Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 32

*sme,f

rd k ; aomuf -u,f pm -unf h wd k u f rS OD ; pD ; jzef ‹ a0 onf


T 161-0033 SHINJUKU-KU, SHIMO OCHIAI 1-11-7, OCHIAI ECO MANSION 301, TOKYO, JAPAN
tcrJjh zef@csyd gonf? E-mail: ahhara@hotmail.com, mtk@s2.dion.ne.jp tcrJjh zef@csyd gonf?
http://www.k2.dion.ne.jp/~mtk/

twJG(1) trSwfpOf(1) 2004 ckESpf 'DZifbmv(1)&uf


123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
‘tm[m&’rS ‘rd;k aomuf=u,f’od@k 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
uAsm?
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
yifyef;w}uD; vkyfaqmif=uonfrSm 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
udkouf? wifrdk;? armifpGrf;&nf? rif;udkEdkif? xl;0if;&Sdef? aecsKdjrifhjrifh
a&S;jrefrmrif;wdk@.ajc&mudk eif;=u 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
onfjzpfaya=umif;? 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
aqmif;yg;
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
a=u;rHOk ;D aomif; 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
wifr;kd (t,f'w D mhtmabmf) vli,fah Mu;rH-k 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901 pm 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
aumif;vSygayw,fuG,fæ?usKyf 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
yg&*l y&[dwuRe;f odYk pm 16
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
om"kac:ygw,fæ? usKyf v_u d v d_ f 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
f u 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
armifpGrf;&nf OD;0if;wif\ajc&mrsm;(yydik ;f )
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901 pm 20
vJv S v SJ nf; óuqdyk gw,fæ? 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
armifom& armifzdk;aZmf rd;k aomufMu,fpmtkypf if
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901 pm 22
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
[efe&Dpdk;0if; OD;oeft Y a&;tcif; (ed*;kH )
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901 pm 25
pdwfESvkH;us,fjyef@/ tawG;tjrif 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
oef@oef@eJ@ cef@nm;wJt h rlt&meJ@ ‘rk;d 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
pmMunfw
h u
kd zf iG yhf t
GJ xl;aqmif;yg;ESihf o0PfvmT rsm;
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
aomuf=u,f’qdkwJh wm&mOD; yGifhzl; 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
vmyg+y?D usuo f a& wufaeod@k vif; 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
ukrjk 'm tm[m&rSonfr;kd aomufMu,foYkd
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
pm 4
ygapæ 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
wifr;kd 0w¬Kwdk
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
aersKd; usaemfuw kd uf<u
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901 pm 17
pm=unf h w d k u f z G i f h w m[m yd w f 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
wmr[k w f v d k @ 0rf ; ajrmuf 0 rf ; om 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
tusOf;pH&Jabmfrsm;\&ifzGifhoHrsm;
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
}uKd qykd gw,fæ? 'ga=umifh b,fol u 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
b , f v d k p m = u n f h w d k u f a w G u d k 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
apmrd;k vif; ordik ;f aumif;a&;rnfavm...
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
pm 24
b,fESpf}udrfzGifhzGifh }udKqdkygw,fæ/ 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
armifprG ;f &nf eufay:u[morsm;
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
ordefppfrkef;? tmumrdkufwD; vlrSefae&mrSef? ukodkvfonf
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901 pm 28
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
xl;uJwhJ augi;f r_uo k v f dk ðyae 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
dk u 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
=uwmrkd haocsmaygufatmifjrif=u 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
tzrf;tqD;owif;
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
vd r f h r ,f v k d h rrS d w f r oH k ,H k = unf 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
a=umif;ygcifAsm;? 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
armeif;pwm;wifp;kd Mum;vdu k &f aomtoHrsm;
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901 pm 23
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
0if;az 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
tifwmeufowif;rsm;
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
usaemf h t aeeJ @ ta0;uae+yD ; 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
armif&Sif? armifBuD;? armifi,f jrefrmowif;rsm;
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901 pm 29
awmh emrnf a jymif ; wmud k v nf ; 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
axmufcyH gw,fæ tJ'u D ae+y;D awmh 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
umwGef;
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
rdk;aomuf=u,fpmapmiftjzpf xkwf 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
rSmudv k nf; usaemf@taeeJ@ tvGeb f J 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
uHaumif;vdYk 0vH;k (rzrf;rcsi;f -wduk sK)d
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901 pm 30
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
*k%, f yl gw,fæ tm;ay;yg w,fæ 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
armifpif=u,f tvSL&Sifpm&if;rsm;
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
av;av;(wdu k sK)d vpOfaiGpm&if;&Si;f wrf;
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901 pm 31
2004 DEC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
t,f'w
D mtmabmf
vli,fha-u;rHk=2 twdki y
f ifcHem,mursm;
wifr;kd (tar&du)
jzLpifwJhvlwGifus,fawGudk
‘vli,f’vdk@owfrSwf&r,f? armifpif=u,f (=opa=w;vs)
EdkifiH&J@rdk;aomuf=u,fawGaygh?
vli,fqw
kd m igprGJ }u;D &bl;? wm0efcHt,f'Dwm
igprGJ od/k ud,
k pf rGJ xm;/ arwWmyGm;rS vli,fw&m;&S&d ma&mufr,f?
rd;k aomuf*sme,ftzJ@G om;rsm;
vli,ftiftm;ðzef;wD;&if Edik if }H u;D òyysurf mS aocsmw,f?
vli,fawGz±dzk &Jjzpfaeor# Edik if òH yuJrG mS rkcs?
vli,fawG[m ud,
k t
hf cef;u¾udk azmhwu
G v
f @kd r&bl;? rd;k aomuf=u,f*sme,ftwGuf pmrlrsm;ay;yd@k vdyk g
Edik if &H @J wef;zd;k &Sw
d t
hJ oD;tyGiahf wGqw
kd m t+ro
J wd&&r,f? u vwv. 25 &ufae@ aemuf qH;k xm;I atmufyg
ud,
k w
hf efz;kd [m Edik if t
H wGuf tifrwef}u;D rm;+y;D wefz;kd &Sw
d chJ eG t
f m;qdw
k m rarh&bl;?
zuf(pf)/ zke;f eHygw/f vdypf m/ tD;ar;(vf)wd@k rSwqifh
vli,f*h %
k u
f kd t+rw
J ap yGm;rsm;aetyfw,f?
i,f±,
G Ef yk sKjd cif;qdw
k m xm0&rydik q
f ikd b
f ;l ? qufoG,fay;ydk@=uyg&ef av;pm;pGmjzifh arwWm&yfcH
wc%om ydik q
f ikd jf cif;jzpfw,f? tyfygonf?
ckvkd aoG;opf om;opfavmif;wke;f / t±G,af umif;wke;f / tusK;d &Sad tmifae&r,f?
roH k ; jzpf o nf h p mrl r sm;ud k jyef v nf a y;yd k @ rnf
usifhoHk;&r,f?
r[kwfyg?
ysupf ;D avvGiahf er,fq&kd if b0wckv;kH trdu
_ yf v
kH kd wefz;kd rJo
h mG ;vdrrhf ,f?
‘wufvo
l mvsif (81)3 3364 5164 (81)3 3437 4739
jrefrmjynfr/ tm;opf&I (81)3 3824 7448 (81)3 5394 4535
aZ,smatmifvx
H rl nfwnf;’wJæ
h ?
T 161-0033
rsK;d csppf mqd}k u;D q&maZmf*su
D vHa_ qmfczhJ ;l w,f?
SHINJUKU-KU,
[kww
f mayg?h
wdkif;jynfwck&J@tem*wfudkodcsif&if 'Dae@vli,fawGtajctaeudk tuJcwf=unfh&if SHIMO OCHIAI 1-11-7,
odEikd w
f maygæ
h ? OCHIAI ECO MANSION 301,
vli,fawGO;D wnfcsuv
f aGJ e&if/ taysm=f uL;+y;D ,pfr;l ae&if/
TOKYO, JAPAN
tcsi;f csi;f tap;ruyf/ pdw"f gwaf wGta=umiftusm;eJ@ wuJw
G jym;jzpfae&if
'Dwikd ;f jynfem+yo
D mrSwaf yawmhæ? ahhara@hotmail.com

atmifqef;vdv
k il ,fuav;wa,muf xGe;f xGe;f awmufawmufay:ayguv
f mvd@k mtk@s2.dion.ne.jp
wd@k wdik ;f jynf[m udv
k ekd x
D rf;yd;k atmufu vGwaf jrmufc&hJ w,f? pmrl&iS rf sm;ESiq
hf ufo,
G Ef ikd &f ef vdypf mESihf w,fvzD ek ;f eHygwfrsm;
atmifqef;[m jrefrmhvw
G af jrmufa&;vrf;udk b,fy&kH mS cJw
h ,fqw
kd m
yl;wJaG y;ydŒk apvdyk gonf?
*syefa&mufjrefrmvli,fawGtodqHk;æ?
txl;ajymzG,frvdkæ?
“ta&;}u;D +yD nDaemiftaygi;f wd@k rd;k aomuf-u,fonf jynfya&muf jrefrmpmayynm
aoG;pnf;um nDapnD=upd@k æ” &Si}f uD;rsm;. yHyh ;kd ulnv
D rf;!$erf E+ iS t
hf wl pmayjzifh
oD;oef‹&yfwnfaejcif;omjzpf_yD; rnfonht
f zJ‹G t
23-12-2002 pnf;. vufatmufcrH [kwaf -umif; w&m;0iftod
ay;tyfygonf?
pg-2
uAsm


tm[m&udc k spfaom/ tm;ay;ulnc D a
hJ om/


igpJðG zwfvu
kd yf g oli,fcsi;f



0dki f;0ef;vkyfaqmifca hJ om



cspfaomrdwfaqGnDtudkarmifESrrsm;odk@ igqdkwJhrmef



tm[m&pm=unfhwjzpfvJ tpJGoefaeoa±$@



trSefudkawG@rnfr[kwf


rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unfw h u
kd t f zJ@G om;rsm;.


igðywfatmifomvkyfygæ?


E_wc f e
G ;f qufóudqp kd um;



ud,k thf wGu/f ol@twGuf



r[wWr*ED}< u;D c&D;oGm;&ef &xm;ay:twufrmS ol.zdeyfwzufu|w+f y;D atmufbuf wdik ;f jynf}uD;twGuf



oHvrf;ay:usonf? &xm;u xGupf ðyae+yjD zpf&m ol raumuf,El ikd af wmh? tdkAsmæ b,fol@twGufyJjzpfjzpf


oifvkyfjzpfwJhtcg


ab;vlawG ai;=unhfae=uqJ *ED<u at;at;aq;aq;yif ol@rSmusefaeao;onfh


zdeyfwzufukd c|wu f m apmapmu u|wu f sco hJ nfh ae&mbufqo D @kd vSr;f ypfvu kd of nf? emrnf[mt"dur[kwf



“[mæ bmvkyw f mvJ” *k%fyk'fudkrvdkcsifaveJ@æ?



c&D;onfwa,mufuar;onfhtcg *ED<}uD;uðyH;+yD;-


udk,fh*k%fudk,fazmfjyefawmh


“apmapmu wzufwnf;aumuf&r,hv f l tckawmh w&H&oGm;rSmaygAh smæ/ tJ'gqkd


rolawmfvdk@ a0zefcH&wwfw,f


olpD;vdk@&oGm;+yD”[k ajzavonf?


ud,k t
hf rSwf ud, k ,f jl yefawmhvnf;


tqdkygpmpkuav;onf q&mazjrifh. ESvHk;om;tm[m&pmtkyfxJrS ‘r[wW


tjrwfxw k w f v
hJ vl @kd qd=k uao;w,f?


r*EDN&J@zdeyfw&H’trnf&Sd aqmif;yg;jzpfygonf?


trSefæjzpfoifhwmu

twWEiS rhf uif;aom ykxpk Ofvo l m;rSeo f r#onf ud, k uf sK;d pD;yGm;ay: tajccHum ay;qyf

jcif;xuf &,lv=kd uonf? xdt k xJwiG f usaemfw@kd wawGvnf; ygavonf? ○

'gawGuakd b;csw
d x
f m;+yD;
owW0greS o f r#onf rdrt d ouf&iS &f yfwnfEikd af &;twGu/f tpm;tpmtm[m&udk rjzpfr jzLpifwJhapwemw&m;eJ@

aerD0S oJ ;kH aqmif&avonf? xdo k @kd aom owW0gxw J iG f vlqakd omowW0gonf tod^m%f trsm;tusKd;udkvkyf&if

ynmzG@H òz;}u;D xGm;zd@k twGuf pmayqdak om pmtm[m&// pdwo f abmxm; El;nHo h rd af rG@zd@k oifh*k%fyk'fawGay:+yD;om;

twGuf ESvHk;om;tm[m&wdk@tjyif pdwf"gwfwnf+idrf&ifhusufzdk@twGuf pdwftm[m& bk&m;od/ od=um;od



vnf; rjzpfraejynfh0zdk@ vdktyfayonf? jynfot l rsm; odw,fAsm?



xdo k @kd aomta=umif;rsm;udk tajccHum *syefa&muf jrefrmvli,frsm; pkaygi;f I trSef


AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;crsm
w&m;/ ±d;k om;r_/ +ird ;f csr;f a&;/ vGwv f yfvpkd w d /f trsm;tusK;d twGuf ud, k uf sK;d pGe@f tepfemcH

aoomoGm;w,f

jcif; tp&So d nfjzifh tajccHusvaS om cH,cl surf sm;/ ,H=k unfcsurf sm;ESit hf wl usak emfw@kd

yv$m;0ifhºum;cJhwmrsm;

ud, k wf ikd f tm[m&jynf0h atmifóu;pm;tm;xkw&f if; ‘tm[m&’qdkaom trnfjzifh pm


&Sdzl;ygovm;Asmæ?

