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Operationandusesforthe

5701571lCcompandorchiP

PARTI

by t,laltJung,Contribut'ingEditor andCraigTodd,SigneticsCorP.

IFHIS

IFHIS

I

fror

ARTICLE DIVERGESsomewhat

past

op

Anps fot

Audio

col-

unlrrs, and is

than one of the tYPical

and New itens.

be

begin

ation and'working

cinating

NE570 ahd NE571 are compandots, devices

used

differences

also

will

a great

deal

more

Notewotxhg

for

as

of

these

You

oPer-

The reason

the

evident

details

of

to

for

grasp

IC

chip.

the

audio

a

new and fas-

IC

can be

control

The Signetics

monolithic

which

gain

functions

of

compression

and

expan-

sion,

as well

as other

trolled

functions.

gain-con-

Although

designed

PrimarilY

for

telephone trunk line

service applications, the 570 and

571 devices

soecifications

Uifity

high quality

ing

veys what

and what

uses.

the

theY

audio

first

process-

conrnunications

Perfonnance

flexi-

of

sur-

how

aPPIY

possess

and built-in

for

sufficient

a host

audio

signal

This

article

571 are,

570 and

do,

uses.

and how to We think

with

audio

them to

agree this sonewhat unusual anount

of interest

see what these

tive

Yourll

sig-

is

warranted

devices,

when You

rela-

ease,

can do with

nals,

grasp

and we think

their

You will

to

article

able

audio

is

to

quicklY

in

build

imPortance

general.

Before

this

conplete,

you will

be

projects which have heretofore been

sinply inpossible or impractical.

both

tutorial and Practical, and fea- tures nany readY-to-use 570/571

is

This

article

bY intent

circuits

availability

of

Inforrnation

is

on

included

the

article.

570/571

at

the

end

Thus, unless otherwise stated here-

after,

all

of

the

ci-rcuits

shown

may use

either

device,

with

the

final

choice

being

uP

to

the

user.

The 570 and 571 are

dual

devices,

consisting of

tional

These are

gain,

rectifier

of

amp stage

on-chip 1.8V bias reference voltage is included, which suPPlies bias voltage to both halves of the dual

two

sets

of

the

func-

signal

blocks

indicated.

(for

a

full

a

AG cell

connected

variable

wave

the

output

gain

oP

shown. An

if

you will),

which

AG cell,

controls

and an

as

the

circuit.

This

along

with

the

reference

voltage,

supply

voltage

and

ground

commonto

circuit,

pin

ed,

pins,

the

with

are

per

onlY

two

the

shown being

the

side

things

of

of

the

the

duplicat-

the

16 Pin

rrhalvesil

renainder

functions

one set

of

laybut.

The

570 and 571 oPerate

fron

single power supply voltages

range of +6 to +24Y, with quite 1ow

drain being

power, typical

only

vices are therefore well suited to

in

the

current

sections).

3mA (both

The de-

battery operation,

for

not

onlY

is

the current

drain

low

but

internal

regulation

makes operation

highly

immuneto

supply

voltage,

in

gen-

eral.

The lG

Cell

In operation

the

audio

signal

to

be

controlled

is

applied

to

the

AG IN

input

through

a

coupling

capacitor.

AC coupling

is

necessarY

due to

a

+1.8V bias

level

present

at

the

AG

cell.

The AG celi

also

constitutes

Fig.7:

570,

571 Functional-

Diagtam

(f

of

2 channefs).

 

a virtual ground node, therefore

the

20K value of

innut current will be Vin/2OK. The

is

AG cell

naxinun of

input

impedance is

sirnPlY the

R2, and the resulting

designed to

accePt a

tlOouA of

inPut

current

or a 1.4V nax RMSsine

wave level. Wherenecessary, higher

can be acconnodated by

(200yAp-p),

input

including

sistor.

levels

an external

series

re-

In

its

gain control

nechanisn,

the net action of

effect proportions the applied in-

put

the

timately converted into the cir- cuitts output voltage. The propor- tionality (or scaling factor) of the AGcell is in turn controlled

by the rectifier, which Produces an outDut current which directly con- trois the AGcell. The AGcell rnay be viewed as a current controlled, current scaling circuit. The con-

is

trolling

the AG cell

is

in

current,

output

and Passes it op anp, where it

on to

ul-

current

rectifier,

current

the DC outPut

and the

con'

the audio sig-

of the

trolled

nal.

actual details of the AG cell cir-

cuit

is

the

Wehavenrt roon hete for

irnplenentation, but they nake

interesting

reading. Consult the

references

for further insight into

the technique.

