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, 
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. . .



 

 


1935 . 

.
,
, 
;
, 
,
, 
,
. 
.

LXVIII ,
11 , 2005 .
1. a b ,
sin x + a = bx,
cos x = b
. ,
.

2. 
100. 1
2,
100.
n2d, d 
, n ?
3. 2005 2005
. 
5

 1, 2, ... , 
, 10, 
. ,
, 150, ,
, 23. 
.

4. ABCD 
: ,

( ),
. 
A, B, C, D, A, B, ...
n . ,

. : 1) 
, n < 5 
; 2) n0, 
n = n0 ?

5. 
. 
. 
.
6. ,
n ,
. (
) ,
. 
, . 
, 
. 
, (n + 1)2
?

LXIX ,
11 , 2006 .
1.
1, 2, ..., 5,
3
- ------ , cos 1, cos 2 cos 3,
0;
2

sin 3, sin 4 sin 5 


?

2.

a
--- ,
b

b, a ( b
a).

3.
, 
? , 
. ,
, 
.
4. : ,
1331 ,
, 1 , 
( 
) , 
, . ,
. 
?
5. . 
,
,
. 
.
6. 
n , 1, 2, ..., n
. . . k
,
k
--- , 
n


. 1)
n = 10 k = 3? 2)
n  k.

LXX ,
11 , 2007 .
1. 20 , 
 1, 2, ..., 20.
7

, ( ), 
:
1, 20, 5, 12, 9, 14, 11, 8, 16, 7, 19, 3, 17, 2, 15, 10, 6, 13, 4, 18,
( 
) 12 9 = 3 (
). 
3? 
?

2. a , 
4x 4x = 2 cos ax 4x + 4x = 2 cos ax + 4 2007.
a ?

3.
, ,
1? .
4. O A1, A2, ..., An
SA1A2... An, SA1 = SA2 = ... = SAn  SA1O =  SA2O =
=  SAnO. n ,
SO ?
5. n n : 
, . 

, ,
 
 ,
?
6. A1, B1 C1 BC, CA AB
ABC , BH . 
, AHC1 CHA1
M, H,
 ABM =  CBB1.
7. 
,
, .
 , 
.
: 1) 3
0,3; 2) 2007 0,003?
8

LXXI ,
11 , 2008 .
1. p q , y = 2x2 y = x2 + px + q
, .
,
.

2. n, nn
2008! = 12...2008.

3. 333
1000 . , ,
5 , , 
, 4 ?
4. O ABC
, AO 
BC M. O AM
OD. , A, B, C D 
.

5. . 
75 . 
, ,
. , 
.
, 
. :
1) ; 2) .
6. ,
. A ABCD : 
, , ,
. , 
(, A). C,
B D.
v, AB AD 1.
v ?
7.
, 
( 
) :
1
1
1
1) , --- ; 2) , --- ; 3) , --- ?
4

LXXII ,
11 , 2009 .
1. , h 
t h(t) = at 2 + bt + c,
t0 h(t0) = h(t0) =
= 0. , 
?

2. 72
1 ,
6.
6?
3. ,
y = sin x, x (0, ).

, :

1) --- ; ; 2) 0; --- ?
2

4. 
, .
,
. , 
.
,
72?
5. p
p!, (p2)!.

6. , 
00, 01, ..., 99
,
1, 10 11,
( )
10 .

10

LXXIII ,
11 , 2010 .
1.
1 : (a + 2010 : (b + 1 : c)), a, b, c 
?
2. , 
1, 
2. ,
.
, 
. 
: ?

3. , x, y, z p
q
y = xn + px + q,
z = yn + py + q,
x = zn + pz + q,
x2y + y2z + z2x  x2z + y2x + z2y, :
1) n = 2; 2) n = 2010.

4. f v ( 
O) f (v),
u, v , f (u + v)
f (u) f (v). 
?
5. ABCD
P,  PBA =  PCD = 90. M 
AD, BM = CM. ,  PAB =  PDC.
6. n :
k , 
.
,
(
; 
, ,
). 
, 
, :
1) n = k = 2; 2) n k?
11

LXXIII ,
11 , 2011 .

1.
: , 
, , .

.

?
(. . )
2. 
x2011 + 2011x 1 x2011 2011x + 1.
(. . )

3. ABC BC
D, AB E M ,
AM = ME DM AC. ,
AD + DE > AB + BE.
(. . )
4. 
. ,
k a,
k b.
1) , k = 2, a = b.
2) k = 3 , 
a = b.
(R. B. Bapat)
5. 

.
, ?
(. . )
6. ,
. 
a : (1 a)
, 0 < a < 1. ,
12

0,001 (0; 1) a,

?
(. . )

1. (
) y = sin x.
y = sin2 x
? ,
( 
)?
(. . , . . )
2. , 100 ,
1, 2 3, 50
, ,
11, 22, 33, 123 321?
(. . )
3. ABC O,
 ABO =  CAO,  BAO =  BCO,  BOC = 90.
AC : OC.
(. . )

4. a1, a2, ..., a2011 1, 2, ..., 2011



a ...
a2 3

a
2011
2010

a1
?

(. . )

5. ,
(
).
, ,

. , (, 
) 1 /,  
 
, .
()
13

. . .



 

 


. . . 2005 ., 
, 
. .
.
via scientiarum, 
.

. . 
. . :
...

. 
.

http://lomonosov.msu.ru/. 

,
,
, .

, 2005 .
1.
2xy ( x 3 y 3 )
( x y )( x4 y4 )
------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------,
2
2
x y
x 2 + xy + y 2

= 1, 2 ... 2 (46 ), = 2, 7 ... 78 (45 ).

2.

1
32 1 x + 1
-.
------------------------------  ------------------2x 1
1 2 x

3. ABCD,
5, D
3 7 .
14

4. log4(4sin2 2x) = 2 log2( 2 tg x).


5. , BC 
D E, F. ,
, BAD = ACD, BAF = CAE, BD = 2,
BE = 5 BF = 4.
6. 5|x|  x(3 + 2 2 8 2x x 2 ).
7.
5, 12 13, , 
, , 30.
?
8. ,
4 |3 | + a|| = 9| 1| .

9. 2 . 40 . 

, :
, 1 .
40 , A, 
10 .
?
?
10. 
3||n + |8y|n + |z|n < 1,
. .

, 2006 .
1. log4 log2
2. : tg

... 16 (40 ).

11
---------
6

11x 2 17 13?

3.
2
4
cos(x 2 + ) + cos + ------ + cos x + ------ = 0.
3
3

15

4. A, B C . 
,
. , , 
D
, BD = 9, BE = 12. 
.
5. A 8 , 
.
6 . 
17 .
A 
?
6. 4 x 2  |x 3| + 4x.
7. ,
cos 2x 2a sin x |2a 1| + 2 = 0 
.
8. SABC SA 
ABC, SCB , = 5 , = 7 .
{On} :
O1 , SABC,
n  2 On ,
On 1 ABC.
SA, {On}
?

9. 
, < . 
116 .
.
10. 4(1 tg x)2004 + (1 + tg x)2006  22006.

, 2007 .
1. (sin cos ) (sin cos ),
sin ( + ) = 0,8 cos ( ) = 0,3.
5

2. 2 ( x 2 ) = ( 2 5 x ) .
16

3.
log b

11 b 50

(b1b2 ... b60), b1, b2, ... 

4.

8 x 2x 1
-----------------------------------------------  1.
x + 7 2x 1

5. AB ABC D,
, , D, 
. AD, = 9, = 12 CD = 6.
6. a, b , (a, b) = 60
(a, c) = 270. (b, c).
7. ,
,
142 + + y2 + 14 + 2 + 4 < 0.

8.
5, 70 80,

11. ,
.
9. (0, ],
|tg x tg 2x tg 3x| + |tg x + tg 2x| = tg 3x.

10. 1,
2, 3, 4 5,
3,5.
4 3 5. ,
. 
:
1) 4; 2) 4.

, 2008 .
1. k,

1
1
1
---------------------- + 4
5 2k

+4 =

5 + 2.

+4

2.
3 2781? 
17

, , 
.

3. a,
x2 + y2 = 4,
(x 3)2 + (y + 4)2 =
.

4. ,
. . 
7 ,
13 .

. ,
?
5. , 
6,
.
6. 25 x 2 3 x < 7 2
7. 2 + cos x = 3- sin

x
--2

25x.

3x
------ sin x.
4

8. 111 
= 3 = 4. 
1 = 10 l.
,
, 
1 l ?

9. ,

2002[n 1001 2 + 1 ] = n [2002 1001 2 + 1 ],


[x] , x.

10. 4 , 

2 2, 4 , 

5. 
18

,
8 ? ( 8 
.)

, 2009 .
1.
, 3 2 ,

2?

2. 80
99%, 20 40%.

?
3. a
x2
x2
log3 -------------- a + 1 = log3 -------------- log3 (a 1).
x1

x1

4. 90 
,
130?
5. 
m n, m 6 
9 ?
6. [0, ]
7 sin x + 6 = |7cos x + 2|?

7. :
A, .

D, 
, BE CD 
F G . , BF = 12
G = 15.
8. , 

, 
.
( ) [0, 60).
1)
19

10 40? 2)

( ) ?

9. (, ),
u=

9 + x 3 4x x 2 y v = 3 x 2 y

: |u| > |v|,


u > 0; |u| < |v|, v < 0; |u| = |v|, u > 0, a v < 0.

, 2010 .
1.
(2

3)

( log 3 4 ) 2 x

 (2 +

3)

( log 4 3 ) 2 3x

2. ABC
, D F 
, DE || EF || .
ABC DEF,
BF : EF = 1 : 3?
3. .
1 ., 
0,05, 1 .,
0,04. 
, 0,06?
4.
1
1
1
----------------------- ------------------  1 + ----------------------------------------------- .
x+6
x 4
( x + 6 ) ( x 4 )

5. 24 2187 
. , 
.
6. 
Oxz cos x +
+ 3y = 0 x = arctg z + 4 .
z = f(y), , 

Oyz.
20

7. ,
36x 176x + < 0,
16 sin4 x 15 = cos 4
.

8. AS SABC 
N, AM = MN = NS. 
NBC, ABC, MBC SBC 
2, 1 2 7 .

9. x2 + 12x + 53. 
1 
x,
m , 
.
, .
, :
1) m = 2; 2) m = 3?

10. ABCD AD = 3
= 2 . ,
K L , 
, AD D . 
K 2 + DL2.



. . .




 

 

. . . 
,

. : 
. ,

. ,
. , , 
.

http://www.mk.ru/msu/ .

, 11 ,
2005 .

1. ,
.
. ,
7
,
.
?
2. | x + 3 2| + x + 3 + |x + 1|  + 3.
3. 8.00 
. , ,
: 5 , 10 ,
15 . . 12.00, , 13.00
16.30 . 
?
22

4. ABCD N 
, = a, = b, CD = c
AN = CM. AD.
5. 
1
x
------- 2 log2 = 2
2

3
------- ( log 2 x log x 2 )
2
.

6. ,
.
106. 
?
7. sin (x + sin x) + cos (x + cos x) = 0.
8.
( x 9 )2 + 4 +

x2 + y2 +

( y 3 )2 + 9 .

9.
. 
d
7 , d ?
10. f g,
x
f(g(x)) = x 2 g( f(x)) = 3?

, 11 ,
2006 .

1.
100 , 300 .
, , 
,
?
2. tg +

--- + 1 = 2 tg 2x + 3 ctg x.
4

3. ABC = 30 D,
AD = 2 BD = 1. ,
D BC.
23

4. 5 logx 2 log2 x + 5 log2 x logx 2  10.


5. 7
. k%
, , . 
7 , 
. k
?

6. y(x) = ax3 +
+ bx + ,
6. ?

7.
cos x1 + cos x2 + ...+ cos xn = 0,
sin x1 + sin x2 + ... + sin xn = 0,
|xi xj |  , i, j = 1, 2, ..., n,
?

8. ( ) , 
,
, 
.
,
90, ?
9. x, y, u, v,
(x +

2 )6 + (u + v 2 )6 = 7 + 5 2 ?

10. , , 
,
. , 
, 2, 3, 9 18.
.

, 11 ,
2007 .

1. .
.
24

,
3 , 14 . 
.

2. 2

4x 2 12x + 9

+ 4 x 1 = 6.

3. 
x 12 + x1x2 + x 22 , x1, x2 
3 2007x = ?
4. ,
1 

? , 
, 1, . .
.
5. ( ) 
n,
sin 1 + sin 2 + ... + sin n < 0?

6. ,
D. ,
= 6 BAD = 30.
7. f(x, y, z) + | f(x, y, z)| = 0,
f (, b, ) = ( + b + 2 + | b|) + | + b 2 + | b||.

8. a1, a2, ...


() k 
n > 1 an 1 an + 1 = kan. a2007, a1 = 1
23 = 2007.

9. x, y, z, 

3 (x )  1 + ,
3 (y z)  1 + yz,
3 (1 + xz)  x z.

10. , .
n ,
n ,
.
25

, 11 ,
2008 .

1. 12.00 
. 12.30 , 
,
14.00. ,
?
2.

x 2 ( 10 x 2 )
----------------------------------  2x + 5.
x

3. a
2 + x + 2008 2 + 2008x +
, ?
4.
cos x + cos y + cos z sin x + sin y + sin z 

5?

5. ABC .
, , 
D , || . AD
F. BF, = 1.
6. 2x = 2.
7. 2 50
1 50 70 ,
. 

, ?
8. log2 (sin 1sin 3 ... sin 89).
9. , , z
3 2 + 3y + 2 = 75,
2 + 3z 2 = 48,
2 + xz + z 2 = 9.
y + 2yz + 3xz.

10. n, 
, ,
26

n ,
, 
.

, 11 ,
2009 .

1. ,
. 5 
2 , 6 4 
, 3
( ) . .
2.
1
1
2 sin x + 2 cos x + tg x + ctg x + ------------ + + -------------  2.
sin x

cos x

3. 50 50 
. 5
. 
, 
. 
?
4. y = 2 y = 2008 2, , 
. , 
.

5. A, , ,
D, , : : CD = : b :
 =  = CMD. AM : DM.
6.

21 sin x + 1 --- + 22 sin x + 2 --- + ... + 299 sin x + 99 --- = 0.


3

7. 
, , 
, ?
( 
)?
27

8.
x1001,
10

1
21
x1 = 2 xn + 1 = --------- xn + --------------------- , n N.
10

10

9. 
2009, 1, 0
1 [0; 1]?
10. n  3
n, ,
?
, .

1. ,
. 
, , 
3 2 , 1 
3 .
2.
2x
arccos (cos 2x) = ------------ ?
2009

3.
8x 2 14x + 5

4x 2 1 =

2x 2 + x 1 .

4. ,
, .
D. : OD, = 6,
= 5, = 4.
5. ,
31 x

2ax 2a

x+a +5a1
= log3 ---------------------------------------------- [3; 0].
2a1

6. {bn} 
. ,
k b 12 + b 22 + ... + b k2 b1 + b2 + ... + bk
, : ) k = 3; ) k = 4; ) k = 5.
28

, . , .

1. tg x = ctg (x + 2009).
2. N ,
1 ,
150 . , , 
206 , 
? 
, .
3.

6x + 1
------------------  2 + 3.
9x + 4x

4. 
2 + x + 2 2 = 0
2 + 2x 2 2 = 0 
?

5. ABC
. , 
, = = 3, = 17.
6. , :
) y = sin |x|; ) y = cos |x|; ) y = |sin x| + |cos x|,
(; +), ,
.

, . , . $

1. 22x + 5022x + 2 2009  0.


2. ,
2009 , 12 3
,
3?

3.
7
11
x
tg --- --------- log2 sin 2x + ------ = 0.
16
4
2

4. 
|x |  3 2 1?
29

5. ABC 1/8, 
AL 10/3,
6. .
6. : 4,

24
------ , 5
5

, .

1. x 4 + 12x + 12 = 2x + 3.
2. | 36 x 2 1 2|  3.
3.
. 
, .
, . 
, ,
6 /, 3 /,
3 / 2 / ?
4.
3
tg 2x + ctg 2x = 2 sin 3x + ------ .
8

5. ABC
1 : 2 : 1, 
. , = 3.
6. : 2, 12/5, 5/2 

?

, 11 ,
2010 .

1. 
, 25% 
. ?
30

2. 3 cos x + 4 sin x sin y =

5
-------------------------- .
cos 2010y

3. 
, , 
.
4. [nlg 2] + [nlg 5] = 2010 
n ( []
, ).
5. ABC
. ,
, AM 
?
6. k > 2, 
x1, ..., xk 
f(x), f(x1), ..., f(xk ) 
.
7. l1, l2 l3 60
. , , 
1 : 
l1, l2, 
l3, l1 . . ( ). 

2010 . 
?
8. 2|| |y| 
log4 ( + 2) + log4 (x 2) = 1.
9. ,

2?

10. , 
30.
,
.
M?
, .

1. .
, 
31

, 12 , 
10 , , 
9 , 12 .
, 
?

2. --2- ;

--2

6 2 cos xctg x 2 2 ctg x + 3 cos x 1 = 0?


.

3. b1, b2, b3, b4, b5 


. 3
10. , log3 b1log3 b5 = 3.
4. ,
ABC, ,
K, L . ,
K = CL = MB = 2, K = 3.
.
5. ,
b ( + b)2 + (3b 4 + 7)x +
+ 4 2b 6  0 .
6. , N, K, L, 
SA, SB, SC, SD
SABCD (S ), . ,
 NL, SN = 3SL SMK 12.
SLN.
, .

1.
, , .
,
5 , 3 /,
,
.
2. 25sin x + 24 + 2 3 cos x = 0.
3. log 1 x  2.
-----16

32

4. f ( x + 4 ) = f (2), f (t) = 2t t 2
t.

5. L, , N,
, AC, AD ABCD, .
, 1, ALMN
2
1
------- AL = --- . 
48

MN?

6. : 8, 43, 2010 N,
1
1
1
, --- --- = ----- 
x

, .

1. .
, ,
. , , 
.
. .
2.
log

x2

1
+ -----2
x

1
x --1- > log

---
1 x x .

x
-x+
x

3. 2 + qx + 1 =
= 0 ( < 0) 2010. x + q x + > 0.

4. , = 3, = 4.

. , , 
D, . 
ACD.
5.

1+x +

3 x

6.
( = 1, 2010, log2 3) b,
cos x + cos ax = b ?
33

, .

1. 970 . 
10 , 
20 .
, 5 ,
, , 
. ,
,
20 ?
2. [0; 2],
logsin x cos x > logctg x c39os x.

3.
2y + x + 2 + y + 5 = 0,
x + y + y + 5 = 0.

4. ABCD
. , BD 
, = 4, DC = 5.
?
5.
9x 2 + 160x 800 = 3x .

6.
1
1
1
1
---------- + --------------------- + ---------- --------------------- + a  0
3 x
4 1x
3 x 4 1x

? .

, .

1. ,
, 
. 
?
2.
1 x2 +
34

4x x 2 = 3 + |x 2|.

3. K CL ABC 
. , = K
= 2HL.
4. n,

n
1
2
cos x  cos x + ---  cos x + ---  ...  cos x + ---
8
8
8

5.
34 x 62 x + 32 + 2 14 < 0 ?

6. SABCD 
S ABCD 1. 
SA, SB, SC, SD K,
L, , N . 
1
1
SLN, SK = --- SM = --- ?
2




  

 

 

, 2009 .
1.

sin 3x
----------------------------------------- = ctg2 x.
cos 3x + 2cos x

2.
4x 2
3
2x
--------- + x 2 9y 2 = --- ------ ,
3
9
4
15
------ 2x 4y = 1 + 4y.
16

3. log|x| ( 5 x + 4)  2 log x 2 (8 2x).


4. ABCDA1B1C1D1 
ABCD, AB = BC = CD = 2, AD = 4. K, L,
M A1B, B1C, C1D ,
A1 K
B1 L
C1 M
7
----------- = ---------- = ------------ = --- . R = 2
KB
LC
MD
3

A1B, B1C, C1D K, L, M .


, KLM,
KLM .

5. ABC D AC,
E AD. , ABE, EBD
CBD , DE 
CD AE. CBD
BAC.
36

6. , a 

x + y2 + a = 0,
x2 + y + a = 0
.

7.
2x2 = yz + x,
2y2 = xz + y,
2z2 = xy + z.


.
. . .

  

 

 

I II 
, 
. . . 20092010 
. 
3545%

. . .
.

, 2010 .
1. 20 .
. 

20%, 25%.
22% .

?
2. 2 cos x + 3 ( 1 sin x ) = 0.
3.
n 113, 109, 105, ...?
4. 32x = 11 + 22 x.
5.

x+2
2 x+9
------------------  ------------------------------------ .
x 9 x + 18
3 x

6.
5
f (x) = sin 2 x 2 ------ .
6

38

7. ABC , 
C, 4, ,
, 2 7 . .

8. AMB, A B
x ,
2

9x
y = ---------------- M(4; 3).
6

9. a,
64a(x 6) + 128 = (x + |x|)2
, a.

10. TABC
AB = 4 BC = 12, TA = 3,
TB = 5, TC = 13. 
, T, 
AC M, AB?
M AB ?

, 2010 .
1

1. 5 ,
, 100 
2 . 
100 ?

2. 2 cos2 x = sin x.
3
, ------ ; --- .
2

3. 
,
52%
?
4. 1 + log2
5.

1
3
--- x logx --- = 1.
2

( 4 x 122 x + 32 ) ( x 1 )
--------------------------------------------------------------------- > 0.
x1

39

6.
f (x) = log0,5 (3 log6 x) + log0,5 (1 + log6 x).

