t) = q0e~rt.
(17.1.7)
: qn, qn+\-

s =to(qn/qn+l)
316

.
8.

. 17.1.4.

q(t) q = 0.
(17.1.7)
= 0 [: y co s (co t + <p0)~ cos,m{G>t + (p0)] =

(1 /.1.)
= '
C0S((0t + tp0 + ).
,

cos<pl = -T= = = r:= ,


yjr +

sm ^ = = = = = =
]2 +2

,
.

^ 2 +02 - (0.
q - 0. (17.1.8),

= 2/
cos(cot + cpo)
q (t) . , (17.1.7)
_ _
(*+1) '

317

8 = = 2/.
(17.1.9)
(/ < 0) - :
= => <? = = *,/.
(17.1.10)
/Zc
21
' >
VC
.
= 1/
~ ~ ~ 8
. , <5= 1/.

17.1.9.
,

1 1

8 2
. Q = ,
Q = w/2y
(17.1.13)
.
: Q = /8. LCR
-

(17

2)

17.1.10.

. (17.1.6)
, .. 1 . , W(t) ,
W(t + T) = e~2rTW(t).

AW = Wit) - W(t +) = (l - ) W(t).
: 2 < 1, AW = 2yT -W (t).

318

_ 1
1
1 ^
AW ~ 2 ~ 2 2 ~ 2
Q.

Q =2 .
(17.1.13)
AW
.

17.2.

17.2.1.
(17.1.1) - ,
:
Lq +Rq +-^ q = (t), (t) = 0 cos cot.
(V = q]C )

y = R/2L, C0 g 1/LC,
(17.2.1)

V+ 2yV + a>lV = cOgacoscot.
(17.2.2)

,
V(t)->V(t) = ReV(t) + i1mV(t), V(t) = ReV(t);
(t)-> (t) = 0e i(O, (t) = Re(t).
(17.2.2)
+ 2 + ^ = 0 .

(17.2.3)

Vs (t) (s ~ selj),
Vf ( t ) (<>=forced)'.
V + 2yV + colV = ,
..
Vf+2yVf +4Vf =0e lM.
319

(17.2.4)

(/ 0),
: Vs ( t ) >0,
. Vf (t),
.

Vf (t) = V0e iCil.
(17.2.5)
(17.2.4)
{>1 - 2 + 2i? l)fge iSit = 0e iM.

, =
-

3 f
So(17.2.6)
>0 - + 2lyoo

.

<4- / + 2iya> = ^ .
(17.2.7)

2 _,2
+4

P = \j(a o

(17-2-8)
tg % = -
,
,
.........

Vf = cos{wt + % ), V0 =

. ..... g0.

(17.2.9)

y j ^ - c o 2) + 4 y 2a 2

. 17.2.1
, ( ) .
. 17.2.1,

() .
, ,
, .

320

. 17.2.1.
:
\ < < <4 > =0, > c o j 4 l

: = 0,
: = 0.

0, (17.2.9),
d V jd co = 0 :

> 0//2 , .
(17.2.8), (17.2.9), Vf (t)
(t). . 17.2.2
( , -
- ( ) .

, f 0.
(. 17.2.3).
(17.2.9) ~ \ .
<w0
(17.2.10)

321

>0 V0
=(17.2.11)

= 0 = const V= , V = 0 (17.2.2).

. 17.2.2.'
: y t <2 < <4

. 17.2.3.

V^/V^ . (17.2.10), (17.2.11)


. .... < Q
(17.2.12)
r
27 V
Q .
, Q ,
: V =QV.

. < = >2 - <,
a>i ,
/2 :
1

322

. =>0,
= (/2)0, (17.2.9)

,
I
[(2 - ft2)2 + 4 y W
^ 20

(<2 - (2)2 + 4^2<2 =

->

=> [col - 2)2 = 4 / (22- 2)~ 422.


,
* )0. ,
/ \
1 ~>2 ~ 20 => 2 = )
:
, 1/2

= 2 - 2 =2 .
,
:
-3 .
Q

, ,
.
17.2.2.
ZC- ( ),
(. 17.2.4). t < 0
. t = 0
.

V+ OgV = )20 c o s cot.
(17.2.13)
, ,

323

v(tj=vr(t)+r,w,
.

>2
V(t) = a c o s c o 0t + bsinev0t + 0 0 cos cot.
(17.2.14)
----------- -v------------------ '
G )n - CO
. ',)
-L________ ' vf W
. 17.2.4. ,
,

,

F(0) = , F(0) = 0.
(17.2.15)
,

,
. t = 0, (17.2.14)
?
2
V(0) = 0 => +0
_
= 0 => = -0~'0 2-
2
0
2
-

(0) = 0 => = 0 => = 0.


V(t) = 0 2 0 2 (cos cot - cos oj0t).


(Dr.
" (
.
_ +
= - ) 0, = 2 -
_
_
= <+---- , - -------.
2
0
2
(17.2.16)
2col . (
V(t) = 0 i-- 0 2 sm
sm|
~ t |sin(f) 0 v 2 )

324

(17.2.16)

(17.2.17)

|] ,
sin(fi)f),
2w l

sm
(17.2.18)
2
-
.
. . 17.2.6.

sin()
^ 2 _ 4
0 +>0
( ) ,
. 17.2.6,
_ 2
=
/2
A(t).
A(t) = {
'0

. 17.2.6.
,
: V(t) 0, t->

Vf (t). ,
, . 17.2.7.

17.3. .
17.3.1.

, . , ,
x(i) :
x(t) = 0 cos(cot + <).
325

. 17.2.7. .

, t >

z (t)= z 0e iM,
x(t) = Rez(f). z0
.
z 1"^0
^0
,
0, <0 x(t).

17.3.2. .
- ,
(. 17.3.1).
, (17.1.1):
Lq + R q+ ~ = (t), (t) = 0 .

(17.3.1)

.
= 0 .
(17.3.2)

J = q = icoq0e'm = J 0e w.
(17.3.3)
.
(17.3.1) ,
(i) = ia>0e w = ia>(t) :
U + R j+ = ia)ae im.

326

(17.3.4)

. 17.3.1. ,
,
,
.

+9

, (17.3.3), J = J 0e w t,
L (icof + R i w + \J = ioo.
iw,
1
icoL 4- R +J - .
ion
,
1
1
(17.3.5)
Z = J? + i w 4- i? -i a>La
icoC

(17.3.6)
.
JZ = .
(17.3.5) Z 1,
, .
ReZ - R
( ) ,
bn Z = coL
..

.
, ,
.
, . 17.3.1:
(17.3.7)
dt
2
2

(J ), , (-it/ 2).
1 . impede , .
327

:
, .
,
: JmZ = cob.
- ,
, ,
1/ 0 >>.
,
. ,
, , ..

E,dl = V q jC

{
)

, = .
17.3.3.
, . 17.3.1:
R J + im L J - i J = .
(17.3.8)
>
,
.
,
(17.3.8). J
. R J ,
, (icoL )J (-i/<C) J
(. 17.3.2 ).
(17.3.8)
. , (
) ( )

% = R 2 jl+[<L - - ^

Jl

(17.3.9)

,
(17.3.10)

=-

^
328

. 17.3.2. ,
(') (17.3.8);
iC K -, . 17.3.1,
coL >\jcoC

, %
2
-/ _ tab
(17.3.11)
1-
72
R
~ R
I > I/, ? > \, . 17.3.2,
.
(17.3.4),
,
J = 0cos(W-#>0).
(17.3.12)
LCR . 17.3.3.
. 17.3.3.


iC R -
(. 17.3.1)

(17.3.10), J a(a>)

= = \ / 41
(17.3.13)

329


*>,max ~ S 0/R.