The AGcell,

in

short,

conpen-

sates for

natural

transistor

non-

linearities

and temperature sensi-

tivity,

dictable prograrnrnablegain element

providing

a stable

and Pre-

with a dynarniccontrol

range of

100dB,with low signal

distortion.

The ultinate linitation on distor- tion is deterrnined by the matching of the gain cellsr internal tran- sistor pairs, and this Practical lirnit accounts for the aforenen-

BasicOperation

a block

Fig.l

and 57I.

the

ents

fron the same basic chiP. fetence between the two

is

diagrarn of

the

functional

and are

in

the

570

Both

of

570 and 571 units

comPon-

derived

The dif-

devices

fact

consist

shown,

lies in their sPecifications, the

570 being

units,

tion perforrnance. The 571 has nore

relaxed basic sPecifications, nay be trirnned with outboard

ponents to a Perfonnance

the

prirne

lower

of

the

two

with

inherent

distor-

level

but

con-

eoual

or

near

that

of

the

570.

r-

J l?iilriiriiiur| .,lu

I

*F----i

Issue4/1976

'

tioned differences between 570 and

571 devices. Solace arrives,

how-

ever, in the

vice can be trirnned using the THD TRIMterninal. Whentrimned, tyai- cal devices can show THD figures of 0.1% or less (while untrimrnedTHD can be up to 0.5%). Distortion is

this high, however, only at full scale audio signal inputs; at lower levels distortion drops rapidly, and noise becones the limit to dy- narnic range.

news that either de-

Noise in

a bipolar

transistor

transconductance multiplier such as is used here has been a topic of controversy in the audio fraterni- ty, with nany designers disnissing the technique as being practically

useless because of its

limited dynamic range,t' or because

noisy.rrThese ob-

jections are simply not justified whena linearized transconductance

multiplier is irnplernented,as it is

here. Signal to noise ratio

570 or

in a 20kHznoise bandwidth, which of course easily exceeds al- nost aIl available progran sources. Further, signal to noise irnproves (even beyond this figure) at lower working gains, where the circuit is nost apt to be used.

ilinherently

it is rrinherently

in

a

571 can be as high

as 90dB

Rectifi er

The rectifier

circuit of the 570/

at the RECTIN

571 accepts a signal

terminal, and full wave rectifies

this signal, converting it to a

proportional DC signal which

used to control the AGcell. Like

the AG IN input, the RECTIN

is biased at +1.8V and is AC cou- pled in normal operation. Input im-

pedanceis the value of Rl, or l0K. Full scale rectifier input current

is

RMSinto 10K.

is

input

200uApeak, equivalent to l.4V

After

fu11 wave rectification

within the circuit, an external

capacitor attached to the CRECT

!---'TfrnTr"---il----l

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;

39aG rN

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-

ezorszt

(a)

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our+z

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l----rJ--

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(B)

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our {ro

i

Fig.2:570,571 bvice sgnboT dia- gram and pinout.

terminal

nal,

erage AC input

filters

is

the

now equal

DC sig-

to

the

av-

The current

a

as

the

gain

average

con-

of

which

to

the

signal

input

level.

fed

trol

the

AG ceII

then

AC signal.

is

0utout Circuit

The output op ampused in the 570/

571 is similar to a 741, and like

the rest of the circuit

for nininun quiescent power drain. This amplifier can be used only in the inverting mode, and is set up for operation by connection of R3, either as an input or feedback re- sistor. You may also use external

resistors, as access is provided to the (-) input. The op ampis biased at its inputs to a DC level of

is biased

R3 as a feed-

+1.8V; connection of

back resistor biases the output to 3V, optinun for a 6V supply level. You can achieve output biasing to other DC levels for greater swing by using external resistors in se-

Fig.3a:

pandet.

VIN

Circuit

ctN"

hookuP,

Basic

Ex-

L

57o/57t

cnscr

t----

TLRECT ' ?