=unhfwdkufwckudk ouU&mZf 2000 ckESpfrSpI wnfaxmifcJh=uavonf?



xdt k wl pm=unhw f ukd f wESpw f w d jd ynfah omvwGif tm[m&pmapmifukd pwifxw k af 0cJh wdk@AdkvfcsKyfvdkyJ

=uavonf? e,fpyf'u k o Q nfpcef;rsm;od@k t0wftxnf/ aiGa=u;rsm; axmufychH hJ =uonf? taeukyfukyfeJ@



pmaya[majymyJrG sm;/ pmqdak wmfae@txdr;f trSwf pmtkyx f w


k af 0jzef@jzL;jcif;rsm; ðyvkycf =hJ u tvkyfrsm;rsm;vkyf

onf? od@k aomfæ *k%fyk'fuay:+yD;om;ygæ?


tm[m&jynh0f atmifvyk af qmifaeygonfqakd om tm[m&pm=unhw f u kd 0f ikd ;f awmfom;


igryg&ifr+yD;

rsm;onf wu,fv h ufawG@wGirf l pmtm[m&/ ESv;kH om;tm[m&/ pdwt f m[m& rjynf0h cJh

igcsn;f yJvnf; rjzpfqw


kd hJ

onfudk 0efcH&ayrnf?

vdrfnpfwJhtawG;0ifae&if

q&mwifr;kd . vl@i,fa=u;rHak qmif;yg;xJY yg&o dS nfth wdik ;f “ vli,fawG OD;wnfcsuf


tqifrajybl;Asæ?

vJaG ecJo h nf/ t"duESihf omrnruJ/G taysm=f uL;+y;D ,pfr;l aecJ=h uonf/ tcsi;f csi;f tap;r

uyf/ pdw"f gwaf wGta=umiftusm;eJ@ wuJw G jym;jzpfaecJ=h uonf?”xd@k twGuaf =umifh tm bmudkyJvkyfvkyf

[m&qdak omtrnfEiS hf pmapmifEpS af pmif xGuaf y:vmcJah yonf? vkyfor#[m wdk@ordkif;ygyJ



&vm'fum; ysupf ;D jcif;qdo k nht hf &mrSwyg; bmrStusK;d r&Sad wmhæ t±dkif;pdwfudkc0gcs



pmayodumQ / wdik ;f jynfrsuEf mS vnf; usaemfw@kd .vky&f yfa=umifh usqif;cJ&h ayonf? rmefrmeudktjrpfvSef

ed*Hk;csKyftaejzifh wifjy&rnfqdkaom rnfolrðy rdrdr_qdkonfhtwdkif; tm[m&udk wnf


apwemtrSefeJ@omvkyf

axmifco hJ rl sm;taejzifh r[wWr*ED}N u;D uJo h @kd pdwo f abmxm; }u;D jrifo h rl [kwaf o;awmif *k%yf 'k uf ay:+yD;om;yg oli,fcsi;f æ?

r[m;'&m;orm;rsm;vdk@ txifrcH&zdk@twGuf tm[m&qdkonfhtrnfudk toHk;wnfhrnf



qdyk gu rnforl qdk oH;k pJcG iG ðhf yyga=umif;ESihf tm[m&wjzpfvJ rd;k aomuf=u,f pm=unhw f ukd f udkouf

tzJ@G om;rsm;rS twlvufwv GJ yk af qmifcsio f nfo h rl sm;tm;vH;k udv k nf; }uKd qykd ga=umif;æ

LOGOudk a&;qJaG y;cJah om umwGe;f q&m 0vH;k uvnf; rnfor l qdk oH;k pJcG iG ðhf yygonf?

Pg-3
txl;aqmif;yg;

tm[m&pm-unhw
f u
kd rf o
S nf rd;k aomuf-u,fpm-unfw
h u
kd o
f ‹kd (ukrjk 'm)

tdy&f muEd;k tx jywif;ayguw f cH g;udk tomvSr;f =unfv h ukd af wmh rd;k ykvaJ wG oufqif;aewmudk awG@vdu k &f rdw,f? aqmif;OD;avajyEke@J twl rd;k ykv&J @J
at;&eH@u &ifuv kd ef;qef;=unfvifomG ;cJ&h ygw,f? tJ'aD e@[m rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unhw f ukd o
f aE<wnfwahJ e@jzpfygw,f? at;jrwJt h wdwef rdwaf wGe@J twl
a&muf&v dS mwmjzpfv@kd aumif;jcif;awGe@J jynfppkH mG wnf&adS erSmvd@k pma&;olrw S ,
f &l if; ol@owif;udk azmufonfcsvu kd yf g&apawmhæ?
wu,fawmh ol@i,femrnfu ‘tm[m&’ygæ? tm[m&uae rd;k aomuf=u,fjzpfvmyHu k awmh 'Dvykd gæ? wdu k sKrd mS &S=d uwJh wufºujzwfvwfwhJ vli,fawG
pkpnf;um ouU&mZf 2000 rSm pm=unfhwdkufwckudk xlaxmifcJh=uyg
w,fæ? vli,fawG&@J tm;rmef/ ZJ/G vH@k va=umifh ±kyv f ;kH ay:vmcJ+h y;D ‘tm
[m&’vdk@ trnfay; uifyGef; wyfcJhygw,f? tm[m&av;[m c
a&mif;vrf;ay:rSm prf;w0g;0g;eJ@ av#mufvrS ;f vmcJw h m av;ESpw f mum
vudk ausmfvdk@vmyg+yD? ar#mf vifhcsufa&mifjcnf jzpfwnfvdkr_qEN
awGeJ@ aygif;pnf;um óu;yrf; aqmif ± G u f r _ a =umif h pm=unh f w d k u f
zGiv
hf @kd wESpjf ynfw h t
hJ cgrmS pm =unfhwdkuf&J@udk,fyGm; tm[m&pm
apmifqdkwm ay:xGufvmcJhyg w,f? tm[m&pmapmif[m tm[m&
pm=unhw f u kd &f @J a=u;rHjk yifwcky rm pm=unhw f ukd &f @J pmayqdik &f m tEky
nmaqmif±u G cf surf sm;udk yH&k yd f xifap&eftvd@k iSm 'Dpmapmifukd tcrJh
xkwaf 0cJyh gw,fæ? rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unfwh u
kd &f &dS mod@k aysm±f i$ pf mG vmae=uaom udck sprf ;dk ESio
hf il ,fcsi;f rsm;

vli,fawG&J@óu;udkifr_atmufrSm }uD;jyif;vmcJh&awmh tcuftcJawG/ avmu'g%fawGrsKd;pHkudk &ifqdkifajz&Sif;&if; atmifyef;awG&cJhygw,f? 'D=um;xJ


0d0g'uJGjym;r_awG=um;rSm tem;owfrvSjzpfaewmudk aumufa=umif;cs/ vrf;jyay;vdkufolawGuawmh jynfyEdkifiHtoD;oD;udk wdrf;a&Smifae=u&wJh
tawG@tñu&H ifu h suw f hJ pmayynm&Si}f u;D rsm;jzpfygw,f?
pma&;q&m}u;D rsm;&J@ vrf;jyyJjh yifra_ =umifh vrf;a=umif;rSeaf y:rSm av#mufvrS ;f cGi&hf vm+y;D q&m}u;D rsm;&J@ vrf;!$erf a_ tmufrmS olw@kd cif;ay;wJh yef;cif;vrf;
ay:rSm ‘rd;k aomuf=u,f’qdw k hJ pm=unfw h u kd u f av;[m av#mufvrS ;f oGm;rSmudk pma&;ol 0rf;ompGmeJ@ óuqd*k % k ðf yvku d yf gw,f? 'Dae&mrSm ^m%ftar#mf
tjrif}u;D rm;vSwhJ q&m}u;D rsm;udk *g&0w&m;xm;um av;pm;vdu k &f yga=umif;ESit
hf wl q&mrsm;.=o0g'udk emcHusio hf ;kH =uwJh rd;k aomuf=u,f&@J vli,fawG&@J
pdw"f gwu f vkd nf; rcs;D usL;yJ raeEdik af tmif jzpfvu kd &f yg w,f?
tm[m&pm=unfw h ukd rf oS nf tm[m&pmapmifukd arG;zGm;apcJo h vdk rd;k aomuf=u,fwjzpfvJ
ay:xGe;f vmaomtcgrmS rd;k aomuf=u,f&@J v_y&f mS ;r_awG udk rD;armif;xd;k jyzd@k rd;k aomuf=u,f*sme,f
qdw k m ay:ayguv f mrSm rvJ{G uef jzpfygw,f?
rdk;aomuf=u,fpm=unfhwdkuf&J@ OD;aqmifvrf;jy =u,fawGuawmh tar&duefEikd if rH mS &Sw d hJ
jrefrmpmayynm&Sif}uD;ESpfOD;jzpfygw,f? wOD;uawmh OD;0if;az(ac: )q&marmifpGrf;&nfjzpfyg
w,f? q&m[m 0dZm… 'Dyvdrk m/ pm=unfw h ukd 'f yD vdrk mbJ@G &xm;+y;D ,QKtcg tar&duefEikd if H ajrmuf
tDvDEdGKufwuUokdvf(SEA Founder Collection Memorial Library)&J@ wJzG ufoak woD
ynm&Sifwa,muf jzpfygw,f? pm=unfhwdkufeJ@ywf owfv@kd tawG@tñujH ynfph v kH w
S hJ q&m}u;D
&J@ vrf;jyoGeo f ifra_ tmufrmS rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unfh wdu k [ f m &yfwnfomG ;rSmjzpfygw,f?
rav;av;rS tcef;tem;tpDtpOfukd OD;a±$btm;&Si;f jyaepOf
aemufwOD;uawmh OD;b*sr;f (ac:)uAsmq&mwifr;kd jzpfygw,f? q&m[m e,fomvefEikd if u H cs;D jri‡ w
hf hJ Prince Clause Awardspmayqkukd jrefrmEdik if o
H m;
xJrS yxrOD;qHk;&&SdvdkufwJh pmayynm&Sifjzpfygw,f? rdk;aomuf=u,fqdkwJh emrnfudkvnf; q&mu uifyGef;wyfay;cJhwmjzpfygw,fæ? bma=umifh
'Demrnfay;&ovJv@kd ar;=unfah wmh “rd;k qdw k mu rd;k aumifuifv@kd t"dym` ,f&+y;D / aomufqwkd m vif;w,fv@kd t"dym` ,f&w,f? tmumoaumif;uifw
cGiv f ;kH xGe;f vif;awmufyvmrJh =u,fv@kd t"dym` ,faqmifw,fæ”vd@k ajymygw,f?
“tm±kOH ;D rSm xGuf ay:vmwJh=u,fjzpf
vdk@ wef;zdk;vnf;}uD; +yD; tm;opftifopf
awGjynfhwJh oabm aqmif+y;D tarSmifukd
òzcG i f ; wJ h t"d y ` m ,f vnf; rnfw,fæ/
t"dy`m,fawG trsm; }uD;jynfhpHkwmjzpfvdk@
‘rd;k aomuf=u,f’vdk@ trnfay;&jcif;jzpf
w,fæ”vd@k q&mu xyf & S i f ; jyoG m ;yg
w,f? tarSmifux kd ;kd azmufr,fh tvif;
a&muf = u,f q d k + yD ; aumif ; csD ; awG r sm;
pGm jynfhpHkwJh emrnf {nfrh w S w
f rf;pmtkyw
f iG f trSww
f &a&;om;ae=uaom NGOtzG@J acgi;f aqmif Mrs. TANAKAESihf Mr. TANABE opf uav;udk rS@J ac:
pg-4
txl;aqmif;yg;
ay;vdu k wf mrd@k rd;k aomuf=u,fqw kd hJ pm=unhw f ukd u f av;[m ae&mopfrmS emrnfopfe@J jzpfwnfvmcJ&h ygw,fæ?
rd;k aomuf=u,fav;wnf&mt&yfuawmh uAsmq&m}u;D wifr;kd *syefa&mufcphJ Of pyfcw hJ hJ ‘wdu k sKòd r@uuAsmaps;’qdw k hJ uAsmxJu “jrefrmawG òyum
òyumuswhJ wum'gEb kd mbmblwm” em;rSmjzpfygw,f? rd;k aomuf=u,fwjzpfvv J mwJh pm=unhw f u
dk o f pftwGuf vrf;!$erf u _ kd q&marmifprG ;f &nfu ,ckv@kd
ajymqdck yhJ gw,fæ?
(1) pm=unhw f u kd t f r_aqmiftzJ@G zJ@G +y;D +yv D m;æ;
(2) pDpOfa&;qJ+G y;D +yv D m;æ?
(3) pmtkypf m&if;/ pmiSm;pm&if;/ aiG pm&if;awG pepfwus xm;&S&d @J vm;æ
ar;cGef;oHk;ck rdef@ac|oGm;wJhtcgrSm q&m&J@ tar;pum; wom;wnf;jzpfatmif
rdk;aomuf=u,fpm=unfhwdkufudk OD;pGm yxr ðyjyifajymif;vJ&r,fv@kd em;vnf vuf
cHryd gw,f? wcsed u f tm[m& pm=unfh wdkuf[m rÀdKifig;ckatmufrSm &yfwnfcJh
ovdk ,ck rdk;aomuf=u,f[mvnf; rajymif;vJwhJ tESpo f m&awGukd aqmifusO;f
oGm;rSm jzpfygw,fv@kd qdv k u kd yf g&apæ
t"duvkyfief;awGuawmh-
(1)pm=unfw h u kd t f wGuf jynfwiG ;f rS pmtkyrf sm;rSm,ljcif;?
(2) vpOff *sme,fxw k af 0jcif;?
(3) e,fpyfa'o&Sd 'kuQonfrsm;udk tcef;tem;rSL;rav;av;rS tcef;tem;tpDtpOfrsm;udk ;zwf=um;aepOf ulnDaxmufyHhjcif;?
(4) jynfyod@k xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&Smif vmaom jrefrmpmayynm&Si}f u;D rsm;udk zdwaf c:I pmaya[majymyJrG sm;udk usi;f yjyKvyk jf cif;?
(5) etzrS ydwyf ifxm;aom jrefrmpmayynm&Si}f u;D rsm;. pmrlrsm;udk pmqdak wmfae@txdr;f trSwt f jzpf pm=unfw h ukd o f ;kH ckaygi;f I pmtkyx f w
k af 0jzef@csjd cif;
pwJh vkyif ef;}u;D ig;&yfukd tajccHum qufvuftaumiftxnfazmfum óu;yrf;vkyaf qmifomG ;rSmjzpfygw,f?
rd;k aomuf=u,fuav; ay:ayguv f mwJah e@uawmh 2004 ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbm 14 &uf(we*FaEG)ae@bJ jzpfygw,f? zGiyhf t GJ crf;tem;udv k nf; pnfpnfum;um;
ðyvkycf yhJ gw,f? 'Dtcrf;tem;twGuf Edik if t H oD;oD;rSm a&muf&adS e=uwJh jrefrmpmayynm&Si}f u;D rsm;&J@o0%fvm$ rsm;/ twlvufwv GJ yk af qmifae=uonfh
pm=unhw f ukd n
f aD emifrsm;rS o0%fvm$ rsm;/ pmay&Jabmfrsm;rS ay;yd@k aom o0%fvm$ rsm; pkpak ygi;f 14 ckukd óuqdv k ufc&H &Scd yhJ gw,f? tJ'aD wGuawmh
(1) tar&duefEikd if &H dS a=u;rH;k owif;pmt,f'w D mcsKyaf [mif; q&m}u;D a=u;rHOk ;D aomif;
(2) tar&duefEikd if &H dS pma&;q&m}u;D armifom&
(3) b,fv*f s, D EH ikd if &H dS uAsmq&m}u;D wifr;kd
(4) tar&duefEikd if &H dS uAsmq&m/ pma&;q&m armifprG ;f &nf
(5) tar&duefEikd if &H dS yef;csyD ef;yk tEkynm&Si/f ±ky&f iS 'f g±u kd wf m/ pma&;q&m/ vuf&dS Radio Free Aisa&J@ tpDtpOfrSL; OD;0if;az
(6) =opa=w;vsEdkifiH&Sd pma&;q&m armifpif=u,f
(7) tar&duefEikd if &H dS tqdak usmf a':rmrmat;
(8) tar&duefEikd if /H ajrmuftv D ED KGd uw
f uUov kd pf m=unfw h ukd w
f m0efcH OD;apmvl
(9) tar&duefEdkifiH&Sd pma&;q&mudkouf
(10) tar&duefEikd if &H dS uAsmq&m armifp;kd csed f
(11) awmifu&kd ;D ,m;Edik if &H dS OD;odr;f (ud&k ;D ,m;)
(12) awmifu&kd ;D ,m;Edik if &H dS axmifpjk ywif;t,f'w D m 0if;ay:armif
(13) *syefEikd if /H em*d, k mòr@&So d w k o[m,pm=unfw h u kd f
(14) awmifudk;&D;,m;EdkifiH ylc|rf;òr@&Sd a±$o*F[m-jrefrmtoif;pm=unfhwdkuf wdk@ jzpf=uygw,fæ?(aemufqHk;rSa&mufvmwJho0%fv$muawmh
&[ef;ysKrd sm;or*~OuUX t&Siaf crmpm&ygæ) rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unfw h u
kd zf iG yhf t
GJ crf;tem;od@k yxrOD;qH;k a&muf&v dS moluawmh *syef NHKowif;XmerSm