(17.3.14)

, 0
:
1
icoL +Zi + Zc
= 0.
(17.3.15)
icoC =1/Zc
R.
17.3.4.

ZCtf- (. 17.3.1) .
,
V0. . 17.3.3.
, L, , R
(. 17.3.4).
, , ,
, .. ,
.
(. 17.3.4) .
.
. 17.3.4. LCR,

J(t) - J 0es cot.

-
R

J (t)
,
Z
-----1------1-----, ZR = -R-, ZL icoL, Zc

1
(17.3.16)
icoC

:
J = J R+ JL+ JC.
(17.3.17)
, U.
z

ZR

ZL

zc

330

= JZ.
(17.3.18)

,
r
U

.
= - =, /, = = -----, J r = = icoLU. (17.3..19)
Z
R
1
Zr
icoL

Z r
R 'Zr
L t'l
(17.3.18)
J R= J % ,
R

J c - ./-f--

(17.3:20)

J
, J c 1
icoL
1
1- c o 2LC+
1
1+~ + icoCR
R
cd2LC icoCR
icoL
, , , ,
,

(17.3.21)

.\2

4 2
1+
1
.
i
J

= -

- -


(17.3.22)
R/L - 2 , 1/LC = 0.
(17.3.21) , J R,
0
( = -V ,
. ,
,
, ,
.

. (17.3.20)
R
0 = /
J
J -J
*/
\zL\

* i

R0 \zc

(17.3.21) (17.3,22) :

J lo ~"
2 f 2\

4 2
2
,
331

0,

, Q = </2,
^LO= J ~ Jfs/Q , -
.
,
( ).
,
,
=/|2|
(17.3.16)
R

>= >0 jZ[ = R.


,
, ,
. .
17.3.5.
( , )
, ,
.
R Z.
.
1) , ( ),
. 17.3.5):

, .
2)

332

.5> *Z* = I '


t , ,
, Z,.
. 17.3.5.
: ,
,

J3
(
):
E,dl =

= .
*

17.3.6.

.
1) (. 17.3.6).

J = J ,+ J 2.
(17.3.23)

. 17.3.6.

,
. :
J A = ^ (Z ),
?^
J 2Z2 = (Z2, ).
Z
J = /Z.
(17.3.25)
(17.3.23) (17.3.24),
(17.3.25)

333

J= J
, + J1

'

=--- 1----.

Z Z1 V
:
- =
(17.3.26)
z z , z 2
2) (. 17.3.7).
j

j,1

~
___ (

^2

17.3.7. ,

1----------- 1

Z
= JZ.
,
,
./Zj + JZ2.
,
Z = Z1+Z2.
(17.3.27)

, . , ,
:
z ,= , z 2 =!.
iaC x
ia)C2

(17.3.26):
- , L-+?= i(oCx+ia)C2 => = ,+2.
z
z,. z Cz

(17.3.28)


, (17.3.27), :
Z = , Z ^ Z ^ +! => = + . (17.3.29)
icoC
1
iaC x icoC2
Cx C2

.

334

17.3.7.
- ( )
, , Q = J.

:
__

___

Q ^ . !^ ~ \ { t.)J{ tx)dtv

(17.3.30)

.
.
(t) = ((t)+*(t)), J ( 0 = ~ ( j ( 0 ^ ( 0 )

(ty (0 = ( w + ? w ) ( X 0 + f ( 0 ) =

,
(t) = 0f?a,r J ( t ) = J 0fja,e i*

(17.3.31)

( 0 J 0 ).
, (t)J(t) 2
= 2/ :

1 '+
(t)J(t) = 4 * [2\ = 0^ < [2icot{] dt, = 0.
^ I
,
:
(t)J*(t) - 0.
(17.3.30)
= Re {t)J\t)
2

Q = ]- aJ a Re[e-;> ] = U aJ a cos%.

(17,3.32)

(17.3.33)

:
33.5

J 2(t) = ~ J 0, eS = ^ j

1
\2

(10)

= ^ 80,.
(17.3.34)
,
, .
, tg<p0 = 0,
: Q = ,sj c s (17.3.32), : = JZ,
I !2

ReZ = R, J

Q = iR e p ( 0 J * ( 0 ) = ^Re(z|J|2) = ~ R J2 =A7e2ff.

(17.3.35)

,
.

17.4.
17.4.1. .
fit) ,
.. f ( t + ) = f ( t ) ,

+00

/(*) = X

07-.4)

k=~CQ

2 ,
= ~^~ =

(17.4.1) fit) (
).
.
= 2/ ,
.
(17.4.1)

,
2
(17.4.2)
~iaktdu = ~ ~

336

-

exp(ia>kt) = ex p^ 2m ~ k
(17.4.2) ,

, .. (17.4.2) :
*

('* -

{ f ( t ) e i,! d t.
*0
- - / 2 ,
:
/2

(17.4.3)
- / 2

fit ) : f* ( t ) = f ( t ) .
= , = 0, +1, 2,... = -_, (17.4.3)
1=_.

(17.4.4)

17.4.2.
.

, * = , 1, 2,...}, * = 1
(17.4.5)
:
1
( u ,v ) = ju * (t)v(t)d t.
^
.
. ,

( , ) = - \ e - ikMe inmdt =-------------( 1^ )> - l ) =

>. [

i(n k)(oT'

>

2 = 1 {, ) = 0 .
,
( , ) - \ . ,

337

..

{ek, e k) ^ ] e - ik^ d t = ^ ] d t = l.


(, ) = 5,
. ..
1, = ,
(17.4.6)
,
.

) {} :
+QO

/ (0 = X ().
(17.4.7)
~-
f
, ,
/ :
Ck - ( e k, n = ^ ] e ikmf( t) d t.

17.4.3.
1)
f i t ) = /0 cos a>0t .
e l<p = cos <p+i sin <:
cos(00 = y e - ^ + ^ e ifttf.
, /(/) = /0 sin(fi>0)
:
sin(01 ) - ^ ~ ^ 1^ .
2) ,
. 17.4.1
, .

(17.4.3):
. /2.

,.

= J f i t ) e ^ d t = f
-/2

J e '^ d t,
-/2

338

, ,
Ct =i(akT^J /u T o^ t/2
, = 2/.

= ^sin .

{.

. 17.4.1. J{t),

. 17.4.2 -
<>-
sin (/2)
(17.4.8)
<*(>) = :
/2
- = 4 -

. 17.4.2. - ( ) . 17.4.1
= 4. - - (17.4.8)

. 17.4.2 (17.4.8),
, ..
- < /2 <
-2/ <<2/.
,
) = 2/ ( , (17.4.4)

339


). ,
~ 2.
17.4.4.

, .
:

0 = 1

a>k=kw = ^ -k .

= - -

'

fit ) .

= *
.
:
/ (0 = I ^ = ,+ ( ^ + _ <* ) =
=->
=1
= c 0+ t ( Q ^ + Q V ^ ) =
~1

= 0 + L L {Ck+Cl ) c o s a kt + i{c k- c l ) s m a kt\.


k=\


= 0,

% = -+;

^ e ^ ) d t = f j f ( t ) c o s ( w tt)dt,
-*

6, = /(, - ; ) = } 0 ( ^ - e ^ )d t = | J f(t)sm{a>kt)dt.

. 0
. ,
,
:
00

f i t ) = + ^ { cos a>kt + sin cokt).


=1

afo bk
1^
2
2
0 =
%
= -J/ (0 c o s(ro t0 ^ bk = -jfU )sm { 6 \ l)d t.
0

340

17.4.5.