7. 5 
ABCD A, arccos 0,8. K N 
AB CD 
. AKND.
8.
2

x
y = ------ , 
12

6 3 .

9. 2 2 ( x + x ) + a(2x + 1) = 1.
a.
10. 
ABCA1B1C1 , A
BB1C1C BA1 
BB1A1A, BA1
2, 2 14 .

1. 100
1,25 , ; 
4 ,
. 100
?
2. cos 3x + 2 cos x = 0.
3. n, n 
28, 25, 22, ..., 
, 68.
4. (log2 x)log27 (4x) = log3 2.
1
2x + 2

5. ( 9 x 2 3) ---------------------
6.
f (x) = 125 0,2
40

( 4 log 6 x )log 6 x

1
------------------  0.
x+4

7. AB CD ABCD 
3 : 4, , , 
M . 
AMD 3, ABCD
30. , BC < AD.
8.
x2
y = ----- , 30
6

3 3 .

9. a,
2 2 ( x + x ) = a(x 8) + 12 .
a.

10. 
ABCA1B1C1 , A 
A1C1 BA1
BB1A1A, BA1
1, 2 7 .

, 2009 .
1

1. ,
20%, 
25% , . , 
24%
186 . .
?
2. 3 |sin x| + sin 2x = 0.
3.
n 145, 139, 133, ...?
4. (log3 x)log64 (3x) = log2 3.
5.

x+4
x + 10
------------------  --------------------------------- .
x6 x+8
2 x

41

6. f (x) =

c
-------------- [2; 4].
cx

c,
0,2.

7. ABC 16 3 , AB = 8,
 B = 60. AB, BC AC K, L
M , AK : KB = 1 : 3, BL : LC = 1 : 1, AM : MC = 3 : 5.
, KLM.

8.
xy, x = 2 x = 6 
x,
y = x2 6x + 25 x0 ,
2  x0  6?
9. p,

6x
y2 2y + 3 = --------- ,
x

y + 3 p = (x p)2
. .

10. R 
, ,
2 : 3 . 
, ? 
,
.

1. 100 
2 , . 1 , 
2,5 , . 
100 ?
2. 2 cos2 x = sin x .
3.
(log2 x + logx 2 + 2)(log2 x log2x x) = 6.
42

4. 1 + logx
5.

x
---------------- < 0.
9x 8

x5 x+4
2 x+1
---------------------------------  --------------------- .
1 x
x+4

6.
y = 0,5(x2 6x), M(2,5; 4,5).
7. BC ABC K. 
,  B +  C =  AKB, AK = 5, BK = 16, KC = 2.
, ABC.
8. y =

x
x2
----- --- + 6
8
2

A, A, O(0; 0) B(6; 3)
. .

9. a,
2
+ x
x
----------------- a = x2 6x + 25
x

. .

10. 
ABCA1B1C1 , A1 
AB CC1, A
3, 4 3 .

1. 6 ,
, 20 . 
.
2. 1 + sin x + 2 sin x = 0.
3. (log2 (7 6x))logx
4.

1
--- = 1.
2

1
x2 9
------------------- > -------------- .
x+2
x 3 27

5. log2

5x + 4
----------------4x

x 4 5x 2 + 4 < 0.
43

6.
f (x) = log0,5 (3 + cos x).

7. ABC
C CK. CM ACK
13 , CN BCK
ABC.

21 .

8. ,
, y = px 0,5(1 + p2)x2, y  0, 
p (0 < p < +) 
3 1
. M --- ; --- ? 
4 4
xy , 
.

9. a,
64a(x 10) + 384 = (x + |x|)2
, a.

10. h
6 h , 
, 
. ,
.

? .

1. 
. 
, 4 ,
9 . 
.
? ?
2. cos 2x + cos 4x + cos 6x = 0.
3
, --- ; ------ .
4

3. log4 (10x + 56) = 1 + log2 (1 x).


4.
44

x2 9
2
------------------< ----------------- .
3
2x
9
x + 27

5. (lg (x + 1) 1) x 2 3x + 2  0.
6. f (x) =

1
-------------- [1; 3]. 
xc

c,
0,125.

7. O B
A C. AO BC M,  CAM =
= 0,5 arccos 0,6, OM = 5. BOM.
8. , 
x, 
y = 5 + 4x x2?
9. a,
y 2 = a(x 4),
2x
----------------- =
y +y

, a.

10. TABC
ABC, , 2, 
TA. 
, AD, 
AB M, MB = 2AM,
, , 5.
5

1.
. 
, 24 ,
,
15 . 
, ?
2. 2 cos x + 1 + sin x = 0.
3. ( 3
4.

1
--x

1
3) lg --- x  0.
2

sin x
( x 3 )2
--------------- + --------------------- = 1.
sin x
2

45

5. (cos x 1)(1 x + 5 )  0.
6. logx (49 84x + 36x2) < 0.
7. ABC AB, BC
AC K, L M , AK : KB = 2 : 5, BL : LC =
= 1 : 6, AM : MC = 4 : 3. , 
KLM, 7.
ABC.
8. 
,

y2 = 2(1 + cos 2x), |x|  --- ,


2

9. a,
(x a)2 1 = 2(x + |x|) .
a.

10. TABC
ABC, l. 
TB 45,
TB AC 60.

, TB M AC?
AC M,
.


. . .

 

 

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. . 2025 (
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www.mccme.ru
www.geometry.ru. 
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(
) . 
.
4 .
, () . 
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VI , 2010 .
www.ge
ometry.ru . . . (
, 2009).


1. (. ; 8) ,
 , 
,  ?
48

2. (. ; 8) ABC
( C = 90) AA1 BB1 I.
O CA1B1. 
, OI  AB.
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AB ABC. X ,
 AXB =  AC B +  ACB  BXC =  BAC +  BAC.
, XABC .
4. (. ; 8)
ABCD N. ,
ANB CND, BC
AD A1, B1, C1, D1. ,
A1B1C1D1 N.
5. (. ; 89) BD ABC
E ,  AEC = 90. O1 O2 
AEB CEB; F L 
AC O1O2. , L, E, F 
.
6. (. ; 89) BC 
ABC M N (M B N) ,
 MAN = 30. AMC
ANB K. , AK 
AMN.
7. (. ; 89) B ABC
, BM.
, A C ( ),
K N. O1 O2
ABK CBN . ,
O1M = O2M.
8. (. ; 810) ABC
AH. Ib Ic 
ABH CAH; L 
ABC BC. LIbIc.
9. (. ; 810)
, .
ABC AB BC , 
. ?
49

10. (. ; 811) ABC.


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BC
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AC

11. (. ; 811) n 3
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, n, , n. 
n?

12. (. , . , . ; 9) 
ABC AC , CH ,
. H
CH AC M. B
B H. B 
, K. , :
) BM  BC;
) AK .

13. (. ; 9) ABCD
AB = BC. BD K ,
 AKB +  BKC =  A +  C. , AKCD = KCAD.
14. (. ; 910) AD 
ABCD M, CM BM 
AB CD . , SABCD  3SBCM.
15. (. , . ; 911)
ABC AA1, BB1 CC1 . AA1 B1C1
K. , 
A1KC1 A1KB1, AB
AC N L . , :
) BC;
A N
BB 1

A L
CC 1

1
1
) ----------- + ----------- = 1.

16. (. ; 911) A 
, B C. , 
A, D E. BX 
DE. , XC
DE.
50

17. (. ; 911)
, , , 
.
18. (. ; 911) AC 
B. AB BC
1 2 O1 O2,
D E . O1D O2E 
F. AD CE G. 
, FG AC.
19. (. , ; 911) ABCD
O. P Q
C D . 
AB E F (A 
E B, B A F ). EO AC
BC X Y, FO AD BD U
V. , XV = YU.
20. (. ; 10)
ABC AB, BC, CA C1,
A1, B1 . A2, B2 B1C1,
A1C1 , O 
, P CO 
. PA2 PB2 
A B. , AA
BB , AB.
21. (. ; 1011)
ABCD. ,  ABD +  ACD >  BAC +  BDC. 
, SABD + SACD > SBAC + SBDC.
22. (. ; 1011) F 
F . ,
A, B, C, D,
AB, BC, CD DA .
23. (. , ; 1011) ABCDEF
. ,
ABCF = 2BCFA, CDEB = 2DEBC, EFAD = 2FADE.
, AD, BE CF
.
24. (. ; 1011) l
A, . l,
51

A, XY (Y l) l
l. Y.

25. (. , ; 11)
, 
. .


, 8

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. , 
, , 
, A.

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C , A, B C 
.
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AKD P , BP CP 
AC BD . ,
AB = CD.
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1 2, OX1 OX2 A1 A2
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A1B2 1, C2
A2B1 2. , C1C2
.
, 8

1. (. ) ABC AH,
BL CM. ,
HLM AH , BL . 
, CM .
2. (. ) E, F BC, CD
ABCD. AE BF P. 
,  PDA =  AED.
52

3. (. ) 
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Q .
, 
, , ?
4. (. ) AA1 BB1
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, 9

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1. (. ) ,
ABC ( ABC = 90), AB, BC, AC
C1, A1, B1 . 
53

BC A2, A0 , 
A1A2B1;
C0. A0BC0.

2. (. ) ,
B ABC, AC K,
M. 
AMK.
3. (. , ) ABC ALa AMa
A. a 
,
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. , a b ,
ABC .
4. (. ) 
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(
), 
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.
, 10

1. (. ) O, I 
; R, r 
; J , 
I. OJ.

2. (. ) 1

2 . ABC 1,
AC, BC 2. ,
cos  A + cos  B = 1.

3. (. ) A1A2...An
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. ,
?
4. (. ) 

( 
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= 90) BH. , 
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; , CBH,
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?
3. (. ) 
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Q 
. ,
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?
4. (. , ) ABC
k. A1,
B1 C1, . ,
, 
AA1, BB1 CC1 .






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, ,
www.arhimedes.org, 

www.mccme.ru ( ), www.sch40.mccme.ru/
sch/ta.htm ( ), ,
www.logic.ru/ru/node/420.
, 
, 
.
.
, ,
, 
.
. . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . , . . , . . , . . 
, . . , . . , . . , . . 
, . . .

67 . , 1992 .,
.
56


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 2007
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olympiads.mccme.ru/grafik.

, 2011 .
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  !

LXVIII ,
11 , 2005 .
2. : 400.
3. .
105, .
25 21 21, .

. , 
,  ; ,
10 , 
, .
, 
25 . 
, 23.
, 150,
, 
105 2 < 150.
. . ,
19 19. 
.

4. : 1) , n = 3;
2) n0 = 6k, k N, n0 = 6.
5. : 9, 11, 25.
. a ,
b c . x
: x = a + b + c. a, b c x 
a10 4 + 100b + c = x3. , x < 100.
x  100, x3  10 4x = 10 4(a + b + c) > 10 4a + 100b + c, . .
64

. , x
, a , , x3 
, . , x  22 (213 = 9261 
). , x3 x = 9999a + 99b, 
, x3 x 99 . x3 x = x(x 1)(x + 1),
x 1, x, x + 1  9 
 11. x, 22  x  99, 
:
1) x = 44 (x + 1 = 45), 443 = 85 184, 8 + 51 + 84 > 44;
2) x = 45 (x 1 = 44), 453 = 91 125, a = 9, b = 11, c = 25;
3) x = 54 (x + 1 = 55), 543 = 157 464, 15 + 74 + 64 > 54;
4) x = 55 (x 1 = 54), 553 = 166 375, 16 + 63 + 75 > 55;
5) x = 89 (x 1 = 88, x + 1 = 90), 893 = 704 969,
70 + 49 + 69 > 89;
6) x = 98 (x + 1 = 99), 983 = 941 192, 94 + 11 + 92 > 98;
7) x = 99, x3 = 970 299, 97 + 2 + 99 > 99, 2
.

6. : .

LXIX ,
11 , 2006 .

1. : --4- .
2. : a = 5, b = 2.
. a b ,
a n .

a
--- = b + a10n 10n(a b2) = ab,
b

, , a > b. 
a b a b2 a,
b, ,

a b2 = 1, 10n = ab.
a b (
a > b),
a = 10n, b = 1 a = 5n, b = 2n.
65

n 10n = 2, .
a = 5n b = 2n, ,
n

5
5n 4n = 1 --- = 1 +
4

1
--- .
4

,
, ,
: n = 1, a = 5 b = 2.

3. : .
4. : .
5. : 
, , 
,
( ).
. A , O 
, OBC 
O (
B C ), M BC. B
C AO, M
AO, , M, AO 
A O, 
A


OBC , M
BC. 

, AO, A
O, 
.
D
C
AB = AC, M
BC, OK OL 
, 
O , D ,
M
L
C 
K
AO (. 1).
O
, M KL.
, K 
BD ( OB = OC = OD
B
OK  BD), DC  KL. 
, KL 
BDC,
. . BC
.
. 1
66

, M KL, 
AO K L.
OBC , B C
, M 
BC. , 
M OM.
B C; ,
OB = OC. BKO BMO , B, K, M,
O . ,  MBO =
=  MKO =  BAO ( 
AKO, KM  AO).
.  OAC =  OBC = ,
B, A, C, O .  BAO =
=  OAC, , BO OC. , 
OBC BM = MC, . . M
.

6. : 1) 4, 7 10 . .; 2)

n
--- ,
k

2n
------ , ...,
k

( k 1 )n
----------------------- ,
k

kn
------- = n . ., [x] , x.
k

LXX ,
11 , 2007 .
1. : , 9.
2. : 4014.
3. : 6, 42, 1806.
4. : n = 5.
. SOA1, SOA2, ..., SOAn
, ,
SA 1
SO
----------------------------- = ----------------------------,
sin SA 1 O
sin SOA 1
SA 2
SA n
SO
SO
----------------------------- = ----------------------------, ..., ------------------------------ = ------------------------------ .
sin SA 2 O
sin SOA 2
sin SOA n
sin SA n O

SA1 = SA2 = ... = SAn  SA1O =  SA2O = ... =


= SAnO, sin  SOA1 = sin  SOA2 = ... = sin  SOAn. 
67

An1
An

A3
O
H

A1

A2

. 2

, SOA1, SOA2, ..., SOAn


.
n  5, SOA1, SOA2, ..., SOAn
. , ,
SOA1, SOA2, SOA3. SOA1, SOA2
SOA3 ( , , ,
OSA1, OSA2 OSA3). , OA1 = OA2 = OA3 O
, A1A2A3
(. 2).
SH SA1A2A3. H
A1A2A3 
(
SHA1, SHA2 SHA3), H = O.
n = 4 , SO .
, A1A2A3A4 , O 
, H 
, SA1A2A3A4, SH
, (. 3).
, , SA1 = SA2 = SA3 = SA4 
( ) SHA1, SHA2, SHA3
SHA4, ,  SA1O =  SA2O =  SA3O =  SA4O
( )
68

A2

A3
H

O
A1

A4

. 3

SA1A3 SA2A4. H = O. n  4
, SO ( 

SA1A2A3).

5. : 2n 4.
6. . B H 
A1C1 ABC, , A1H = A1B =
= A1C C1H = C1B = C1A, . . AC1H CA1H
. A C , 
AC1H CA1H .
A1C1 A C (. 4).
HM A1C1 S. , 
, 
, :
SMSH = SA 12 , SMSH = SC 12
SA1 = SC1,
. . S A1C1 S BB1. 
B , BA1C1. 
, M B. ,  C1M = 180  BAC, 
,  C1MS =  BAC. ,  A1MS =  ACB. 
,  C1MA1 =  BAC +  ACB  C1MA1 +  C1BA1 =
=  BAC +  ACB +  ABC = 180, . . C1, B, A1 M
.
69

B
l

C1

A1

N
M

B1

. 4

N B BB1,
l A1C1.
B H A1C1 SH =
= SB = SB1, . . B1SH , l
( B). ,
N M l 
C1M NA1 B . , 
C1BM NBA1, , . .
 ABM =  CBB1, .

7. : 1) ; 2) .

LXXI ,
11 , 2008 .
p

1. : x = --6- .
2. : n = 47.
. n2  2008, 2008! nn (
n, 2n, ..., (n 1)n n2 1, 2, ..., 2007,
70

2008). 442 < 2008 < 452, 


2008! nn n  45.
1) 2008! 4545 = 545390, 1, 2, ...,
2007, 2008 45 , 5, 90 ,
3.
2) 2008! 4646 = 2462346, 1, 2,
..., 2007, 2008 46 , 2, 46 ,
23 (2346 = 1058 < 2008).
3) 2008! 4747, 47 , 
1, 2, ..., 2007, 2008 42 , 47
(4742 = 1974 < 2008 < 2021 = 4347).
, x 
n, x! nn, 
p,

x.

3. : .
4. . , OM
, ADO OBC
.
5. : 1) 2; 2) 2, 4, 38, 76.
6. : v  1 + 2 .
7. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) .
1)
.
,

. 

ABCDEF B

A, B, C F (
, 
,
C

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(. 5).

E
O
D

. 5

71

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BOC, ABCDEF 
BCDE. , 
1
BOC --- BCDE.
4

2) 
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E  . E 
, B, C D (
). , ,
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,
B ACD, , 
C ABD,
, D ABC.
A1B1C1D1 (A1
, B1 , C1 , D1 ). 
, , ,
, A1B1C1D1
(. 6).
, 
, 
D1

B
A

C1

A1
D

B1

. 6

72

,
3 : 1, .
ABCD O 
O 3. 
BCD, ACD,
ABD ABC A, B, C D,
, , . ,
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1
3

--- , A, B, C D 
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1
1
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1 : 2,
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). 
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, ABCD,
, 
ABCD (. 7).
73

D1

1
B
A

1
C1

1
A1

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.
ABCD
. , 
,
ABCD,

. , 

. 
, , 

, 
ABCD. , 
, 
ABCD.
, ,
,
ABCD.

74

LXXII ,
11 , 2009 .
1. : 2 + 2 .
2. : .
.
, 144 (722 = 144) 
.
3. . , 
y = sin x x0,
cos x0.
1. ,
1 sin x0, |cos x0| (,
), , 
cos x0.
1) y = sin x x (0; ),

--- ; , A, 
2

--- , , 
2

Ox. 
B. 
AB, y = sin x
1 (. 8).
2) , 0 < < < .
+

, ------------- ------------- . 
2

1
B

. 8

75

2 sin ----------2

= -----------2

sin + sin

. 9
+
2 sin -------------
2

sin + sin (. 9).


+

sin + sin = 2 sin ------------- cos ------------- , 


2

= ------------- .
2

, , 

sin ------------- (. 10). 


2

1.

4. : 72, 108, 72, 108 72, 72, 72, 144.


5. : p + 1.
. (p2)! (p!)n, n N, n  p + 1,
p p!
1 (, (p!)n n), 
(p2)! p + 1. , (2)!
(p!)p + 1.

sin -----------2

= -----------2

. 10

76

p2 p p.
,
,
. ,
, , 
. m m! ,
(p2)!,
p!, , ,
, (p!)p, 
(p!)pp! = (p!)p + 1. 

, (p2)!
(p!)p + 1.

LXXIII ,
11 , 2010 .
1. :

1
--------- a = 2, b = 9, c = 1.
203

2. : .
3. . , n
, f (t) : f (t) = tn +
+ pt + q p q, x, y, z
y = f (x), z = f (y), x = f (z), 

x2y + y2z + z2x  xy2 + yz2 + zx2.


:
x2y

+ y2z + z2x  xy2 + yz2 + zx2 x2y zx2 + z2x xy2 + y2z yz2 
 0 x2(y z) x(y + z)(y z) + yz(y z)  0
(x2 x(y + z) + yz)(y z)  0 (x y)(y z)(z x)  0.

x, y, z ,
.
. ,
x. , z < y.
f (t) = t n + pt + q t
f (t) = nt n 1 + p, f (t) < 0 t < t0 =

n1

p
n

--- f (t) > 0

t > t0. , f (t) t < t0 


77

L
C
Q N
B
K
P

. 11

t > t0. y  t0, x < y  t0 y = f (x) > z = f (y). 


z > y  t0, x = f (z) > z = f (y) > t0, 
. , x < z < y (x y)(y z)(z x) < 0.

4. : 4.
5. . AK, DL, MN PQ ,
BC A, D, M P .
AM = MD, KN = NL, MB = MC, BN = NC.
, KB = CL (. 11).

 PBQ =  ABP  ABK = ---  ABK,


2

 BPQ =  ABK BPQ ABK (


). ,
CLD QPC. :
QP
BP
QP
CP
BP
CP
--------- = -------- --------- = ---------
-------- = --------- tg  BAP = tg  PDC.
KB
AB
CL
CD
AB
CD

, BAP PDC .

6. : 1) 1; 2)

n
--- .
k

. . .



 

 

, 2005 .
1. : 64.
2. : x (0; log2 3].
3. : SABCD = 25.

. , 

,
.

4. : x = --4- + n, n Z.
5. : = 11.
. , 
90. BAD = , DAC =
= 90 ADC = 180 (90 ) = 90, ,
AD ABC (. 12).
A

. 12

79

, FAB = , FAE = + (90


) = 90, . . FAE AD
FAE .
= x.
, ,
, :
AD2 = FDDE,

63 = 2(3 + ) = 6
BC = 11.
AD2 = BDDC

6. : x 4;

2 101 25
------------------------------13

23
{0} ------ ; 2 .
13

7. : Vmax = 150 3 .
. SABC , S 
. , ABC .
, , C = 90, = b = 5, = = 12, =
= = 13. SO = h . SO 
,
ABC .
,
ABC
(. 13). , 
,
ABC.
S

O
A

. 13

,
,

80

(. . 30). 
( ) 
. , 
.