jrefrmpmayynm&Si}f u;D rsm;xHrS wdu


k ±f u
kd t
f oHoiG ;f ajym=um;aom qH;k r=o0g'rsm;udk wufa&mufvmolrsm;rS av;av;pm;pm;em;axmifae=upOf
Pg-5
txl;aqmif;yg;
wm0ef,lvkyfaqmifaeolwOD;vnf;jzifh jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm;udk apwemarwWmtjynfheJ@ ulnDaqmif±Gufay;aeolwOD;vnf;jzpf/ jrefrmpmayynm&Sif}uD;
q&marmifom&&J@ pmayawGukd *syefvb kd momjyefxw k af 0cJo h w l OD;vnf;jzpfaom ‘q&mOD;a±$b’jzpfygw,f? *syeftrnf Mr. TanabejzpfayrJh jrefrmpum;udk
jrefrmvlrsK;d xufawmif ca&aph wGi;f us ajymqdak &;om;Edik w f t hJ wGuf tm;vH;k uq&m OD;a±$bvd@k bJ ac:=uygw,f?
q&mu a&mufvsiaf &mufjcif; rd;k aomuf=u,fqw kd t hJ rnfukd wD;wd;k pGma&±Gw&f if; “odyaf umif;wJeh mrnfAsmæ? rd;k aomuf=u,fukd *syefvkd AKE NO
MYOJOvd@k ac:w,fæ”[k &Si;f jyay;ygw,f? q&mOD;a±$bu tcef;tem;rprSD q&mwifr;kd eJ@ w,fvzD ek ;f ajym=u&if; “usaemfu rd;k aomuf=u,fukd q&m}u;D
ajymovdk rxifbJ rd;k aumif;uifu=kd unf+h y;D bD,maomufw,fv@kd xifwmæ”vd@k &,f±iG pf mG uspD ,fpum;eJ@ ajymvdu k v
f @kd ab;em;rSm &Sad ewJoh al wGtm;vH;k
w0g;0g;eJ@ oabmusaewm awG@&ygw,f?
rdk;aomuf=u,fzGifhyJG t
crf;tem;rSm tcrf;tem;rSL;
uawmh uAsmq&mr av;
av;(wdu k sK)d yJ jzpfygw,f? q
&mOD;a±$bu *syefvdk bmom
jyef ajym=um;ay;oGm;wmjzpf
ygw,f? rd;k aomuf=u,fziG yhf GJ
tcrf;tem;[m rdom;pkyHkpH
oabmrsKd; aysmfaysmfyg;yg;eJ@
pnfpnfum;um;&Sw d m awG@
vdkuf&awmh pma&;ol&ifxJ *syefr;D &xm;or*~tzJ@G rS Mr. Kuwanou {nfrh w S w
f rf;a&;aeyHEk iS hf rwifwif0if;.a&Sa› e Mr. Mitani yHk
rSm *k%, f al =ueyfrw d mtrSef
yg? 'Dy&GJ @J jrifuiG ;f av;uawmh ,ae@xufxd rsupf x d rJ mS a&m &ifxrJ mS yg yDwjd zpfaerdygw,f?
tcrf;tem;rSL;av;av;(wdu k sK)d uawmh jrefrmqefqef csw d x f rDe@J uAsmq&mr&,fv@kd rajym&bl;? uAsmqefqef&adS eav&J@? ud0k if;aX;/ udpk ;kd 0if;&Sed ef @J
rwifwif0if;wd@k uawmh tdr&f iS f awG vJjzpf wm0ef&o dS al wGvjJ zpfawmh tm;vH;k
udk axmifah phatmif {nfch óH uqdak ewm udk awG@jrif&ygw,f? rd;k aomuf=u,ftzJ@G
om;awGjzpfwJh udkapmodef;wdk@/ udk armifoef@wd@k udrk if;xufaZmfw@kd wawGu
vJ tzufzufu tiftm;jznfhvdk@ axmifhaphatmif vkyfudkifoGm;=uygw,f?
ud0k if;aX;uawmh óuqdak &;wm0ef,l xm;awmh 'l;ememeJ@ vmvmor#ukd rarm
Edik f ryef;Edik f oGm;óuae&wmvnf; t acgufacguf tcgcgygbJ? udkapmodef;u
awmh rSwfwrf;"gwfyHkwm0efcHjzpfvdk@ uifr&moHk;vHk;udk vnfyif;rSmqJGxm;+yD;
awG @ or#vl u d k vS n f h y wf ± d k u f a eyg w,f? 'Dtcef;tem;yJaG v; atmifjrifpmG jzpf
ay:vmapa&;twGuf twJGnDwJh vl i,fawGyyD D tm;óu;rmefwufe@J r*Fvmae@
udk óuqdkae=uwmudk pma&;ol jrif awG@vduk &f ygw,fæ?
ae@vnf 12 em&D 15 rdepf avmuf rSm {nfhonfawG woJoJa&mufvm=u
wmudk jrifawG@&ygw,f? pm=unhw f u kd f tcef;xJrSmawmifrqef@vdk@ avScg;xpf
awGrmS xdik &f wJt h xdawmif jzpfomG ;yg a[mhu i
k d ;
f 'd
;
k wuU o v
k d r
f S jrefrmpmus r;
f ðypk
& ef a&muf
& v
d S maom ausmif ; om; w,f? *syefv0urS EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;t
ay: vl@tcGit fh a&;csK;d azmuf+y;D tzrf;cH wOD;udk udrk if;xufaZmfEiS hf udak rmifoef@rS &Si;f jyaeyHk ae&wJh jrefrmvlrsKd;awGeJ@ vkyfazmfudkif
zuf &Jabmf&JbufawGudk rdk;aomuf =u,ftzGJ@om;awGeJ@twl 0dkif;0ef;ulnD
aqmif±Gufay;aewJh NGOtzJG@uvlawG/ a&S›aeawG/ *syefrD;&xm;or*~tzJG@rS wm0ef&SdolawG wzJGzJGa&mufvm=u+yD; pm=unfhwdkufzGifhyJGrSwfwrf;v$mrSm
0rf;ajrmufa=umif;o0%fvm$ toD;oD; a&;ae=uwmudk awG@&ygw,f?
+y;D awmh eH&rH mS &Sw d hJ
pmayv_yf&Sm;r_"gwfyHk
awG e J @ Ed k i f i H w um
a&muf jrefrmpmay
ynm&Si}f u;D rsm; cs;D jri‡ hf
ay;ydk@wJh o0%fv$m
awGudk=unhf+yD; olwdk@
&J@rsufESmoGifjyifrSm
tH=ojcif;/ *k%f,kl0rf;
omjcif;/ cs;D usL;axm
yemðyjcif;qdkwJh t&dyf
vuQ%mawG vGr;f ðcH rd;k aomuf=u,fLOGOudk a&;qJaG y;aom umwGe;f q&m0vH;k qdik ;f bkww f if&efjyifqifaeyHEk iS hf wufa&mufvm=uaomy&dowfrsm;=unf±h a_ e=uyHk
pg-6
txl;aqmif;yg;
vd@k &Sad ewmudk pma&;ol jrifawG@cGihf
&vdkufygw,f? 'DyJGrSmawmh vmor#
*syefy&dwo f wfawG&@J ar;jref;or#ukd
rarmryef;bJ 'dik cf b H momjyef &Si;f jyae
oluawmh q&mOD;a±$b&,fyg? pm
=unfw h ukd vf il ,frsm;&J@ v_y&f mS ;r_/ e,f
pyf'u k oQ nfrsm;udk yHyh ;kd ulnaD er_/ *syef
a&muf jrefrmawG&@J 'Dru kd a&pDa&;v_yf
&Sm;r_awGrmS pmay&Jabmfrsm; yl;aygi;f
yg0ifv_yf&Sm;aer_rsm;ukd tm;yg;w& wufa&mufvmolrsm;udk udpk ;kd 0if;&Sed Ef iS hf rwifwif;0if;wd@k rS ðy;H ±Gipf mG óuqd{k nhcf aH eyHEk iS hf pm=unhw f ukd uf kd =unh±f a_ e=uyHk
&Sif;jyaewJh q&mOD;a±$bukdawG@&
awmh jrefrmrsm;tay: em;vnfpmemwJh q&m&J@pdw"f gwu f kd av;pm;or_ðyvdu k &f ygw,f?
wcsed u f twlvufwv GJ yk af qmifcb
hJ ;l wJh 0dik ;f awmfom;awGuv kd nf; awG@vdu k &f awmh pma&;ol&ifxrJ mS uAsmq&m&J&ifo h ufZ&GJ @J pum;av;wcGe;f udk
owd&vdu k rf yd gw,f? “a=omfæ ta&mifwil u S af wG vmqH=k ujyef+yaD ygæh ”&,fv@kd æ? wlwmawGwv GJ yk +f y;D rwlwmawG cJv G yk =f urJh ta&mifwil u S af wG awmifyjH zef@
vdk@ c&D;qef@=u&mrSm obm0
aumif;uif}uD;udk tm;vHk;aom
iSufawG ydkif=u qdkif=uygw,f?
avudkqefvdk@ysHysH/ pkefvdk@yJqif;
qif ; vd k & if ; uawmh yef ; wd k i f
a&mufb@kd &,fygqw kd hJ todw&m;
awG &Sad e=uwm[m =unfE;l aus
eyfp&m aumif;vSygayw,fæ?
tzJG@tpnf;toD;oD;rS jrefrm
rdwaf qGrsm;/ pmay0goem&Sirf sm;/
rd;k aomuf=u,ftzG@J om;rsm;udk av;pm;yga=umif;ESihf qufvufI vufwv GJ yk af qmif&efzw d af c:yga=umif; NGOtzG@J rsm;ajymaeyHk pmay&Jabmfrsm; pHkvifpGmeJ@ rdk;
aomuf=u,fpm=unfhwdkufzGifhyJG
av;[m r*Fvmusuo f a&&Spd mG eJ@ atmifjrifpmG +y;D qH;k oGm;cJ&h wmudk ta0;rSm&S=d uwJh yJu h ikd q
f &m}u;D awG jrifprf;aphcsiyf gbw d ,fæ?
a=omfæ q&mawG t=um;tm±Hek @J yif yxemyDwd awG jzpfae=urSmvd@k pma&;ol,=kH unf&if; avmuom&ysKkd› xu J pmom;av;twdik ;f -
‘aumif;r_jrwfE;kd
aumif;atmifusKd;I
aumif;usKd;ud, k Yf wnfaprif;’
[laom pum;eJ@tnD aumif;usK;d ðyolawG aumif;wmawGjzpf=uygapvd@k qENðyvdu k &f ygawmhw,fæ?

Pg-7
jynfya&muf jrefrmpmayynm&Si}f uD;rsm;ESihf pm-unfw
h u
kd n
f aD emifrsm;rS ay;yd‹k onfh o0%fvm$ rsm;

a=u;rkOH ;D aomif;

pmaumif;/ayaumif;udk E_wif aHk qmif&m.?