, ,
. ,
: > .
= 2/. = 2/.
= . (17.4.3)
:
/2
0 = 1, = ^ f f { t ) e l^ d t .
(17.4.9)
*=-oc

- / 2

=- ,
2
/2

~ J m e - ^ d t .
- / 2

>,
{ =2/, = 0,1,2,...},
, ,
+

J f ( t ) e iMdt,

(() =

(17.4.10)

(17.4.9)
/ (/ ).

=> / (,)=

(17.4.10)
:
+00

JJ ()

00

() = f f { t y * * d t .
2
1

(17.4.11)

() - fit).
, -

( ) = { -),
(17.4.12)

341

(17.4.4)
.
17.4.6.
,
/0 - / 2 < t< /2,
(. 17.4.3).
, .
, At)
. 17.4.3. ,

.
, ,
Jo

-/2

/2 t

:
, t< r/2,
= - f 0, -T / 2< t< v/ 2,
(17.4.13)
, t > /2.
- (17.4.11):

tj 2
a(ai)= j f(t)e~ iO}tdt = f 0 J e~M dt =
-r/2
(17.4.14)
'
'
/2
(17.4.13) :
/ (0 = [ ( > )^ = ^ J
*
/ -
/ 7
71 1

03

^ ( /2)
co s c o t----------- -d co .
(

, = cos a t + i sin a t,
, sin a t
.

342

17.4.7. S-
, (17.4.13) (.
17.4.3). ,
/
: >
(. 17.4.4).
{/()}, 1 , ,
, .

/ ( 0 = ^ ( 0 ,

t = 0,
() :
+00
\ 8 (t)d t = 1.
(17.4.15)

. 17.4.4.
,

(
),

'

/(0

------
-----

^-.

+00

J '-,

g(t) .
S- (

1 ,
: supp/(i) = {t \f ( t ) 0}.
. , . 17.4.3,
[-/2, /2].

343

e [ t s , t + s], -> 0),


g(ty) = g(t). ,

+00

J g W S it- t^ d ti

.
00
(17.4.15).

+00

= g ( t) S it- = g (t),
. ' -00

(17.4.16)

- ^-. (17.4.14) -
(. 17.4.3)
sinf /2)
) = - ^
(17.4.17)
f 0r = 1 :
>0,
e() = 1,
(17.4.18)
. ^-

S(t) = j ~

(17.4.19)

(17.4.11) , f[t)
,
:
+00

+ 0

+00

=j

~J

+00

=\ ~ \

^-, ,
. ,
,
+00

00

+00

. 00

J S i t - t J f W t , = f it).
+00

f ( h )dtl =

00

^ .
( )
t < ,
0(0= [1 ,t> 0.
(1720>
0- . 17.4.5.

344

. , .
(17.4.20) , 6'{i) = 0 t > 0 . ,
'({) 0 t = 0.
,

. 17.4.5.
()

J 9'{tx)dtx, > 0.


t
\ e\ tx)dtx= 0 { t)-9 { -d) = e{t),
-

, 9 (- ) = 0 > 0. ,

fo t<0,

{t^dty = \

[1 t > 0.

, 6'(t) ^-:

17.4.8,
(17.4.13) (. 17.4.3). (>) (17.4.17) . 17.4.6.
-.
<()
/
. 17.4.6. -
,

\ 2 /
\ / /~\6>7/

-2/ /

\/4/

(17.4.12)
,
345

- >> 0, ..
:
~2/.
At = ,
At ~ 2 .
. ,
-
2.

17.5.

( )
17.5.1.


(t)
;A (q) = (t),

(17.5.1)

, .. ,
q(t) : q(t) F(t).
, L O -
(t)

L l + R ^ l + ^ = (t).
(17.5.2)
dt2
dt }
(17.5.1),
~ , d2 n d 1
A L+ R .
dt dt
, qx(f)
q2(t) ( ) \ 2 (
)
^ (q + c 2fc) = q i ( f tj+ c 2i ( ?2) ; .
(17.5.3)

:
346

(1) = .
(17.5.4)
(17.5.1)
,
S(t) = f , k, = ^ :

(17.5.5)

4=1

,
A{qk) = k(t)

=1

(17.5.1):
(t) qk{t)
(().

:
f(t) = 2

^ \ = j f ( t ) e * * d t , = ^ ~

= -

(17.5.6)

:
-)

.+

/ (0 = f
())= f
(17.5.66)
J
2
-00

00J

. ,
.
17.5.2.
LC1f-,
(17.5.2). q(t)
V(t) = q(t)/C,
V
+2 rV +a$V = 6$(t).

^

(17.5.7)

(() = j d = ] ^

:
347

(17.5.8)

d = a>e itat .
(17.5.9)
2

,
~ ,
, ,
V=\dV, dV = V0)ei6X ,
J
2

( - 2 + 2iy<a+col)dV = a)la e imt .
v

2
:
2

(>) = ---- ^
)0 - +2iyco

(17. 5. 10)

d v = () .
2 , :
7

(0 = J

ft/
2 ~ J

^ - J

=>)
(17.5.12)
- Voy

(t) = A8{i).
(17.5.13)

= \ {t)e-iMd t = A,
-

Vm = ().
V(t) = A ] (() .
-

, (>) -
. ,
, (17.2.6).
348

(17.5

- (.. L = 0)

*(*>) =

1
,
(17.5.14)
1+icoRC 1+icoT
- RC ,
-. ,
,
:
V(t) = A \ ^ = -~ .
1-vicov
2

(17.5.15)

< 0 V(t) = 0.
(17.5.15) ,
(17.5.7) (17.5.13) = 0.
, LV +RV + V/C = (t)/C
V+-V = -A S (t).

(17.5.16)

/>0 (17.5.16) :
V + V/t = 0, V = V0 (-/ ). V0
.
(17.5.16) [, ]. V(s) = 0,
1
1
V(+s) +- [ V(t)dt = .
J


0 ,
, a V(+s) - V0, : V0 = /.
,
,
>1
V(t) = Vme -y ^ m \ 4 o jl-Y 2t\, Vm = ~r - A ^ .
(17.5.17)

2
-\

17.6.
,
x(t) = A (t)cosp (t).
.

<p(t) -a>0t + y/{t).


A(t) y/(t) .

~ 2/0, coq,
. , ,
A(t) y/(t), x(t)
.
: ,
.
17.6.1.
-,

x(t) = A (t)cosco0t,
A(t)
( cos a>0t).
cos 0f ,
:
A(t) = Aq(l + cos i i t ) .
:
coq ,
Q ,
.
, : 1.
-
. 17.6.1.

. 17.6.1. - .

!

350

,
. :
S (f) = Aq (l + cos ) 1
>*.
: cosQ.t = ( e nt + l!^ j,
S(t) = A^eiaKf + ' ^ - e
(17.6.1)
2
2
, :
() :
0,
>0 +Q.
. 17.6.2.
. 17.6.2. -
,

/2

. ^/2

17.6.2.
, (),
t
x(t) = 0 c o s (pit), <p{t) = J co{tx)dtl ,
0 '
Aq, a co(t)
, :
co(t) = d<p(t)/dt = ( + s{t), |s(Z)| < 1.

oj(t) = )0 +AcocosQ.t.
,
x(t) = Aq cos(a)0t + sin Q t), Q <e.
:
( ,
,
1 ,

351

J3 =-Ao}/Q. .
, <:0.
- . 17.6.3.


(t) = cos (cOgt + y/(t)), |y/(t) < l|,
y/(t) , (). ,
, , : . < 1.
- -
. - co(t) ~ dcpjdt
.
,
(
). -
>0 < < + ,
(o)at + m-i//(t)) (co0t)
.