A
M
C

. 14

ABC ( 
), = , = , = b, ,
; OK, OL
( r), 
, (. 14).
SABC = SAOC + SBOC SAOB, :
1
1
1
S = SABC = --- ACOL + --- BCOK --- ABOM =
2
2
2
1
2S
S
= --- (a + b c)r r = ------------------------- = -------------- ,
a+bc
2
pc

p ABC. ,

S
--- ,
p
S
S
-------------- -------------- .
pa

pb

, :
1
S
SABC = --- b = 30, r = -------------- = 15,
2

pc

r
1
h = --------------- = 15 3 , V = --- Sh = 150 3 ,
tg 30
3

V SABC.
81

8. : a [8, 6].
.
f(x) = 9|x 1| 4x + |3x |x + ||
, f(x) x  1 x  1.

9. : ; 8 /.
. ,
. 25
15 . v
, u . 
:
25
15
8
-------------- + -------------- = --- ,
v+u
vu
3
25
--------------  1,

v+u
15
5
--------------  --vu
3

u + v  25,
u v  9
2u  16 u  8.

u = 8 , v = 17.
. 
15 25 . :
15
25
8
-------------- + -------------- = --- ,
v+u
vu
3
15
--------------  1,

v+u
25
5
--------------  --vu
3

u + v  15,
u v  15
u  0,

10. : V = 1.

, 2006 .
1. : 64.
2. : .
.
1
3

x = ------- .
82

3. : x =  2n , x = 1  1 + 2n , n Z, n  0.
4. : R1 = 36, R2 = 8.
. R1 R2 
, .
, , 
.
1) .
,
.
2) (. 15).
E
D
12
9
A

. 15

BDE = BEC = 90, DEB = BCE ( 


,
). , BDE 
,
BD
BE
9
12
--------- = --------- ------ = ---------- R2 = 8.
BE
BC
12
2R 2

BD < , 9 > 8, .
3) (. 16).
, , R2 = 8. ,
ADB (
). :
2R 1 R 2
2R 1 8
R
AO
EO
8
--------- = --------- ------------------------ = ------2 -------------------- = --- ,
AB
DB
2R 1
9
9
2R 1

R1 = 36.
83

9
12

. 16
3

5. : --5- .
. AtS
( , 
, )
(. 17).
S
B

800

1700

. 17


. 
84

( 9 6 )

AC
9
AC
3
------------------------- = --- 5AC = 3AB --------- = --- .
AB AC
6
AB
5

6. : x [0, 4].
. f(x) = 4 x 2
g() = |x 3| + 4 , f(x) , g()
.

- --- 0;
7. : a (; 2]
2

1
--2

{2}.

8. : SA = 2.
9. : {(2, 117); (3, 59)}.
.
, . 
, , 
m1 n1 , m = km1 n = kn1
(k, m1 n1 ). m
, .
, ,
, , 
, 
. , , 
( ,
, 
), 
, , . . (m 1) +
+ (n 1). , m + n 1,

mn 116 = m + n 1 (m 1)(n 1) = 116.
m < n, (m 1, n 1) (1, 116),
(2, 58), (4, 29). , 
m = 5 n = 30,
.

10. : x --2- + n; --4- + n

--- + n; --- + n ;

4
2

n Z.
85

, 2007 .
1. : 0,5.
2. : x = 0, x = 9 100000 .
3. : 30.
3

4. : x 7, --4-

1
--- , 2 .

5. : AD = 10.
. CAD 
BCD, , ABC BCD 
(. 18).

12

9
6

. 18

:
AC
AB
ACBC
--------- = --------- B = ----------------------- = 18.
CD
BC
CD

, ,
:
2

BC
2 = ABDB DB = ----------- = 8,
AB

AD = DB = 10.

6. : 540, 108.
86

7. : = arctg

--- --- .
3
4

. , k y = kx 
.

8. : V = 275 (tg 20  tg 10).


.
, .
11 ,
, 
, ,
. 
(. 19).

R
C

. 19

, 
. ,
, , 
( 
, 
).
V = R 2AC = R 2OC ctg , R .
, , R = 5, = 11, V
, 
80 70 . 
.
C (. 20),
V = V + V = 275 (ctg 80 + ctg 70) = 275(tg 10 + tg 20).
87


A
80

O
70

. 20


(. 21), ,
V = V V = 275 (ctg70 ctg 80) = 275 (tg 20 tg 10).

2

--- --- ------ {}.


6
3

3
tg x + tg 2x

. tg 3x = 1---------------------------------- tg x tg 2x

9. : x 0;

tg 3x(1 tg x tg 2x) = tg x + tg 2x,


. . tg 3x = tg x tg 2x tg 3x + (tg x + tg 2),
cos x 0, cos 2x 0, cos 3x 0. , 

|tg tg 2 tg 3x| + |tg x + tg 2x| = tg x tg 2x tg 3x + (tg x + tg 2x)
tgx tg2x tg 3x  0,
tg x + tg 2x  0.

70
A
80
O

. 21

88

,
tg 3x  0. . tg 3x = 0, tg x + tg 2x = 0,
, . 
2

x (0, ] tg 3x = 0 x = --- , x = ------ ,


3

x = . tg 3x > 0,
tg 3 > 0,
tg 3x > 0,
tg x tg 2x  0, tg x  0,
tg x + tg 2x  0
tg 2x  0.

x (0; ] 0 < < --- .


6

-.
10. : 1) 3 --3- ; 2) 3 ----11

, 2008 .
1. : k = 1.
2. : 5 .
3. : = 9, = 49.
. , ,
(. 22, 23).
y

2
O

3
x

O1

. 22

89

2
2

3
x

O1

. 23

(0, 0) 2,
(3, 4) a .
5, ,
3,
7. = 9, = 49.

4. : .
5. : R = 3 R = 2 3 .
6. : x [log50 8, log50 9).
7. : x =

2
------ + 4n; n Z.
3

8. : S = 3 29 S = 3 61 .
. 
, ,
l . 
1 D 1 (. 24).
, D . 
ABD (
11, ,  AD) 
90

C1

B1
A1

10
D

B
3

4
A

. 24

.
1
1
3
--- AD = --- 1 = --2
4
4

3
10 2 + 4 2 = --2

29 ,

3 29 .

,
. l1, l 
, 11 
5 
1 (. 25).
, . 
ABE 
.
1
3
--- = --2
2
3
= --2

AF 2 + FE 2 =

3
5 2 + 6 2 = --2

61 ,

, 3 61 .

9. : n = 1, 2, ..., 2002.
91

C1

B1
3

10

A1
l

B
4

A
5
6
F
l1

. 25

. 
:
2002 [n 1001 2 + 1 ] = n[2002 1001 2 + 1 ]
2002[n(1001 + )] = n[2002(1001 + )]
2002[n] = n[2002] (= 0) 0  n < 1 n = 1, 2, ..., 2002,

1
1
1
1001 2 + 1 1001 = -------------------------------------------------- ------------ ; ------------ .
2003 2002
1001 2 + 1 + 1001

10. : 12.
.  b  

| | + |b B|  |a B| + |b A|.
, 
, 
, b (. 26).
92

. 26

| | + |b B|  |a c| + |c A| + |b c| + |c B| =
= (|a c| + |c B|) + (|c | + |b c|) = |a B| + |b A|.
, 


,
, 
.
.
5, 5 + d, 5 + 2d, 5 + 3d, 
8, 2, 4, 16, 

f(d) = 3 + |d 3| + |2d 9| + |3d 21| =
= 3 + |d 3| + 2|d 4, 5| + 3|d 7|.
12 d [4,5; 7].
,
16 21,
. . 12.

, 2009 .
1. : 8.
2. : 80 .
3. : > 2, x = 1 x =

a1
-------------- ; 1 <  2,
a2

4. : .
5. : 3 6.
93

. d n
m, 9d n m + 6.
d m m + 6, d
, . . 6. , d = 1, d = 2, d = 3
d = 6. n m + 6 9, n m 
3, , d 3.
, d = 3 d = 6. ,
. d = 3, , , n = 27, m = 21; 
d = 6, n = 54, m = 48.

6. : .
.
.

7. : = 9.
. , BCGF ,
= 15 2 12 2 = 9.
1) , BE || CD. l, lb, lc 
, , B, 
G
F

lc

lb
B

K
E

. 27

94

la

. , l, lb lc 
( N). , l 
K ,
N K (. 27).
, ,
BEA = BAN =
= DAK = DCA, . . BE || DC.
2) , BCD = 90 = CBE. = CBN =
= BCN, = ACN = ADC = ABE, = ABN = AEB =
= ACD. CBE = + + = BCD, BE || CD,
+ + = 90.

8. : 1) ; 2) 96 .
9. : {(, )}, (2; 0) (2; +), y R.
. (v, u)
, , 
(. 28).
|u| = |v|;
u > 0, v < 0

u = v
|u| > |v|; u > 0
u=v

|u| < |v|; v < 0


v

. 28

{(v, u) : u > v},


(, ),
9 + x 3 4x x 2y > 3 x 2y

9 + x 3 4x > 3

x3 4x > 0 x ( 2, 0) (2, +)


y R.
95

, 2010 .
1. : x [4, 1].
2. :

3
------ .
16

3. : 2 .
4. : x (6; 5 + 2

5 2 ].

5. : 24, 108, 486, 2187.


6. : z =

1
1
--------- 5 ---  < 0.
3
9y 2

. (x, y, z) 

cos x = 3y,
cos x + 3y = 0,
x = arctg

z+4

1
- 1,
z + 4 = tg2 x = --------------2
cos x

0  x < --2

1
z = --------2- 5,
9y
1
---  y < 0,
3

(y, z), ,
.

7. : < 17 6 6.
8. : SNBC = 3.
.
, .

9. : 1) ; 2) .
. 1) , 
,
, ( ,
)
x = 1. ,
2, , 
, 
x = 1 1, 3. 
,
1,1 0. , 
, .
96

2) , 
10 11. , 
, 
. ,
x 2 + 10x + 53 3n x 2 + 11x + 53 3k 
n k. ,
.
x 2 + 10x + 53 = 3n 
: x = 3m, x = 3m + 1 x = 3m + 2; m Z. x = 3m,
:
9m2 + 30m + 53 = 3n,
3,
3. x = 3m + 1 :
(3m + 1)2 + 10(3m + 1) + 53 = 3n 9m2 + 36m + 64 = 3n.
, x + 3m + 2, ,
(3m + 2)2 + 10(3m + 2) + 53 = 3n 9m 2 + 42m + 77 = 3n.

3. , x 2 + 11x + 53 =
= 3k .

10. : 15.
.

AD. OAP = AOP = , ODP =
= POD = . APO = 2, OPD = 2. 
APO + OPD = , 2 + 2 = , + =

= --- . , AOD ,
2

3
--- . ,
2

5
5
= --- BD = --- OD (. 29).
3
3

, . K,
CAD ( ), K,
( , ,
). , ACK = AKO = .
, K K
( ). :
AC
AK
--------- = --------- AK 2 = AOAC.
AK
AO

97

. 29

, DLB ~ DOL DL2 = DODB. 


,
5
5
AK 2 + DL2 = + DODB = --- ( 2 + OD 2) = --- 9 = 15.
3



. . .




 

 
, 11 , 2005 .

1. : .
2. : x [1, 1].
3. : 11 .
2b 2 + c 2 a 2
------------------------------------ ; 2b2 + c2  a2.
2

4. : AD =
5. :

3
------2 2.

. 
2, t = log2 x, ,
,
.

6. : 218.

7. : x = --4- + n; n Z.
8. : 13.
. (9; 2), (; 0), (0; ), D (3; 3).
=

( x 9 ) 2 + 4 , B =

x 2 + y 2 , CD =

9 + ( y 3 )2

ABCD,
l = + + CD. 1 (9; 2) B1 (; 0) ,

(. 30). = 1B1, = B1 
99

y
C(0; y)
D(3; 3)

A(9; 2)

O
x

B(x; 0)

B1(x; 0)
A1(9; 2)

. 30
y
D(3; 3)

1 7
1

C 0; 4

A(9; 2)

O
21 1

 
B1 
5 ; 10

21

 
B 
5 ; 01

A1(9; 2)

. 31

ABCD A1B1CD.
1 , .
, , 1
A1D, 1 1
(. 31).
A1D
x3
y3
------------------ = ------------------ 5x 12y + 21 = 0.
9 3
2 3

0;
ABCD
l=

21
7
21
--- , B1 ------ ; 0 , , B = ------ ; 0 . 
5

A1D

( 3 + 9 ) 2 + ( 3 + 2 ) 2 = 13.

9. : d = 1.
100

10. : .
. , f (x)
g(x), .
R
f (g(x)) = x 2, g( f (x)) = x 3,

f (x 3) = f (g( f (x))) = f 2(x).
f (0) = f 2(0), f (1) = f 2(1), f (1) = f 2(1), . .
f (0), f (1), f (1) 0 1.
x1 x2,
g( f (x1)) = x 13 x 23 = g( f (x2)),
, f (x1) f (x2) ( g( f (x1)) = g( f (x2))). f (x)
x = 0, 1
, 
. , f (x)
g(x), , ,
.

, 11 ,
2006 .

1. : 60 .
2. : x =

--- + n, x = arctg 3 + n; n Z.
2

3. : r = 1, r = 7.
4. : x (0, 1) {2}.
. t = log2 x,
:
1
---

1
t

5 t t + 5t ---  10.
, t < 0.
t > 0 :
1
---

1
t

1
---

1
t

1
--- + t

5 t t + 5t ---  2 5 t t 5 t --- = 2 5 t

 2 5 2 = 10.
101

,

. , t = 1
. 
, , 0 < < 1 x = 2.

5. : k {0, 1, 2, ... , 13, 14, 86, 87, ..., 99, 100}.


6. : (0, 2).
7. : n .
.
OA i = {cos xi, sin xi}; i = 1, 2, ..., n
(. 32). | OA i | = cos 2 x i + sin 2 x i = 1, 1,
2, ..., An
.
Ai

. 32


OA 1 + OA 2 + ... + OA n = 0 ,

(1)

0 , |xi xj |  ,
i, j, , Ai 
102

. , l = OD
,
. OA i
l . 0 , (1) 
. , OA i 
, OB , 
OC ,
.

8. : .
9. : .
.
.
1) , b, , d + b 2 = +
+ d 2 , = b = d. , = (d b) 2 ,
b = d, = ,

ac
2 = -------------- , ,
db

ac
2 , -------------- 
db

.
2) a, b ,
(a b 2 )6 = A  B 2 ,
. 2) 
1) (a  b 2 )6 = a6  6a5(b 2 ) +
+ 15a4(b 2 )2  20a3(b 2 )3 + 15a2(b 2 )4  6a(b 2 )5 + (b 2 )6.
, , , u, v
(x + y 2 )6 + (u + v 2 )6 = 7 + 5 2 ,

(x y 2 )6 + (u v 2 )6 = 7 5 2 ,
, 7 5 2 .
103

10. : 14 : 
2, 3, 9, 18; 
81
2 1
135 33 15
------ , 6, --- , ------ ; --------- , ------ , ------ ,
4

36

7 1
8, --- , --- .
2 2

, 11 ,
2007 .

1. : 8 20 .
2. : x = 2, x = 1 + log4 (3 7 ).
3
--2

3. : 2007. ||  2 669 
; 1 2
x 12 + 12 + x 22 = 2007.

4. : 1) ; 2) .
5. : 31.
. 
1
2sin --- > 0 
2

:
1
1
1
2sin --- sin 1 + 2sin --- sin 2 + ... + 2sin --- sin n =
2

1
1
1
3
3
5
= cos --- cos --- + cos --- cos --- + ... + cos n --- cos n + --- =
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
n+1
1
n
= cos --- cos n + --- = 2sin -------------- sin --- .
2

y = sin x 
k, k Z, k nk
n
n+1
sin --- sin -------------- < 0
2

n
nk + 1
-----k- < k < ---------------- , . . 2k 1 < nk < 2k; k N.
2
2

104

k = 5 10 1 < n5 < 10, 


n5 = 31. 
, .

6. : R = 2 3 .
7. : {(x, , z) :  0,  0, z  0}.
a+b+ ab
-.
. , max (a, b) = --------------------------------------2

f(x, , z) = (x + y + 2z + |x |) + |x + y 2z + |x y|| =
= 2 max (x + ) + |x |; 2z) = 2 max (2 max (x, ); 2z) =
= 4 max (x, , z).
:
f(x, , z) + | f (x, y, z)| = 0 f(x, y, z)  0
x  0,
max (x, , z)  0  0,
z  0.

8. : 2007 = 2007.
9. :

t 3 1 t 3
t, -------------------- , -------------------- , t >
t+ 3 t 3+1

3.

. , , , z 

, , 0; --- , x = tg ,
2
tg a tg b
y = tg , z = tg . , tg(a b) = ------------------------------- ,
1 + tg atg b


1
tg ( )  ------- ,

 --- ,

1
 --- ,
tg ( )  ------- ,
6
3

 --- ,
tg ( )  3 ,
3

0 < , , < --0 < , , < --- .


2
2
3

105

, = --- , ,
3

= --- = --- . 
6

,
:

= --- , = --- , --- < < --- .


6

x = tg >

x 31

3 , y = tg --- = --------------------- ,
6

x+ 3

x 3

z = tg --- = --------------------- .
3

10. :

1+x 3

n 3 + 2n 2 + 4n + 8
n 3 + 2n 2 + 3n + 10
------------------------------------------------- n; ---------------------------------------------------8
8

n.

, 11 ,
2008 .

1. : 12 48 ,.
2. : x [3; 0] (0; 10 ].
3. : = 2009.
4. : 2.
. = cos x + cos y + cos z, = sin x + sin y +
+ sin z. :
A2 + 2 = (cos x + cos y + cos z)2 + (sin x + sin y + sin z)2 =
= (cos2 x + sin2 x) + (cos2 y + sin2 ) + (cos2 z + sin2 z) +
+ 2(cos(x y) + cos(y z) + cos (z x))  3 + 23 = 9.
106

B 

5 , B 2  5, , 2  4

5
A  2. , sin x = sin y = sin z = ------- ,
3

2
cos x = cos y = cos z = --- cos x + cos y + cos z = 2.
3

5. : BF = --2- .
1

6. : x = --4- , x = --2- .
7. : 2 40 .
8. : 44, 5.
. = sin 1sin 3 ... sin 89
b = sin 2sin 4 ... sin 90 (0 < a, b < 1). :
ab = (sin 1sin 89)(sin 2sin 88) ...
... (sin 43sin 47)(sin 44sin 46)sin 45sin 90 =
1
2

= (sin 1cos 1)(sin 2cos 2) ... (sin 44cos 44) ------- =


b
1
----------= ---------44,5 sin 2sin 4 ... sin 88 = 44,5 .
2

= 244,5 log2 a = 44,5.

9. : 24 3 .
. 
:
2

32 + 3y + 2 = 75,

2 + 3z2 = 48,
2
2
+ z + z = 9

y
y
x2 2x ------- cos 150 + ------- = 25,
3
3
y 2
-----+ z2 = 16,
3

2 2z cos 120 + z2 = 9.

,
y
, ------- , 5 , 150,
3

PAB.
107

y
------- z 
3

4. ,
A x, z, 3 120
z. ,
y + 2yz + 3xz
, (. 33).
A

x
5
3
P
z

y 3
B

. 33

,
SPAB + SPBC + SPAC =
xy + 2yz + 3xz
1
y
1
1
y
= --- x ------- sin 150 + --- z ------- + --- xzsin 120 = ----------------------------------------- .
2

4 3

1
SPAB + SPBC + SPAC = SABC = --- ACBC = 6
2

(ABC ), xy + 2yz + 3xz = 24 3 .

10. : n = 15.

, 11 ,
2009 .

1. : 5.

2. : = --4- + n; n Z.
108

3. : .
4. : = 0, y = kx + 1004; k R.
. (0; 1004) 
, , 
, .
a(a + b)
----------------------- .
c(b + c)

5. : =
6. : x =

--- + n; n Z.
6

3 sin = cos

k
2 cos + --- , 99 , = x + ------- , k = 1, 2 ...,
3

..., 99. k

2k,

2 3 sin x + 1 --- = 2 cos x + 1 --- 22 cos x + 2 --- ;


3

22 3 sin x + 2 --- = 22 cos x + 2 --- 23 cos x + 3 --- ;


3
3
3

.........................................................................................................

299 3 sin x + 99 --- = 299 cos x + 99 --- 2100 cos x + 100 --- .
3
3
3


:

3 21 sin x + 1 --- + 22sin x + 2 --- + ... + 299sin x + 99 --- =


3

= 2 cos x + 1 --- 2100 cos x + 100 --- = (2 + 2100) cos x + --- .


3

cos x + --- = 0 x = --- + n; n Z.