“ok/ pd/ yk/ bm/ 0d/ vd/ od/ "m/ tuQ&mpGo J ;kH / T&Spv f ;kH ud/k oDu;kH yef;oGi/f ae@wdik ;f qifavmh/ pmoifysKEd /k tajcjyKw@kd æ” [k
q&mawmf &Sirf [m&Xom&u *rBD&ysKd @Y =o0g'ay;cJhonf?
ok- oka%,s/ =um;em&.?
pd- pdaEW,s/ =uHpnf&m.?
yk- ykap>,s/ ar;jref;&m.?
bm- bmao,s/ qifjcif&m.?
0d- 0dpma&,s/ qifjcif&m.?
vd- vdac,s/ a&;om;&m.?
od- odau<,s/ avhusifh&m.?
"m- "ma&,s/ E_wif akH qmif&.[k pmzwfjcif;jzifh todOm%fw;kd wuf/ zG@H +zKd ;a&;udk !$eaf wmfrcl o hJ nf?
pmaywnf;[laom vufeufprG ;f yum;udk toH;k jyKum a&S;rif;wd@k u Ak'b N mom Ekid if aH wmftjzpf pnf;±H;k wnfaxmif atmifjrifc=hJ uonf?
“xdrk if;. yg,rf ,m;wa,mufaomfum;/ ‘}wad vmu 0ËHouma'0D’rnf.? xdyk ,fr,m; om;wrlvnf; ‘&mZukrm&f’rnf.?
xdrk if;um; uíefo;kH ±Gmwnf; yg,rf ,m;tm;ay;.æ”[k rSww f rf;wifaom jrapwDausmufpm?“od;k uav; ykyg` ;ewfawmif/ tacgijf rifzh sm;/ pHak wmjym;Y/
ES@H &Sm;=uKd iv f iG /hf cgwefyiG o
hf nf/ a&$EiS , hf ;kd rSm;/ yef;pum;? ?” paom uAsmyGiw hf @kd jzifh yk*jH ynfukd wnfaxmifco hJ nf?
“vGwaf jrmufaom igonf rvGwaf jrmufao;aom olw@kd tm; vGwaf ptHæ h ” tavmif;pnforl if;. ausmufpmjzifh Ekid if o H m;wd@k ud;k uG,q f ;D uG,&f ef
bmomawmfukd wnfaxmifc=hJ uonf?
ausmufpm / rifpm / aypm / puULyHEk ydS pf mwd@k rS tmumoavv_id ;f rS jzef@csad om uGejf yLwm uGejf cmpmtxd pmaya&;om; jzef@csad omenf;emrsm; wd;k wuf
vmcJ&h mwGif trsm;jynfow l @kd zwf±a_ vhvmEkid &f eftwGu/f odak vSmifEidk &f eftwGuf odak vSmifxrd ;f odr;f aom ydËuwfwu kd rf sm;onf ta&;ygonf?
oxHjk ynf a±$pm&HapwD0if;Y wnfaqmufcahJ om ydËuwfo;kH yHak pwDawmfonf jrefrmEdik if w H iG f yxrqH;k pm=unfyh Ëd uwfwu kd [ f k qd&k ayrnf? xd@k aemuf
1058 ckESpf yk*Hjynfh&Sif taemf&xmbk&ifu aqmufvkyfv_wef;cJhonfh bHkig;qifh&Sd pm=unfhwdkuf}uD;onf ,ae@wdkif cdkifrmpGm&Sdaeao;onf?
[Hom0wD bk&ifah emifacwfrS uke;f abmifacwfb&k if bd;k awmfb&m;acwftxd ydËuwfawmfEiS hf aq;usr;f / euQwu f sr;f / aA'ifusr;f / aypmxkyrf sm;udk
bD±o kd wWmoGi;f I jynfe,ftES@H ay;yd@k um ukov kd jf yKc=hJ uonf? ‘pmwdu k ’f [kac:aom xdpk m=unfw h u
kd rf sm;udk bke;f =u;D ausmif;rsm;wGif ,ckwikd &f =dS uao;.?
tajcwGif ajcaxmuf 12 acsmif;cHum tjrifh 6 ayausmf bD±o kd ¾ef wnfaqmufaom xdpk mwdu k rf sm;udk vSypGm aqmufvyk =f uonf? u|e;f om;udk
oapP;udik +f y;D rSepf aD &$csum/ yef;ykrsm;xka&;um/ jyom'fykH aqmuf=uonf?
‘ewfq&m rS&D onf/h yef;csw D umh0Zd m… / pd=w*D0g / a&$rifaq;Z0g/ &wemuGuq f ef;/ oZifyef;rkav;wG@J / e*g;bG@J jcL;EG,±f /kH 0wfrEH_ iS 0hf wfq/H jyef*[yf jyef*ywf/
Zmwf±yk pf t kH uGu/f aumif;uifjyef aus;iSuw f @kd / aw;csuu f s yvD[ef/ aq;pufcs pDrv H su/f eDzvHtcsKy/f yef;csyD scH s,v f yk af om/ a±$pmwdu k b
f rd ;f cHuæ
kd ”[k
q&m=u;D OD;yknu jrif;jcrH S ykord o f @kd pmwdu k af y; arwWmpmwGif zG@J qdck o hJ nf?
jrefrmEdkifiHomru urBmt&yf&yfrS EdkifiHtrsm;wdk@onf pmayudkjirf;ðyum wdk;wufcJh=uonf? “pmzwfaom wdik ;f jynfonf }u;D yGm;wd;k wuf.?
wd;k wuf}u;D yGm;aom wdik ;f jynfonf pmzwfv@kd om” [k q&mrif;aqGu eDwjd yKco hJ nf?
od@k ta&;ygvSaom ydËuwfwu kd f vkyif ef;udk *syefa&muf jrefrmvli,frsm;u ‘tm[m&’rS ‘rd;k aomuf=u,f’od@k yifyef;w}u;D vkyaf qmif=uonfrmS
a&S;jrefrmrif;wd@k . ajc&mudk eif;=uonfjzpfaya=umif;?

q&marmifom&

*syefu pmzwfy&dwo f wf pmayrdwaf qGawGajymygw,f? od=uw,fr[kwv f m;æ/ tvdrmR pmrSm&Sod wJah emfæ?
pmaypum; ae@wdik ;f =um;u xl;jcm;vdrmR &So d nfomwJah emfæ
pmudzk wfw,fæ pmudck spw f ,fæ pmudpk w GJ ,fqwkd mrsm; vG,w f ,frw S vf @kd vm;æ
pmtky}f u;D udik xf m;+y;D [efaqmifv@kd &wwfwmrsKk ;d r[kwb f ;l æ
tck *syefu wdkusKdrSm usKyfvmwkef;u awG@cJh&wJh ‘tm[m&pm=unfhwdkuf’u emrnfajymif;/ ae&majymif;+yD;
‘rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unfw h ukd ’f wJæh ?
ae&mvnf; ydu k s,v f mw,fv@kd ajymw,fæ/ pmtkyaf wGvnf; av;axmifausmf &Sad e+yv D @kd qdw
k ,fæ?
aumif;vSygayw,fu, G æ f ? usKyf om"kac:ygw,fæ? usKyf v_u d vf u
d_ vf vSJ v SJ nf; óuqdyk gw,fæ?
ta=umif;tm;avsmfpmG wyg;Edik if aH &mufae=u&wJw h ikd af tmif jrefrmpmaytusKd; rarhravsmh tm;xkwóf u;pm;
pGr;f aqmifae=uwJh vli,fawGuv kd nf; usKyf av;av;pm;pm; csD;rGr;f *k%ðf yvdu k yf gw,fæ? usKyf armifom&ygæ
pg-8
jynfya&muf jrefrmpmayynm&Si}f uD;rsm;ESihf pm-unfw
h u
kd n
f aD emifrsm;rS ay;yd‹k onfh o0%fvm$ rsm;
q&mwifr;kd

rd;k aomuf=u,fo@kd qkreG pf um;


tarSmifxu k kd xd;k azmufr,fqw kd hJ rd;k aomuf=u,f vmygyaumæ?
‘axG;ndKurSm’ qdw k hJ q&m}u;D rif;ok0%f&@J uAsmuav;udk owd&rdao;&J@?
‘jra&uefabmif±dk;u
a&tdk; ,lcJhyg
axG;ndKurSm?
y'krmR / a&$=umu oif;?
ESpyf iG hf ol,OS v f @kd
at;=unfvif a&jynfhtdk;rSm
xd;k wwfavjcif;³³³’ wJ?h
armife@J r,f twl,OS w f +JG y;D at;jr=unfvifwhJ a&jynft h ;kd rSm y'krmR =umyef; ESpyf iG x
hf ;kd +y;D a&csKd cyf&mu
jyefvm owJæ h ?
armifw@kd r,fw@kd twl,OS w f =JG urS avmutv,f wifw h ,fayvdrrhf ,fæ?
arwWma&pift;kd eJ@ jynf+h zKd ;aerSom +ird ;f csr;f om,mayvdrrhf ,fæ?
tcsi;f csi;f armif&if;ESr nD&if;tudu
k ohJ @kd cspcf ifvufw+JG y;D tcuftcJreS o f r# ausmv f m$ ;=uapvdw
k ,f?
rmefapmifcs+y;D &efraxmif=urS jrefabmifvrS ,f?
yef;wdik w
f &l mod@k twlwl csDwuf=uol tcsif;csif; onf;cH=u/ cGiv hf w$ =f u/ em;vnfrKS xm;=uapcsifw,f?
trdjrefrmudk arwWmeJ@ aus;Zl;qyf=uwJh om;aumif; orD;aumif;wd@k &J@ vky&f yf[m trSw&f p&m/ vGr;f p&m/ *k%, f pl &myg?
pdwEf v
S ;Hk us,jf yef@/ tawG;tjrifoef@oef@eJ@ cef@nm;wJt h rlt&meJ@ ‘rk;d aomuf=u,f’qdk wJh wm&mOD; yGizhf ;l vmyg+y?D ?
usufoa& wufaeod@k vif;ygap?

wifrdk;
10/ 11/ 2004
avmhpftdef*svdpf

q&marmifprG ;f &nf
0dZm… / ynma&;'Drvdrk mESihf pm=unhw
f u
kd yf nm'Drvdrk m
SEA Collection Founders Memorial Library
wJGzufokawoDynm&Sif/ ajrmuftDvDEdGKufwuUodkvf/ tar&du

rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unfw h ukd zf iG yhf tGJ wGuf 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omo0%fvm$


tm[m&pm=unfhwdkufudk rdk;aomuf=u,ftrnfajymif;+yD; pm=unfhwdkufzGifhr,f/
pm=unfw h u kd zf iG w hf m[m pm=unfw h u kd yf w d wf mr[kwv f @kd 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om }uKd qykd gw,fæ/
pm=unfw h u kd af wGziG v hf ukd w f m[m axmifwcH g;awGyw d vf u kd w f meJ@ twlwyl æ J /
'ga=umifh b,folu b,fvdkpm=unfhwdkufawGudk b,fESpf}udrfzGifhzGifh }udKqdkygw,fæ/
jrefrmvlrsK;d awGrmS pm=unfw h u kd zf iG chf siw f hJ apwem&Siaf wG&w dS m *k%, f pl &maumif;w,fæ/
'gayr,hf trsm;aumif;r_pm=unfw h u kd af wG oufwrf;wdv k w S ,fæ/
pdww f &kd if oufwrf;wdw k wfw,fæ/
pdwf&Snf&SnfeJ@ r#r#wweJ@ pdwf&Snfvuf&Snf jyifqif&r,fæ/
pm=unfw h u kd t f r_aqmiftzJ@G zJ@G +y;D +yv D m;æ´/ pDpOfa&;qJ+G y;D +yv D m;æ´/
pmtkypf m&if;/ pmiSm;pm&if;/ aiGpm&if;awG pepfwus xm;&S&d @J vm;æ´/
pm=unfw h u kd w f nfaxmifoal wG/ zGiv hf pS of al wG/ pmtkyvf LS olawG ud, k pf w
d Ef jS zm usef;rm csrf;om=uygapæ/
pm=unfw h u kd zf sufq;D olawG t0dpu D sygapæ?
“pmzwfvo kd l wd@k 0dik ;f ul”

armifpGrf;&nf
2004 Edk0ifbm 10 &uf
Pg-9
jynfya&muf jrefrmpmayynm&Si}f uD;rsm;ESihf pm-unfw
h u
kd n
f aD emifrsm;rS ay;yd‹k onfh o0%fvm$ rsm;
q&m0if;az

tm[m&pm=unfw h udk jf zpfajrmufa&; óu;yrf;=uoltm;vH;k ukd cs;D usL;*k%jf yK&if; ‘rk;d aomuf=u,f’qkw d hJ
trnfajymif;vJwmukv d J óuqkv d u dk yf gw,f?
e*k&d t f rnfuv dk J tvGeóf uufygw,f ? pmtkypf mayqkw d m pdwt f wGuf tpmtm[m& / ynm^m%f
twGuf tpmtm[m& / odyaf ugi;f wJeh mrnfygb?J
'gayrJh pm=unfhwkduf zGifhygw,fqkdrS pm;yJG±Hk / a[mfw,f / &ufpawm&ifh trnf}uD;vkdjzpfaew,f /
bmnmeJ@ tvG,w f ul awG;rJh ajymrJo h al wGuvJ &Sad eEkid yf gw,f ?
b,fvb dk jJ zpfjzpf &efuek òf r@rSmawG ch b hJ ;l wJh ‘&om±k’H armfawmfug;abmf'v D yk if ef;avmufawmh [mo
rajrmufao;ygbl;?
tck ‘rk;d aomuf=u,f’ &,fvdk ah jymif;wm[m uAsmq&m}u;D OD;wifr;dk &J@ t=uaH y;wku d w
f eG ;f csut
f &
qkad wmhum ‘tm[m&’qkw d phJ mvH;k awGudk qef;usr;f tvkt d & ppfaq;avovm;æ´/
aA'if,=wmt&bJ apma=umavovm;æ´/ uAsmOm%foufoufe@J bJ qef;ppfavovm;æ´ /
Ekid if aH &;tjrife@J bJ wifvu dk af vovm; wckcak wmhwckcb k J vkd w
h uG rf yd gw,f ?
‘rkd;aomuf=u,f’qkdwJhtrnf[mvJ aumif;ygw,f ? usaemfwkd@i,fi,fu aq;rSifa=umifxkd;wJh
q&m}u;D awG&J t h qifoifvh yk xf m;wJh 'DZidk ;f awGxrJ mS Avaugi;f wJ ah ,musmF ;wa,mufudk pyg;=u;D a¹r=u;D u ywfxm;wH;k tJ'D vl@Av=u;D u a¹racgi;f ukd
yg;jyif;uaewGe;f xm;wJyh rkH mS ‘tEkid rf cH’ pmwrf; xnfv h u dk w f t hJ cg usaemfw@dk pdwx f rJ mS odyjf y;D ckud o f mG ;wmrsKd ;ygb?J
±dk;±dk;}uD;eJ@ pJGwwfwJhtrnfygbJ ? aemuf toJyHkrSm "g;ajrmifpkdufxm;jyD; ‘ZJG’vkd@ pmxkd;vkdufwmrsdK;awGayghav? ‘rkd;aomuf=u,f’qkdwJhtrnfukdvJ
=uKd uyf gw,f ? =uKd qydk gw,f?
ta&;t=u;D qH;k uawmh yDjyifxad &mufwhJ pm=unfw h u dk jf zpfvmatmif aqmif±u G =f uvdrrhf ,fv@dk ,Hak ewJph w d yf gbJcifAsm;?
xl;uJwhJ augif;r_uo k v dk u
f dk jyKae=uwmrkd ah ocsmaygufatmifjrif=uvdrrhf ,fvdk h rrSw d rf oHk ,H=k unfa=umif;ygcifAsm;?
0if;az

