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# E),

V , E
G = (V,
. () (i, j) E
c(i, j) (capacity). : s , t .
G .
f : E R,
f (i, j) c(i, j);
1. (i, j) E,
P
P

2. i V \ {s, t},
f (i, j)
f (j, i) = 0.
j:(i,j)E
j:(j,i)E
P
P
f
f (s, i) =
f (i, t).
i:(s,i)E

i:(i,t)E

f , .

st- V S T (S T = V,
S T = ), s S, t T .
P
st- , S T :
c(i, j).
(i,j)E
jS, jT

st- (S, T ),
.
- ,
st-.
, st- . -
.
, ,
: , S ,
(f (i, j) < c(i, j)). , .
. -, (push-relabel)
: (. .) [1].
, ,

i
i (0)

i (1)

ij (0,1)

ij (1,0)

j (0)

j (1)

j
. 1: , xi , xj . , xi = 1, xj = 0.
i (1) + j (0) + ij (1, 0).
: - [2]1 , IBFS [3]2 .
IBFS O(|V|2|E|) ( ,
). - IBFS ,
, , .

-
G = (V, E). i V xi {0, 1}. E (
E : {0, 1}|V| R ):
X
X
E(x) =
i (xi ) +
ij (xi , xj ) + 0 .
(1)
iV

{i,j}E

i (xi ) , ij (xi , xj ) , 0 . ,
, , -.
E x = {xi }iV ,
E(x) . ,
0 , ,
.
(1) NP-.
, V -
, (i, j) V i < j.

(1), :
: i V i (0) 0, i (1) 0;
0 :
{i, j}E ij (0, 0) = ij (1, 1) = 0, ; ij (0, 1) 0, ij (1, 0) 0.
1
2

http://pub.ist.ac.at/~vnk/software/maxflow-v3.02.src.tar.gz
http://www.cs.tau.ac.il/~sagihed/ibfs/

(1) :
X
X
E(x) =
(xi i (1) + (1 xi )i (0)) +
(xi (1 xj )ij (1, 0) + xj (1 xi )ij (0, 1)) + 0 .
iV

(2)

{i,j}E

E),
(2) G = (V,
x:
V = V {s, t}, s t .
E : {i, j} E
(i, j) (j, i) ( ), i V
(s, i) (i, t) ( ).
, S 0, T 1.
: c(s, i) = i (1), c(i, t) = i (0), i V.
: c(i, j) = ij (0, 1), c(j, i) = ij (1, 0), (i, j) E, , , i < j.
st- V S T . :
i S xi = 0, i T xi = 1. (2)
x. , (2) G.
, 2- , . 1.

,
( (2)).
E(x) .
(1). E(x),
, , . :
: i (0) := i (0) , i (1) := i (1) ,
0 := 0 + . i V, R.
: ij (p, 0) := ij (p, 0) , ij (p, 1) := ij (p, 1) , i (p) :=
i (p) + . ij (0, p) := ij (0, p) , ij (1, p) := ij (1, p) , j (p) := j (p) + .
{i, j} E, R, p {0, 1}.
, E(x) .
- (1)
- (2). , c = min(i (0), i (1))
. , (2).
, .
{i, j} E : ij (0, 0) = a, ij (1, 1) = b, ij (0, 1) =
c, ij (1, 0) = d. :
1. ij (0, 0) := ij (0, 0) a, ij (0, 1) := ij (0, 1) a, i (0) := i (0) + a;
2. ij (0, 1) := ij (0, 1) c + a, ij (1, 1) := ij (1, 1) c + a, j (1) := j (1) + c a;
3

## 3. ij (1, 1) := ij (1, 1) b + c a, ij (1, 0) := ij (1, 1) b + c a, i (1) := j (1) + b c + a;

, {i, j}: ij (0, 0) = ij (1, 1) = ij (0, 1) = 0, ij (1, 0) = d + c a b.
,
(2), d + c a b 0.
ij (0, 0) + ij (1, 1) ij (0, 1) + ij (1, 0)

(3)

- (1).
.

- K
G = (V, E). i V yi {1, . . . , K} = K. EM
( EM : K|V| R ):
X
X
EM (y) =
i (yi ) +
ij (yi , yj ) + 0 .
(4)
iV

{i,j}E

i (yi ) , ij (yi , yj ) , 0 . ,
, , -.
EM y = {yi }iV ,
EM (y) .
(4) NP- K = 3 : ij (yi , yj ) = cij [yi 6= yj ], cij 0 [4].
[4] (4): -
(-expansion) - (-swap).

-
- (4) y, .
(1). y ,
( ).
Tsukuba . (2).
-. y 0 K. K-
y . E(x) (1) EM (y) (4).
E(x) E(y) : G = (V, E).
xi = 0 yi = yi0 ( yi
); xi = 1 yi = .
4

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

. 2: - . (a) ; (b)-(h) .
: i (0) = i (yi0 ), i (1) = i ().
: ij (0, 0) = ij (yi0 , yj0), ij (1, 1) = ij (, ), ij (0, 1) = ij (yi0, ),
ij (1, 0) = ij (, yj0).

(3). K- :
ij (, ) + ij (, ) ij (, ) + ij (, ),

(5)

, , K. , ij (, ) = 0 ij (, ) = ij (, ).
(5) , ij .
- - 3.
(5) .
K- [5]:
ij (min(yi1 , yi2), min(yj1 , yj2)) + ij (max(yi1, yi2), max(yj1, yj2)) ij (yi1 , yj1) + ij (yi2, yj2 ),
yi1 , yi2, yj1 , yj2 .
K 3 .

(. [5]).

G = (V, C). C 2V ( ).
i V xi {0, 1}.
E ( E : {0, 1}|V| R ):
X
X
E(x) =
i (xi ) +
(xC ).
(6)
iV

CC

http://vision.csd.uwo.ca/code/gco-v3.0.zip

i (xi ) , C (xC ) , xC
x, C.
(6) .
(6) - .
:
!
Y
X

xi = min z(|C| 1)
zxi .
iC

z{0,1}

iC

, ,
z , x z . , (x z) x.
- [6].

[1] T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction To Algorithms, 3rd ed.
MIT Press, 2009.
[2] Y. Boykov and V. Kolmogorov, An experimental comparison of Min-Cut/Max-Flow algorithms
for energy minimization in vision, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine
Intelligence (PAMI), vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 11241137, 2004.
[3] A. V. Goldberg, S. Hed, H. Kaplan, R. E. Tarjan, and R. F. Werneck, Maximum ows by
incremental breadth-rst search, in 19th European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2011), 2011.
[4] Y. Boykov, O. Veksler, and R. Zabih, Fast approximate energy minimization via graph cuts,
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), vol. 23, no. 11, pp.
12221239, 2001.
[5] J. Darbon, Global optimization for rst order Markov random elds with submodular priors,
Discrete Applied Mathematics, vol. 157, no. 16, pp. 34123423, 2009.
[6] H. Ishikawa, Transformation of general binary MRF minimization to the rst order case, IEEE
Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 12341249,
2011.

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