3

7. : 1) ; 2) .
. 1) 1 2 , 

109

.
, 1
A1, 1 1, 2 A2, 2 2, A2 
OA1, 2 OB1, 2 OC1
(. 34).
O

C2
2
C1

A2
A1

1
B1

B2

. 34

OA11 OA22 
, OA1O1 = OA2O2. , OA1OC1 = OA2OC2.
OA1 = OA2, OB1 = O2 OC1 = OC2, . . 1
2 . , A1 A2.
OA1 > OA2. OB1 < O2 OC1 < OC2, 
OB1C1 OB2C2.
2) 1 
A1, B1, C1 D1 (
A1B1C1D1 ). 
2 OA1, B2 OB1, C2 OC1,
D2 OD1 , OA1B1 OA2B2, OB1C1
OB2C2, OC1D1 OC2D2, OD1A1 OD2A2
(. 35).
,
A1 A2, OA1 > OA2. OA1OB1 =
= OA2OB2, OB1OC1 = OB2OC2, OC1OD1 = OC2OD2 
110

D1

A2

1
D2

C2
A1
C1
B1

B2

. 35

OB1 < OB2, OC1 > OC2, OD1 < OD2. 


, ,
OA 1
OB
OC
OD
----------- = -----------2- = -----------1- = -----------2- .
OA 2
OB 1
OC 2
OD 1

, A2C2 B2D2 
A1C1 B1D1 A1B1C1D1

. , A2C2 B2D2 , 
.

8. : 1, 2, 5.
9. : 20092.
10. :

n  3.

. , n  3 
n, ,
. n

. 
111

(1, 0) A1, A2, ..., n, Ak = (xk , yk ),


k = 1, 2, ..., n :
2

k 1
2k
- , yk = ----------------.
xk = ---------------2
2
k +1

k +1

k 0, --- ; k = 1, 2, ..., n,
2

k
k = ctg ------ , xk = cos k , yk = sin k ,

k
- , , {k} .
----2

, A1, A2, ..., n

AOAk = k 0; --- ; k = 1, 2, ..., n (. 36).


2

y
Q2

A1

Q3
A2
Qk

A3
Ak

yk
k
k
Q1

An
xk

. 36

Q1,Q2, ...,
..., Qn , AOQk = 2 AOAk = 2k , k = 1, 2, ..., n.
112

(0, ],
Q1, Q2, ..., Qn n.
n QiQj,
i, j = 1,2, ..., n, i j.

Qi Qj
1
------------------------------- = 2R Qi Qj = 2sin Qi AQj = 2sin --- Qi OQj =
sin Q i AQ j
2

= 2 sin |i j | = 2 |sin (i j )| = 2 |sin i cos j cos i sin j |.


R = 1 sin |i j | = |sin (i j )|, i j

--- ; --- . sin i, cos j, cos i sin j
2

i, j = 1, 2, ..., n, i j, Qi Qj 
. n Q1, Q2, ..., Qn
Q1QkQk+1, k = 2, 3, ..., n 1.

S Q

1 Qk Qk + 1

1
= --- Q1QkQ1Qk+1sin (k k+1)
2


.
N
, 
, n Q1, Q2, ..., Qn.
n, n Q1, Q2, ..., Qn
N, 
n, ,
.

, .
1. : 2.
2. : 2009.
. .
1

3. : x = 5, x = --2- .
4. :

AO
45
---------- = ------ .
OD
8

113

5. :

1
--- ; 1 (1; 2].

. 
:
31 x

2ax 2a

x+a +5a1
2
2
= log3 ---------------------------------------------- 3 ( a 1 ) ( x + a ) =
2a1

( x + a )2

( a 1 ) 2 1 ---------------------2x+a
x+a
5
5

( a 1 ) = log ---------------------= log3 -------------------- + --- 3


3 2 a 1 + 2 .
2a1
2

x+a
----------------- = t  0. :
a1

3(a 1)

2(1

t2 )

t+5
= log3 ------------ .
2

t  0 
, t .
: t = 1. :
|x + | = | 1|,
x+a
----------------- = 1

1
a1

x + = 1,
+ a = 1 a,
1

x = 1,
x = 1 2,
1.

,
[3, 0], 
3  1 2  0, a 1. .

6. : k = 3, k = 5.
. b 
, q . b q 
, , b, q 0. q = 1, b 12 + b 22 + ...+ b k2 =
= kb2, b1 + b2 + ... + bk = kb. 
. q 1. :
b 12 + b 22 + ... + b k2
b( qk + 1 )
b 2 ( q 2k 1 ) b ( q k 1 )
---------------------------------------------- = ----------------------------------------------------.
-----------------------:
=
b 1 + b 2 + ... + b k
q+1
q1
q2 1

k 
. ,
q 2m + 1 + 1
---------------------------- = q2m q2m 1 + q2m 2 q2m 3 + ... + q2 q + 1.
q+1

114

k = 3 k = 5 .
, , b = 1, q = 2 k = 4
b 12 + b 22 + b 32 + b 42 = 85, b1 + b2 + b3 + b4 = 15, . . 
.

, . , .

1. : x =

2009

n
--- ------------ + ------- , n Z.
4
2
2

2. : .
3. : x = 0.
3

- ; 0 .
4. : a -----
2

. , = 0 ,

. 0 ,
,
x
2x
f(x) = 2 + --- + 2 g(x) = x2 + ------ 2a.
a

x0 y = f(x)
y = g(). , f(x) = g(), ,
x0 = 42 (. 37).
f(x)

q(x)

x0
x

. 37

3
f(x0) < 0 2 (83 + 3) < 0 ------- ; 0 .
2

5. : AB = 35 , AC = BC = 3 35 .
115

6. : ) ; ) , 
2k; ) 
k
------- ; k Z, k 0.
2

. ) y = sin || . 
, , > 0 

. sin |x + | = sin || R. x = ---

sin T + --- = 1, T + --- = --- + 2 n T = 2n; n N.


2
2
2
3
3
3

x = ------ , , sin T + ------ = 1, . . T + ------ = --- +


2
2
2
2

+ 2k = + 2 k; k N.

, + --- + ------
2

> 0. , 2n = + 2k
.
) y = cos |x| = cos x 
2.
) y = |sin x| + |cos x| 
/2. ,

sin x + --- + cos x +


2

--- = |cos x| + |sin x| x R.


2

, y = |sin x| + |cos x|, 

n
2 , x = --- + ------- , n Z.
4

,
|sin x| + |cos x| =

2 sin2 x + |sin 2x| + cos2x = 2

n
|sin 2x| = 1 cos 2x = 0 2x = --- + n x = --- + ------- ; n Z.
2

,
/2.

, . , . $

1. : x ( ; 0].
2. : 5 .
3. : x =
116

11
--------- + 2n, n Z.
8

4. : = 3.
.
:
|x |  3 x2

a  x2 + x 3,
x a  3 x 2,

x  x2 3
a  x2 + x + 3.


, 
(. 38).
a
x=a
3

a = x2 + x 3
1
1

x
a = x2 + x + 3

. 38

= 0 
0. 
, 
1.

5. : = 5, = 4 = 4, = 5.
6. : 5.
. b 
, S ,
a + b + a2 + b2
P
-------- = ---------------------------------------------- =
1
S
--- ab
2

a
2 --- +
b

b
--- +
a

a
b
--- + --- 
b
a

2 (2 +

2)

117

( 
). 2 + 2 2 > 4,8, 
.
P
, -------- = 5 ,
S

,
1
t + --- +
t

1
5
t 2 + ---2- = ------- t =
t
2

a
--- .
b

1
u = t + ---
t

5
29
u 2 2 = ------- u u = ------------- .
2

10 2

,
1
29
29
t + --- = ------------- t 2 ------------- t + 1 = 0,
t

10 2

10 2


,
.

, .

1. : x = 1, x = 3 .
1
2

2. : x ; -------

1
------- ; + .

3. : 1,5 .
4. : x =

3
------ + 2 n, n Z.
8
3

5. : AB = --2- , BC =

33
------ .
10

. K, L, N , 
, 
ABC. 
Q ( Q). 
,
118

, :
K = AN = x, BK = BL = y, CL = CN = 3 x, BP = QM = m,
PQ = 2m (. 39).
B
P

Q
A

. 39

, 
, ,
, :
K 2 = BQ,

BK = NM = y =
MN 2 = MQMP

3
3 m
AB = AM = --- .
2

, ABC 
, ,
1
= --2

2AB 2 + 2BC 2 AC 2

9
64m2 = --- + 2(y x + 3)2 9.
2

y
3
m = ------- , = --- , ,
2

33
9
y = ------ = ------ .
10

10

6. : --2- .
. b
, , , a R
r 
c
a+bc
. , R = --- , r = ------------------------- ,
2

r
a+bc
a
b
---- = ------------------------- = --- + --- 1 = cos + sin 1 
R
c
c
c

2 1.
119

R
, ---- 
r

2 > 2,4. , 

.
R
5
---- = --- , ,
r
2
R
5
2
7

---- = --- cos + sin 1 = --- sin + --- = ---------


r
2
5
4
5 2

, 
.

, 11 ,
2010 .

1. : 4.
4

--- + 2n, = --- + 2k;


5
2
4

x = arcsin --- + 2n, = --- + 2k, n, k Z.


2
5

2. : x = + arcsin

3. : 55 778.
4. : 2011.
5. : : .

 2AH, : BD = 2,
HD.

6. : k = 3.
7. : l3.
. 1) , l1, l2
l3 . e 1 ,
e 2 e 3 , l1, l2 l3 
120 . 
li, i = 1, 2, 3
e i e i , 
.
, k
120

l1, m l2 n 
l3, , 
, AB = k e 1 + m e 2 + n e 3 ,
k, m n , k, m n 
(. 40).
l3

l2
3

A
1

l1

2

. 40

l1 
2010 e 1 (
). , 
. 
,
AC = k e 1 + m e 2 + n e 3 = 2010 e 1

(k 2010) e 1 + m e 2 + n e 3 = 0 .

n( e 1 + e 2 + e 3 ) = 0 , ,
(k 2010 n) e 1 + (m n) e 2 = 0 ,
k 2010 = n m = n, e 1 e 2 
. , k, m, n, , k, m
n , . 
, k, m n 
.
l3.
121

2) l1, l2 l3 .
e 1 , e 2 e 3 , 
l1, l2 l3
60 (. 41).
l3

3

2
l1
A
l2

1

. 41

, ,
(k 2010) e 1 + m e 2 + n e 3 = 0
, k 2010 = m = n = 0. 
, , , k = k 2010 0. 
k e 1 , l2 l3, 
m e 2 + n e 3 ,
0 . 
. , k, m n . 
,
, .

8. : 15 .
9. : .
. a1, a2, ..., a6
1 = 3 2 . , 
a1, a2, ..., a6. ,
a1, a2 a4 ( a1 + a2 =
= 1 + a > 2 = a4) a2, a3
a5 , .
122

ABCD, 
= a2 = ,
= a3 = a2, = a5 = 2, AD = a4 = 2,
CD = a1 = 1 BD = a6 = 2a2 (. 42).
ABC ACD ABC,
D 
, . 
ABCD1 ABCD2 (. 43, 44).
D1
a1

a1

a4

C
a2

a4

a5

a2

a6

a5

A
A

a3
B

a3

. 42

. 43

, BD1 > a6 = 2a2, a BD2 < 6.


BD1. ABC AD1C 
ACD1. , ABCD , || D1C.
BAC = ACD1 = , ABC = CAD1 = ACB =
= AD1C = . D1AB = + = . 
ACD1 :
2

5a
2 = AD 12 + D1C 2 2AD1 D1Ccos , cos = -----------------

4
a2 5

cos( + ) = ----------------- . , 
4

123

ABD1, ( 
4 = 2):
BD 12 = AD 12 + AB2 2AD1cos ( + ) =
a2 5
4

= 4 + 2 42 ----------------- = 4 + 2 + 52 2 = 4 + 52.
4 +52 a 62 = (22)2 = 44 = 8. 
5x2 8x + 4 ,
. , BD1 > a6.
BD2 ,
D2
BD2 < a6. E
a1

AD2 ,  =
C
= ACD2 = , ABC = CAD2 =

a4
ACB = AD2C = (. . 44).


A
( ) ,
E
a
2

a5

a
2 = , = ---

2
3a
EB = ------ . , 
2

ACD2

a
2 = EAD2, , A = ------

a3

ED2

. 44

a2
------ .
2

BED2 = AEC = = . 
ACD2 :
2

a +14 a 3
AD 22 = AC2 + CD 22 2ACCD2cos cos = ---------------------------- = ----------------- .
2a

2a

BED2,
, ( 4 = 2):
BD 22 = EB2 + ED 22 2EBED2cos =
a
3a ( 4 a 2 )
9a 2
= --------- + 4 + --- 2a2 -----------------------------
4

a2 3
a
3
a2
----------------- = ------ + --- + 4 --- (7a2 12 2a) =
4

2a

a2
a
21a 2
3a
= ------ + --- + 4 ------------ + 9 + ------ = 13 + 2a 5a2.
4

124

13 + 2 5 2 a 62 = 8. 
f(x) = 5x 2 + 6x 13,
74 3
--------------------- < 1,2, a =
5

2 > 1,2, f(a) > 0

13 + 2 5a 2 < 8, , BD2 < a6.


, BD1 > a6, BD2 < a6. 
, D1 D2.
D ,
( D1 = D0 0, D2 = D 
, [0, ]). [0, ] 
() = BD. (0) > 6, () < 6
() . , 0 (0, ),
(0) = 6. ABCD, D = D , 
0
.

10. : 252.
, .

1. : 13,5 9 .
1

2. : 2 ; x = arccos --3- .
3. : 3, 3 3 , 9, 9 3 , 27.
5

4. : --7- .
5. : a  1.
.
1 = , b + 1 = q, f(x).
:
f(x) = ( + q)x2 + (3q 4)x + 4 2q  0.
,  0 
q, p < 0, q,
. ,
p  0, p. q = p
7x + 6  0, .
q > , y = f(x) 
f(x)  0 q.
q < . y = f(x)
f(0) = 4 2q > 0, q < p < 2. ,
f(x)  0 q .
125

< 0 ( p).
q < 0 y = f(x) . 

D = (3q 4)2 4 ( + q) (4 2q) = 17q2 32q = q(17q 32).
32p

q --------- ; 0 , D < 0 f(x)  0


17
. b, ,
a  1.

6. : SSLN = 16.
. , K || . ,
. LN, 
(
BDS), ACS.
, , L N
SH SABCD 
S. SM = SK = , SL = , SN = 3.

MNKL BDS , 
BD. DS M1,
BS K1. SM1 = SK1 = (. 45, 46).
S

L
K
O

M
L
N

M1
C

K1
O
N

H
A

. 45

126

. 46

M1SK1 LN 
, , :
M1 O K1 N
SL
x
3x y
3
------------- ------------ ------------ = 1 -------------- ----------------- = 1 y = --- x.
3x
LM 1 OK 1
NS
yx
2

SM1K1 SLN
:
2
1
3
--- x
--- SM 1 SK 1 sin M 1 SK 1
S SM1 K1
2
2
y
2
3
----------------------- = ------------------------------------------------------------------------ = --------2- = --------------2 = 4.
S SLN
1
3x
3x
--- SLSNsin LSN
2

S SM

= SSMK = 12, SSLN = 16.

1 K1

, .

1. : 8 , n = 4.
2. : x = + arcsin

3
--- + 2n; n Z.
4

3. : x (0, 2].
4. : x = 0, x =

1 + 65
--------------------- .
8

. f(t) = 2t t 2 
t = 1 , f(t1) = f(t2)
t +t
2

1
2
, t1 = t2, ---------------- = 1.

:
x + 4 = 4x2,
1 + 65
x = --------------------- .
x + 4 = 2x x  0
8
:
x + 4 + 2x = 2

5. :

x + 4 = (2 2x)2,
x = 0.
x + 4 = 2 2x x  1

3
13
-------  |MN|  ---------- .
2
4

6. : N = 43.
127

. N . x
, 
:
1
1
1
yx
1
--- --- = ----- -------------- = ----- Ny Nx = xy x(N + y) = Ny
y
N
N
x
xy
Ny
Ny + N 2 N 2
N2
x = ---------------- = --------------------------------------- = N ---------------- .
N+y

N+y

N+y

N
, ----------------
N+y

. N , N 2 
, N ( N 2).
:
y = N 2 N, x = N 1. N ,
, N 
N 2. , N = q, q
, 1 < , q < N, p 2q p 2q 2 N 
N 2. ,
. ,
N = 43 .

, .
1

1. : --3- .
2. : x 1,
3. : x

1 + 5
------------------ .
2

1
-------------, + .
2010 2

4. : SACD =

294
--------- .
25

5. : x = 1  5 , x = 1 

10
---------- .
3 3

. = 3 1 + x + 3 3 x 
. 
. t = x 1, x = t + 1 
:
3

128

2+t +

2 t = a 4 + 3a 3 4 t 2 = a3.

= 0 t, 
. 0, :
a3 4
----------------- =
3a

a2
4
4 t 2 ------ ------ =

4 t2 

3a

4 t2 .

4 t, 

a2
4
, ------ ------ 
3

1
4
--- --- = 1 <
3

x=1

4 , ,

4
2
2
--- --- = --- <
3
3
3

4 , ,

4 . = 1,

4 t 2 = 1, t =  5

1
4
5
5 . = 1, --- + --- = --- >
3

3a

4 . = 2

2
10
4 t 2 = --- , t =  ----------
3

3 3

10
4
2
x = 1  ---------- . = 2 , --- + --- = 2 >
3
3
3 3

4 . , 

a2
a2
4
4
, || > 2, ------  3 ------ < 1, ------ ------ > 2 >
3

3a

3a

4.

, = 1 = 2 
, x x = 1 

10
5 x = 1  ---------- .
3 3

6. : = log23.
. ,
f(x) = cos x + cos ax . ,
p
= --- , q q > 0. T = 2q
q

. , cos (x + 2q) = cos x


p
p
p
cos --- (x + 2q) = cos --- x + 2p = cos --- x 
q
q
q
. f(x) , 
b, f(x) = b 
.
,
cos x + cos ax = 2 x = 0. 
, :

cos x + cos ax = 2

cos x = 1,
x = 2k,

cos x = 1
x = 2n; k, n Z.
129

x 0
n
, , = --- , 
k

. , x = log2 3
.

, .

1. : .
2. : x 0;

51

--- arccos ------------------ ; --- .

4
2
2

3. : {(2; 3); (3; 2); (0; 5); (5; 0)}.


4. : SAOB = 5.
. 
BD ABCD.
BDC ( ,
) ABE CDE (. 47).
B

2
K
2

O
R

E
5
D

. 47

:
4
AB
BE
4
--- = --------- = --------- = tg 
sin  = ---------- .
5
CD
CE
41

130

B , 
, :
AB
41
R = OA = --------------------------------- = ---------- .
2 sin  ACB

K ,
K = 2, ,
K =

5
1
OA 2 AK 2 = --- SAOB = --- K = 5.
2

5. : {(369, 26); (86, 24); (9, 10); (30, 20); (6, 4);
(5, 0); (198, 1060); (85, 480); (57, 310); (33, 160);
(30, 140); (22, 72)}.
5

6. : = --6- , x =

16
------ .
25

A+B+ AB
- ,
. max {A, B} = -----------------------------------------2

:
1
1
1
1
---------- + --------------------- + ---------- --------------------- + a  0
3 x
4 1x
3 x
4 1x

a
1
1
max ---------- , ---------------------  ---
2
3 x

4 1 x

a < 0,

a
1
----------  --- ,
2
3 x

a
1
---------------------  --2
4 1x

a < 0,

4
x  --------2- ,
9a

1
1 x  --------24a

4
x  --------2- ,
9a

1
x  1 --------2- .
4a


1
4
, < 0 --------2- = 1 --------2- ,
9a

4a

5
6

= --- . , 
16
, = ------ .
25

131

, .

1. : 20 .
2. : x = 2.
3. : BAC = arctg 3.
4. : n = 27.
. , n  26 
, n  27 .
1
16

n = 26, x = ------ . ,
1
1
3
49
51
cos ------  cos ------  cos ------  ...  cos ------  cos ------ .
16

16

16

16

16

1
3
49
------ , ------ , ..., ------ = 3,0625
16

16

16

(0; ), 
50
51
49
. ------ = 3,125 < , ------ , -----16

16

16

49
51
1
cos ------ > cos ------ . , = ------
16
16
16

n  26.
n = 27 x = x0 
. ,
1

x0 (, ]. x0 ; ------ ,
16
1

cos x0  cos x0 + --- . x0 0; --- , 


8

27
26
26
cos x0 + ------  cos x0 + ------ , ------ = 3,25 
8

26
27

< x0 + ------ < x0 + ------ < 2. x0 --- ; ,


8

13

14

cos x0 + ------  cos x0 + ------ . 


8
8
13
13
14

, ------ > --- < x0 + ------ < x0 + ------ < 2. 


8

132

1
16

, x0 ------ ; 0 . , 
26
27
cos x0 + ------ < cos x0 + ------ . :
8

1
26
51 26
x0 ------ ; 0 x0 + ------ ------ ; -----16

16

[3,1875; 3,25]

26
27

< x0 + ------ < x0 + ------ < 2.


8

, n = 27 (,
n  27) 
.

5. : ;
6. :

1 43
------------------------3

[7; +).

2
1
------  SSLN  --- .
25
8

. SH , 
K LN KLMN.
K LN ASC
BSD, SH, 
. KSM,
1
1
KS = --- , SM = --- , KSM = 90 ( ASC ),
2

SP KSM (. 48). 