q&marmifpif=u,f

wdu k sKrd mS &Sw


d hJ pm=unhw f u
kd ef @J aygah væ tJ'pD mapmifux kd wk =f uwJh &Jabmfrsm;ESihf rdwaf qGrsm;cifAsm;æ
+y;D awmh wdu k sKrd mS a&muf&adS e=uwJh usaemfw@kd jrefrmEdik if o H m;rsm;cifAsm;æ
usaemf pma&;q&m armifpif=u,fygæ
usaemfwcgwek ;f uvnf; ajymzl;ygw,fæpm=unhw f u kd w f wdu k uf kd xlaxmifwt hJ cgrmS wuUov kd wf ckukd xlovdyk J
tvGef yifvnf;yifyef;ygw,fæ/
tvGev f nf; ta&;ygwhJ vkyif ef;}u;D wckvnf;jzpfygw,fæ/
tJ'v D kd ta&;ygwhJ vkyif ef;}u;D wckukd jzpfajrmufatmifvyk cf =hJ uwJh &Jabmf&b J ufrw d af qGawGukd usaemf trsm;}u;D bJ
av;pm;ygw,fæ/
tckuawmh usaemfwdk@u 'Dpm=unfhwdkuf‘tm[m&’uae+yD;awmh ‘rdk;aomuf=u,f’qdk+yD;awmh emrnfajymif;wJh
tcgrmS vnf; trSeaf wmh rif;om;}u;D uawmh u&dwOf ;D zd;k pdeyf gbæ J emrnfyJ ajymif;r,ho f abmbJ&ydS gw,fæ
tJawmh emrnfajymif;wJt h cgrmS usew f &hJ aJ bmfawGa&m yg0ify;l aygi;f +y;D qufvuf+y;D awmh tm;ay;axmufc+H y;D awmh 0dik ;f 0ef;yHy;kd tm;ay;uln=D ur,f
qd&k if 'Dpm=unf}u;D wck[m t+rw J rf; wnfwchH ikd +f ro
J mG ;r,fv@kd usaemftaeeJ@ ,H=k unfygw,fæ
txl;ojzifh usaemfeJ@udkwifrdk;ayghav 'DwdkusKda&mufcJhpOfwkef;u usaemfwdk@wnfaxmifay;cJhwJh pm=unfhwdkuf}uD;u tckvdk bGm;bGm;}uD;ay:vm+yD;
pmapmifudkvnf; oHk;av;ESpftwGif;rSm xkwfEdkifwJh tqifhtwef;a&mufwJhtcgrSm usaemftaeeJ@ trsm;}uD;bJ *k%fvnf; *k%f,lygw,fæ 0rf;vnf;
0rf;omygw,fæ
tJawmh txl;ojzifh tckvdk pm=unfhwdkufudk ajymif;a±$@zGifhvSpfwJhtcgrSm 'D emrnfwifrubJ ae&mxkdifcif;yg ajymif;oGm;wJhtwGuf ae&mvnf;
us,u f s,af ygah væ 'Dpmtkyaf wGvnf; axmifuae aomif;txda&mufvmawmhrt hJ wGuf usaemftaevnf; trsm;}u;D bJ 0rf;omygw,fæ
pm=unfw h u kd vf yk w f t
hJ cgrmS ae@pOfe@J tr# vlawG&@J qENukd jznfph u G v f yk w
f t hJ cgrmS tcuftcJawG/ tusyt f wnf;awG&ydS gw,fæ
wdu k sKad &mufae=uwJh 'Dpm=unfw h u kd u
f kd pmapmifukd ulnyD yhH ;kd +y;D wm0ef,v l yk af e=uwJh pmay&JabmfawGuv kd nf; wydik ;f u pm;0wfaea&;jy\emudk
wm0ef,v l yk af e&wJt h wGuf tcuftcJawGvnf; trsm;}u;D &ifqikd &f r,fqw kd m usaemftaeeJ@ trsm;}u;D ,H=k unfygw,fæ
tJawmh tcuftcJ tusyt f wnf;awG=um;xJuyJ jzpfajrmufatmifvyk w f t hJ wGuv f nf; usaemf@taeeJ@ trsm;}u;D av;pm;ygw,fæ
txl;ojzifh tJ'u D ae+y;D awmh rd;k aomuf=u,fqw kd hJ rlv tm[m&uae+y;D awmh rd;k aomuf=u,fjzpfvmw,fæ
rdk;aomuf=u,fjzpfvmwJhtcgrSm pmapmifudkvnf; rdk;aomuf=u,fqdk+yD;awmh rdk;aomuf=u,fpm=unfhwdkufu OD;pD;xkwfa0r,fjzpfwJhtwGuf usefwJh
&JabmfawG pmayrdwfaqGawGuvnf; qufvuftm;ay;+yD;awmh nDnmjzjzvkyfoGm;=ur,fqdk&if atmifjrifr_awG&r,fqdkwmudk,Hk=unfygw,fæ
pg-10
jynfya&muf jrefrmpmayynm&Si}f uD;rsm;ESihf pm-unfw h ukd n
f aD emifrsm;rS ay;yd‹k onfh o0%fvm$ rsm;
usaemfw@kd u ta0;uae tm;ay;axmufc&H wJt h wGuf usaemfw@kd rSm tcuftcJawGukd &ifrqdik &f ygb;l æ
teD;uyfvyk af qmifae=uwJh &JabmfawGrmS tcuftcJtusyt f wnf;awG trsm;}u;D &ifqikd &f ygvrd rhf ,fæ
tJawmh tJ'gawGukd wa,mufe@J wa,muf em;vnfciG v fh w$ +f y;D awmhrS vky=f ur,fq&kd if opfwyifaumif; iSuw f aomif;qdo k vdak yhgAsmæ
usaemf taeeJ@ tm[m&rSmvnf; a&;cJzh ;l ygw,fæopfyif}u;D u 0g;0g;pGiphf iG ehf @J jzpfvmwJt h cgrmS usaemfw@kd toD;t±Guaf wGa&m tzl;tyGiahf wGa&m
a0qmvmwJh b0udak &mufcyhJ gw,fæ
tJ'Duae+yD;awmh qufvuf}uD;yGm;atmif pnfyifatmif zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufatmif vkyf&r,fqdkwJh 0wW&m;awG[m ywf0ef;usifrSm&SdwJh wm0ef,lvkyfwJh
&JabmfawGe@J vnf; vHak vmufrmS r[kwyf gb;l æab;em;u yHyh ;kd uln=D uwJh olawGrmS vnf; wm0ef&ydS gw,fæ
txl;ojzifh pm=unhw f ukd uf kd tm[m&uae rd;k aomuf=u,fajymif;wmvnf; apmapmuajymcJo h vdyk gyæ J
'Dval wGbv J yk af e=uw,fæ 'Dval wGbjJ zpfwt hJ wGuf jy\emr&Syd gb;l æusaemft h aeeJ@ ta0;uae+y;D awmh emrnfajymif;wmudv k nf; axmufcyH g w,fæ
tJ'u
D ae+y;D awmh rd;k aomuf=u,fpmapmiftjzpf xkwrf mS udv k nf; usaemf@taeeJ@ tvGeb f J *k%, f yl gw,fæ tm;ay;ygw,fæ
wduk sKdrmS &S=d uwJh jrefrmrsm;cifAsm;æ
usaemft h aeeJ@ ta0;uaetm;ay;&wJt h wGuf teD;uyf+y;D awmh cifAsm;wd@k &ifciG x f rJ mS aygufzmG ;vmwJh pm=unfw h u
kd w
f ck cifAsm;wd@k &ifciG x
f rJ mS
aygufzmG ;vmr,hf pmapmifwckukd cifAsm;wd@k u xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smuf+y;D awmh oGm;r,fq&kd if usaemfw@dk taeeJ@ jrefrmEdik if u H kd jyefv@kd r&wJu
h mvrSm
tm;vH;k 0dik ;f 0ef; nDn! D w$ ! f w$ v f yk f apcsifwqhJ EN usaemfrh mS &Syd gw,fæ txl;ajymp&mr&Syd gb;l æ 'Davmufe@J bJ ed*;kH csKyyf gw,fæ

OD;apmvl
(ajrmuftv
D ED KGd uw
f uUov
kd f pm=unfw
h u
kd w
f m0efc)H

rd;k aomuf=u,fo@kd
pm=unhw f u
kd &f @J t&ifemrnfu ‘tm[m&’wJæ h ? tckawmh ‘rd;k aomuf=u,f’wJæ h ?
tm[m&qdw k mu cGet f m;Av wd;k yGm;r,fh teufaqmifv@kd aumif;æ?
rd;k aomuf=u,fqw kd mu ‘tvif;edrw d ’f rd@k aumif;æ? taumif;awGcsn;f æ?
bmemrnfay;ay; óuufwmay;æ? ta&;}u;D wmu pm=unfw h u kd zf @GH òz;&Sio f efaezd@k æ?
tJ'v
D dk &Sio
f efaezd@k u pm=unfw h u
kd wf m0ef,o l el @J toH;k ðyol ud,
k phf m=unfw h ukd uf ,kd f ±dak ozd@k ?
pnf;eJ@ urf;eJ@ pepfe@J xde;f odr;f wwfz@kd ?
rd;k aomuf=u,f ±$e;f vuf =um&Snf tvif;qufEikd yf gapæ

apmvl
2004 Edk0ifbm 12
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

tm;rmef
(rd;k aomuf=u,frsm;od@k )

wufusK;d &if
rd;k aomuf=u,f vufx;kd vd@k
qufw;kd +y;D avSmcf wfr,f?
rd;k aomuf=u,f
òz;armufapom; rkew
f idk ;f ukef
ajrjcm;rSm ac|qak wmif;w,f avoken f if;rSm
aomif;xdu k u
f =um;? ? obm0uG,?f

rmrmat; pdwrf ysuf tm;ri,f


acwW tar&duefjynfaxmifpk wd@k a&S0› ,freS ;f ?
1366 ck wefaqmifrek ;f vqef; 1 &uf
11/ 12/ 2004(aom=umae@) wuftpHk
±Guu f ek zf iG v
hf @kd &,f
a&So
› @kd omvSr;f ? ?

OD;odr;f (ud&k ;D ,m;)


Pg-11
jynfya&muf jrefrmpmayynm&Si}f uD;rsm;ESihf pm-unfw
h u
kd n
f aD emifrsm;rS ay;yd‹k onfh o0%fvm$ rsm;