.
,
.
- .
,
S(t) = Aq ['()0? +/?sinQ?)].
/? < 1, x(t)
:
S (t) = A tfh* (1 + iJ3 sin Q t).
352

: sinQi = [ - ), 2
zv 1

S(t)=: Aoe ia,ot- ^ - e ^ a,0~a ) , + ^ - e i(a0+n)t.

(17.6.2)

, /? : 1 :
() :
)0, )0 , ) +Q
. 17.6.4.
.

. 17.6.4. -
,

17.6.3.
-
-
(17.6.1). 0,
, .
, :
4> -ine
---- j a t
----2
2
2
.
, () 0. , ()
, .
. 17.6.5.
-
- (17.6.2).
,
, .
, :
,

353

c ~iCU
2

2
. ,
(t = 0) (
).
.
0 j o t
-----

_,/^ \ int
----- ------ 6

Ag-;nt
2

+0
+

-
. 17.6.5. - .
,

1
fP A

A0+ij8A0

jn t

JO /

i/M0
An

-i/M0

A0~i/3A0
. 17.6.6. - .
,

,
()
0. , () ,
354

. .
17.6.6.
, ,
~ (17.6.2)
~ 2. S(t)
j} ,
:
S(t) = Af) [ (<0+ sin Q f)J , |S(f)| = = const.

17.7.

, .
,
,

.
, ,
.
17.7.1.
,
(
) .
L,
f[t)
g(t), . 17.7.1.

g{i) = L [f(t)].
,
/,(?) f 2(t) 2

(+2/2( 0 ] = ( 0 ] + c2l [ / 2

l \c j x

.
. 17.7.1. ,

fit)
g(t)

j(i)
--------

355

g(t)

R
(

*)

. 17.7.2.
,
fit) -
()
g(t) = V (
)


/?-,
:
'![(*)] =

V+ 2yV + a}lV = a>l{t).


. .2.
, ,
: >0 = l//LC .

g ( 0 = f 2(0 17.7.2.

. ,
, . 17.7.3.
,
()
( ) . D
, (. 17.7.4).

~<

. 17.7.3. ;
, .
356

. 17.7.4. ,

. 17.7.3
,
( Zc =1/icoC ). () .

.
.
.
, :
------------

(17.7.1)
/ = At t-
~
At I n f .
, , .
17.7.5.
. 17.7.5.
,

At ~ =RC


. 17.7.6.

17.7.3.

.
. , ,
, :
357

fit)

1
= -f

t+

f f\ t,)d tv

(17.7.2)

- . 17.7.7.

. 17.7.6.
. : (
), .

.
17.7.7. ,
At

17.7.4.
-

/(/) = A(t) co s on9t, A(t) = 4, (1 + m cos Qt), D.
,
(17.7.3)
At ,
2
.
2
t . .
(17.7.4)
w0

(17.7.2)
(17.7.3):
oj

_______ ,

t+ A t/2

I+ & I/2 '

f 2(t) = f A2(tl) c o s 2(o)Qtl)dtl ~ A 'it) J cos2(0f1) ^ 1 =


Af

A t, J

-A ft).
2

358

, 2(?)
(17.7.4).
cos2 o\t = 1/2. ,
f ( t y =^A2{t) = ~^J^(l + 2 m c o s a t ) ,

(17.7.5)

( <sc 1).
(17.7.5) ,
^ cos f i t
4 / 2 .
- :
S(t) = A(t)eia, A(t) = ,()+ cosC it).
(17.7.6)
(17.7.5) S(t')
:
g ( t) = f 4 i f = ^ A \ t ) = ^S'S=^\S\2.

(17.7.7)


g{t) = yST S

(17.7.8)


-, .

17.7.5,
- :
/ (0 = ^0cos(0i + /?sinQ*).
(17.7.9)

S(t) = A0e i{a,+fiskiat).
(17.7.10)
(17.7.8)
:
g (t) = ^ S 'S = ^ 4 = const.

(17.7.11)

, ;
.

359

17.7.6.
- .

, .
o)q.
, -
(17.6.2):

S(t) =

+ ^ _ ,+)1 __ -),'

( 17_7 2)

j .

S(t) = 5(01 =

_ ^ _ --)/ =
2

(17.7.13)

sin f i t

(1 7.7.2 ) :

g (t) = ^ S 'S = ^ ( P \ ) 2 sin 2 Qt = ^ - ( M ) 2 (1 - cos2D.t).

(17.7.14)

, - : g ( t ) co n st. g(t)

(~ sin Cit):
(2Q ).
,
, . 17.7.7. ZC-
,
, = ca^jQ .
-L
r
S (l)

:
L

. 17.7.7. , /


**7/


()

17.7.7.
,
/2.

360

,'
,1+/2 _ iA0e

(17.7.12)
'1_,j_<
__v_g-(<
, 4)+n)'
S(t) = i4,e

<
>c i(.Oo-n)t _

(17.7.15)


^ (/ )= l5 * 5 = | 4 (l+ / ? s iiiQ /)2

(1 + 2,031110/)

(17.7.16)

( P <s 1). ,
- ,
.
,
n j 2 , . 17.7.8.
.
. 17.7.8. ,

/2.
,
R

S(t)

S(t)

/?-:
R
1
1
- ^ => Zr
7 =------------.
-----=
ZRC R
1+ io:>RC
( )
Z = icoL + Zr = icoL -------------.
RC
\+icoRC
( ) S(t) = V(t)
J J R
Jc'J = VjZ J R+ J .
,

J r R = J CZC => J c J RRjZc = icoRCJR .


:

R
( = 0 = 1]4 )
VR - V(R/io\L) = -i(R / o 0L)V, VR = S.
, /2. R
,
~ >0

.
, ,
Ag co s (a>0t +
, (
) Ag cos(</).
S(t) = 0 +) + / * = v ( 9<,) +Ag ),
g ( t) = SS = | [ 4 + A2g + 2A0Ag cos (# ))]
.

17.8.

,
.
,
,
-
.
,
( )
( ).

362

ZC--,
(. 17.8.1).
, . ,

q(t) = q0e~r cos(a)t + <pQ).
(17.8.1)
. 17.8.2. ,
: / , . :
co = 4 a'i~ y ~jo

2 ^ 2
(17.8.2)

0
,
. 17.8.3, TL

:
Tl =2 t = T/2.
(17.8.3)

. 17.8.1.
LCft-
L

. 17.8.2.

(. 17.8.1)



(17.8.4)
+ it/ +-^- = 0, = ,
dt

L -
( ).
.

363

. ,
t = (. 17.8.3) :

0 = 1+0

(1 7.8.5 )

11+0

10

. 17.8.3.

.
(0 1 2 -> 3 -> 4)
2

,
: R 0.
, ,
, ,
W = 2/2,
(17.8.6)
= LJ .
( ), .
,
,
.
. 17.8.4
, . 17.8.3.

. 17.8.4.


(. 17.8.4):

364

>1>2 3 >4.
(17.8.7)
0 (. 17.8.3 . 17.8.4),
(J 0 = 0), 0 -> 1
L x 2 ;
: W = W0.
, 1 > 2
J = J 2.
:
W0 =W2 =O22/2L2.
(17.8.8)
2 ( t = ) ,
(17.8.6) :
2 2
L,
3 =2 =
W. = = -*- = -* -w , = ^ - w 0, (17.8.9)
3 2Lt Ly 2 2 L,
Lt

2 3
l2 \
( L , \ W2 = ( -
(17.8.10)
\ A W = W, - W 17 =
/
J
(3 >4 ) :
W4 =W3.
, TL = 2
AL/Z,, , AL=L1- L ] .
, .
(.. ( + 1)- )

U-1

W,

(17.8.11)

. ,
t = 2 = nT L,

(17.8.12)
W (t) = WQez

1 r /
1 f O2
(17.8.13)
In 1+
In
= 2TL
271 I L J

365

.
:

= .
(17.8.14)
2Tl Lx
,
.
. :
= |2- , w 0 = * * ,

J * = \ jx J a '

(17'85)

/ J K .