GND

I

t_

I

{ I

nr #lFourPur*

OUTI-J

|

=

Gain = 1.43 vtN(Avg.)for con-

nectlons shown--in general:

Gain =

I2

llf6l

t

v1x(Avs')n,

lu = 140uA R, = lOK,R, = 20K,R, = 20K

**

Select clN,

Put/output corne r r req .

co for-desired

in-

fne nuOioO*r"r,

ries or shunt conbinations. We gain further insight into the

nanner of. 570/57Lrs working by ex-

amining the two basic connections,

as an expander and as a compressor.

The subsequent schenatic represen-

tations follow the device s"yrnbol diagrarnof Fig.2, which also shows

the pinout. Although it is not ob- vious fron this drawing, the 570/ 571 is laid out in a synnetrical

pattern (with the exception of sup-

ply pins), which facilitates PC

layout.

Basic Expander

Connection and operation of a 570

or 571 as an expander is shown in

Fig.3. The hookup is shownin gen- eral form in Fig.3a. The signal is applied in cornmonto the AG IN and RECTIN terninals, through a corunon coupling capacitor, Cttt. h averag-

ing capacitor, CRECT,-is connected

frorn the CRECTterninal to ground.

The output

is

jurnpered for

use of

R3 as a feedback resistor.

Cr* and

CO are input and output coupling

capacitors, chosen for the desired circuit low end frequency response; they will typically be on the order of several microfarads for wide range audio work. (Note: observe correct polarity whenusing elec- trolytics.)

The gain of

this

circuit

is

de-

scribed nathenatically as 1.43 VIN,

where V'U is the average input

voltage.

are

gain

unity

rr

The

570/571 circuit

values

set

up

in

such

a way

that

the

of

this

expander

circuit

is

at

an input

/^+

n

7tf

level '\

,

a

of

0.775

leVel

ob-

"(Rl.rs)'"''''(Avc;''

viously

convenient for conmunica-

tions

work.

In

the

input/output

graph of

indeed

the

Fig.3tr,

the

output

is

you will

is

note

that

0.775V

of

this

when

cir-

input

0.775V.

ratio

The expansion

cuit

is

l/2,

thus

an inPut

of

6dB will

yield

an output

of

the curve. Although

what

l2dB,

which

can be

this

curve

effect,

it

noted

a

intended

is

sinplistic

the

illustrate

is

change

change

from

some-

to

true

in

practice

that

a

570/571 circuit

 

wilI

follow

this

relationship

over

an input dynamic

range

of

40dB or

+ l5v

more (or 80dB or

nore

of

outPut

range) .

 

Errots

which

do

occur

at

the

low

TO AG CELL THDTRIM

(PrN I

OR9 )

TO RECT, INPUT (PrN 2 0R 15)

b. LOW LEVEL ATTENUATION CALIBRATION TRIM

end of the dynamic range are

large-

ly due to the rectifier,

and can be

minimized.

You may use

separate

coupling

capacitors

into

the

AG and

RECTinputs

to

eliminate

offset

er-

rors here,

and a

trin

technique

can

be

to optimize low level tracking

be discussed

innovative

designers

circuitrs

applied

For

the

to

the

RECT IN

terminal

unity

(to

out

below).

the

there,

pertinent complete desi.gn equa-

tions.

crossover point by alteration of

we include

You can shift

the

R3. 0r

you may also

fective

value

of

Rl

ing

minals.

constant,oand

is

series

I.

resistors

not

adjust

(or

the

ef-

ter-

R2) bY us-

these

circuit

at

an internal

is

alterable.

Basic Compressor

Fig.4

sor.

hookup, and 4b shows the input-out-

is

a basic

570/571 compres-

the

circuit

Fig.4a

details

put

relation.

You will

note

that

this

is

the

exact

conplement

to

the

expander

curve

of

3b,

as

the

addi-

tion

of

the

two

curves

will

yield

a

linear

input-output

curve.

 

The

compressor

circuit

is

sone-

what

more complex

than

the

expand-

er,

because

it

requires

sone

addi-

tional

bias

components. In

this

 

roK

TO AG CELL INPUT

o (PrN 3 0R t4)

C.CONTROLFEEDTHRU

Fig.5

:

Optionaf

trinnning

g ^netwotks

circult

the

AG cell

is

the

AC feed-

back

path,

and a separate

DC output

bias

path

is

provided

bY the

ROa

resistors.

These resistors

bias

the

output

up

to

a

stable

DC point,

and

COa renoves

any

AC feedback.