rd;k aomuf=u,fo@kd rd;k aomuf=u,fokd h


(udo
k uf)
r[l&m tarSmifu odr;f ydu k x
f m;
tarSmifxkudk ol+zdKcGif; tyfzsm;wae&mrusef
avmuwGi;f 0,f tvif;aqmifz@kd trdEdkifiHay: rSmæ
wdraf wmifrmS pdeaf &mifawmufonfEh , S f
rd;k aomufv,fu =u,fwyGihf tarSmifx[ k m
zl;yGichf +hJ yD ³³³? igw@kd &J@&efoyl aJ [hæ
toifr;kd aomuf=u,f
aerif; vrif;eJ@ oifrh suvf ;kH awGe@J =um;w,faemfæ
*k%t f vif;+yKd izf @kd rvdv
k m; tarSmifxak tmufu ±du _ o
f aH wGav
ol@tm; ol@tifeJ@ odw,faemf
jynfcGif&Gm omapa=umif;ayrdk@ aoG;pGe;f yef;yGiahf wG&J &h KdS uof H
vmjcif;awGvJ aumif;cJw h ,f ³³³? oifeh m;eJ@ awG@w,faemf
tvif;rGwo f yd o
f al wG&J h
vlom;rsKd ;EG,af wG v_u d vf wJS hJ [pfaºu;oH
todtjrif ºu,fapzd@k oifEh v S ;kH om;eJ@=um;&J@aemfæ
ol@wd@k ajr edyeG &f yfuvkd rkew
f ikd ;f xGuo f mG ; p
arG;&yfajr ud, k jhf ynfrwS yf gv@kd a=urGomG ;wJ&h yk yf rkH sKd ;
jrifjh rwfpmG wnfaxmif&pfavwJh ppfajrjyifjzpfcw hJ hJ òr@ysuyf gyJ
armfueG ;f opfe@J rd;k aomuf=u,f pdw"f gwaf wGeJ ±h yk 0f wˆKˆ awGvJ
urBmt h v,f olxif&mS ;ayvdrhf ³³³? vGiphf ifjyef@usæ J
wcsK› d vlpifppfu
pm=unfw h u kd q
f w
kd m tarSmifx&k yk ºf uif;jzpfomG ;æ
t&dik ;f trdu k w
f @kd t&mr[kwf tarSmifxkatmufrSm
ynm todOm%feJ@ ayguaf &mufaewJh
tjrifreS f ynm&Sjd zpfapa=umif; t±kyq
f ;kd tusn;f wef tedXm±Hk tyifawGavæ
tm;opfavmif;wJXh me
jrifjh rwfvw S ,f ³³³? rd;k aomuf=u,fæ toifu
tm±H&k J ah &Sa› wmfajy;
pm=unfw h u
kd rf sm;pGmu tm±Hu k q kd aJG c:,l
ynm&Siaf wG arG;zGm; tm±H&k J t
h rSwtf om; rd;k aomuf=u,faygh
,krH mS ;p&m r&Sd ³³³? tm±Hu k ókd uvifh
ar#mfvifhaeolawG/ igwdk@awGayghæ
wdik ;f usKd ; jynfusKd ;udk aqmif
rd;k aomuf=u,fyiG hf
vl@abmifukd wnfaqmuf
oif&h @J tvif;[m
xGe;f awmufwhJ rd;k aomuf=u,fa&
jrwfaom vSaom tvif;
wd@k e,f wd@k ajr&yfrmS vJ
vlxt k wGutf vif;
a'gi;f zwfpm wGeo f v H r$ ;f atmif
jird ;f at;oif;=unfwt hJ vif;ygæ
pGr;f aqmifvu kd yf g ³³³?
oif±h ek ;f uef }uKd ;yrf;
atmifoajy anmifa&awGavmif; tJ'D vrf;twdik ;f vdu k yf grh ,fæ
edrw
d af umif;awGe@J qkawmif;vduk w
f ,f oifth vif;vufeJ h
rd;k aomuf=u,fa& ³³³? tarSmifuq kd zJG suf &kyo f rd ;f ygæ
tvif;vuf=umrHk
(pm=unfwu
kd zf iG yhf JG o0%fvm$ uAsm) tm±Hk wHcg;udw k eG ;f zGihf
igw@kd vdu k zf @kd toifh
a&Sw
› qifh vSr;f wufpkd u h ,G æ f ?

armifp;kd csdef
ed0k ifbmv 9 &uf / 2004
pg-12
jynfya&muf jrefrmpmayynm&Si}f uD;rsm;ESihf pm-unfw
h u
kd n
f aD emifrsm;rS ay;yd‹k onfh o0%fvm$ rsm;
t&Si facrmpm&
(&[ef;ysKdrsm; or*~rsm;OuUX)

tar&duefEikd if rH mS a&mufaewke;f *syefEikd if /H tm[m&pm=unfwh ukd rf S vli,frsm;u jrefrm*sme,ftwGuf aqmif;yg;awmif;awmh 2003 ckEpS rf mS wyk'af &;
ay;cJhw,f?
pma&;&wm[m 0goemADZt& jzpfwmrd@k rjiif;cJyh gb;l ?
ckvnf;yJ tm[m&pmuae+y;D rd;k aomuf=u,fv@kd ajymif;vdu k wf ,fv@kd od&w,f?
xif&mS ;wJh uAsmpmayynm&Sif wifr;kd u ‘erdw’f eJ@ ajymif;w,fv@kd od&awmh 0rf;omw,f?
i,fi,fuyif pmayudk cHrk ifcw hJ ,fr[kwv f m;?
‘pmayjrifrh S vlrsKd;jrifw
h ,f’qdwk m i,fi,fuyif em;vnfc&hJ awmh rdrw d @kd vlrsKd;wawG b,favmuftxd todw&m;jrifrh m;w,fqwkd m pmayaywHe@J
wdik ;f wm&wmqdak wmh pmayzwf=uygæ?
A[kopPr*Fvm&Sad tmif vky=f uygæ?
rd;k aomuf=u,frmS &SmazG=uygvd@k wdu k w f eG ;f csifw,fæ?

t&Siaf crmpm&
acwW tar&duEdkifiH
20 &uf Edk0ifbm

a±$o*F[m-jrefrmtoif;pm=unhw f u kd .f nDaemifjzpfonfh ‘tm[m&pm=unhw f ukd ’f udk ‘rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unfw h ukd ’f tjzpf trnfajymif;vJvu kd af omf
vnf; usaemfw@kd . vufcsi;f qufwGJ v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;rSm ajymif;vJomG ;rnfr[kwb f J cdik +f rpJ mG wnf&adS ernf jzpfygonf?
*syefEiS hf ud&k ;D ,m;&Sd jrefrmrsm;. pm=unfw h u kd wf nfaxmifjcif;/ pmtkypf mayxkwaf 0jcif;/ pmaya[majymyJu G si;f yjcif;ponfh pmayv_y&f mS ;r_rsm;rSm Edik if w
H
uma&muf jrefrmtodik ;f t0dik ;f rS axmyempum; ajym=um;cH&vsuf &Sad eygonf?
TtpOftvmudk aemifumv&Snt f xd qufvuf&iS o f efaeatmif xde;f odr;f oGm;=u&efvnf; &nf±, G cf su&f odS nft h avsmuf rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unhw f u kd f
tzJ@G om;rsm;ESihf *syefa&muf jrefrmrsm; qxufxrf;yd;k óu;pm;oGm;Edik rf nf[k ,H=k unfaeygonf?
tcuftcJ jy\emrsm; rnfr#yif&adS eygap atmifjrifpmG ausmv f m$ ;Edik &f ef a±$o*F[m-jrefrmtoif;pm=unfw h u kd t
f aeESiv hf nf; vufwv
GJ yk af qmifomG ;rnf
jzpfa=umif; xyfavmif;ajym=um;vdyk gonf?
rdk;aomuf=u,fpm=unhfwdkufonf trnftopfjzpfaomfvnf; vkyfief;t&Sdeft[kef&Sd+yD;om;jzpfovdk EdkifiHwuma&muf jrefrmpm=unhfwdkufrsm;teuf
0g&ifph m=unfw h u kd wf ckjzpfI pm=unfw h u kd v f yk if ef;rsm;udk wd;k jri‡ vhf yk af qmifomG ;Edik v
f rd rhf nf[k ,H=k unfygonf?
pmaytodynm wdk;yGm;apa&;wGif pm=unfhwdkufrsm;. tcef;u¾ta&;}uD;onfudk rdk;aomuf=u,fpm=unfhwdkufu vufawG@oufaojycJh+yD;jzpfI
Tvkyif ef;vkyaf qmifrr_ sm;onf jrefrmhordik ;f wGif xm0&wnf&adS evdrrfh nf jzpfygonf?
rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unfw h ukd o f nf pmayudo k mru jrefrmh'rD u kd a&pDta&; todynmjzef@jzL;a&;twGuyf g ta&;ygaomtcef;u¾rS yg0ifvyk af qmif
aeonfjzpfI *syefa&muf pmaycspfjrwfE;kd olw@kd . rd;k aomuf=u,fonf tem*wfjrefrmEkid if w H nfaqmufa&;. wefz;kd &Sad om =u,fyiG rhf sm;tjzpf xm0pOf
wnf&adS ernfjzpfygonf?
rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unfw h u kd tf zJ@G om;rsm; qxufxrf;yd;k wd;k wufatmifjrifEikd yf gap-

pdik ;f armufac;crf;
pmayESihf ,Ofaus;r_a&;&mrSL;
2004 Edk0ifbm 13
Pg-13
jynfya&muf jrefrmpmayynm&Si}f uD;rsm;ESihf pm-unfw
h u
kd n
f aD emifrsm;rS ay;yd‹k onfh o0%fvm$ rsm;
em*d,
k mòrd@/ okw o[m,pm=unfw
h u
kd r
f S ay;yd@k aom o0%fvm$
*syefEikd if /H wdu
k sKòd r@rS pmay0goem&Siv f il ,frsm; pkaygi;f I wnfaxmifxm;cJah om ‘tm[m&’pm=unfhwdkufudk ‘rd;k aomuf=u,f’pm=unhfwdkuftjzpf u
Asmq&m}u;D wifr;kd . vrf;!$et f =uaH y;csut f & topfarG;zGm;vdu k o f nfukd em*d, k mòr@/ okw o[m,pm=unfw h ukd rf S vSKd uvf 0SJ rf;ajrmufpmG óuqdvk u
kd yf gonf?
rd;k aumif;uif}u;D wGif =u,fyiG ahf v;wyGihf xGe;f awmufvmouJo h @kd ‘rk;d aomuf=u,f’[laom pm=unfw h udk Ef iS hf pmapmifonfvnf; pmayiwfrw G f aeaom
Edik if o
H m;rsm;twGuf tm;wufp&mwckjzpfygonf?
trSew f u,fawmh pm=unfw h u
kd wf ckarG;zGm;ap&eftwGu‚ f / xdpk m=unfw h ukd f a&&Sn&f yfwnfEikd zf @kd twGu‚ f vG,u f al omudpw P ck r[kwaf y? apwem/
0goem/ tepfemcH+y;D vkyaf qmifEikd o f rl sm;&Sad eIom pm=unfw h ukd rf sm; ay:aygufvm&jcif; jzpfayonf?
a&S;acwfordkif;umvuyif pm=unfhwdkufrsm;udk wnfaxmifcJh=uonf? bDpD 550 cef@u *&dbk&if ‘ydqpf q&mwyf’rS pwifwnfaxmifcJhonf?
jrefrmEdik if w H iG f yxrOD;qH;k aom jynfo@l pm=unfw h u kd u
f kd 1883 ckEpS f azaz:0g&v D 21 &ufwiG f 0ef&iS af wmfrif;}u;D qmcsmvf(pf)tuf'yG f bm;e'fu pwif
wnfaxmifcJh+yD;/ ‘bm;e'f’tcrJhpm=unfhwdkuftjzpf xif&Sm;cJhygonf?
acwftqufqufwiG f pm=unfw h u kd rf sm; wdraf umroGm;yJ pmtkypf mayrsm;udk odak vSmiford ;f qnf;um trsm;jynforl sm;twGuf 0efaqmifay;ae=uyg
onf? ,ckacwfwiG f tdik w f eD nf;ynm&yfrsm; wd;k wufra_ =umifh pmaytEkynmrsm;udk ,cifuo hJ @kd pmtkyyf pkH rH sK;d omru CD-Room Online E Library
System ponfjzifh wpwp odkrSD;vm=uonf?
u|Eykf w f @kd . tem*wfpm=unfw h u kd rf sm;onfvnf; Edik if w H umtqifrh pSD m=unfw h u
kd rf sm;jzpfz@kd &efEiS hf jrefrmEdik if o H m;rsm;twGuf tvif;a&mifay;Edik af om
pm=unfw h u kd af umif;rsm; jzpfz@kd &ef vdt k yfvaS yonf?
wu,fawmh okw o[m,pm=unfhwdkufonf wdkusKdrS pmaynDtudkrsm;u arG;zGm;ay;vdkuf=ujcif;jzpfayonf?
,ckvnf; qufvufI okw o[m,pm=unfw h ukd &f yfwnfEikd af &;twGuf tzufzufrS ulnaD y;yg&efEiS hf ‘rd;k aomuf=u,f’xGe;f awmufygap[k qkawmif;
o0%fv$myg;vdkufygonf?

pmayopPmjzifh-
okw o[m,pm=unfwh u
kd f

r*Fvmygæ
rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unfw h ukd ef @J rd;k aomuf=u,fpmapmifukd 0rf;ajrmufpmG óuqdv k ukd yf gw,f?
tm[m&pm=unhw f u
kd tf jzpf Edik if w
H uma&muf jrefrmtodik ;f t0dik ;f rSm atmifatmifjrifjrif&yfwnfae&mu tckvt kd rnfajymif;vdu k +f y;D aemufrmS vnf;
t&Sed rf ysuf qufvuf+y;D wd;k wufatmifjrifpmG av#mufvrS ;f Edik v f rd rhf ,fv@kd ,H=k unfygw,f?
wdik ;f wyg;rSm raocsmra&&m&yfwnf&if; pm=unhw f u dk w f ckukd wnfaxmifapmifah &Smuf&wm[m vG,u f wl thJ vkyf r[kwyf gbl;? tcuftcJawG=um;
u óu;pm;+y;D &yfwnfae=uwJh rd;k aomuf=u,fwm0ef&o dS rl sm;&J@ pmaycspfjrwfE;kd wJph w d "f gwfe@J todynmjzef@a0ay;vdw k hJ apwemudk av;pm;wefz;kd xm;
tyfygw,f?
r=umcifrmS rd;k aomuf=u,fpmapmifukd xkwaf 0r,fqw kd m od&wJt h wGuf yd+k y;D 0rf;om&jyefygw,f?
jrefrmawGtrsm;pka&muf&adS ewJh Edik if aH wG/ txl;ojzifh tvkyt f udik o f ifw
h if+h y;D 0ifaiGaumif;wJEh ikd if aH wGrmS jrefrmpme,fZif;awG rsm;rsm;xkwaf 0Edik zf @kd
usaemfw@kd trsm;}u;D ar#mv f ifyh gw,f?
'Dru kd a&pDta&;rSmyJjzpfjzpf awmfveS af &;rSmyJjzpfjzpf pme,fZif;awG&@J tcef;u¾[m tvGet f a&;ygw,fv@kd usaemfw@kd cH,yl gw,f?
EdkifiHwuma&muf jrefrmawG=um;rSm a'otvdkufjzef@csdwJh pme,fZif;awG rsm;rsm;xGufay:vm&muae EdkifiHtm;vHk;udk jzef@usuf EdkifwJh
pme,fZif;awGjzpfvmatmif óu;pm;=uzd@k usaemfw@kd rSm wm0ef&ydS gw,f?
a'otvdkuf owif;XmeawG tm;vHk;aygif;pnf;yg0ifEdkifr,fh jrefrmowif;uGef,ufawG xlaxmifEdkifzdk@eJ@/ a'otvdkufpme,fZif;awG tm;vHk;aygif;
pnf;yg0ifEikd rf ,hf jrefrmpme,fZif;uGe, f ufawG xlaxmifEikd zf @kd usaemfw@kd rSm vdt k yfaeyg+y?D
'DueG , f ufawG[m usaemfw@kd &J@ todtjrifawGukd zvS,af y; Edik rf mS jzpf+y;D tem*wftwGuf &v'faumif;awG ay;Edik rf ,fv@kd ,H=k unfygw,f?
'DueG , f ufawGxrJ mS rd;k aomuf=u,fpmapmif[m tiftm;aumif;pGm xGe;f vif;awmufyEdik v f rd rhf ,fv@kd ar#mvf ifyh gw,f?
usaemfw@kd &J@ axmifpjk ywif;eJ@ rd;k aomuf=u,f[m t&if;ED;S qH;k pme,fZif;nDtudak rmifErS awGtjzpf &yfwnfomG ;=uzd@k v_u d v
f pS mG qENðytyfygw,f?
rd;k aomuf=u,f txGe;f vif;qH;k awmufyEdik yf gapæ