\"/2
J = 2
J 0.
(17.8.16)
\A J
() .
.

. , ,
, . , ,
: 2- < Lr TL

W m =T2R-TL= l- R J l J L,

(17.8.17)

J 1 = J 2miy_/2
.

Aw = W0 *
= AZJmax .(17
L
L 2
2
,
:
AW > AfF

=> AUr- > -E J * T , => AL > RT,.


22 (17.8.19)
* aX *-*-

,

AL = 2ATlL, R = 2yL
( (17.8.14),
). (17.8.19)
366

(17.8.20)

> .

, ,
. TL
(AW) (AW0T):
AW AWL
W=W+AW-AWnar=W 1+~

=W

1+ AL R J l J L/2

LJ2
max //2

Wu [\ + 2ATL-2 yT L],

y = R/2L
AL/L, = 2; , (17.8.14).

Wn =W,[\ + 2XTL-2 yT L]n = W ^ [_ n\ n(\ + 2XTL-2 yT L)].
,
.
In [1 + 2( - y)TL] * 2( - )nTL.
, t = n -2 t = nTL,
W(t) = W0e 2a-r)1.
(17.8.21)
, , > ,
(17.8.20).

.
1) (17.8.12) (17.8.21),
, , ..
W = 0. :
( (17.8.20)).

.
2)
( ,
).
,
.
3) ( )
. (
) .

367

(
) TL
0,

2
2
coL 2 0, (
0 ~~zr ,
,
, Ti
.
, TL
0: TL = 0/2, = 1 ,2 ,3 ,....

= 1,2,3,...
(17.8.22)

.
4)

,
,
(17.8.22):
- /4
< <
L,Tl + \

.
( > 0) .
< .

17.9.
17.9.1.

, ( )

.

, .
-
.

(. 17.9.1).

368

,
.
,
. 17.9.2.
,
, ,
, .
. . .

17.9.2. --
,
, --,
- (. 17.9.3).

. 17.9.1. ,
;

. 17.9.2.

:
. : J a
:
e ^ M d J jd t.
(17.9.1)
.
,
,

369

L +R J + UC= M .
(17.9.2)
dt
dt
'
, : J > ,
, .. J = d Q jd t.
Uc =Q/C, J = CdUc jd t . (17.9.2)

L C ^ ^ + R C ^ -+ U = M ^ -.
(17.9.3)
dt2
dt

dt
: J a = J a(Uc ).
,
. 17.9.4.
.

. 17.9.3. -- ; ,
(
)

. 17.9.4.

: Uai < Ua2 < Uai
( 1 , 2 3 )

J a Ua:
U J a , .. .
, U =UaQ,

370

U = 0 J a = J (Uc ) .
^ , ..
S(Uc ) = d J a/dUc ,
(17.9.4)
Uc =0. S(UC)
. 17.9.5. Ua 0 ,
.
.

. 17.9.5.

:
S = S0 -
(17.9.3) (17.9.4), (17.9.5):

(17.9.5)

MS(UC) ^ ,

dUc dt
dt
dt
:
d zUc R C -M S d U ,
1
+------------------+ /. = 0 . J
dt
LC
dt
LC c
--.
,
2__l

LC
LC
LC
(17.9.6)
d 2U
dU
2 \
+ 2 { + 2) c- + m M = Q .
dt *
v ' " dt

(17.9.6)

(17.9.7)

(17.9.8)

17.9.3.
Uc = 0,
. .
, Uc 0 , (17.9.8) :
371

~ +2
+ a ftu = .
(17.9.9)
dt
dt
,
.
, ..
MS0 < RC ( < 0). / > 0, (17.9.9) ,
Uc (t) = Uc0e~'/! sin cot, = / ~2

(17.9.10)
,
.
: MS0 > RC, ..
< 0 . , (1 7.9.1 0),
:

Uc {t)~Uc0J rh m c o t .
(17.9.11)
, .
MSQ< RC
MS0 > RC.
1) MS0 <RC, .. /> 0. , ,
<0 . Uc
(
J a = J a(U ) ).
, ,
( Uc). ,

.
2) MS0 > RC, .. < 0.
> 0. TJC .
,
, Uc.
, J a
Uc. , ..
. ,
Uc ,
.

372

17.9.4.
,

MSq >RC.
(17.9.12)
,
( U 0).

TgZZt =jm ---= .1,%- ^

dt

dt

Q = CUe , J = & = C * ; ^ = ^
dt
dt
dt

mts0j 2.

dt

=- 4 / .

R J2T.
:
MTS0~ J 2 > R J2T, MSq > R C ,
.
(17.9.12), --.
17.9.5.

,
() ,
.
--.
, ,
, :
U 2 CU2

W=

,
J = dq/dt = dUc j d t :

= \/LC (17.9.6)

, > 0 : dW/dt < 0.


dW/dt dUc jd t = 0.
Uc 0
(CUc) . U = const (1
, (17.9.13) ,
: U >0, W 0,
.
< 0, ( U = 0),
(17.9.13), dW/dt > 0. , , ,
.
( Uc > /- /J3) .
= 4 ^ / 0 ,
,
:
W(t +T) = W(t),
(17.9.14)
.
Uc
(17.9.13) :
1+/ j \2
W(t + T )-W (t) = 0 = -2L C 2 |
( y + /3U2c \dt. (17.9.15)
< 0 (.. |/| )
:
Uc (t) = Uc0 cos cot.

374

(17.9.15)
t +T

sm

rp

t +T

c Q ta t- ,
1

2
2
j
sin
c ot c o s c o t d t

^| +^ 4 | = 0 .
:
jMS0 -R C
U 0 = 2 1- = 2 ---- -------- .
(17.9.16)
0
|
]j MS2

(17.9.7).
,
.
, (R = 0),
U =
/S2 - , > 0

.
(
).

375

18.

, .
,

, .
:
, ,
, ,

( , ).
,
,
.

.

18.1.
18.1.1.
,
, ,
.
,
.
. (W. Schottky) 1918 .
,
. 1924 1926 . .
18.1.1.

. (), .
, ,
, .
, ..
376

, .
, . 18.1.2.

. 18.1.1. .
, ,


. i(t) ,
. '- tj,

/(0 = 5 > - ' ) -

(18.1.1)

tj ,
J ( t ) .

. 18.1.2.

18.1.2.
,
(18.1.1), .
, ,
, . ,

, ,
( , , ,
).

377

.
N : T = N t.
1 ,
. ,
( ) .
,
.

....

(18.1.2)
N

,

J T(n) = /.
: (18.1.3)
, q = l .
p nqN~n.
, ,
N1
, CnN =------------ , n\(N-ri)\
, (18.1.3)
WN(n) = CnNp nqN~n.
(18.1.4)
, .

------------

n = J W N(ri)n = Np, c > l = ( n - n f =Npq.

(18.1.5)

=0

, .
, .
n= N p, \ = .
(18.1.56)
(18.1.3),
:

JT = Y,WN(n)J T(n) =
(18.1.6)
=0
*
1 ( )
, .

378

:
9

&J


<18L8)

(18.1.7) (18.1.8) :
1) (
), ,
2 )
.
3)
. , ,
.
18.1.3.
, J{t)
< t< T :
Q

J ( t) = - + ^ [ak cos(kcot) +bk sin(fcotf)],


(18.1.9)
2 =J
= 2/ ,
2
= |j(?)cos(kcot) dt, = 0, 1, 2 ,...
T
I

(18.1.10)

bk = |J ( t ) sin(Arftrf) dt, = 1,2,...


