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# Position Fixing by Distance

## • A typical plane coordinate survey procedure

• Distances between a set of known control
points and a point with unknown position
Position Fixing By Distance are measured

## Training Center for Applied Geodesy and

Photogrammetry
University of the Philippines
Diliman, Quezon City

## TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN

## Position Fixing by Distance Condition Equation

Two distances measured The linearized condition equation for the
 Unique solution of the two distance between a known point and an
coordinates (x and y) of the unknown point unknown point is:

More than two distances measured vij + b1∆X i + b2 ∆Yi = Sij0 − Sij
coordinates (x and y) of the unknown point where:

b =
(X j − X i0 )
and b2 =
(Y j − Yi 0 )
1
Sij0 Sij0
TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN

Example
Control X (m) Y (m) Observed
The position of an unknown point P is to be Point Distance (m)
determined by measuring distances with an A 698.41 1005.07 4122.109
EDM instrument from P to five control
B 580.14 2207.37 3444.530
points A, B, C, D, and E. The known
positions of the control points and observed C 5482.77 8503.22 4897.717
distances are: D 6191.16 7160.26 4129.233
E 6095.81 4920.30 2739.177

## The standard deviation of each distance

measurement is: σ = ( 0.020) + ( 0.040) S → (S in kms.)
S
2 2 2

## The reference variance is 0.002 m.

TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN

1
Solution
C The condition equation that we will use for
D
each line segment is:

## North vPj + b1∆X P + b2 ∆YP = S Pj0 − S Pj

P
E OR

vPj +
(X j − X P0 )
∆X P +
(Y j − YP0 )
∆YP = S Pj0 − S Pj
B S Pj0 S Pj0

A
Where j = A, B, C, D, and E
TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN

## Using the cosine law,

∆X EC = X C − X E = 5482.77 − 6095.81 = −613.04 m ( EC ) + ( PE ) − ( PC )
2 2 2

cos ( ∠PEC ) =
∆YEC = YC − YE = 8503.22 − 4920.30 = 3582.92 m 2 ( EC )( PE )
( 3634.987 ) + ( 2739.177 ) − ( 4897.717 )
2 2 2
( −613.04 ) + ( 3582.92 )
2 2
EC = = 3634.987 m cos ( ∠PEC ) =
2 ( 3634.987 )( 2739.177 )
cos ( ∠PEC ) = −0.1642790
∠PEC = 99.45535°

TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN

## The azimuth of line EC is, So,

 −613.04 
−1 ∆X EP = ( 2739.177 )( sin 250.83532° ) = −2587.369 m
α EC = tan   = −9.70933° = 350.29067°
 3582.92 
∆YEP = ( 2739.177 )( cos 250.83532° ) = −899.229 m
The azimuth of line EP is therefore,
α EP = α EC − ∠PEC = 350.29067° − 99.45535° = 250.83532° The approximate coordinates of P are therefore:
X P0 = X E + ∆X EP = 6095.81 − 2587.37 = 3508.44 m
YP0 = YE + ∆YEP = 4920.30 − 899.23 = 4021.07 m

TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN

2
Least squares determination of position of P Least squares determination of position of P
The calculated values for the condition The matrix form of the condition equations
equation for each line segment are: for all five line segments is:
 v1   −0.68168 −0.73165  0.090 
Line b1 b2 Spj° - Spj  v   −0.85014 −0.52655  
PA -0.68168 -0.73165 0.090  2    ∆X   −0.049 
 v3  +  0.40311 0.91515   P  =  0.002 
    ∆Y  
0.76021   P   0.113 
PB -0.85014 -0.52655 -0.049
 v4   0.64967
PC 0.40311 0.91515 0.002  v5   0.94458 0.32828   0.001 
PD 0.64967 0.76021 0.113
PE 0.94458 0.32828 0.001 This is in the form: v + B∆ = f
TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY
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## Least squares determination of position of P Least squares determination of position of P

The weight for each distance The weight matrix is therefore,
measurement/line segment is:
Line S (km) σS2 WS = σ02/ σS2 0.0725 0 0 0 0 
 0 0. 1036 0 0 0 
PA 4.12 0.0276 0.0725  
PB 3.44 0.0193 0.1036
W = 0 0 0.0515 0 0 
 
PC 4.90 0.0388 0.0515  0 0 0 0.0722 0 
 0 0 0 0 0.1613
PD 4.13 0.0277 0.0722
PE 2.74 0.0124 0.1613

TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY
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## Least squares determination of position of P Least squares determination of position of P

To solve for the unknown coordinates, we
use the formula:

( B WB ) ∆ = B Wf
T T 0.0725
 0
 −0.68168 −0.85014 0.40311 0.64967 0.94458 
B W =
T
  0
0
0.1036
0
0
0
0.0515
0
0
0
0 
0 
0 
 −0.73165 −0.52655 0.91515 0.76021 0.32828  
 0 0 0 0.0722 0 
 0 0 0 0 0.1613

N∆ = t
 −0.04942 −0.08807 0.02076 0.04691 0.15236 
BT W =  
 −0.05304 −0.05455 0.04713 0.05489 0.05295 

where:
N = BT WB and t = BT Wf
TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN

3
Least squares determination of position of P Least squares determination of position of P

##  −0.68168 −0.73165  −214.22 

 −0.85014 −0.52655  −10.94 
 −0 . 04942 −0 .08807 0. 02076 0 . 04691 0. 15236     
N = BT WB =    0.40311 0.91515   225.01 
 −0 . 05304 − 0. 05455 0 . 04713 0. 05489 0 . 05295    −0.04942 −0.08807 0.02076 0.04691 0.15236   
 0.64967 0.76021  t = B Wf = 
T
  0.02 
 0.94458 0.32828   −0.05304 −0.05455 0.04713 0.05489 0.05295 
5.23 
 
 219 .24 
0.29132 0.18721
N =   −218.90 
 0.18721 0.16977   

 0.00536 
t= 
 0.00425

TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN

## Least squares determination of position of P Least squares determination of position of P

We can then solve for ∆ using:
N∆ = t
∆ = N −1t
The errors are:

##  0.29132 0.18721  ∆X P   0.00536 

 0.18721 0.16977   ∆Y  =  0.00425  ∆X P   0.008 
  P   
 ∆Y  = 0.016 
 P  
TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN

## Least squares determination of position of P Adjusted Distances

The least squares position of P is therefore, To get the residuals (v) and adjusted
distances for each segment (î), we use the
following equations:

X P = X P0 + ∆X P = 3508.44 + 0.01 v = f − B∆
X P = 3508.45 m
YP = YP0 + ∆YP = 4021.07 + 0.02 l̂ = l + v
YP = 4021.09 m

TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN

4
 0.090   −0.68168 −0.73165  4122.109   0.107 
 −0.049   −0.85014 −0.52655  3444.530   −0.034 
     0.008     
v =  0.002  −  0.40311 0.91515    l̂ =  4897.717  +  −0.016 
    0.016     
 0.113   0.64967 0.76021 
 4129.233  0.096 
 0.001   0.94458 0.32828 
 2739.177   −0.012 

 0.107   4122.216 
 −0.034  3444.496 
   
v =  −0.016  l̂ =  4897.701
   
 0.096   4129.329 
 −0.012   2739.165
TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TRAINING CENTER FOR APPLIED GEODESY AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN

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