0if;ay:armif
2004 Edk0ifbm 13
pg-14
aqmif;yg;

y&[dwu|e;f odŒk
yg&*l(ra[oDr*~Zif;rS)
wdik ;f jynfEikd if H wd;k wuf}u;D yGm;a&;t
wGuf Edik if aH wmf.óu;yrf;csufukd Edik if o H l
jrefrmEdik if YH vlO;D a&ESihf pm=unfwu kd t f a&twGuo f nf csed cf iG n f m‡ wzufapmif;eif;jzpfae
Edik if o H m;rsm;taeESiv hf nf; 0dik ;f 0ef;ulnD
aqmif±u G zf @kd vdt k yfonf? rdrw d OD;wnf; onf? vlO;D a&ESihf pm=unfw h u kd t f a&twGurf mS qifyh g;pyf ESr;f yufavmufom &Sad eonf?
. tusK;d twGuo f mrubJ trsm;tusK;d
twGuf jynfoljynfom;rsm;. tusKd;twGuf/ a&muf&Sdrvmay? aqmif;vmcJah om &Sm;yg;pmtkyrf sm;tygt0if pm
Edik if . H tusKd;twGu/f ðyvkyaf qmif±u G v f kd pdwf &Sd [oFmwESihf =ucH if;rD;&xm;vrf;wGif xl;}u;D t tkyfrsm;onf ta[mif;aps;a&mufvdka&muf/ y
vmzd@k &efrmS todynm&Szd @kd vdt k yfonf? todynm rnfEiS hf ±Gmw±Gm&So d nf? xl;}u;D Yvnf; 'kw, d urBm vufazmif;ay:a&mufvakd &muf/ yd\mcsed jf zifh 0,f
&Szd @kd twGu/f zd;k oknrjzpfz@kd twGu/f pmzwfz@kd ta&; ppfrjzpfcifu pm=unfhwdkuf&SdcJhzl;onf? odk@aomf ola&mif;olrsm;. *keef t D w d }f u;D xJ a&mufvakd &muf
}u;D onf? pmzwfz@kd twGuf t"duvdt k yfcsufrmS vnf; xl;}uD;pm=unhfwdkufvnf; 'kwd,urBmppf ESihf tcsed u f mvr=umrDtawmtwGi;f rSmyif =uuf
pm=unhw f ukd jf zpfonf? xd@k a=umihf wd;k wuf+y;D / wd;k rkefwdkif;'%fudkrcHEdkifaoma=umifh vGifhpOfoGm;cJh& aysmuf iSufaysmuf aysmufoGm;=uonf? ,if;
wufqJurBmhEdkifiHrsm;Y pm=unfh wdkufwnf onf? od@k &mwGif xl;}u;D pm=unfw h u kd o f nf urBm tjzpfrsK;d jzpf&onfrmS uG,v f eG o f l pma&;q&m pm
aqmufa&;udk txl;tav;xm;+y;D ðyvkyaf qmif ppft+yD;aemufydkif; ESpftwef=umvmaomtcg ayynm&Si}f u;D rsm;twGuv f nf;aumif;/ jrefrmpm
±Guaf e=uonf? uke;f ±ke;f x+y;D ,cifpm=unfw h u kd t f a[mif;ae&mY ayavmutwGuv f nf;aumif;/ pdwrf csr;f ajrp› &m
jrefrmEdik if YH vnf; udv k ekd t D pd;k & vufxufup topfjyefvnfay:aygufvmonf? ,cifu&SdcJh jzpfonf? rdrdxHwGifvnf; tESpfESpftvvu pk
+yD; bm;eufydÉuwfwdkufpaom pm=unhfwdkufydÉ aompm=unhw f ukd rf sm;xJu wcsK› rd mS ppfrek w f ikd ;f ESihf aqmif;vmcJah om &Sm;yg;pmtkyt f ygt0if pmtkyf
uwfwu kd rf sm; ay:ayguv f m=uonf? od@k &m wGif vGiyhf g;oGm;=u+y;D wzef ae&m&if;jyefa&mufrvm ta&twGuf txdkuftavsmuf &Sdaeonf?
wcsK› pd m=unfw h ukd rf sm; a&&Snw f nfwEhH ikd jf cif; r&S=d u aom pm=unhfwdkufrsm;vnf;&Sdonf? ppfrkefwdkif; rdrpd mtkyrf sm;. aemifa&;bmrSrod&bJ rsuEf mS
bJ wdrðf ryfaysmufu, G o f mG ;=uonf? ,if;pm=unfh '%f tvl;tvSdrfhcH&aomfvnf; ppf+yD;aomtcg v$o J mG ;&ygaomf aemifawmfah emifawmf pma&;q
wdu k f ydÉuwfrsm;xJu ESpaf ygi;f =umjrifph mG wdrðf ryf uke;f ±ke;f xvmaom pm=unhw f u kd rf sm;vnf;&So d nf &m}u;D rsm;/ pmayynm&Si}f u;D rsm;vdk jzpfroGm;ap&ef
aysmufu, G o f mG ;jcif;r&Sb d J ,cktcsed x f d wnfwahH e ðcH+yD;ajym&v#ifrl jrefrmEdkifiHY vlOD;a&ESifh pm twGuf ,ck rdrdpwifwnfaqmufaeaom pm
aompm=unfhwdkufrsm;rSm vufcsKd; a&wGufI& =unfwdkufta&twGufonf csdefcGifn‡m wzuf =unfw h u kd . f tajctaeta=umif;&if;wckjzpfonf
avmufatmifyif ta&twGufenf;yg;vSonf? apmif;eif;jzpfaeonf? vlO;D a&ESihf pm=unfw h u kd f t rdr. d pm=unhw f u kd u f kd jrefrmEdik if YH wwd,pm
,if;wd@k teuf xif&mS ;aompm=unfh wdu k rf sm;rSm a&twGurf mS qifyh g;pyf ESr;f yufavmufom &Sad e =unhw f u kd }f u;D jzpfvmap&ef &nfreS ;f xm;onf? jref
tpdk;&pm=unfhwdkufrsm;xJu wuUodkvfpm=unfh onf? xd@k a=umifh Edik if aH wmfuvnf; wdik ;f jynftES@H rmEdkifiHY pm=unhfwdkuf}uD;oHk;wdkuf&Sdonf? yxr
wdu k /f trsK;d om;pm=unhw f u kd /f pmayAdrmefpm=unhf pm=unhfwdkufrsm; xGef;um;vma&;udk OD;pm;ay; pm=unhw f ukd rf mS wuUov kd pf m=unhw f u kd jf zpf+y;D 'kwd
wdu k /f jyef=um;a&;ESihf jynfo@l qufqaH &;XmerS zGihf aqmif±u G &f rnfh wm0efw&yftjzpf owfrw S x f m; ,pm=unfhwdkufrSm trsKd;om;pm=unfhwdkufjzpf
vSpx f m;aom pm=unfw h u kd f rsm;jzpfonf? a=umif; od&Sd&onf? onf? wwd,pm=unhw f u kd u f m; &mru&d&% S pm
yk*v ~ u d pm=unfw h u kd rf sm;xJu wdrðf ryfaysmuf ,if;tajctaeY rdrv d nf; wEdik w f ydik f pm=unhf =unhfwdkufjzpfonf? ,if;pm=unfh wdkuf}uD;oHk;
uG,foGm;jcif;r&SdbJ oufwrf;&Snfae=uaom pm wdu k w f wdu k f wnfaxmifvo kd nfh tmomqEN&cdS hJ wdkufxJu wuUodkvfpm=unfhwdkufESifh trsKd;om;
=unhw f u kd rf sm;rSm jynfòr@ a±$bek ;f yGiphf m=unhw f ukd /f onfrmS ESpaf ygi;f tawmf=umumvuyifjzpfonf? pm=unhfwdkufonf &Sifoef}uD;xGm;aeqJjzpfaomf
rHka±G;pm=unfhwdkuf ponfwdk@jzpf=uonf? wcs›Kdpm rdro d nf wcsK› ad om±Gmrsm;Y rdru d , kd w f ikd f OD;aqmifðy vnf; &mru&d&S% pm=unfhwdkufurl Zd0defcsKyfvk
=unfw h u kd rf sm;rSm 'kw, d urBmppf jzpfymG ;vmaom vkyfI‚/ udk,fxludk,fxtodjzifh t&yfpm=unhf eD;tajctaeod@k yif a&muf&adS e+y?D &mru&d&% S pm
tcg &yfqikd ;f oGm;=uonf? ,if;pm=unhw f u kd rf sm;xJ wdu k u f av;rsm; wnfaxmif=uonfukd tm;ay;ul =unhfwdkufonf jrefrmEdkifiHY&Sdaom pm=unhfwdkuf
u tpd;k &pm=unfw h u kd rf sm;tygt0if wcsK› pd m=unhf nDjcif;tm;jzih‚ f / pm=unhw f u kd rf sm; zG@H òz;ay:ayguf rsm;xJwiG f ‘tif'v kd *kd s’D tdE, Nd ESiyhf wfowfaom pm
wdkufrsm;rSm 'kwd,urBmppfaemufydkif; tcsdefw vma&;twGuf wuftm;or# tm;ay;ulncD o hJ nf tkyt f rsm;qH;k &So d nfh pm=unhw f u kd jf zpfonf? jrefrm/
csed Yf jyefvnfziG v hf pS Ef ikd cf =hJ uonf? ,ck rdrw d nfaxmifziG v hf pS zf @kd &nfreS ;f aom pm [dE/ND qef;qu&pf/ ygÏ/d t*Fvyd b f momrsK;d pHk pmtkyf
tcsK› pd m=unhw f u kd rf sm;url ae&mvnf;aysmuf/ =unfw h ukd rf mS omrmeft&yfpm=unhw f u kd rf sK;d r[kwf rsm;xm;aom pm =unhw f u kd jf zpfonf? ,ck rdr. d
pmtkyfrsm;vnf; b,fqDb,f0,f a&mufoGm;=u bJ tqifhjrifhpm=unhfwdkuf}uD;jzpfonf? aqmufvkyfqJpm=unhfwdkufudk &mru&d&S%pm
onfrodawmhbJ jyefvnfzGifhvSpfEdkifonfhtajct tESpfESpftvvu rdrd.pdwful;xJwGif oaE< =unhfwdkuftpm; vkyfrnf[k&nf±G,fxm;aom
aeod@k a&muf&rdS vmawmhay? ,if;pm=unfw h u kd f wnfvmcJhaom pm=unhfwdkuftdyfrufudk ,ck p a=umifh rdrpd m=unhw f u kd w f iG v f nf; jrefrm/ [dE/ND ygÏ/d
rsm;xJu [oFmwòr@ OD;atmifjrwfausmf pm=unhyf d wiftaumiftxnfazmfae+y?D rdrad &Su › uG,v f eG f qef;qu&pf/ t*Fvyd b f momjzif&h adS om pmtkyrf sm;
Éuwfwdkufonf 'kwd,urBmppftwGif; &yfqdkif; oGm;=uaom wcsK› pd ma&;q&m}u;D rsm;/ pmayynm udk pHEk ikd o f r# pHak tmifxm;zd@k &nf±, G x f m;onf?
oGm;&aom pm=unfhwdkufjzpfonf? OD;atmifjrwf &Si}f u;D rsm;. erlemrsm;uvnf; rdrad &Sa› rSmufwiG f rdr. d pm=unhw f u kd u f kd ‘yg¶*l&eS w f ed ad uwef’ [k
ausmf pm=unfyh Éd uwfwu kd o f nf ppfumvtwGi;f &Sad eonf? wcsK› pd ma&;q&m}u;D rsm;/ pmayynm&Sd trnfay;xm;onf? tdE, Nd Edik if H &Sew f ed ad uwef
&yfqikd ;f oGm;cJ&h aomvnf; use&f adS eo;onf? od@k }u;D rsm; uG,v f eG o f mG ;aomtcg pmaytarGcx H u kd f wuUov dk f wnfaqmufxm;aom uAsmq&m}u;D
aomfvnf; jyefvnfzGifhvSpfEdkifonfhtajctae ol ruse&f pfcahJ oma=umifh tESpEf pS t f vvu olpk &mbifj'mewfw*d;k udk *k%ðf yvdo k nft h wGuaf =umifh
Pg-15
aqmif;yg; uAsm uAsm
‚/ &Sew f .d t"dym` ,frmS AdrmefjzpfI teuft"d rd;k aomuf-u,fpm-unhw
f u
kd w
f iG f 0,f,El ikd af ompmtkyrf sm;ESihf rSww
f rf;rSw&f mrsm;
y`m,fukd ESpòf cufoabmusaoma=umif‚ h ,if;
trnfudk a±G;cs,fjcif;jzpfonf?
1? ‘OD;ae0if;.jymwqky’f (a=u;rHk;OD;aomif;) 1800 ,ef;
ajrmufOuUvmòr@e,f/ a±$ayguu f òH r@opf 16 &yf
uGu/f OD;yknvrf;wGif ajr 2 uGu0f ,f,I l pm=unhf 2? a':atmifqef;pk=unf vufa±G;pOfred @f cGe;f rsm; 1000 ,ef;
wdu k .f tajccHvyk if ef;rsm;tjzpf 0if;jcu H mjcif;/ ajr
zd@k jcif;/ a&wGi;f wl;jcif;/ opfom;tdrw f tdrf aqmuf 3? a=umuf±@HG jcif;rSuif;vGwaf &; (a'gufwmatmifcif) 1000 ,ef;
vkyjf cif;/ ajrmif;azmufjcif;paom tvkyrf sm;udk ðy
4? vl&iS o
f csKid ;f rsm;ta=umif; (aevif; tuo) 1000 ,ef;
vkyv f mcJ&h m +y;D oGm;+y;D ,if;tajccHvyk if ef;rsm;t
wGurf l pma&;I&aom rdrad c|;ESJ pm pmrlcaiGrsm;udk 5? jrefrmjynfcspu
f &ifacgi;f aqmifrsm; (armifpif=u,f) 1000 ,ef;
toHk;ðy+yD; aqmufvkyf&jcif;jzpfonf? tajccHvkyf
p&mtvkyfrsm;udk t+yD;owf+yD;aomtcg pmtkyf 6? ocifEikd if aH wmf (wifarmifoef;) 1000 ,ef;
rsm;xm;zd@k twGuf t"dutaqmufttHk aqmuf
7?jrefrmEdik if rH x
S ikd ;f Edik if o
H @kd vkyt
f m;ajymif;a±$@r_ (NDD) 1000 ,ef;
vkyfzdk@vdkvmonf? ,if;taqmufttHk aqmuf
vkyzf @kd twGurf l rdrw d OD;wnf;. tpGr;f tpjzifh rcsD 8? &ifcwfyef; (jrefrmtoif;/ ud&k ;D ,m;) 1000 ,ef;
Edik f ro,fEikd f tajctaersK;d a&mufaeonf? apw
emxufoefaom tzJG@tpnf;jzpfap/ yk*~dKvfwOD; 9? tm%m&Sio
f @kd ay;pmrsm;(tydik ;f 1š2) 2000 ,ef;
csi;f xHrjS zpfap tulnrD &&Sb d J rdr.
d tdyrf uf&eS w f ed d
10? ndK;EGr;f =u,f(rSww
f rf;"gwyf )kH ,mrmrdkwdk 1850 ,ef;
auwef xajrmufatmifjrifa&;onf t&Sed t f [kef
aES;auG;+y;D aESmifah ES;=uef@=umaernfrmS trSejf zpf 11? ordik ;f opfcyG af 'gi;f (oDcsi;f acG) tZ…Ke 1000 ,ef;
onf?
trsm;ESifhywfoufaom vkyfief;wckckaqmif 12? 2003 ckEpS f pmqdak wmfae@AD',
D akd cG apmodef;(MTK) 1000 ,ef;
±Guf&mY ,if;vkyfief; t"Gef@&Snfa&;twGuf ydk+yD;
13? wkww
f jywf/ "g;wjyufum;wGerf sm; (0vHk;-rzrf;rcsif;wdkusKd) 500 ,ef;
ta&;}u;D onf? yJ+G y;D rD;aojzpfomG ;rnfqv kd #iu
f m;
,if;vkyfief;rsm;udk tprðyonfu ydkaumif;OD; 14? cGyaf 'gi;f tvHac:vmod@k (wifrdk;) 500 ,ef;
rnf? rdr. d yg&*l&eS w
f ed ad uwef a&&Snw f nfwahH &;
twGufvnf; tm;udk;tm;xm;ðy avmufaom
yk*Kd~ vrf sm;yg0ifonfh yg&*l-&Sew f ed d auwefaumf
rwDw&yfuv kd nf; wnfaxmifz@GJ pnf;+y;D +y?D
qufvufxw
k af 0rnfph mtkyrf sm;
rdr.d tiftm;udk y%r rxm;bJ trsm;.ap armifpGrf;&nf. armf'ef.rm,m
wemudk ,H=k unfu;kd pm;vsuf jynfo h @l tusK;d aqmif
y&[dwu|ef;odk@ a&muf&Sda&;twGuf b0yif armifykn(=opa=w;vs) csuf}uD;vdkvlpm;ESihftjcm;0wˆKwdkrsm;
v,fxw J iG f vufypfu;l ae+y;D vufyu kd f =unhf
udkoifhjrwf zd;k wkwšf jrav; Zwfvrf;wJrG sm;
raeygEiS hf arcvmæ