, , :
2SKSM
2
SP = ------------------------------- = ------- .
SK + SM

BSD, 
L SB, N SD,
LN (. 49). SP 
BSD. SL = , SN = , 0  x, y  1.
:
x
2SLSN
2
2xy
SP = ------------------------------ ------- = -------------- y = ----------------- .
SL + SN

x+y

5x 1

133

M
L

S
N


5

H
A

. 48

. 49

1
y  1, ---  x  1. SLN
4

1
1
x2
SSLN = --- SLSN = --- ----------------- .
2

5x 1

x2

1
S(x) = --- ----------------- 
2

5x 1

1
---  x  1. .
4

:
x ( 5x 2 )
1 2x ( 5x 1 ) 5x 2
- = ---------------------------2- .
S(x) = --- --------------------------------------------2
( 5x 1 )

2 ( 5x 1 )

1
---  x  1 S(x)
4

2
2
x = --- . S(x) x = --- ,
5

1
x = 1 x = --- . :
4

2
2
1
1
1
S --- = ------ , S(1) = --- , S --- = --- .
5

134

25

2
1
------ , --- .
25

, , S(x)
1
---  x  1, 
4

. , SLN 
2
1
------  SSLN  --- .
25




  

 

 


, 2009 .
1. :

--- + n, n Z.
4
sin x ( 4cos 2 x 1 )
------------------------------------------------ = ctg2 x,
cos x ( 4cos 2 x 1 )

sin 3x
sin x = 0,
- = ctg2 x
. ---------------------------------------cos 3x + 2cos x
cos x = 0,
1
2

cos x =  --- ;

tg x = ctg2 x, tg3 x = 1, x = --- + n, n Z.


4

2. :

5
1
----- ; ------ .
16
16

.
4x 2
--------- +
9

3
2x
x 2 9y 2 = --- ------ ,
3

15
------ 2x 4y = 1 + 4y
16

136

x2 9y2  0,

x2 9y2  0,

3
2x
--- ------  0,
3
4

9
x  ------ ,

1 + 4y  0,

4y  1,

16

 

4x 2
9
223x
4x 2
--------- + x 2 9y 2 = ------ ----------------------- + --------- ,
43
9
9
16
15
------ 2x 4y = 1 + 8y + 16y2
16

9
x = 8y2 + ------ ,
32

1
x = 8y2 6y ------ .
32

5
1
, 8y2 + 3y + ------ = 0, y1 = ------ ;
32

16

5
5
y2 = ------ ( ), x = ------ .
16
16

3. : (1; 0) (0; 1) (1; 4).


. log|x| ( 5 x + 4)  2 log x 2 (8 2x),
5 x  0,
8 2x > 0,
: x = 0,
|x| = 1.
:
x < 4,
: x 0,
|x| 1

|x| > 1,

|x| > 1,

( 5 x + 4)  (8 2x);

|x| < 1,

( 5 x )  4 2x;
|x| < 1,

( 5 x + 4)  (8 2x)

5 x  (4 2x).


|x| > 1,
( 5 x )  4 2x

|x| > 1,
x  2,
x (1; 2],
4x2 15x + 11  0; x (2; 5],
x > 2,
5x0

, x (1; 4).

|x| < 1,
( 5 x )  4 2x

|x| < 1,
x  2,
x (1; 1).
5 x  0,
4x2 15x + 11  0

, x (1; 0) (0; 1). 


, : x (1; 0) (0; 1) (1; 4).

4. :

79
21 12
---------- , ---------- , ------- .
5
5
7

137

. K, L, M
3H
ABCD, -------- , H (. 50).
10

D
L

C
B

M
M

. 50

K, L, M K, L, M ABCD.
,  ABC =  BCD = 120 =
=  KLM, KBL MCL . 
79
379
KL = ML = ---------- KM = ------------------ , 
5

, KLM,
KM
79
r = ------------------------ = ---------- .
2sin 120

, 
A(0; 0; 0), K, L, M
12
7 7 3
K ------ ; ---------- ; h , L ------ ;
10

10

37 3 3
3 ; h , M ------ ; ---------- ; h , h 

10

10

KLM ABCD.
, K, L, M.
2
2
7
7 3
----- x0 + ---------- y0 + (h z0)2 = 4,
10
10

12
------ x0 + 3 y0 + (h z0)2 = 4,
5

2
2
3 3
37
------ x0 + ---------- y0 + (h z0)2 = 4,
10
10

138

x0, y0, z0 O. ,
x0 = 2, y0 = 0. , ,
OP AADD.
KLM , 
P .
OP
OP K, (OK)2 = (P K)2 + (OP )2, OK
, 2, P K 
79
KLM, ---------- , ,

5
21
OP = ---------- . , 
5

OKB OBP. KB
KKB, KB =

9H 2
9
----------- + ------ , 
100
25

9
9H 2
OKB OB2 = 4 + ----------- + ------ , OBP 
100

25

3H
21
, OB2 = (BP)2 + (OP)2, BP = 2, OP = ---------- -------- ,

10
5
2
9H
21
2
213H
OB2 = 4 + ------ --------------------------- + ----------- ,
100
25
510
4
OB2, H = ---------- ,
21

:
1
4 3
12
V = --- (4 + 2) ---------- = ------- .
2

21

5. :  CBD = --4- ,  BAC = arctg --3- .


B

3y

2z
y

3t

2t

. 51

139

. ED = t, AE = 3t, DC = 2t (. 51).
BE ABD, BD 
EBC,
BD = y, AB = 3y, BE = z, BC = 2z. 
6t
2z
ABC ABE --------------- = -------------- ,
sin 3

sin

z
3t
------------- = ------------ , sin 3 = sin , 3 sin 4 (sin )3 = sin ,
sin
sin
1
2

(sin )2 = --- , sin = ------- , = --- . ABD 


2

1
, tg = --- .
3
1

6. : a = --4- .
.
, 90 OX 
a; 
, OY.
, y = x, x2 + x + a = 0,
1
D = 0, a = --- .
4

7. : (0; 0; 0),

1
--- ; 0; 0 ,
2

1
0; 1
--- ; 0 . 0; 0; --- , (1; 1; 1),
2

2
3
3 3
3
1
1 3
--1- ; 3
--- ; --- , --- ; --- ; --- , --- ; --- ; --- .
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

. 2(x2 y2) +
+ z(x y) = x y,
2(y2 z2) + x(y z) = y z,
 ,
(x y)(2x + 2y + z 1) = 0,
: (y z)(2y + 2z + x 1) = 0,
2z2 = xy + z,
:
x y = 0,
1) (y z)(2y + 2z + x 1) = 0,
2z2 = xy + z;
140

2x + 2y + z 1 = 0,
2) (y z)(2y + 2z + x 1) = 0,
2z2 = xy + z;
y z = 0,
3) (x y)(2x + 2y + z 1) = 0,
2z2 = xy + z;
2y + 2z + x 1 = 0,
4) (x y)(2x + 2y + z 1) = 0,
2z2 = xy + z.
,
:
x = y,
y z = 0,
2z2 = xy + z;
x = y,
2y + 2z + x 1 = 0,
2z2 = xy + z.
: (0; 0; 0), (1; 1; 1),
:
3 3
1
0; 0; 1
--- , --- ; --- ; --- . ,

2 7 7
7

:
z = y,
2x + 2y + z 1 = 0,
2z2 = xy + z;
2x + 2y + z 1 = 0,
2y + 2z + x 1 = 0,
2z2 = xy + z.
1
1 3 3
: --- ; 0; 0 , --- ; --- ; --- .
2
7 7 7
1
3
1 3
: 0; --- ; 0 , --- ; --- ; --- .
2
7
7 7
, .



. . .

  

 

 

, 2010 .

1. : 14 400, 10 000.
. : x (. .) 
; y (. .) .
1,2x, 
1,25y. 

1,2x + 1,25y = 24 400,
24 400 = 1,2220 000,
x + y = 20 000,
, , x = 12 (. .), y = 8 (. .),
, 14 400 .
10 000 .

2. : x =

--- + 2k, k Z; x = ------ + 2n, n Z.


2
6

.
sin x = 1,
2(sin x)2 3 sin x + 1 = 0,

cos x  0

3. : 1653.
142

1
sin x = --- ,

x1 = --- + 2k,

2
3

--- + 2k; ------ + 2k


2
2

2
5
x2 = ------ + 2n, k Z, n Z.
6

. a1 = 113, d = 4.
, 
an  0.
,

an = a1 + d(n 1)  0 113 + 4 4n  0, n = 29,


, n N.
2a + d ( n 1 )
2

1
S29 = ---------------------------------------- n = 1653.

4. : 2.
. 32x = 11 + 22 x. 2x = t > 0 (
1
). 3t2 11t 4 = 0, t1 = 4; t2 = ------3

( ), 2x = 4, x = 2.

5. : x [0; 9) (9; 36).


. : x  0. t =
:

x  0.

t+2
2t + 9
t 2 2t 3
------------  ------------------------------ -----------------------------------  0
2
3t
(t 6)(t 3)
t 9t + 18
(t 3)(t + 1)
-----------------------------------  0, t [0; 3) (3; 6).
(t 6)(t 3)

x, x [0; 9) (9; 36).

6. : 1;

1
--- .
2
5

- .
. : f (x) = sin 2 x 2 ----6
[; ]. :

z(x) = 2 x2; t(z) =

5
z ; (t) = t ------ ; y = sin (). 
6

. E(z) = [0; 2],

5
E(t) = [0; ], E() = ----------- ; --- . y = sin ()
6

5
1
----------- ; --- , , E(f ) = 1; --- .
6

7. : 8 3 .
143

. CM = 4, BN = 2 7 .
CNB CN = NA = x, CB = y. x2 + y2 = 28. 
ABC 4x2 + y2 = 64. x = 2 3 , y = 4.
1
SABC = --- ACBC = 8 3 .
2

8. : 15.
. 
9 ( x )2
6

x
3

0
0
x0, y = ----- (x x0) + ------------------------ , 

M(4; 3),
9 ( x0 )2
x0
x = 9,
3 = ------------------------ ----- (4 x0), (x0)2 8x0 9 = 0 01
6
3
x02 = 1.
x01 = 9
y = 3x + 15.

(1)

x01 = 1
x
5
y = --- + --- .
3

(2)


: x = 5 
; x = 5 .
1
1
SAB = --- |AB|yM = --- 103 = 15 (.)2.
2

9. : a ;

1
--2

1;  .

1
a (; 0] --- ; 1 , x = 8a + 4 2 ( 2a 2 3a + 1 ) .
2

1
6a 2
a 0; --- , x1 = 8a + 4 2 ( 2a 2 3a + 1 ) , x2 = ------------------ .
3
a
1
1
a --- ; --- (1; + ), x1, 2 = 8a  4 2 ( 2a 2 3a + 1 ) .
3 2

. 64a(x 6) + 128 = (x + |x|)2.


1) x  0 : a(x 6) + 2 = 0,
1
6a 2
x = ------------------ , , a 0; --a
3
.

144

2) x > 0 : x2 16ax 32 + 96a = 0.


D
---- = 32(2a2
4

1
3a + 1) = 64(a 1) a --- , x = 8a,
2

f (0) = 32(3a 1), f (x) = x2 16ax + 96a 32.


: x1, 2 = 8a  4 2 ( 2a 2 3a + 1 ) . 


D > 0,
x > 0, a
f (0) > 0

1
1
--- ; --- (1; ).
3 2



D = 0,
x > 0;
1
f (0) < 0; a ; --
3
f (0) = 0,
x > 0

--- ; 1 .
2

x  0 x > 0, :
1
a ; --2

[1; ).

10. :

21
------- ; 1 : 9.
5

. TABC (. 52) TA  AB, TA  AC,


, TA  (ABC ). R AC. 
TMR.
1
STMR = --- TRhM min. AC =
2

160 = 4 10 ABC.

TR = 40 + 9 = 7 TAR. hM min = (TR, AB). 


l  AB R.
TR l (AB  ), 
TR AB
AB. (A, ) = (TR, AB). T
ABC, TA  (ABC ),
145

C
R

A
M

. 52

. 53

BC
ABC AF  l (. 53), . . AF  BC, AF = --------- = 6,
2

TF  l. TAF
TAAF
(. 54) , AP = (A, ), AP  TF. AP = ---------------------- =
TF

6
= ------- , TF =
5

TA 2

TP
1
76
21
45 , AP = hmin; -------- = ----------2- = --- ; Smin = ----------- = ------- .
PF

TFR (. 55) PN  l,
AM
0,4
= 0,4; AB = 4; MB = 3,6; ---------- = -------MB

3,6

2 5
5
PN
1
--------- = --- , PN = 0,4; PN = AM =
FR
5
1
= --- .
9

. 54

146

AF

. 55

, 2010 . 1

1. : 10 8.
. (p) ,
5
p + --- .
2
100
100
-------------- + 2 = --------- , 2p2 + 5p 250 = 0, p = 10 (./). 
p

5
p + --2

, 100 ,
100
--------- = 10 (), 
10

1002
100 ----------------- = 8 ().
25

2. : x =

5
3

--- + 2k, k Z; x = ------ + 2n, n Z; ------ ; --- .


4
4
4 4

. 2 (sin x)2 + sin x 2 = 0,


2
sin x = -------
2

x = --- + 2k,

4
k Z, n Z.
3
x = ------ + 2n,
4

3
----------- ; --2

--- , ------ .
4

3. : 25.
. n , 
n = 2k + 1. k + 1.
( 2a + 2kd ) ( 2k + 1 )
2

1
Sn = -------------------------------------------------------- ;

( 2a + 2kd ) ( k + 1 )
2

1
S = ---------------------------------------------------- = (a1 + dk)(k + 1);

13 ( a + dk ) ( 2k + 1 )
25

52
1
S = --------- Sn, (a1 + dk)(k + 1) = ------------------------------------------------------- ,
100

k = 12, n = 25.
1

4. : x = --2- .
147

. :

x > 0,
x = 1,
3
x < --2

3
x 0; --- ,
2

x = 1.


1
1 + log 3
--- x log 2 --

2
2
1
1 + log 3
--- x logx --- = 1 ------------------------------------------------------------- =
2
2

2
log 2 x
3
1
= 1 log2 2 --- x = log2 ---
2
x

2x2

1
x = --- ,

3x + 1 = 0

x = 1.

5. : x [0; 1) (1; 2) (3; ).


. : x  0,
x = 1.
( 4 x 122 x + 32 ) ( x 1 )
--------------------------------------------------------------------- > 0 (2x 4)(2x 8)( x + 1) > 0
x1

(x 2)(x 3) > 0, , :
x [0; 1) (1; 2) (3; ).

6. : [2; ).
3 log6 x > 0,
. : log6 x > 1,
x > 0.
f (x) = log 1 (3 log6 x) + log 1 (1 + log6 x),
--2

--2

f (x) = log 1 ((log6 x)2 + 2 log6 x + 3). g(x) = (log6 x)2 +


--2

+ 2 log6 x + 3, , , log6 x (1; 3),


E(g) = (0; 4], E(f ) = [2; ).

7. : 162.
. ,
B C, BM = BK = CM = CN = a. 
A D AK = AT = DN = DT = b. BAD = . 
3
BP = h = 2r = 10. ABP sin = --- =
5

10
4
ba
5
= -------------- ; cos = --- = -------------- , a = --- ; b = 15;
a+b

148

a+b

10
BC = ------ ; AD = 30;  KBS  ABP, S = KN BP, BS = 1, SP = 9,

3
BCa + ADb
2a 2 + 2b 2
( 6 + 30 )9
KN = ------------------------------------------- = -------------------------- = 6, SAKND = ------------------------------ = 162.
a+b
a+b
2
x
3

8. : y1 = 3 x 9; y2 = ------- 1.
2

x
. y = ----12
( x )2
12

2x
12

0
0
x0: y = --------- (x x0) + ------------ .

x0 = 6 3 , y1 = 3 x 9.

1 , 
y1
x
3

y2 = ------- + b. ,
x
6

x
6
1
0
y(x0) = ------- = ----- , x0 = ------- . , y2 = ------- 1.
3

9. : a (; 1), x =

1a
-------------- .
2a

1a
a = 1, x1 = 1, x2 = -------------- = 1.
2a

2
1a
2 4 + 2a 2a 2
a (1; 0), x1, 2 = -------------------------------------------------------- , x3 = -------------- .
2a
2a

1
a = 0, x = ------ .
16

2 2

2 + 4 + 2a 2a
a (0; 1), x = ------------------------------------------------------- .
2a

a = 1, x = 0.
1a
a (1; ), x = -------------- .
2a

. 1. 1) x  0,
2ax = 1 a, a = 0 , a = 0
1a
x = -------------- ,
2a

a (; 0) [1; ), , x  0.


149

2) x > 0 4 x + 2ax + a 1 = 0.
t = x > 0. : 2at2 + 4t + a 1 = 0.
, 
.
2. 1) ,
1
t 2 , . . a = 0, t = --- .
4

2) , 
1, t = 1 ( ),
, . . D = 0, a =
2, t < 0 ( ).
.
3) , 
f(0)
---------- < 0,
a
a

1
f(t) = 2at 2 + 4t + a 1, -------------- < 0, , a (0; 1)
a

.
4) , ,

D > 0,
f(0)
---------- > 0,
a

t. > 0

a (1; 2),
a (; 0) (1; ) a (1; 0),
a (; 0).

, a (1; 0) ,
.
5) , 0,
.
f (0) = 0,
a = 1,

.
a > 0.
t. > 0
a, 
.

10. : 21.
. a
(. 56). BB1C1 O,
= C1B CB1. AO 
BA1.
AA1B1 AP  A1B. AP BB1 = P,
B1B = BP (. 57).
150

A1

B1
P3

P2

C1

A
a

P1

. 56
A1

B1

C1

P2

B1
O

C
P1

. 57

. 58

CC1B1 P O.
OP C1B1 = P2, OP CB = P1.  P2B1P  P1BP (
a
2a
2). P1B = --- ; P2B1 = ------ (. 58). P1 P2
3

. ABC
AP1, BP1 : P1C = 1 : 2. P2P3  AP1,
151

P
B

P1
P 3

P 2

. 59

. 60

P3 AC . , AP3P2P1
, BA1, AP,
BA1.
S
S ABC , 
S
cos

: S = ------------- . 

S . 59, P 3 P 2
P3 P2 ABC.
AP1 P 2 P 3 :
S = S  AP

1C

a2 3
a2 3
a2 3
S  CP P = ------------- ------------- = ------------- .
2

24

a = 2 14 , S = 7 3 .

, , 
ABC. P
PB ABC, B 
BK AP1 = (ABC ) (AP1P2P3)
(. 60).
KPB (. 60). PB  (ABC ),
BK  AP1, PK  AP1.
PKB ( ).
BA1,
BA1 B
BH.
152

BH
 BKH sin = --------- . . 59, BK 
BK

a2 3
1
 ABP1. S ABP = --- AP1BK = ------------- . AP1 
2

12

a 7
 ABP1 : AP1 = ----------- .
3

a 3
BK = ----------- , . . BK =
2 7

6 . :

2
sin = ------- ;
6

1
cos = ------- .
3

:
S = 21.

, 2010 . 2

1. : 5; 6,25.
. 100 
p , 1 
100
--------- . 100
p

100
(p + 1,25) 1 ---------------------- .
p + 1,25


100
100
--------- = ---------------------- + 4, 4p2 + 5p 125 = 0.
p
p + 1,25

p = 5 , 
p + 1,25 = 6,25 .

2. : x =

--- + k, k Z; x  --- + 2n, n Z;


3
2

2
3

x =  ------ + 2m, m Z.

. cos 3x + 2 cos x = 0; 4 cos3 x 3 cos x + 2 cos x = 0;

cos x(4 cos2 x 1) = 0. cos x = 0; x = --- + k, k Z.


2

1
2

4 cos2 x 1 = 0; cos x =  --- ; x =  --- + 2n,


2
3

x =  ------ + 2m, n Z, m Z.
153

3. : n = 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, ..., 17.
( 28 + 28 3 ( n 1 ) )n
-  68,
. a1 = 28; d = 3, Sn = ----------------------------------------------------------2
8
3n2 59n + 136  0, n --- ; 17 , n N, n [3; 17] N.
3

4. : x = --8- , x = 2.
. (log2 x) log27 (4x) = log3 2; : x > 0.
log ( 4x )
3log 2 3

2
log2 x ----------------------- = log3 2; log2 x(2 + log2 x) = 3;

log2 x = 3,
log 22 x + 2 log2 x 3 = 0  log x = 1
2

1
x = --- ,
8

x = 2.

5. : {0} [2; 3].


1
1
. ( 9 x 2 3) --------------------- ------------------  0;
2x + 2
x+4

x > 4,
: x > 1, x (1; 3].
x2 9  0
9 x 2 3  0,
x+4

9 x2  9,
x + 4  2x + 2,
9 x2  9,
x + 4  2x + 2;

2x + 2  0,

9 x 2  3,
x+4 

2x + 2 ;

x = 0,
x  2,
x R,
x  2;

x = 0, : x [2; 3] {0}.
x  2;

6. :

1
--- ; + .

. f (x) = 125 0,2 ( 4 log6 x )log6 x .


g(x) = (4 log6 x) log6 x = log 62 x + 4 log6 x.
g(x) (; 4].
f (x) = 1250,2g(x)
D(f (x)) = E(g(x)), E(f (x)) =
1
= [1250,24; +) E(f (x)) = --- ; + .
5

154

C
4x

3x

5x

. 61

7. : AB = 3; BC = 10; CD = 4; AD = 15.
. AB = 3x, CD = 4x. BE  CD,
12

 ABE,  ABE = 90, , AE = 5x, BH = ------ x. 


5
BC = ED = a. (. 61),
AM + MD AD
AMD, : 3 = ----------------------------------------------- .
2

ABE AMD AM MD.


15 + 15 5x 12x
, AD = 15, SABCD = 30 = ---------------------------------- --------- .
2
5
x = 1, BC = a = 10, AB = 3, CD = 4.
9
3 = --- + x.
5

: x = 1; a = 10.
9

x
3

8. : y = 3 x --2- ; y = ------- --2- .