ROa

can typically

be

in

the

range

of

20

to

30K, while

c."

is

on the

order

l0uF.

 
 

CO is

a

coppling

 

capacitor

to

the

AG and RECTIN

inputs,

while

C^

and C^ are input and output cou-

pling"capacitors (typically chosen as described previously).

You nay have

already

intuitively

noted that this circuit reduces gain for increasing input levels,

as more signal feedback to the rec- tifi-er increases the AG cell cul- rent, which reduces gain by being

in

the

feedback path.

Again,

both

the

si.nple

and gener-

al forns

of

design

equations

are

shown. Unity gain crossover Point in this circui-t is also 0.775V, t o complement the expander. The output

Fig

ptessor.

.4a

:

Circuit

hookup'

Basic

Com-

ctN

* \t+

v tN o---rr

Grin

=

,

i

l---;:l-l

lvtu\^vs.r;

.t*

n 7

u+

will

change only

SdB for

a

6dB in-

put

change,

which

is

a

2/1

conpres-

sion

ratio.

Modification

of

the

unity

gain

crossover

point

(when

desired) rnay be acconplished by using an external resistor in place

of

terninal.

R3,

connected to

the

(-)

IN

This

circuit

can also

be opti-

rnized for

low

level

tracking,

by

using separate capacitors

to

the

AG

and RECT IN

pressor.

scribed

inputs,

you

next

in

may trin

as

the

as

Also

in

the

section.

con-

de-

TrimmingTechniques

You may apply

techniques to various 570/57l ter-

minals,

eration

the techniques discussed here, and

shown in Fig.S,

need be applied only when you want

the

several

trimming

or

device.

are

optional,

to

of

optimize

either

enhance op-

All

of

and

highest

perfonnance.

Fig.5a

shows the

most useful

of

the

three

techniques,

a

trin

for

nininun

TllD.

This

circuit

 

corrects

for the offset

voltage

in

the

AG

cel1,

in

so doing

mininizing

its

output second harmonic distortion content. It is quite effective, and

in some cases can reduce distortion

by

as much as

a

factor

of

ten.

The

trimmer

output

to

its

is

adjusted

THD with

maxinum level.

the

for

AG

minimum

input

driven

The circuit

of

Fig.5b

the

is

bias

useful

cur-

is

in

the

typically

current

tracking

equivalent AC input,

rent

cornpensating

of

a

as

for

rectifier,

This

lower

it

if

which

50-l00nA.

places

range,

DC bias

linit

appears

on

as

unconect-

an

ed.

The trirnmer

is

adjusted

for

correct rectifier

tracking,

with

an

input

trim

fective unless a separate coupling

capacitor

input,

Note that

50-60dB below

this

is

(e

feedthrough

full

will

scale.

not

be

ef-

used at the rectifier

a

gain

as mentioned above.

eirerrif

Thp Fio

minimize

can be USed t O

of

change signal

to

the

output.

Ideal-

ly

gain

change signals

should

not

be

seen

in

the

output,

but

if

input

signal

levels

are

very

low

they

nay

be noticeable.

The tTililner

is

ad-

iusted

for

minimun

shift

in

the

 

RDC

R0c

 

Gain =

*

OUTPUT

Issue4/l976

J

output

as

gain

is

varied,

with

no

AC signal

applied

to

the

AG cell.

Applications

 

We are

now ready

to

discuss

more

specific

circuit

uses

for

the

570/

57I.

Alf

the

circuits

which

follow

are

for

single

supply,

+lsv

opera-

tion,

but

nany

can be battery

oper-

ated

if

desired.

A nunber

of

mixer

type

functions

are

included,

thus

the reader could readily

use

570rs

or

with

571rs

to

build

a portable

mixer

sorne interesting

features.

SineWave0sciIIator

I L

20K<R<

1

rct-B

570/571

ct*

O.OlpF

@

 

shows how a

57O/57I

can be

'

2rRC

 

r.c_l -A

R2T

^ a

Fig.6

(as

shown f

=

400H2)

570/571

39K

toPF

xo

 

used to

build

a

simple,

self-AGCrd

rooo

 

sine

wave oscillator

of

the

Wien

 

OUTI

type.

This

 

circuit

is

reasonably

 

clean

in

terms

of

THD content

and

 

r

 

is

suitable

for

a medium perforn-

 

ance,

fixed

frequency

sine

wave

 

Fig.6:

sine

Wave osciTTator

 

=

source.