To
,

i j ( t ) = e 5 ( t - t j) ,
(18.1.11)
S(i) -. , ,
, , ,
,
, , , .
(18.1.10)
(/-) :

[ = j-co s(k o )tj), blJ) ^ y s m i k a t j) .

(18.1.12)

tj
,

1)= 4 = 0 , * = 1, 2 ,...

(18)

,
, :
=

(18.1.14)

. , (18.1.9),
(18.1.12) /- - /-

4 ^ (?) = ) cs (^0 +b*jp sm(kcQt) =

= ~ j^cos(kcotj) c o s (kwt) + sin(kcotj) sin(Arof)] = ~ cos


_
V

__
tf

2
2
4e
2
/,
/
3
2
ez
cos [k c o ( t-t j )) =

<18U5>

, tj.
cos2[kco(t tj )] = 1/2 .


i(kj) (t) i(kl>(t) = 0 j I.
- -

(18.1.16)

2-

04-I7J

4-

J T = /.

- ,
. 18.1.3.

380

v. v - /2. , ..
Av - l/ , .
d v , .

^ - Tdv -.
<
Av

d (J 2 j = j\ -Tdv = 2 e J Tdv.

J T = J 0,
d v :
d ( j 2^= 2 e j 0dv.

(18.1.18)

.
, .
( )
.
dv
I------- ------- -1
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I-------

1 2

j j ^

v +d v

. 18.1.3. -
(18.1.18)
d ( J 2)/dv = 2,/0 .
:
.
, ,
,
:
d { j z>j = 2 eJ0FTd v ,

(18.1.19)

FT .
. 18.1.4.

_1
_
v ~ . , 10 ,
v ~ 108 .

. 18.1.4. FT, ,,

.
co =2ttv, ,

18.2.
18.2.1.
1927 . .. (J.B. Johnson) ,
,
R, , (. 18.2.1).
S 1
.
1927 . X. (. Nyquist).
,
, ,
,
= 0, 7 (0 = 0 .
(18.2.20)
,
.

. 18.2.1. ,
R

.
,
.
( ). ,
. ,
.
.
382

()
(d W jd t R J2), , ,
.


()
. ,
.
18.2.2.
.
,
(-3).
, .
V. ,
,
;
j = , u = ^ Vi.,

(18.2.21)

, V,- z- , N
V: N=nV, ()
.
j = 0.
. .
,
j 2 = e V u 2 = e V u 2.
(18.2.22)
,
.

:
' \2 "
n - n )2 +( n )
2 = \ n 2 = \ ( N - N +N)2
2
2
1
_i_
>2
: N 1 , N2 N,

383

.2
N]
2 = 2 .
'
:
2

(18.2.23)
2 2>< = - ^ Z v , v t .
N2 V i i,k

:
3
1 = , V,- -------.
m
,
, :.
v,-vA - v,. \ - 0 1.

2
1 V-1 2 1
^ .
=
=----
(18.2.24)
Nz i
N m
,
2 =

f *

.il.V L -i.ilL u :.
(18.2.25)
N m
V
, N = nV. ,
.

J 2 = S 2j 2 ~
= - .
(18.2.26)
V m
I m
/ S ,
V = 31 .

= 2/2,
(18.2.27)
, m
.
----

..

jZ ~ L 2 k T .
(18.2.28)
I

R = l/SA,
(18.2.29)
384

1 -

J -------- .
(18.2.30)
R


= ]/, = 0.
(t):
= 0, 2 0.
-
2 = R2J 2 ~ kTR/t.
, :

(18.2.31)

P = J = R J 2 ~/.
(18.2.32)
, ,
.
,
,

.
18.2.3.
,
LCR (. 18.2.2). R,
(
).
1-------- 1

i 3

. 18.2.2. LCR-,
,

8(f)
\
--------5* J*--------- 1

,
ti>0 =l/VZc,
, = R/2L
.
. 18.2.3.
(,

385

), ,
.
. 18.2.3. LCR.
J xj^ = /2 .
Wo ,
.
< 0
( < fi%)
~ 1/,
0 = 2/>0.
. , ,
( )
( ):
W = ^ - +^ - = +^ ,
(18.2.33)
2
2
2
2
U .
,
( )
, /2:
1 CTJ21

WL = - = -k T ,W c =------ = - ,
1
2
2
2
2

(18.2.34)

W = W[ + Wc = .

( : < )
Q = 2 k W/AW,
(18.2.35)
W - , a AW
, . ,

AW = 2nW/Q.
(18.2.36)
, W
,
AW = 2nkT/Q .
(18.2.37)

386

.

= 0/,
(18.2.38)
>0 , > ( ) ~ 2 ).

,
. (18.2.37), (18.2.38)
, :

AW = 2 .
(18:2.39)

, 0 = 2/0 ,
:
~ AW/T0 = .
(18.2.40)
,
co +co + d c o . ,
,
. ,
.
:
P = J 2R, P = 2/r ,
:

( J )a d c o ------dco, (2) ~ kTRdco .


(18.2.41)
R
(18.2.40), (18.2.41),
, ..
. ,
.
(18.2.40), (18.2.41) .

18.3.

, .
18.3.1.
:
K (T) = (t)(t + T).
(18.3.1)

() ,
.
() t
.
- S(a>)

() =

S(0J) =

J ()d r.

(18.3.2)

00

, ,
) = (? ) = ] s ( c o ) ~

(18.3.3)

S( cd) .
,
L R. ,
, .
.
( ),
(0 = 0.
(18.3.4)
,
, :
(t)(t) = G 8 (t-t').
(18.3.5)
(18.3.1)
(5)
() = GS(t).
(18.3.6)
G. ^-
. J ( t )
:
L + R J = (t),
(18.3.7)
dt
(t).
J (0 ) = 0
/

I f -

R S

/ (O ^ T je x p
L

, :
388

t ^
U 2 G
WL =
L
2
4R
, ,
t , WL =/ 2.
G
G = 2kTR.
(18.3.9)

:
K e (T)=2kTRS(z).
(18.3.10)
(18.3.2) S(a>)
S(co) = 2kTR.
(18.3.11)
,
,
, (18.3.2), (18.3.11) :
p = s 2(t) = f 2kTR = 00.
R
R }
2

(18.3.12)


(WL = /2).
,
heo > ,
. S(eo) = 2kTR = const
,
7-10 13 ,
.
.

,
.

(18.3.10) ,
,
5- (18.3.6).
, ,
. 18.3.1: () ~ .
S ( oj)
(18.3.10)
>~ 1 (. . 18.3.16).

. 18.3.1: ()
,

,
,
= ^ ? 2-(18.3.13)
1+ >
(18.3.2)
:
()= ] Se (c )eia

da> _kTR
-
2

(18.3.14)


:
1
1 kTR
P = - 2(t) = - K (0)= (18.3.15)
R
R s
R
, 18.2
,
.
S(co)
. (t)
:
390

00

00

{t) = f j m = ^, = f if)e imd t .


(18.3.16)
2n
J
TJ00
(*) , -

_ = ,
(18.3.17)

. () (18.3.1)
(t) {t + r ) :
K e (z )= {t) (t+ T ) =

^ 1 > 2

(18.3.18)

= 2|+2>
,
( = - , (02=0)'.
,

(18.3.19)

= I } ^ ^ + ^ + )] .