. 
x0:
x2
6

2x
6

x x
3

x2
6

0
0
0
0
y = --------- (x x0) + ----- = --------- ----- .

x01 = 3 3 , :
9
y = 3 x --- , . . k1 = 3 .
2

k k
1 + k1 k2

1
2
1
tg = ------- = ----------------------- , k2
3

1
3

2 . k2 = ------- .
155

,
x
3

02
x02 : k2 = -------- , 

1
x02 = 3 y02 = --- .
2

1
: y = ------- (x +
3

1
x
1
3 ) + --- y = ------- --- .
2

9. : a (; 0]

3
1
--- ; 1 --- ; + ;
2
2

2 4 + 8a 12a
a (; 0), x = ----------------------------------------------------- ;
a

a = 0, x = 9;
1
8a 12
a --- ; 1 , x = --------------------- ;
2
a
2
3
2 + 4 + 8a 2 12a
a --- ; + , x = ----------------------------------------------------- .

. 2 2 ( x + x ) = a(x 8) + 12.
x  0. ax 8a + 12 = 0, ax = 8a 12,
8a 12
a = 0 , a = 0 x = --------------------- , ,
a

3
x  0, 1 a 0; --- .
2

x > 0, ax 4 x 8a + 12 = 0.
t =

x > 0,
at2 4t 8a + 12 = 0,

(1)

4
2
f (t) t = ------ = --- ,
a
2a

f (t) = at2 4t 8a + 12;


D
---- = 4 + 8a2 12a, D  0,
4
1
8a2 12a + 4  0, 2a2 3a + 1  0, a ; --- [1; +).
2

, t2 ,
t = 3 a = 0.
D = 0, a =

1
--- , t = 4,
2

1, t = 2.
156

.
f (0)
2a 3
----------- < 0, ------------------ > 0,
a

3
a (; 0) --- ; + .
2

f (0) = 0,, a = 3--- .


2
t > 0,

D > 0,

f (0)
3
- > 0 , a 0; 1
--- 1; --- .
---------a
2
2
t > 0,

a, .

10. :

21
---------- .
2 2

. M A1C1, a
. AM  BA1 (. 62).
1) AA1B1 AP  BA1 (. 63).
P1 = (AP1) (BB1), P = (AP) (A1B1).
2) A1B1C1 PM, P2 = PM C1B1
(. 64). B1P2 P2C1
x a2 a
--- ----------- ------ = 1, x = 2y,
y 2a 2a

2a
a
B1P2 = ------ , C1P2 = --- .
3

B1

A1
M

A1

B1

P2
C1

B
a

A
P3

P1

. 62

. 63

157

A1

B1

a

2

x
M
a

2

P2
y
C1

. 64
A

P3

P 2
C

. 65

3) ABC (. 65) 
MP2 AP3, M P 2 MP2
a
ABC, BP3 = --- .
3

AMP2P3 ABC

S. = S AP

3 P 2 M

= SABC S ABP S CMP =


3

a2 3
1 a2 3
1
a
3
1 a a
3
= --- ------------- --- a --- ------- --- --- --- ------- = ------------- .
2

4) ABC (AMP2P3) = AP3, , 


ABC,
AMP2P3, P1 P1B ABC,
B AP3, BK  AP3 (. 65).
BP1K ABC AMP2P3.
158

BH  P1K, BH 
B ,
HKB ABC
AMP2P3 (. 66). 
BK. BK
(. . 66) 
ABP3. S ABP

P1
H
1

1
a
3
= --- a --- ------- =
2
3
2

. 66

1
= --- AP3BK. AP3
2

.
a2
7a 2
a 1
AP 32 = a2 + ------ 2a --- --- = --------- ;
9

a 3
a 7
AP3 = ----------- ; BK = ----------- =
3

2 7

3.

1
BKH (. 66) sin = ------- ; cos =

2
--- ,
3

S
a 2 3 3
21
S. = ------------- = -------------------------- = ---------- .
cos

8 2

2 2

, 2009 . 1

1. : 30 , 120 .
. x (. .) 
, y (. .)
. 
1,2x, 
1,25y. , 
186
----------- = 150 (. .),
1,24

1,2x + 1,25y = 186,


x + y = 150,
, , x = 30 (. .), y = 120 (. .).

2. : x = k, k Z; x = --6- + 2n, n Z; x =

5
------ + 2m,
6

m Z.
159

.
x = k,

sin x  0,

3 sin x + 2 sin x cos x = 0;


x = ------ + 2m, k, n, m Z,
6

sin x < 0,

x = --- + 2n.
3 sin x + 2 sin x cos x = 0
6

3. : 1825.
. a1 = 145, d = 6.
, 
an  0, . . , 
. 

, an = a1 + d(n 1)  0,
145 + 6 6n  0, n = 25, , n N.
2a + d ( n 1 )
2

1
S25 = ---------------------------------------- n = 1825.

4. :

1
------ ; 9.
27

. : x > 0.
log x ( log x + 1 )
6 log 3 2

log x log 3x
log 3 64

3
3
3
3
log3 x log64 3x = log2 3 ------------------------------------ = log2 3 ------------------------------------------------- =

= log2 3 (log3 x)2 + log3 x 6 = 0

log3 x = 3,

log3 x = 2

1
x = ------ ,
27

x = 9.

5. : x [0; 4) (4; 16).


. t = x  0. 
t+4
: -----------2t

t + 10
 --------------------------2
t 6t + 8

t+3

------------  0,
t4
t [0; 2) (2; 4). x, 
t=2
x [0; 4) (4; 16).
1

6. : c ; --2- (4; ).


c

- , x [2; 4],
. f (x) = ------------cx
fmax > 0,2. x = c, c (; 2) (4; ). 

160

c
f (x) = --------------------2- . c > 0, f (x) > 0, . . 
(c x)

c
. fmax = f (4) = ------------- . c < 0, f (x) < 0, . .
c4

c
. fmax = f (2) = ------------- . c = 0, f (x) = 0,
c2

. . . c
:
c > 0,

c > 0,

c
------------- > 0,2,
c4

c+1
------------- > 0,
c4

c < 0,
c
------------- > 0,2
c2

c < 0,

1
c ; --- (4; ).
2

2c + 1
----------------- > 0
c2

7. : 7.
. ABC
1
1
S = --- ABBCsin B, 16 3 = --- 8BCsin 60,
2

BC = 8.
, ABC .
BKL KL =
AKM, KM =

28 .

7 . CML, ML =

28
 KML = 90, R = ---------- =
2

21 .
7,

R2 = 7.

8. : 68.
. 
x0 (. 67).
y = x 02 6x0 + 25 + (2x0 6)(x x0).
x = 2, ,
AB = x 02 6x0 + 25 + (2x0 6)(2 x0) = x 02 + 4x0 + 13.
x = 6, , CD = x 02 + 12x0 11.
ABCD (. 68) . ABCD
AB + CD
SABCD = -------------------------- BD = 4( x 02 + 8x0 + 1),
2

BD = 4.
161

A
D

B
O

x0

. 67

S ABCD
= 4(2x0 + 8) = 0.
x0 = 4.

9. : p (2; 1] [2; 6).


p (2; 1] {2}, x1 = p +
x2 = p +

p + 2 , y2 = 1.

p (2; 6), x1 = p +
x2 = p

p + 6 , y1 = 3;

p + 6 , y1 = 3;

p + 6 , y2 = 3.
6x
y2 2y + 3 = --------- ,

x
: x = 0.
y + 3 p = (x p)2.
x > 0 :

y2 2y + 3 = 6

y1 = 3,
y2 = 1.

x < 0 .
x > 0 y = 3. y = 3 
,
x2 2px + p2 + p 6 = 0.

D
---- = 6 p, x = p.
4

: x1, 2 = p 
162

p + 6 .



D > 0,
p < 6,
x > 0,
 p > 0,

p (; 3) (2; )
p2 + p 6 > 0
p (2; 6).

:
D = 0,
x > 0;
p2 + p 6 < 0;
p2 + p 6 = 0,
x > 0

p = 6,
p > 0;
p (3; 2);
p = {3; 2},
p>0

p = 6,
p (3; 2].


x = p + p + 6 .
x > 0 y = 1. 
y = 1,
D
x2 2px + p2 + p 2 = 0, ---- = 2 p, x = p, x1, 2 = p 
4

p + 2 .



D > 0,
x > 0,
p (1; 2).
p2 + p 2 > 0

:
D = 0,
x > 0;
p2 + p 2 < 0; 
p2 + p 2 = 0,
x > 0

p = 2,
p (2; 1), p (2; 1] {2}.
p=1

, .

10. : Smin =

4R 2
---------- ; 3 : 19.
66

163

. TABC
TO
AT

2
1
(. 68) ------------ = ------- , TO1 = h, AT = b, AB = a,
3

O , AD .
T
M

M1

l
C

D
O1
A
B

. 68

1) AOO1
R2 = (h R)2 + (AO1)2.

(1)

2) ATO1
b2 = h2 + (AO1)2.

(2)

h
2
4R
4R
4R
--- = ------- , h = ------- , AO1 = ---------- , a = ------- ,
b

3 2

AD = R 2 .
3)
1
SADM = --- ADhmin, hmin = (TC, AD).
2

l  AD C. 
TC l , 
TC AD
AD, . . (O1, ) = (TC, AD).
TO1  (ABC ), ABC O1F  l, . .
a
2R
O1F  BC, O1F = --- = ------- . 
2

164

TF  l. TO1F O1P = (O1, ),


O1P  TF.
TO 1 O 1 F
4R2R
4R
O1P = ---------------------------- = ----------------------------------------------- = ---------- .
TF

16R 2 4R 2
3 6 ------------- + ---------9
6

33

1 2R 4R
4R 2
4) Smin = --- ------- ---------- = ---------- .
2

33

66

TO 12
TP
8
5) TFO1 -------- = -----------2- = --- .
PF

FO 1

TM
8
6) TFC PM1  l, ------------- = --- .
M1 C

M1 .
7) V1 = V M

1 ADC

1
= --- H M SADC, H M
3

1
ABC, M1. VTABC = --- TO1SABC,
3

V1
V1
3
3
1
SADC = --- SABC, H M = ------ TO1, ----------------- = ------ , V2 = VTABC V1, ------ =
2

V TABC

11

22

V2

3
= ------ .
19

, 2009 . 2

1. : 10; 8.
. 1 100 x
, 2 (x 2) . 1
100
1 --------- , 2
x
100
-------------- .
x2
100
100
-------------- --------- = 2,5 x2 2x 80 = 0, x1, 2 = 1  9,
x2
x

x = 10 1 8 2 .

2. : x = (1)n --4- + n , n {0} N.


. 2 cos2 x = sin x . : x  0. 

2 sin2

x + sin

x 2 =0
165

: sin
sin

13
x = -------------------- .
2 2

1
x = ------- ,
2

x = (1)n --- + n, n {0} N.


, .
1

3. : --8- ; 4.
. (log2 x + logx 2 + 2)(log2 x log2x x) = 6.
1
: x > 0, x = 1, x = --- .
2

, 2, , :
log 2 x
1
log x + -------------- + 2 log2 x ------------------------- = 6.
2

log 2 x
1 + log 2 x

log2 x = t, :
( t 2 + 2t + 1 ) t + t 2 t
--------------------------------- ------------------------ = 6 (t + 1)t = 6,
t
t+1

t2 + t 6 = 0, t1 = 3, t2 = 2.

log2 x = 3,

log2 x = 2

4. :

1
x = --- ,
8

x = 4.

8
--- ; 1 (1; 8).
9

x
- < 0. :
. 1 + logx ---------------9x 8

x
----------------- > 0,
9x 8

x > 0,
x = 1.

:
x
1
logx ----------------- ) < logx --- .
9x 8
x

: x > 1
0 < x < 1.
166

x > 1,

x > 1,

x
1
----------------- < --- ;
x
9x 8

x 2 9x + 8
------------------------------- < 0;
x ( 9x 8 )

0 < x < 1,

0 < x < 1,

x
1
----------------- > --x
9x 8

x 2 9x + 8
------------------------------- > 0;
x ( 9x 8 )

x (1; 8),
8
x --- ; 1 .
9

5. : x [0; 1) (1; 9].


x5 x+4
2 x+1
. ---------------------------------  --------------------- . : x  0,
x = 1.
x+4
1 x

x = t  0, x = t2,
t 2 5t + 4
2t + 1
----------------------------  ---------------- .
t+1
1t

, 
:
2t + 1
---------------- + t 4  0,
2t + 1
(t 4)(t 1)
-----------------------------------  ---------------- t + 4

t+4
1t
t=1

t 2 + 2t 15
------------------------------- ,
t+4

(t + 5)(t 3)
-----------------------------------  0,
t+4

t=1
t = 1.
, t  0, :
t [0; 1) (1; 3].
x, :
x [0; 1) (1; 9].

6. : --4- .
. y = 0,5(x2 6x), M(2,5; 4,5).

y = 0,5( x 02 6x0) + (x0 3)(x x0),
x0 .
M , ,
4,5 = 0,5( x 02 6x0) + (x0 3)(2,5 x0),
167

x 02 5x0 + 6 = 0
x01 = 3,
x02 = 2.
x0
k1 = y(x01) = x01 3 = 0,
k2 = y(x02) = x02 3 = 1.
, 1 

OX 0; 2 = --- .
4

, = |1 2 | = --- .
4

7. :

243
------------ .
52

.  AKB  AKC.
 AKB =  C +  KAC, ,  KAC = B = , C = .
 AKC:  AKC = 180
  AKC =  A.
 ABC:  A = 180
KC
AC
AK
 AKC  ABC: --------- = --------- = --------- AC = 6; AB = 15.
AC

BC

AB

S
15 + 6 + 18
39
r = --- , p = ------------------------------- = ------ = 19,5.
p

S ABC =

27
19,51,513,54,5 = ------

39 ,

27 392
27
243
r = ------------------------- = ------------- ; S = r2 = ------------ .
439

52

2 39

8. : 12 2; A(4; 6).
1

. S OAB = S AOD + S ABD = --2- AD(OA1 + A1B1) =


= 3AD (. 69).
x
x2
AD = AA1 A1D = ----- --- + 6 A1D;
8

OA 1
A1 D
x
 ODA1  OBB1: ------------ = ----------- --- =
OB 1

168

BB 1

A1 D
x
= ----------- A1D = --- .
3

x2

AD = ----- x + 6,
8

x2
8

S OAB = 3 ----- x + 6 ,
3x
S = ------ 3 = 0, xA = 4,

A1

B
B1

. 69

A (4; 6).
16
8

Smin = 3 ------ 4 + 6 = 12.

9. : (; 5) (3; 2) [7; +) {6},


a (; 5) [7; +) {6},
x1 = 3 +

a 2 4a 12 , x2 = 3

a (3; 2), x1, 2 = 3 

a 2 16 ,

a 2 4a 12 .
2

x+ x
- a = x2 6x + 25.
. ---------------
x
1. x > 0,
x2 6x + 21 + 4a a2 = 0.
D
---- = a2 4a 12 = (a + 2)(a 6),
4

x = 3.

:
x1, 2 = 3 

a 2 4a 12 .

, :
D > 0,
x > 0,
a (3; 2) (6; 7).
a2 + 4a + 21 > 0

:
D = 0,
x > 0,
a2 + 4a + 21 < 0, a (; 3] [7; +) {2; 6}.
a2 +4a + 21 = 0,
x > 0
169

2. x < 0,
x2 6x + 25 a2 = 0,

D
---- = a2 16; x = 3,
4

x1, 2 = 3  a 2 16 . .
25 a2 < 0, . .
a (; 5) (5; +), . . x = 3
.

a 2 16 .

10. : 32.
. a = 4 3 , (A, ) = 3 (. 70).
B
M

(A1, M, N)

B1

C1

A1

. 70

A1MLN BC
BL : LC = 2 : 1,
S
cos

S = ------------- , S = SAMLC = S ABC S BML (. 71).

F M
E

. 71

170

a2 3
a2 3
a2 3
S = ------------- ------------- = ------------- = 8 3 .
4

A1A  (ABC ),

12

AF  ML,

BE  ML,

AF = BE.

1
a2 3
S BML = ------------- = --- BEML.
12

4a 2
a2
a2
a2
a
 BML: ML2 = ------ + --------- ------ = ------ 13, ML = --4

1
a2 3
a
------------- = --- BE --12
2
6

36

13 .

12
a 3
13  BE = AF = ----------- = ---------- .
13

13

AP  A1F  AA1F,
AP = 3 .
13
13
3
AP
 APF sin = -------- = ---------- , cos = 1 ------ = ------- ,
4

AF

16

3
S = 8 3 : ------- = 32.
4

, 2009 . 3

1. : 36; 30


------- .

. 2 x (/),
1 (x + 6) (/). , 
1
1 1 , -------------- (), ,
x+6

1
2 1 , --- ().
x

1 20 
1
1
20
. : --- -------------- = ------------ , x = 30.
x

x+6

3600

2. : (1)n + 1 --6- + n, n Z.
. :
1 + sin x = 2 sin x,
sin x  0.
171

,
1 + sin x = 2 sin2 x,
:
1
2

sin x = 1 sin x = --- .


:

x = (1)n + 1 --- + n, n Z.
1

3. : --6- .
. :
7
x (0; 1) 1; --- .
6

, 2:
log 2 ( 7 6x )
---------------------------------- = 1
log 2 x

1
log2 (7 6x) = log2 --- .
x

1
, : 7 6x = --- .
x

:
6x2 7x + 1 = 0.
1
x1 = 12, x2 = --- .

6
1
--- .
6

4. : (; 2)

3
--- ; 3 (3; +).
2

. :
1
(x 3)(x + 3)
------------------------------------------------------ > --------------
2
x
+
2
( x 3 ) ( x + 3x + 9 )

2x 3
----------------- > 0,
x+2

x = 3.

3
x (; 2) --- ; 3 (3; +).
2

5. : (4; 2) 1; 5--- .
172

. :

5x + 4
----------------- > 0,
4x

x4 5x2 + 4 > 0
4
x (; 2) 1; --- (0; 1) (2; +).
5

:
5x + 4
log2 ----------------- < 0
4x

5x + 4
----------------- < 1.
4x

x (4; 0).
4
x (4; 2) 1; --- .
5

6. : [2; 1].
.
f (x) = log0,5 (3 + cos x) 
:
y = log0,5 (t),
(t) = t + 3,
t = cos x.
t = cos x
[1; 1].
(t) 
[2; 4].
y = log0,5 (t) , ,
(t) > 0 2   4 
[log0,5 4; log0,5 2], . . [2; 1].

7. : 8 3 .
. ABC
AM = MK = x, KN = NB = t, CK = h.
 MCK:
h2 + x2 = 13.
 CKN:
h2 + t 2 = 21.
173

 ABC:
h2 = 4xt.
, x = 1; t = 3; h =
ABC

12 .

1
S = --- hAB = 8 3 .
2

y  0,
x > 0,

8. : ;

1x
y  ---------------- .
2

3 1
. M --4- ; --4- 
1
3
9
y = px 0,5(1 + p2)x2: --- = p --- 0,5(1 + p2) ------ , 
4

16

9p2 24p + 17 = 0.
D = 144 153 < 0, 
M.
:
x2
p 2 x 2
y = ---------------- ----- + px.
2

p:
p2x2 2px + x2 + 2y = 0.
:
D
---- = x2 x4 2yx2  0 x2(1 x2 2y)  0,
4
2

1x
, y  ---------------- .
2

p (0; +). ,
2
p1 + p2 = --- > 0.
x

, , 
, :
y  0,
x > 0,
2

1x
y  ---------------- .
2

174

9. : a (; 1]

3
--- ; + ;

3
a (; 0] 1; --- , x = 8a + 4 2 ( 2a 2 5a + 3 ) ;
2
3
10a 6
a 0; --- , x1 = 8a + 4 2 ( 2a 2 5a + 3 ) , x2 = --------------------- ;
5

3
3
a --- ; 1 --- ; + , x1, 2 = 8a  4 2 ( 2a 2 5a + 3 ) .
2
5

. x  0 :
16ax + 160a 96 = 0. 
, , , 
a :
D > 0,
x > 0,
f (0)  0,

x2

D = 128(2a2 5a + 3), 
f (x) = x2 16ax + 160a 96, x = 8a, f (0) = 160a 96.
:
3
256 a 1 a --- > 0,
2
3
3
a --- ; 1 --- ; + .
8a > 0,
2
5
32(5a 3)  0

,  , ,
a :

D = 0,
x  0;
f (0) < 0,
f (0) = 0,
x < 0

a = --- ; 1 ,
2

5a 3 < 0, a ; 3--- --3- ; 1 .