 
 

In

this

 

circuit,

the

Wien network

Distortion

is

reasonably

low,

but

be replaced

by

a

single

 

resistor

of

is

conposed of

components R1-Cl

and

can vary

due to

two

factors.

If

a

5k.

C2-R2, which

in

conjunction

with

570

unit

is

used it

will

yield

dis-

the

output

 

op

anp of

the

570/571

 

tortion

of

about

0.25%, without

 

Amplitude

Modulator

 

section

 

A form

the

frequency

deter-

trimning.

A

571 can also

be used,

 

nining

filter.

This

filter

reso-

 

and the

optional

trim

network

shown

With

the

wide

dynamic

range

gain

nates

at

a

frequency

of

 

can reduce

distortion

at

both

out-

control

capability

of

the

AG cell,

 

1

t=,: ZTKL

Duts

to

about

0.1% or

less.

The u1-

various

modulation

schemes are

pos-

ti-mate

level

of

distortion

(for

ei-

sible

using

the

570/57f.

 

One of

 

With

equal

element

values

as

ther device)

is

dependent

upon the

these

is

an

arnplitude

nodulator,

shown (RI

 

=

R2 and

Cl

=

C2)

the

value

of

C4.

Unfortunately,

how-

 

shown in

Fig.7.

networksf

signal

loss

is

2/7

at

the

ever,

C4 cannot

be

increased

indef-

AM nodulation

requires

 

a

circuit

resonant

 

frequency,

and the

Phase

initely

to

decrease distortion,

 

as

which

can vary

the

anplitude

of

a

relationship

 

from

the

input

at

Cl

it

will

lengthen

settling

tine

and

signal

(the

carrier)

between 0

and

to

the

output

at

R2-C8 is

invert-

thus

compromise stability.

For

fre-

100% in

a

linear

fashion.

In

this

ing.

To

sustain

oscillation,

a

sec-

quencies

greatly

rernoved from

the

circuit,

the

AG cell

of

the

570/571

ond gain

 

stage

nust

provide

signal

example shown, C4rs value

should

 

be

nodulates

the

gain

of

the

signal

inversion

 

for

in-phase

feedback,

 

optimized,

going

lower

for

higher

(carrier)

channel,

up

to

100%.

and a

gain

of

2.

The gain

nust

be

frequencies,

higher

for

lower

fre-

With

no modulating

signal

ap-

held

at

2

to

sustain

undistorted

quencies.

 

plied,

the

gain

of

the

circuit

is

a

constant

 

amplitude

oscillations.

Output

anplitude

is

set

by

trim

nominal

unity,

as

set

up

by

the

re-

 

Section

 

B

of

the

570/57L provides

of

the

R3-R4 resistance,

which

ac-

sistance

R3

+

R4 fron

RECTIN

to

the required

gain

and phase

inver-

commodates variations

 

in

the

570/

ground.

This

resistance

 

biases

the

sion,

in

its

output

stage.

BY con-

571

internal

resistance.

Output

2

LG cell

to

a mid-gain

point.

With

necting

the

AG cell

of

this

section

can be

adjusted

in

the

range

of

0.5

rnodulation

applied,

negative

nodu-

as

a

cornpressor,

the

gain

is

auto-

to

lV

RMS, and output

I

will

follow

lation

peaks

double

the

gain,

ac-

matically

 

regulated

to

the

required

at

half

the

output

2

1evel.

Distor-

complishing

100%rnodulation.

The

value

to

sustain

undistorted

oscil-

tion

is

lowest

at

output

1,

due to

resistance

R3 is

nade variable,

to

Iation.

 

Resistors

R3-R4i form

the

the

filtering

of

the

Wien network.

acconrnodate nodulating

 

signals

be-

input resistance

of

the

op amP gain

Either

or

both

outputs

may be used,

tween

0.5

and

IV

RMS in

amplitude.

network,

 

and the

chiprs

internal

 

and they

are

well

buffered

against

The

circuit

can be used

as

a nod-

20K resistor

is

used

as

the

feed-

loading

effects.

If

exact

output

 

ulation

effects

or

tremolo

genera-

back

resistor.

Note

that

the

i-ni-

levels

are

not

desired,

R3-R4 can

tor.

For

very

low

modulating

fre-

tial

noninal

gain

of

this

stage

is

higher

than

the

required