00
00
, ()
t. ,
2 = ~ \ .
,

&1 = ->= >-> >2 ~ <>


(18.3.19) :
, ' =2()(~).
,

(18.3.2G)

A( oj) = ( 2) ,

' >>
, ,
\2 ) , V '
, - 2.
(18.3.19) (18.3.18)
{)- J A (co)eWT
J
2

391

(18.3.21)

(18.3 .2) ,
A(c)~Sf:(to),
(18.3.22)
.. (>)
, S(a>) = 2kTR
(18.3.20)
* . = AnkTRS(co- o f).

(18.3.23)

18.3.2.


,
-.
,
,
.
(18.3.11),
(18.3.12) .
, LCR-

J ffl= 4/Z ( ),
(18.3.24)
Z(eo) ,
,
Z(a)) = R + ia>L+l/ia)C.
(18.3.25)
:
K j {t) = J(t)J{ t + v).
(18.3.26)
.

. ? , ( ) - J ,{) inn d r.

(18.3.27)

(18.3.23),
. (18.3.26) J ( t)
:
Kj W =

I j ^ ^ N1 +'20+ ] J 2 oj

00
00
- J -
(18.3.24):
392

00 00 (
k j

(t ) =

J J 2^ 2
f 2 e
xp[/(a\+ co2)t + 2] Z(co])/(ct)2)

0 0

7 7 d co d co '

,
. , ' <
I ----- \i(-co+ )t t M ] I/nit 72

..Zi (co)Z(co')
;
-

\ >- , >2 >'


* = _, Z (-co) = Z* ().
' (18.3.23),
:

( l 8 ' 3 -2 S )

S j(co)
Sj(cD) = S(a>)l\Z(a>f.

(18.3.29)

S() = 2kTR
S j(co) = 2kT.R/\Z((o)\2 .
(18.3.30)
- :
fJ d
"

---- = 2
Z \co)Z (w')

\Z(a>f

(18.3.31)

S(co) = 2k.TR,
AftkTR

(18.3.32)

\Z(a>)\

S(co) = 2kTR, S j( a ) = 2kTR/\Z(co)\2


(18.3.33)
. ,
R
. LCR
2
(18.3.34)
Z(a>) = R + ia>L + - ---- = R + icoL I
icoC
;

393

= 0 = l/yjbC
Z( ojq) = R, (18.3.30) S j(o)) = 2kT/R.

18.3.3.
,
ZCR-. -
'
P = (t)J(t).
(18.3.35)
-
J eo = /Z 0 )>
,
= (t)J(t) = | |

^
)

(2 )

, =4ttkTRS(w a>'), '



Z(co) 2

(,8.3.36)

:
P = ] p o ^ , d P =P ^ , P a = i k X ^ - .
^
2
2
Z(co)

08.3.37)

,
LCR-,
Z(co) = R+icoL+ .
(18.3.38)
icoC
(18.3.36) ,
(-, +).
Z(co) = Z*(co),
_k.TR | dco _kTR | I ' I
1
+d co Z(co)

^
2
Z(co)
z
()
4 '

V.
kTR r R
=-----; ------- T-dco.

\Z{w)f
0 . ,

394

P = f -----------------= .
(18.3.39)
i^ R 2 + (coL -l/coC )2
L
. ,

.
= 2 = R/L. Z = R
(18.3.37) = ^ = ^ - .
2

~ 2 = R/L, ,
~ R/L
(18.3.39).
, , ,
.
- ( ).
U 2
, UL =

(18.3.28)

K j(t)

&l ~ ~ K j(0 ) = - r J
2
2
J00
2n
(18.3.30),
24

\R+ icoL\ 2

2 ^ R2 +m2L

(18.3.40)


,
().
Uc ,
, -. , U q2jlC .
q ,
- :
q0 = jjia > .
(18.3.41)
(18.3.30)

395

w=^ lrr

( 1 8 3 -4 2 )

2 C l

2 *

2 *

I
orC J
, UL = Uc = k T fl ,
LCR- ( LR- RC) (18.3.38) .

396

1.

.1.1.


, .
(, ,
, ) . ,
,
( = ordinary),
( = extraordinary) (. . 1.1).
,
, .
. . 1.1.
:
()
()
,
,
. .
.
,
.
.
,

, .
.
, .
, ,
( ) .
,
, (..
).
. . 1.2
() ()
( ).
. 397

,

.
, .

.
)
z

. . 1:2. ( )
() () ()
() ; (
' z)


: ,.
,
( ).

,
/2 ,, (. .1.2).
:

: = = const, = ,

: = (), =----- .
()
, 0 - 0
398

(0) = , = = v 0
no
(..
). 9 = /2,
2 ) = , = 0

( , ).


sin2 6> cos2 #
1

+ 5 = -^---- n (e) = - j =

/2 COS2 ! S in

(& )



2( ) = ~ = v 2 sin2 + 2 cos2 .
(0)
,
>, v e < va.
:
<, >0
.
,
= / , .
, ,
, ,
.

.

,
(. . 1.3) (..
) S = -^-[E ,H l, 4
, .
.

399

. 1.2.
(
)
. D = + 4 ,
:

7.\ x ^zy-^y
bZyILy ^1 t'ZZ*-J
-'77^7'
z
zx
Z

D = E, Dik = sikEk.
, ,
:
i,k = x , y , z .

, <0

, >

. .1.3.
, ()
()
e ik , , .. s ik = s u . ,
,
:
(
0 0^1
= \ 0 ' Syy 0

i0

0 sa )

\d x = S'x
xe x,
1>
\Dy = SyyEy ,

\Dz = szzEz.
.

400

^ ^ ^zz >
, z
.
,
,
.
(
) :
- l = e , D = s E .
.
(
||) ( J.) :
D-*=j|E|| + , 1) =^|j|, D =^.

, _L ,
= 1
.

=
= C/V^i

, , ||,
=

= c / f i ,

. 1.3.
,
9 .
: = \.
, .
:
+ " 1
, 1
rotE =-------- , rotH =------ ,
dt
dt
divD = 0, divH = 0.
.

~ e x p ( ik r - if it f ) .


401

=, =

D, kD = 0, = 0 .

(.1.1)

, D,

(. . 1.4). S = [, ], 4
, S (.
.1.46)
, ,
, D . , ,
D ,
S . , . . 1.4,
D S.
4S

. .1.4. D, , , S
: D, , S , ,
D , S

N :
^TVT
I =N.

(.1.2)

, |N| =
, ,
. ,

iV||=cos0, |Njl| = n sm 9 , N2 =
+ N2 = n2.
(. 1.1)
NxE = H, N = -D.
, ,
:

402

D = -[N, [N, E]], D = N2E - N(NE).

(.1.3)
= (% )
=1>
(. 1.3):
ikEk= N 2SjkEk -N iNkEk, [N2Sik ~NiNk - s ik^Ek =
( ).
:
dct(.V2^
(.1.4)
, z ,
(, ) .
(. 1.4)
N2 - N x
2 - sx
-N xNy
-N XNZ
-N y Nx

N2 - N 2 - s

-N y Nz

~NZNX

NzNy

N2 - N 2 s

= 0.

,
:
(iV2 s )[s^N2 + (iV2 + N2) - ]ls ] = ,
. ,
:
N2 N2 +N2
- 1.
(-1.5)

Nz = JVj| =ncos& ,
N2 + N2 = N2 = n2 sin2 ,
(. 1.5)
cos2 0

sin2

(. 1.6)


, .