2

5
3

a = --- ,
5

a<0

x1, 2 = 8a  4 2 ( 2a 2 5a + 3 ) .
x < 0 :
ax 10a + 6 = 0,
10a 6
x = --------------------- .
a

175

x < 0, a 
10a 6
3
--------------------- < 0. a 0; --- .
a
5


a (; 1]

3
3
--- ; + . a (; 0] 1; --- ,

2
2

x = 8a + 4 2 ( 2a 2 5a + 3 ) .
3
10a 6
a 0; --- x1 = 8a + 4 2 ( 2a 2 5a + 3 ) , x2 = --------------------- .
5

3
3
a = --- ; 1 --- ; + x1, 2 = 8a  4 2 ( 2a 2 5a + 3 ) .
2
5

10. : H = 3h, R =

9h
------ .
4

. T,
TO1 = H, R. O 
TO1 (. 72). CDEC1D1E1 
h, CD =

6 h.
T

E1

C1
O2
D1

E
C

O1
D

T1

. 72

(. 73).
TT1 = 2R.
 TT1B.
176

 TBT1 = 90,

BO 12 = TO1T1O1,
C1

BO1 = r
, TO1 = H, T1O1 = 2R H.
:

O2
O

r2 = H(2R H).
 TC1O2  ATO1:

O1

C1 O2
TO
-------------- = -----------2- .
AO 1
TO 1
T1


, O2 O1

. 73

 C1D1E1  CDE. C1O2 = h 2 . :


h 2
Hh
Hh 2
----------- = ---------------- ; r = ---------------- .
r
H
Hh
2 2

2H h
-----------------------2- = H(2R H);
(H h)

Hh 2
H
R = -----------------------2- + ----- .
(H h)

R
R H (H > 0):
1
( H 3h ) ( h 2 + H 2 )
( H h ) 2 2H ( H h )
- + --- = ---------------------------------------------------.
R = h2 ------------------------------------------------------------4
3
(H h)

2(H h)


H = 3h.
9h
, R = ------ .
4

, 2009 . 4

1. : 10 , 6 .
. 
n, 1 x ./. 
2 m, 
2 y ./. , 1
177

n
n , --- (); , 2 
x

m
m , ----- (). 
y

n
m
, --- = ----- .
x

, . . 1 
m
m 4 , , ----- = 4.
x

n
2 n 9 , . . --- = 9.
y

.
, m = 6y.
m
----- , . . 6 .
y

m + n. ,
m+n
, t = ---------------- . : t = 10 .
x

2. :

2 3 5

--- + ------- ,  --- + k, n, k Z; --- ; ------ ; ------ ; ------ .


8
4
3
8
8
3 3

. :
2 cos 4xcos 2x + cos 4x = 0;
cos 4x(2 cos 2x + 1) = 0.
:
cos 4x = 0,

4x = --- + n, n Z,

1
cos 2x = --- ;
2

2x =  ------ + 2k, k Z;

2
3

n
x = --- + ------- ,
8

x =  --- + k, n, k Z.
,
n Z:
3
1
5

n
---  --- + -------  ------ ---  n  --- n {1; 2}.
4
8
4
4
2
2

178

3
--- ; ------ ,
4 4

3
5
: ------ ------ .
8

---  --- + k  ------ , k = 0 x = --3


4
3
4

3
2

---  --- + k  ------ , k = 1 x = ------ .


4
3
4
3

3. : 2.
. : x (5,6; 1). 
, 2:
log2

10x + 56 = log2 (1 x)2.

,
10x + 56 = 2(1 x).
:
10x + 56 = 4(1 2x + x2)

2x2 9x 26 = 0.
6,5 2. 
2.

4. : (; 3) (3; 1)

9
--- ; + .
2

. :
x2 9
2
------------------- < ----------------- ;
2x 9
x 3 + 27
x3
2
------------------------------- ----------------- < 0,
2x 9
x 2 3x + 9

x = 3;
x1
9
----------------- > 0,
x (; 3) (3; 1) --- ; + .
2x 9
2

x = 3

179

5. : (1; 1] [2; 9].


. :
x + 1 > 0,
x (1; 1] [2; +).
x2 3x + 2  0
x+1
lg (x + 1) 1 = lg -------------- . 
10

x9
-------------- .
10

: (x 9)
:

x2

3x + 2  0, 

x2 3x + 2 = 0,
x 9  0,

2
x 3x + 2  0;

x = {1; 2},
x  9,
(x 2)(x 1)  0.


x (1; 1] [2; 9].

6. : (; 3) (11; +).


1
- [1; 3],
. f (x) = ------------xc
1
(x c)

, x = c. f (x) = --------------------2- .
f (x) < 0 , f (x) 
x = 3.
1
fmin = f (3) = ------------- .
3c

1
------------- > 0,125.
3c

, , c (; 3) (11; +).

7. : 15.
.  CAM = 0,5 arccos 0,6. 
,  COM = arccos 0,6.
 COM:
CO = OM cos (arccos 0,6) = 3,
CM = 4.
180

 BAM (. 74). AB = BC = x.
AM = AO + OM = 3 + 5 + 8.
(x + 4)2 = x2 + 64,
x = 6.
1
S BOM = --- OC(BC + CM) = 15.
2

A
O

. 74

8. : 32.
. . 75 ABCD, 
AD = 6, 
y = 5 + 4x x2.
y = 5 + 4x x2 x = 2.
y

A
1

O E

. 75

181

BC
B(x, y), BE  AD. --------- = 2 x.
2

BC + AD
SABCD = -------------------------- BE = (2 x + 3)(5 + 4x x2) =
2

= (5 x)(5 + 4x x2).

S ABCD
= (5 x)(4 2x) (5 + 4x x2) =

= 3(x2 6x + 5) = 0.

= 0 x = {1; 5}.
S ABCD

x = 1, SABCD = 32.

9. : a R.
1
a --- ; + , x1 = 4; y1 = 2.
2

1
a (; 0) --- , x1 = 0, y1 = 2 4a; x2 = 4, y2 = 2.
4

a = 0, x1 = 0, y1 = 2; x2 = 4, y2 = 2.
1
1 1
a 0; --- --- ; --- , x1 = 0, y1 = 2 4a; x2 = 4; y2 = 2;
4
4 2
1 2a
1 2a 2
x3 = ------------------ , y3 = ------------------ .
a

.
y 2 = a(x 4),
2x
----------------- =
y +y

, y > 0, x  0.
:
x
--- =
y

x
x ------- 1 = 0,
y

x = 0, y = x , y > 0, x > 0.
x = 0 , ,
1
y = 2 4a. y > 0, a ; ---
2
: x = 0, y = 2 4a.

182

y = x ,
y:
ay2 y + 2 4a = 0,
y > 0.

:
D > 0,
y > 0,
2 4a
------------------ > 0,
a

D = (4a 1)2, y f (y) = ay2 y +


+ 2 4a.
:
4a 1 = 0,
a > 0,
2 4a
------------------ > 0;
a
1
1 1
a 0; --- --- ; --- .
4
4 2

:
1 ( 4a 1 )
y1, 2 = ----------------------------------- ; x1, 2 =
2a

( 4a 1 )
1
----------------------------------- .

2a
2


4 .
1) a = 0 :
y + 2 = 0,
y = 2.
2) D = 0, y > 0,
1
a = --- , a = 1--4
4
a > 0;
1
1
y1 = y2 = ------ , x1 = x2 = --------2- .
2a

4a

f (0)
3) ----------- < 0
a

:
1
f (0)
2 4a
----------- < 0; ------------------ < 0; a (; 0) --- ; + .
2

a
a

183

4) f (0) = 0, y > 0
1
, , , a = --- .
2

, , 

1
1
a (; 0] --- ; + --- .
2
4
a R.
1
a --- ; + 
2

x = 4; y = 2.

1
a (; 0) --- :
4

x1 = 0, y1 = 2 4a; x2 = 4, y2 = 2.
a = 0 :
x1 = 0, y1 = 2 x2 = 4, y2 = 2.
1
1 1
a 0; --- --- ; --- :
4
4 2
1 2a 2
1 2a
x1 = 0, y1 = 2 4a; x2 = 4, y2 = 2; x3 = ------------------ , y3 = ------------------ .
a

10. :

33 2
------------- .
5

. 1) a, O
, O1  ABC (. 76).
TA
 AOO1: OO1 = -------- = 1,
2

AO = 5,
AO1 =

25 1 = 2 6 .

,
a=6 2.
184

E
K

O
M

A
N

O1

. 76

2) ,
KMNE.
MN  AD, BN : NC = 1 : 2,
TK = KA, TE : EC = 1 : 4.
3) 
:
S
cos

S = ------------- ,

S ABC,
ABC.
4) (. 77) S = SAMNE ,
E E ABC
S = S ABC S BMN S CNE
a2 3
a2 3
1
1 a 3 a
S ABC = ------------- ; S BMN = --- MNBN = --- ----------- --- = ------------- ;
4

18

2a 2
1
1 2a 4a 1
SCE N = --- NCECcos C = --- ------ ------ --- = --------- .
2

15

185

A
E

. 77
a2 3
a2 3
11a 2 3
2a 2
22 3
, S = ------------- ------------- --------- = -------------------- = ------------- .
4

15

18

180

a
5) cos  AKL, AL  MN, AL = ND = --- ,
6

AL
cos = --------- =
KL

2
--- .
3

,
22 3 3
33 2
S = -------------------------- = ------------- .
5 2

, 2009 . 5

1. : 8.
.
x ,
y , 
m. , m > 24. z ,
,
.
, ,
m
------ . 24 ,
2x

186

m 24
. . (m 24) ------------------- . 
y


m
m 24
------ = ------------------- .
2x
y

, 
m
, ------ . m 15 .
2y


m
m 15
------ = ------------------- .
2y
x
m
----- .
x

(m z) . 
:
m
mz
----- = --------------- .
x
y


:
m2 52m + 480 = 0.
40 12, 40
. z,
8.

2. :

3
5
------ + 2n, ------ + 2m, n, m Z.
2
6

. :
1 + sin x = 2 cos x;
1 + sin x = 2 cos2 x,
x
cos x  0;
2 sin2 x + sin x 1 = 0,
cos x  0.
3
5
, x1 = ------ + 2n, n Z x2 = ------ + 2m, m Z.
2

3. : 1; --2- 0;

1
--- .
2

187

1
. : x (; 0) 0; --2- .
ab ac , (a 1)(b c), 
loga b (a 1)(b 1) .

, :
--1- 1 1
--- x 1  0
x
2

x+1
1
-------------- x + ---  0.

x
2

4. : {3; 5}.
. |sin x| .
sin x > 0 (x 3)2 = 0.
x = 3 sin x > 0.
sin x < 0 : x2 6x + 5 = 0.
5 1. x = 1 
, sin x < 0.

5. : [5; 4] {2n}, n {0} N.


. : x [5; +). 
:
(cos x 1)(1

x + 5 ) < 0,

(cos x 1)(1

x + 5 ) = 0.

:
cos x 1 > 0,
1 x + 5 < 0;
cos x 1 < 0,
1

x + 5 > 0.

. 
x [5; 4).
:
cos x 1 = 0,
1

x + 5 = 0,

, .

6. : (0; 1) 1;
188

7
7 4
--- --- ; --- .
6 3
6

cos x = 1,
x + 5 = 1.

7
7
. : x (0; 1) 1; --6- --6- ; + .
:
logx (49 84x + 36x2) < logx 1.
:
x > 1,
49 84x + 36x2 < 1;
0 < x < 1,
49 84x + 36x2 > 1.
4
x 1; --- , 
3

x (0; 1).

7. : 7.
. ABC a.
 BKL.
5a
a
BK = ------ ; BL = --- .
7

KL:
KL =

2 5a 2 1
a2
25 2
a 3
------ a + ------ ------------------ --- = ----------- .
49
49
2
77
7

 CLM
ML =

a 27
36a 2 9a 2 218a 2
------------ + --------- -------------------- = -------------- .
49
49
492
7

 AKM:
KM =

4
16
8
a 12
------ a 2 + ------ a 2 ------ a 2 = -------------- .
49
49
49
7

 KLM cos  KLM :


3a 2
27a 2
2a 2 3 27
12a 2
------------ = --------- + ------------ ------------------------------------------ cos  KLM;
49
7
49
77
2
cos  KLM = ------- ; sin  KLM =
7

R =
:

4
1 --7- =

3
--- .
7

7.

KM
2R = ----------------------------sin KLM

a, 7.
189

8. :

2
------ + 4 3 .
3

. y2 = 2(1 + cos 2x).


:
y2 = 4 cos2 x

|y| = 2 |cos x|

|x|  --- , , |y| = 2 cos x.


2

, (. 78).
ABCD P = 4PECOF.
y

2
B




2

D
2

. 78

PECOF = CF + OF, OF = x, x 0; --- , CF = 2 cos x;


2

P = 4(x + 2 cos x).


1
P = 4(1 2 sin x) sin x = --- .
2

x = --- .

6
2
------ + 4 3 .
3
5

9. : a ; --4- (1; +).


190

5
a ; --- , x1 = a + 1, x2 = a 1.
4

a (1; 1), x1 = a 1, x2 = a + 2 +
a [1; +), x1 = a + 2 +

4a + 5 .

4a + 5 , x2 = a + 2

4a + 5 .

. x  0 :
x2 2x(a + 2) + a2 1 = 0,
x1, 2 = a + 2 

4a + 5 .

,
,
:
D > 0,
x > 0,
f (0)  0,
D = 4(4a + 5) ; x 
(x = a + 2); f (0) = a2 1, :
4a + 5 > 0,
a + 2 > 0,
a2 1  0;
5
a --- ; 1 [1; +).
4

, , 

:
D = 0,
x  0;
f (0) < 0,
f (0) = 0,
x < 0;

4a + 5 = 0,
a + 2  0;
a2 1 < 0,
a2 1 = 0,
a + 2 < 0;

a (1; 1) --- .
4

x < 0 :
x2 2ax + a2 1 = 0,

x1, 2 = a  1.


, :
D > 0,
x < 0,
f (0) > 0;
191

:
4 > 0,
a (; 1).
a < 0,
a2 1 > 0;

, , a
:
f (0) < 0,
f (0) = 0,
x < 0;

a2 1 < 0,
a2 1 = 0, a [1; 1).
a < 0;

x = a 1.
,
5
5
a ; --- (1; +). a ; --- ,
4
4

:
x1, 2 = a  1.
a (1; 1),
x1 = a + 2 +

4a + 5 , x2 = a 1.

a [1; +), : x1, 2 = a + 2 

10. : Smin =

4a + 5 .

l2
l
---------- , OM = --- .
3
2 6

.
, , TO, O 
AC (. 79).
l 2
 TBO  TBO = 45 TO = OB = --------- .
2

 TMB, 

1
S TMB = --- TBhM,
2

hM , M 
TB. TB ,
hM.
hM = (AC, TB), (AC, TB) 
AC TB.
(AC, TB) B l,
AC. TB l .
192

M
A

M
l

. 79

AC  , AC TB 
AC . O,
. . (AC, TB) = (O; ) TO  (ABC ). O 
l: OF  l. 
TF  l. , (TOF ) 
:  (TOF ) (O, ) = OP, OP  TF.
AC TB 60.
l 3
l
AC  l,  TBF = 60. TF = --------- ; BF = ---
2

 TBF .  TOF:
3l 2 2l 2
l 22 ------- ------TOOF
l
TP
TO 2
2
4
4
OP = ------------------------ = --------------------------------------------------- = ------- , -------- = -----------2- = --- .
TF
PF
1
OF
6
2l 3

:
2
l
1
l
S TMB = --- l ------- = ---------- .

2 6

OP = (TB, AC), P 
TB. P AC 
TB. OPNM,
TP
PN
2 PN
2
PN  AC, OP  NM. TBF , -------- = --------- = --- , --------- = --- ,
TF

l
PN = OM = --- .
3

BF

3 l2


. . .

 

 

1. . ,
, . 
, ,
, , ,
. 
, ,
, , .

2. . . A2, B2, C2 
A1, B1, I AB (. 80). AA1 ,
AA2 = AC. , AC2 A 
ABC , ,
AC2 = AA2 AC2 
C. , B2C2 
, . . C2 A2B2. C2I 
A1B1 , CA1B1
, 
.
C
B1

O
A1

B2

. 80

194

C2

A2

. ( , 179, .)
A2, B2 , 
A1, B1 AB . 
BCB1 BB2B1 ,
 BB1C =  BB1B2. , AB1B2
I . 
, B2I B1B2A2. 
, A2I 
A1A2B2. , B2IA2 
, . . I
A2B2. O, 
B1A1 B2B1A1A2,
. OI  B2A2.

3. . Y C
ABC BC A. ,  BYC =
 BAC  C YA =  CBA,  AYB =  ACB, . .
Y CAB. ,  AYB =
=  AYC +  C YB =  ABC +  C AB = 2  C BC
 CAC =  ACB +  AC B =  AXB (. 81).
 BYC =  BXC, . . X Y .
C

X
A

C
B

. 81

195

C1

B1

A1

D1

. 82

4. .
A1NB1CD, , A1N = B1N,
,  BDA =  BCA. NC1 = ND1.
,  NA1A =  ACD =  ABD =  DD1N (. 82). 
, ND1 = NA1, .
5. . , 
AE EC
AEC , , F. ,
, FE FO1O2.
O1O2  AC, BD.
, E AC, FO1
FO2 X Y (. 83). FCEX FAEY 
B
O1

L
X

. 83

196

O2

. 84

, XE = FC = FA = EY. , FE
FXY, , FO1O2.

6. .  BAM +  NAC =  MAN AB = AC,


, B AM, ,
C AN.
L.  ALM =  ABM =  ACM, . . L
ACM. L ABN , , 
K (. 84).  KAN =  NAC = 30  BAM =
= 90  NMA. , 
A AMN 
, AN . ,
AK AMN.
7. . 
ABCD (. 85). A, B, K, D 
,  AKD  BKD
O1M  BD. O2M  BD. 
, ABD BCD ,

M.
8. . , LIbIc 
. Lb, Lc Ib, Ic
BC, rb, rc , 
197

M
O2

O1

. 85

AHB, AHC (. 86). 


AH + BH AB
AH + CH AC
, rb = -------------------------------------------- , rc = -------------------------------------------- rb rc =
2
2
BH CH
AB AC
BH CH
BL CL
= ---------------------------- ------------------------- = ---------------------------- -------------------------- = LH. 
2
2
2
2

, IbIc = LLc = rb, IcLc = LLb = rc, . .


LIbLb IcLcL , LIb = LIc  IbLIc = 90.
 LIbIc = 45.
A

Ib
Ic
B

Lb

. 86

198

Lc

. I1, I2 
ABD CBD (D
AC ); L ABC
AC. I1, L, D I2 .

9. . 
B, ,
, . 
A
, A , B, . .
AC  AB. , AC B,
. 
, 
. AA, BB, CC , AA1,
CC1 . A1A = C1C ,
A, C
B, . , 
AC BB1 
. , .
10. .
a, b, c,
BC, CA, AB


. a, b,
BC, AX , 

C.
E
c,
F 
, 
a, AB, AC
BC (. 87).
EF AB
D.

C
b
a

F
E

. 87

11. : n = 4 n = 5.
. , n > 3. , n > 5.
n n + 1 ,
n, 3.

, 
199

. 88

.
n ,
9, n > 5 . n = 4 n = 5
. 88.

12. . ) N 
CHM, CN = NM. BH = BH
NH  BC, , B
HN, AC M ( ).

.  CMN =  MCH =  CBB =


=  CBB = a, C, H, B M 
. ,  CBM =  CHM = 180 2a,
 ABM = a, .
) ABC: CH2 = AHBH.
BH = BH KH = CH, KH2 = AHBH, . . 
AKH ABK , 
.

13. . BD L,  ALB =
=  A. ABL DBA , BLBD =
= AB2 = BC2. , CBL DBC ,
. .  BLC =  C L K. , 
, .
14. .  ABM =  BMC =  MCD,
S ABM
S BMC
AB
BM
--------------= ----------- --------------- = ---------- . ABM MCD 
S CMD
S CMD
MC
CD
2
, S BMC
= SABMSMCD. 

+S
2

ABM
MCD
SBMC  -------------------------------------- , .

200

15. . ) AB1C1, A1BC1 A1B1C 


ABC cos A, cos B, cos C
.  KA1C1 =  KA1B1 = 90  A

B K
cos A

C K
cos A

1
1
AKB1 A1KC1 -------------- -------------- . 

B C
cos A

1 1
, -------------- = BC.

) 

A1 L
A1 N
------------ + ------------ = BC.
sin B
sin C

BC, .

16. . . ,
 BCD =  ECX, 
. , ABD
AEB ABD AEB , ,
BD
AD
CD
AD
--------- = --------- . , --------- = --------- , . .
BE

AB

CE
AB
DE
BDCE = CDBE = BC --------- (
2

).
CX DE M (. 89).
CBD CME , , BDCE =
B
X

D
M
E

. 89

201

= CBEM. ,
ED
EM = --------- .
2

( ., 171 , .)
1
,  DMC = --- ( DC + XE ).
2

DE BX
BD = XE . ,
 COB = CB = CD + DB = CD + EX = 2 CMD.
1
,  COA = ---  COB =  CMD,
2

A, C, M, O . ,
 AMO =  ACO = 90, . . MO  DE
DM = ME.

17. . . l = CL, h = CH 
C, m = BM 
B, , 
l h. p
, C AB, 
B , B p.
, ABC . 
 CLB =  CLB = 180 ,
 BCM = 2. , , 
,  CLB = ,  BCM = 360 2 CBA  BCA =
= 2(180  CBA  BCL) = 2 (. 90). 
.
, BM C 2.
.
B

C
M
L
A

. 90

202

h
B;
p. B, M, 
m B
. , 
B M 360 4.
C1 C2 p, Ai
(i = 1, 2) , Ci M,
A1BC1 A2BC2 .
, ,
C1, C2, h, BM = m
. , L1, L2 
, ,
C1L1B C2L2B , 180 , , 
, C1L1 = C2L2 = l.
h
1. , l < h m < --- , .
2

h
l = h m  --- ,
2
h
m = --- - . ,

2
h
l > h m = --- , , 
2

BB.
l
l > h m = ---
2

, . 
.