403

0 = y fs [ , = ^~^, (. 1.6):
_ j _ =s in ^ +c o f9 ;

17

\ )
4
nl
,
0 .
<,
. ,
D .
(. . 1.4) D N , t o
= DN1_+ =0.
, JVjj =N co s , N=N sin#, ,
D :
tg 0D = =------ = -ctg<9.
\
< :
ED
Ef\\+ELDL
cos ( =
yjE^+El^D^+D I \\+ d Il
'i
Dji/D = ctg 0,
f a


, sin 2 0 + cos2
cos <= !
sin2 + |2 cos2 0
(\
~ ) S'n ^ C0S#
I------- 2
Sin ^7>=\/l-cos
' = /,

L _ -
yjsi? cos2 + s 2 sin2 0
, < :
(. \ ) sin 20
4V =------ " /
------- -1.8)
+ + ( ) COS 20
, ,

404

(0 = 0) (9 = :/2 ) ,
( = 0, ..
:
.
, ,

, 9
(. . 1.3).
. 1.4.
,
. ,
,
,
.
(. . 1.5).
. . 1.5.

z

, z,
:
mz = k z ftz + eEz.
:
? = /, 2 = /,

z + 2yz + co2z = eEz/m.
(.1.9)
q,
Ez = qE = Eq c o s a ~
(.1.10)
(
). (. 1.9)
z - g ( d ) - qE, g(a>) = 2-----\------- .

)0 ) -2 ?
:

405

(.1.11)

' JWg2
P = (0,0 ,P z) , P z =Nez =------ g ( 0))Ez.
m
N .

Ne2 '
P = qPz = g( )(Eq)q;

D = E + 4;rP,
2
D = E+----------(ft>)(Eq)q,

Di =Ei + a> lg(o)qiqkEk.

(.1.12)

.
: 2 = AnNe2/.
q : qx =qy = 0, qz = 1.
Dj = eikEk,
:
Sik=Sik+co2pg((a)q iqk.
(.1.13)
(, , z )
\
s - 1
0 */
, ,

= i.

z z = l + 0j2
p g(0j).

: 0 = 1, : =1 + w 2g ( a ) . <..
,
, .

406

2.
.

( ,
) .
,
:
4
juq= 4--10~7 /* 1,256-6 /.

= 2,99793 108 / .
,
, :


* 4,803-1 ( 10 . .

, . ,
1 . = . 3 10 . .
2,998-1010 / .

1 = 1/10 . ~ 2,998-109 . .
, 1 1
F 9 -1011 .

1 = 1-.
1 ()
,
,

1 ,
1 , 2 1 .
1 = 1/10 . .
2 10-7 . ,
I, J\,
,
./2,
_ Mo J y J 2
2 R

4/ ( 2 0) :
F = 2J h
c2R
J/ c = J^m>:
ry J (m ) r(m)

R

j [ m) =
= 1/10 . , R = 100 , I = 100 ,
F = 2-10 ~2 = 2 -10~7 ,
.

F=

4
"2
0

1 q
( = - ------4 71Eq
(),
1 = 10/ . 1/300 . ,
.

1=10 8 .. ;
:
divE = p / sQ, <^>EdS = q/s0.

408

R
:
<
~ 4 0.
S
d :
= 0S/d.
,
(),
1 .
1 = ;--------- :--------------,
1 .
, _

1 2
.. ....
--------- = - 8,99-10 .
1

1 =

,
1 = 109 ..
, 0.
-1,
.
,
1 109
1
1 = ------= -. ------ ..
1
9-10

:
D = ff0E + P.


= 0, D = 0, s = 1+ .

= divD =
s
(q V
).

1
1

D2
= ED, = 0 =
2

2 0

( D = ^0^ ).
409

'
F = ^vxB, fifF = j dV, dF = J d l x B.

. ,
q,
F = vxB .

, v 5
V - q-vB .

q (nC>= q j c ,
F = q (m)uB,

(q) ( q{m)):
1 . = -1 .
( : = 3 -1010 /).

(), :
1
q {m) - 1 . , = 1 /
, F = 1 .
,
, ,
.

(). 1 ,
, 1 - 2,
, 1 .
1 = 104 .

m = JS.
,
,
' : = jiixB.
410




/4) =4--10-7 / 1,256-6 /.

:
=

= S q /w

= - V ,

s^/i^ = \/2 .


' - I vxB,
' = - SqjUqv = - -- v .



div - , | B JS = 0;
s
rotB = //0j, <^> = jUqJ.
l

'
= - I = //(+1).
/'
,
I = /cH, = //0//, ju = l + tc.

(), :
,1 ,
1 .
(/).
:
1 / = 1(3 * 1,257 1(2 .

411

= 1 = 7.


:
rotH = j, = ./
L

( J j ).
() ( , ), ().
:
1 = 10/4-. "
( 4.3.2)

|= , F = NJ.
{.$ MoS )
= L J,
= ~(1/d t .

(1), ().
() (),
i .
1 = 108 , 11= 9 .

1 = 1 : 1 . , 1 = 1 1 .
= -<iO/dt ,
1 / 1 .

/

Jcm ' '
( )
:
1 ,
.
412

1
' -.
div I) - , rot --------,
dt

div - 0, rotH = j + .
dt
,
,
D, .
S g
:
S =, g = S = .

413

3.


, = (, , z).
, , (
, ). , ,
', f = / (). , ,
-, = ().
,
() , , z
i, j, k.
.3.1.

V
8 - , 1----- hk .
V7= 1------------------h

dz

<(, , z) ,

.
,
,( .(
<
A = grad^ = i - ^ + j - + .

dz

A = V<p.
,
()

4*


8A Z
divA
= ^
+ ^-+

dz
.
V,
S(F). dS,
S.
dS d<&= AdS.
S
>

414

= cj) AdS.

s(r)

= <j) AJS = (j) (Axdydz + Aydxdz + A^dxdy).
S (V)

SQT)

V
div = Jim
^>

AJS
S(V)

(
, ).
,
:
divA = V-A.


:
[ divAdV = AdS.
V

S(V)

() - ,

i
j

= rot = / /8 djdz


dAz -dy
'^_^
+
+J

dz

dz

.
S,
(. 1.1). S = ,
.

A ir.
=1

(5 )

415

<j) Adr = (Axdx 4- Ay dy + A^dz).


r(S)
ros) :

:
(rot ) = lim
s
>KS r
( ,
).
,S
. 1.. S,
.



;
rotA = VxA .

:
rot At/S = Adr.
S
I'(.V)
.3.2.

:
A = (V-V)=V2.

. 2 2 2
---- -.
d xd y
dz

^ - div grad 40.
:
divrotA = 0 ,
rotgrad$> = 0 .

rot rot = grad div - .

F ,

:
F -grad 9?.
F
rot F 0.
( ) ,

:
= rot :

div -. 0.

.3.3.
.
F , F = gradi//, ,

grad(pF) = (pV)F.

'
div(ExH) = -ErotH + HrotE.
-,
.

divr = + + = 3.

dz

- :
rotr = 0 .
,
. ,
= gradf^-r2 l ,

r = ^Jx2

"2 1-2

gradr = , grad=


(aV)r ,
rot(axr) = 2a,

417

rot(a <() = ^ ^ - 1').

'
.
,

:
m x r 3 (m r)r-m r 2
=rot3
5
= -gm df pr ^ - 3() - ,2
3)
5
( ).
,
,
, ,
.

418

4.

= 2,998 -10 /

1 = 1,602 10 12

,
= 1,602 -10-1 9


.,

9,1085-10 28

2 =0,511

=1,6726 -10-2 4

2 =938,3
()
|| = 4,803-"10 . = 1,602-10-19
v

= = 9,27-10
2

j,


= 1,0546 10-2 7 -

Na = 6,022 1023

= 2,687 1019 / 3

R = 8,3145 -- 1 - -1

=1,3807 -10-23 --1 =1,3807 -16 /

419

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