. C,
AB.
.
X Y, X AB ,
B 
(. 91). CY 
X AB.
,
B . , 

.
2. 1938 . 
. ,

203

BX

. 91
. 
.

18. . ADB BEC , D


E BG.  FDG =
=  ADO1 =  DAC =  GED. , FD (
FE) (. 92). ,
F

G
D

E
B

A
O1

O2

. 92

204

P
E

X
B

. 93

FG GED,
G ,
. GDE
GCA, 
.

19. . , XC = OY. 
, , UO = OV , ,
XUYV .
EO P Q
(. 93).
(PX; OY) = (QY; OX). EO
C,
(PA; C B) = (QB; C A), , PQ, AB
C
.
20. . ,  CAP =  AAB.
, , AA AP
A. BB 
BP B, ,
, CP
C, . . .
Q AP 
, S B1C1 (. 94). 
205

A2

B1

C1

. 94

A A2
B1 C1, Q A S . ,
(B1Q; SC1) = (C1A; SB1), . . A Q 
AA2, .

21. . AB CD 
,  ABD =  BDC  ACD =
=  BAC. ,
AB DC , . . C AB 
, D, B CD , A.
SABD > SABC SACD > SBCD.
22. . A,
. AF , 
A ,
, , 
A B
D, . ,
B D 
C, A. , A, B, C, D
.
206

23. . P FC AD; G

BP. 2 = (AC; BF ) = (DF; GB) = (DF; EB), ,
, G E .
24. . , A 
l, l B, C Y
. BC  XY, BC  AY 
BC  AC. , C
AB, Y , 
. ,
.
25. . ,
. , 

, 
. 
.
,
,
. ,
:
, 
, , 
. 

. ,
, 
, . ,

5+1
, . . ------------------ .
2


, 8

1. . I 
(. 95), X Y 
B C . 
AB > AC; I Y BY AX 
A
B
C
. ,  AIY =  ---- +  ---- = 90  ---- =  IXY,
2

207

I
X

. 95

( )
.

27. . . ,
AB > 2, AB = 2 
AB. AB < 2, A, B A, B
, 1, P Q.
, A B;
, PQ A
B. ,
.
P1, P2, Q1, Q2 , P 
AP1, BP2, Q AQ1, BQ2, 
: P1Q1 A 2, P2Q2
B 2, P1P2 P 1, Q1Q2
Q 1 (. 96). , ,
Q1

Q2

. 96

208

P1

P2

P1

P2

. 97

. , X
. , X P1PP2,
P; P1AQ1,
Y, Y
AX PQ 1. .
, X
. X P1AQ1, AX > 2, A
X . X
P1PP2: , X
Y, , 1. ,  XPY  90
(, , XY  XP > 1).
XPY P1 (. 97);  XPY   P1PY.
, AY  1, AP1 = 2, P1Y  1  AY. ,
A Y 
AP1, . . 90  P1PY   XPY.

2. . BP CP 
ABC BCD (. 98), A C 
BP, B D CP. , SPAB = SPBC =
= SPCD. , PAB PCD
P , P ; ,
, .
3. . , OA2 > OA1
(. 99). OA1B2 OB1A2
, ,  OB2A1 =  OA2B1  OA1B2 =
=  OB1A2.  A1OB1 =  B2OA2 = ,

 A1C1B1 = 90 --- = 180 90 + --- = 180  A2C2B2.


2
2

209

B
D
P
A

. 98
A2

X2
2

C2

B1
1

B2

C1
A1

X1

. 99

, B2C2B1C1 ,
 B1C2C1 =  B1B2C1 =  OA2B1. ,
C1C2 OA2 A2C2 2,
OA2 , C1C2 .
C1C2 1 .
. , , 
OA1B2 OA2B1 A1B2 = A2B1, 
: B1C2B1A2 = B 1 B 22 = B2C1B2A1,
B2C1 = B1C2. , B1C2B2C1 
, , ,
.

210

, 8

1. . AH  LM, LM  BC, . . LM
. , BL 
ABC, . . AB = BC. BL
ABC HLM, H M 
1
1
; , --- AB = BM = BH = --- BC, AH
2

ABC. , AC = AB =
= BC, ABC , CM
HL , .

2. . . , AE BF
, 
90 . ,
A BF, CD G.
ABFG , FG = AB , , FD = DG.
, D
BF, ADP. AE  BF,
(. 100). , 
ADP , AED.
EAD , 
.
. ,  APF = 90 =  ADF.
, APFD ,  ADP =  AFP =
=  AFB. ,
 AFB =  AED, 
E
B
ABF ADE .
C
. AB = 1.
BP 

P
F

1
1 --- , AP : PE = 4 : 1. 
2


4
DP CD --- . 
5

,
3
AD --- . ,
5

DP = 1 = AD. 
,
.

. 100

211

. 101

3. : , ; 3 4 .
. ,
, . 101. ,
M 5 .
,
. , M AB, 
( ) .
, P; P AB,
M.
,
P = M, .

4. : , .
. , 
 C = 120. CC1 C.
CA1 ACC1, . . A1 
AC CC1.
AC AB, C1A1 CC1B.
, J, I C1A1,
AB (. 102). ,  AA1C1 =  A1C1B
1
1
 A1AB = --- ( CC1B  CAB) = ---  ACC1 = 30,  IA1J =
2

= 2 AA1C1 = 60. , IA1J


(IA1 = A1J) 60; , , IJ = JA1,
A2 = J. , , A2C1 = JC1 = IC1.
C

60

60 60
I

C1

A1

J(=A2)

. 102

212

B2C1 = IC1 = A2C1, 


.
. , , 
, AC = BC,  C = 120.

, 9

1. : 60.
. , 
X XYZ
1
--- | Y  Z |. , A B
2

ABC ,  A  C =  B  C
 A  C =  C  B. 
, . . C ,
.
1
1
 C = --- ( A +  B) = --- (180  C ) = 60.
2

. 
 C = 60.

2. . , 
, ,
,
. ,
P Q (
, ), ,
. 
PQ ,
.
PQ. ,
. ( ,
P = Q, PQ 
.)

3. .  (k, l) 
k l (
).
60 B A C
X Y (. 103). ,
213

B
A

. 103

 (XY, AC ) = 60. P XY
AC.  (XP, AP) = 60 =  (XB, AB), . . A, X, P, B 
.  (CP, PB) =  (AX, XB) = 60 =
=  (CY, YB), . . B, C, P, Y 
. , P 
XZ BCY.
, BD
. ( , , 
P = Y, Y.)

4. . . C 
AB. 
B. 
G1
C 1
A 1
B1

A1

C1

. 104

214

1, . . A A 1 . .
AB BC A1B1B C1B1B,
A 1C 1 , 
(. 104). , BB1 
, G1, A 1C 1 .
. l1
BG ( B1) A 1 
2; C 1 . , 
C . , 
A, , 
C , , C (
, ). 
ABC
, .
. C 
AB, A1, B1, C1 G
ABC (. 105). ,
GB 1
CAsin CAC
sin ABC
( C, AC )
----------- = ----------------------------- = ------------------------------------------- = --------------------------------- ,
CBsin CBC
sin BAC
GA 1
( C, BC )
C

B1
C2

A1
G

C1

. 105

215

. . GB1 sin  BAC = GA1 sin  ABC . , 


GA1 GB1 AB , C1G
A1B1C1. , A1G 
, . . G .
. C1
1
2

C2 G --( , C2 A1B1). 
A, B GA, GB 
A , B C2;
B1 ( , , 
). A1 C2.
AC BC GA1 GB1
A1 B1; .
. ,
G ( ABC ) 
A1B1C1.

, 9

1. . A1 A2 
BC, A0B = A0C (. 106).
, A0
A1B1, C. ,
1
1
 CBA0 =  A0CB = ---  C. ABC0 = ---  A, , ,
2
1
 A0BC0 =  B --- ( A +  C ) = 45.
2

A
B1
C2
C1

C0

A1

A0

A2

. 106

216

2. . C . O
AMK.  AMK =
=  AMB =  C,  AOK = 2 C  OKA =  OAC = 90
 C, . . K, M
(. 107). , .
, KO 
K , , K 
AC, O 
AC
90  C ( B 
AC ).
C , ;

 C 90, AC, B.
3. . . , 
ALaMa 
ABC 
X, BX : CX = BA : CA. a 
BC;
a 
X, BX : CX = CA : BA. 
b. , a b
; 
, X
; AX : BX : CX = BC : CA : AB.
B

. 107

217

, ,
AXBC, BXCA, CXAB
. 
ABC, 
.
, ABC ,
A, B, C, X ( ) .
, ,
AX : BX : CX = BC : CA : AB; , X a
b, , .
. , 
ALaMa
X, BX : CX = BA : CA, Oa
A. , , Oa,
Ob, Oc . , O a 
a Oa BC, 
O a A, O a (
A A
BC ).
, X a, b, c
AX : BX : CX = BC : CA : AB, . .
. ,
a, b, c X,
(
).
, C
ABC.  C = 90, 
O a O b
A = B, C (. 108). ,
O a

O b

A = B

C
Oa

. 108

218

Ob

O a
O a
A
B

B
B
A

O b

A
C

O b

Ob

Ob

Oa

. 109

. 110

O a , O b , A , , 
O a , O b , A,
.
C (. 109); 
O a O b ; 
, . 60, , , BB C C
a b . , C
(. 110), O a O b K L; 
OaA + ObB =

O a KO a L +

O K+O L
2

a
a
O b KO b L < --------------------------------- +

O K+O L
2

b
b
+ -------------------------------- = OaOb. , 

, .

4. : k = 5.
. 1. , .
A, B, C, D 
(, A = D). A, B, 
X AB, Y BC,
B, Z CD, C.
P , Q 
,
, . AB
Q,
. AB (. 111). ,
Q, Y, l;
B Z . Z 
219

. C, ,
l BC .
, =  ABY 
  ABY  , . . 
Q ,
P. , l BC

,
. , BC
Q,
B
. ,
P Q
B, Q
Z
, P = Q. ,

.

D
l
Z

Q
A

B B

. 111
X
A

2. ,

n 
B
D
P
.
L
M
,
C

AB
Y
P. ,
. 112
AB,
P, . . 
. ,
AB 
, 1, ,
. ,
.
, 
ABCD,
. , ,  A +  C 
N

360
 180 ------------ . B C KL MN 
n

P, A, K N
BD (. 112). P O.
1
360
 A +  C   LAM +  KCN = --- ( LYM + KXN ) = 180 ------------ .
2

220

360
,  B +  D  180 ------------ , . .
n

360
 A +  C  180 + ------------ .
n

, ADCD ,
.  A 
ABCD,  B   D. .
C
C
D

. 113

1.  B  90. , ABCD
, A, B 
( . 113, ,
: CD AB ABCD ,
AB).
2.  D   B < 90,
 A +  D  B +  C 240. 
C D , AB 60 (. 114).
C

C
D
D
A

. 114

. 115

, A, B, C, D
.
3. ,  D   B < 90 ( 
, 90),  A +  D
 B +  C 240 (  A , 
 A +  D). ,
ABCD , . 115.
X Y C D AB; 
221

, YB  CX.  DCX = 270 ( A +  D)  30,


CX
XY  CX tg 30 = --------- ; ,
3

1
180
 B  --- ( B +  D)  90 ------------ ,
2

. . n tg  B  10.
CX
CX
CX
, XB = CX ctg  B  --------- , YB  --------- + --------- < CX, 
10

10

.
.
. , , 
: 
.

, 10

1. : R 2r.
. . ABC 
,  C = 90. ,
J 2r AC BC. , 
ABC :
, OJ = R 2r.
, AC, BC P,
Q T;
C

I
Q

O
J

. 116

222

, J . T ,
TP, TQ
, AC BC, . . 
B, A AC, BC. AA BB 
I. CAATBB,
, P, I, Q . ,
PQ C, 
, P, Q J AC BC (. 116), 
, J .
. , OI = R ( R 2r ) .
OI OCJ,
4OI2 = 2(OC2 + OJ2) CJ2, 4R(R 2r) = 2R2 + 2OJ2 8r2,
OJ2 = (R 2r)2.

2. . R , O 2,
P 1, O, A 
AC 2. CO ACB,
A B OP.
:
C
AB
cos  A + cos  B = 2 sin ---------- cos ----------------------------- .
2

AB
, -------------------------------- =
2

AB
=  COP, . . OP cos ----------------------------- = CO. ,
2

A
1

C
B

. 117

223

OP
C
C
---------- =  OCA =  OCA, CO sin ---------- = OA = R = --------2
2
2
CO OP
(. 117). , cos  A + cos  B = 2 --------- ------------- = 1, 
OP 2CO

3. : .
. .
. ABC, ABC ,
AC > AC , BC > BC . K AB
CK > C K.
. , A, B, C 

CC . , K ,
.
n = 4. 
A A
B1 B3

A A
B2 B4

1 3
2 4
. , -------------  ------------- . 

A A
B1 B3

1 3
------------- ,

, B1B3 = A1A3, B2B4  A2A4. ,


, , B1 = A1,
B3 = A3; A1A2 > A1B2, A2A3 > B2A3, A3A4 > A3B4, A4A1 > B4A1.
E A1A3 A2A4 (. 118);
A2E > B2E, A4E > B4E , ,
A2A4 = A2E + A4E > B2E + B4E  B2B4. .
n. n = 4
. n  5.
, ,
, 

A2

A A
B1 Bi

1 i
. ------------

B2
E

A1
B4

A4

. 118

224

A3

. , 
( 
, 1) 
, , A1Ai >
> B1Bi, 

.

A1A2...Ai B1B2...Bi ( i > 3)


AiAi + 1...An BiBi + 1...Bn ( i < n 1).

4. . P
O, P , P 
O. P 
. P P ,
, .
, , 

. 
, ( , 
). ,
, , 
.
, 10

1. . =  ACB. I1, I2
ABH, CBH.
, I1H1 : I2H2 = AB : BC = tg .
I1H1, I2H2 AB
BC, AC I1H1 cos
I2H2 sin , . . . , O 
H1H2, O AC B1B2, 
(. 119).
B
H2
O
I2
H1

I1

B1 H

B2

. 119

2. : .
. . .
O, I 
225

ABC, H ABC
ABC , A, B, C AH,
BH, C H .  AC C =
=  AAC = 90  AC B =  BBC =  BC C ; 
, AB C , . .
AB  AB. , ABC ABC 
, H 
ABC . , , 
ABC ABC .
O I,
I H. , H
OI, OI : IH = R : r (. 120).
C

C
B
A

O
I
A
A

H
B

. 120

 ABC (, A B)
OI. AI, BI
OAH, OBH , OI : IH = AO : AH = BO : BH.
, AH = BH = r, , AH + BH 
 AB > 2r. , 
ABC .
. 
H . IC  HC  AB
CI  C H  AB. , C, I, C , H
( AC = BC ), CIC H 
;
. ABC (, AB),
.
226

AIAH BIBH , AH = AI = r = BI = BH,


, AH + BH AB > 2r.

3. : , ; 4 8 .
. P . ,
P A,
. 
P
R; , P Q 
. R . ,
P, A, 
( !) ,
R. 
P R , , 
, .
, P, R, A.
Q, R,
B. , R
. .
, P Q 
,
5 , .
, 
. 121.

. 121

4. . .
. ABC ABC ,
k; 
A1, B1, C1 (. 122).
AC
AC
CB
BA
BA
CB
----------1- ----------1- ----------1- ------------1- ------------1- ------------1- = 1.
C 1 B A 1 C B 1 A C 1 B A 1 C B 1 A

227

B2

C
C

B1

A2

A
A1

C1
B

A
B

. 122

. AC1A
AC 1
AC 1
AA
AA
BC1B ------------- = ---------- ------------- = ---------- . 
BC 1

BB

BC 1

BB

, .
. ,
A1, B1 BC AC
C1 AB , ABC 
. ABC
A1, B1. A2, B2
AA1, BB1 k; C
A2CB2; A, B C A1, C B1
k; C1 AB AB. C
A2 B2, C1 A B . ,
C A2 B2 C1 
A B ( , C = C , 
C2; , , 
). , C1, , ,
, ABC
, 
AB C .
, , AA1, BB1, CC1
T,
( , ).
228

C
C

B1

A1

T
A
A

C1

B
B

. 123

;
CB
AC
BA
CB
AC
BA
----------1- ----------1- ----------1- = ------------1- ------------1- ------------1- = 1,
C1 B A1 C B1 A
C 1 B A 1 C B 1 A

. . AA1, BB1, C C1
T. . , , ,
A AC (. 123); T
ATB, AA1.
.
. . . . 
.





, 2011 .
1. : , .
. ,
19:58, 20:34. .

2. : .
. a , 1,1a.
0,99a, 1,1a0,9 = 0,99a.

3. : 23 , 24 .
. , 
.
.
23 (. . 22 
), 24 ,
. , , 23 
.
24 (. . 25 
), 23 ,
. , , 24
.

4. : .
. : 
.

, ,
2010 .

.
2010 .
230

5. : ) ; ) .
. ) ,
a = 1999...999, b = 2999...999.
223

223

a : 9223 + 1 = 2008,
b 9223 + 2 = 2009.
a + b : 4999...9998.
222

a + b : 4 + 9222 + 8 = 2010.
.
) , a 3 2, b 
3, a + b 3 1.

6. : ) ; ) .
. ) , . 124.

. 124

.
) , ,
, . 
, . 
.

, 2011 .
1. : 420 480 .
. , A
20% 20% , . . 20% , 
. 
9000,2 = 180 , . . 21 ,
.
A 5% , 
231

15%. , , 
, 21 : 0,05 = 420. 
: 900 420 = 480.

2. : .
. ,
(, 2, 3 5 
).
, (. 125) 
1 3; 2 6; 
4, 5 7.
2

5 7
1

1
3

6
2

7
4

. 125

3. : 21 15 .
. ,
( 
) .
, , 12 00
23 05 7 ( 6 
). 
( ) x 
665
x < --------- , , x , x  110.
6

12 59 , x > 101.
,
546
13 59 : x > --------- x > 109.
5

13 00 , x < 121.
,
109 110 . 
110. 
232

110 , 21 15
.

4. : .
. , 1, 2, 3, 5.

5. : .
. , 10
. 5
. .

6. : 2.
. ,
, . . 1 , 
, 1 m1 , 2 m2 ,
3 m3 . 11m1 = 10m2,
m2 = 1,1m1. 2 3 
, 12,5m2 = 12m3.
1.
11m1 + 12,5m2 + 8,25m1 = 30. m2 m1,
11m1 + 13,75m1 + 8,25m1 = 30, . . 1,1m1 = 1.
, 1 10 11 . 
, , 2 , 
1 . 3 ,
2.

7. : .
. 0, 1, 2,
. 126.
1

. 126

233

, 
0.  ,
x. x
1, 2, ,
0, 1, 
2, 0 .
, , 
, 63 .
63. 64. 
.

8. . .
A (. 127), .
2
4

A
1

. 127

+, 
. , 
1, 2 3. .

II

III

IV

.
?
234

: 4.
: A .
:
1) 14 2 7
. 
, ;
2) , ,
, 3, 4 .
.
, ;
3)
( 2 + 2 , 1 + 2). . .
4 .
: 1 2.
, 
, A (
). .
: 4.
, 1 4 
1 , 
. ,
1 ( A ),
, .

.

, 2011 .
1. : . . 128.

. 128

2. : 38.
. 00 23,
19.
00 59, 59. 
19:59:59. 38.
235

3. : 13.
.
. 30 
. ,
10 . , 10. 
13.

4. : , .
. 
, , , .
, .
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 = 45.

5. : 0 : 0.
. ,
: , 
, . , .
: 
. ,
. , .

6. : 600 .
. 
. ,
, .
x x .

, .
, . . 2x .
, , . . x .
: x + x + x + 2x = 1000. , x = 200.
3x , 600 .

, 2011 .
1. : , .
. , x, y z 
. , 
, :
3x2y + 3xy2 3y2z + 3zy2 + 3z2x 3zx2 = 2011.
236

, 
, 3 . 
, x, y z .
, 
.
a3 + b3 + c3 3abc = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 ab bc + ca).
(x y)3 + (y z)3 + (z x)3 = 3(x y)(y z)(z x) = 2011.

2. : , .
. 
, , .

, , , 
. , 

.
: 2, 3, 5 7. ( ),
, 
, 1.

3. . ,  CEF =  CFE (. 129),


B

C
E
F

. 129

. , 
AED ,  ADE = 60,
 CDE = 90 60 = 30. CD = AD = DE, 
EDC , :
 CED =  ECD = (180 30) : 2 = 75.
237

AC ,  CAD = 45, 
, AFD:
 AFD = 180 (45 + 60) = 75.
CFE AFD , ,  CFE =
=  AFD = 75.

4. : 453.
. abc , a
1 9, b c 0 9. 
abc. 
:
(1 + 2 + ... + 9)(0 + 1 + 2 + ... + 9)(0 + 1 + 2 + ... + 9).
, 900 
,
.
45, 453.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
. . .
( . ., . ., . .) . . . . . . . . .
5
. . .
( . ., . ., . .) . . . . . . . . .
14

. . .
( . ., . ., . .) . . . . . . . . .
22

( . ., . ., . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36

. . .
( . ., . ., . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
. . .
( . ., . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47

( . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64

( . ., . ., . .) . . . . . . . . .
64
. . .
( . ., . ., . .) . . . . . . . . .
79

. . .
( . ., . ., . .) . . . . . . . . .
99

( . ., . ., . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

. . . ( . ., . .,
. .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
. . .
( . ., . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

( . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230