tm[m&pm-unhw
f u
kd rf S pmtkyif mS ;xm;olrsm;ESihf ysK;d yifpu
kd yf sK;d vdo
k rl sm;od‹k

tm[m&pm=unhw f udk o
f nf ,cifziG vhf pS cf ahJ om Itabashi(Voice of Burma)ae&mrS Takadanobabaod@k 11 vydik ;f rSpI ajymif;a±$@zGiv hf pS f
vdu k +f y;D pm=unhw f u kd tf rnfuv kd nf; uAsmq&m}u;D wifr;kd . vrf;!$et f =uaH y;csut f & ‘rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unhw f ukd ’f tjzpf ajymif;vJvu
kd yf gonf?
od@k jzpfygI ,cif tm[m&pm=unfw h u kd rf S iSm;,lxm;aom pmtkyrf sm;udk atmufygzek ;f eHygwrf sm;od@k qufo, G If jyefvnftyfEaHS pvdyk ga=umif;
arwWm&yfcHtyfygonf?
tm[m&wjzpfvJ rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unfw h u
kd t f wGuf pmtkyv f LS wef;vdok rl sm;/ aiGa=u;vSLwef;vdo
k rl sm;ESihf rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unfw h u kd f
ydrk pkd nfyifz@GH òz;wd;k wufatmif 0dik ;f 0ef;vkyaf qmifvo dk rl sm;udv
k nf; xm0pOfzw d af c:yga=umif;?
rdk;aomuf=u,fpm=unhfwdkuftr_aqmifrsm;

qufo,
G &f ef? ? 03 3364 5163/ 090 8720 9017/ 090 4128 4725/ 090 7008 0026/ 090 4527 2240/ 090 4456 8219/

pg-16
0wˆKwdk
‘ysut f pOf jyifc%’wJ?h aemifw&vd@k jyifvu kd f
cspfIbJvm;æ rkef;IbJvm;æ cifvdk@vm;æ usaemfuw
kd ufºuG vsif tcsed rf aESmif;ao;? =umvsif vH;k yg;yg;awmh
rcifv@kd vm;æ cs;D rGe;f onfvm;æ uJ&h @J onfvm;æ rnf? tdyfvdk@raysmf? udk,fhudkudk,fpOf;pm;rdawmh
wnfw h nfah jymonfvm;æ apmif;ajymonfvm;æ
aersKd;
csufcsif;jyif&efqHk;jzwf.? *syefrSmxkwfonfh pm
awmh usaemfrodæ? trnf&if;‘wifv h iG ’f jzpfaom vmonf’[k qdkolwdk@uqdk=u.? wu,fawmh apmifawGxw J iG x
f nfrh ,f? “usaemf tjrifreS &f +yæ D /
usaemftm; a&mif;&if;rsm;u ,QKxufwikd f ‘udw k uf remvdo k wl @kd rvdw k rm ajym=ujcif;omjzpf.? 'Dvkd wufºupdwEf iS hf qENveG u f jJ cif;udk usaemfa0cJrG +d yæ D /
ºu’[k ac:a0:orkw=f u.? bJ usaemfxifae.? trsm;ESio hf [Zmwjzpf&ef usaemfóu;yrf;r,fæ/ t
wu,fawmh usaemf[m 0d&, d tvGeaf umif; rajymr+y;D ajym&OD;r,fæ/ wae@ toif;tzJ@G t xD;useftjzpfrcHæ”csufcsif;qdkovdk a±$óu;=um
ol/ vsifjrefzswfvwfol/ tuGufausmfjrifwufol/ pnf;wckwiG f tpmiwfcq H ENjy=u&ef tqdw k ifoiG ;f t,f ' D w m ‘ud k ! d k ’ xH zk e f ; quf o nf ? tóu;
tjrifus,o f w l a,mufomjzpfonf? 'Dvb kd J i,f =u.? wcsK@d u 24 em&D/ w csK@d u 48 em&D tpmiwf ta=umif;&Si;f jy&ef a=umfjimxnf&h ef usaemfóu;yrf;
pOfu usaemfu h , kd u f saemf xifco hJ nf? cH&ef tqdw k ifoiG ;f =u.? rqdik ;f rwG usaemftqdk vdkufonf?
rSwrf yd gao;w,fæ? i,fpOfajy;òyifyrGJ sm; upm; wifoiG ;f vdu k . f ? awmif;qdck surf &rcsi;f wouf wzufujyefajymvdkufonf? “cifAsm;Asmæ/
pOf 'dkifc&mrr_wfrSD óuajy;ojzifh yGJysufrnfudkt vH;k tpmiwfcq H ENjy&ef? [kww f ,favæ/ wae@ reufraS jym vnf;&wmbJæ? tck nESpef m&Dc+GJ yæ D /
a=umif;jyum usaemfhudk 'dkifc&mr_wfonfhtxd wvH yk*b H ,fa&mufrvJq±kd ekH @J r+y;D / &nfreS ;f csuf ta&;w}u;D ajym&r,fu h pd v P nf;r[kwæ f ”[k qdk
vufzrf;qJGxm;=uonf? “cspfpEdk; wufºuav;/ atmif&ef oufpGef@óu;yrf; aqmif±Guf=u&r,fr vmonf?
ravmeJ@æ”[k vSr;f owday;=uw,f? b,fwwf [kwyf gvm;æ? &v'fu usaemfukd aemufaemif a=omf³³³ usaemfwufºuaeqJygvm;æ?
EdkifrvJ/ usaemfu 0d&d,tvGefaumif;aewm tpnf;ta0;rwuf&ef azsmif;zs=u.? b,fwwf
ud;k æ? 'Dvb kd J i,fpOfu usaemfxifcw hJ ,f? EdkifrvJæ/ usaemfhapwemudk oabmrayguf=u eifvm;[Jh v³0³u
ñuHwkef;ajym&OD;r,fæ/ eHeuf 7 em&Dausmif; jcif;omjzpfonf? usaemfhtjypfr[kwf/ 'DvdkbJ us
wuf&rnfh nD/ nDri,frsm;udk 5 em&Drxd;k rDES ;kd rdjcif;/ v³0uvl tar;xl
aemfxifco hJ nf? ab;vlu,fygtHk;
±Hk;ydwf&uftem;,l r,f=uHwJhtazudk ±Hk;oGm;&ef wae@ ‘tm[m&pm=unfw h ukd (f ,ckr;kd aomuf
t}urd }f urd Ef ;kd rdjcif;a=umifh &mxl;csonfvm;æ/ &m =u,fpm=unfw h u kd )f ’ta&muf [dv k eS f 'DveS f pmwdk olar;igajz wvJaG wG
xl;wd;k onfvm;æ/ t+ird ;f pm;ay;onfvm;æ/ t pmpkrsm;zwf&if; usaemftifrwef txif}u;D av; +rJavrSwfrdbl;
em;,lciG ahf y;onfvm;awmhrajymwwf “'Dae@rSp pm;&aom Adv k cf sKyaf tmifqef;. *syefacwfu rde@f
+y;D tdrrf mS b,fo@l udrk ES ;kd &efrvdæ k ”[k trde@f csccH hJ ig'h ;l vJwek f &ifvcJ ek f
cGef;av;wckzwfrd.? ‘teD;qHk;&efoludk t&if b,fyHk±kef;rnfwHk;
&onf? b,fwwfEikd rf vJæ? usaemf0&d , d vGeaf e wdu k ’f qdak ompum;av; us aemfEpS òf cufr. d ?
wmud;k æ? 'Dvb kd J i,fpOfuxifcrhJ o d nf? b,ftajctae b,fol@udk bma=umifhajym eef;jrifv
h }l uD; oGm;awGjznf;(+zD;)
rSwrf yd gao;w,fæ/ i,fonfvnf;r[kwf }u;D onf usaemfra0cJrG /d usaemfeh m;xJ teD;qH;k &efol igrh mS wnnf;;nnf;
onfvnf;rrnf vlysKdayguft±G,favmufuxif qdak om pum;av; =um;a,mifaerd.? xdak e@rSpI igah rhavmufaomf xyfumac:
onf? &yfuu G f rD;uif;apmifh wm0ef,al ewke;f ðz;H qdk teD;qH;k &efou l kd usaemf&mS .? ar;aomf'gbJ igacgi;f cJ?
cyfveS ;f vSe;f rS usaemfq h D vufnK‡d ;xd;k 0ifvmaom xdak e@rS pI ,cifb,fvckd sucf suf pm;aumif;
oli,fcsi;f u ‘rD;-rD;’[kqo kd jzifh rqdik ;f rwG usaemf aom cspZf eD;[if;vsmrsm;udk usaemftjypfjrifvm olar;zefzef wdk@ajz&ef
rD;uif;oHacsmif;udk tcsufaygif;rsm;pGm xacguf .? qm;vdak eonfæ/ qm; av;aeonfæ/ wrif wd@k avjyefb;l pdwrf ul;k
vdu k o f nf? rD;ab;a&Smif ravmifcifwm;&rnf? w tm[m&jywfatmifvyk o f nfæ/ aoG;wd;k jzpfatmif v³0³uvlnpf wdk@rcspf
avmuvH;k =um;vnf; ta&;r}u;D / owday;jcif;jzpf wrif=u±H , G af eonfæ ponfjzifh jrifvm.? teD; jzpfcsif&momjzpf?
onf? udk,fh&yfuGufrD;avmifrSr[kwf? &v'fu qHk;&efolqdkwm =uifoloufxm; ZeD;r,m;yJ
aemufaemif rD;uif;rapmif&h ef wm;jrpfc&H onf? t 'gawGtp b,fb0
jzpfrnf? vcxkwfvsifvnf; aps;zdk;awmif;.?
a=umif;u xdak e@u ‘rD;-rD;’qdo k nf rD;avmifI 'dk@wdkif;jynfurvS
“igu h kd tðywfwu kd af ejcif;jzpfr,fæ”r[kwv f m;?
r[kwf/ aq;vdyfzGmaomufaeaom usaemfhaq; wpwp ZeD; r,m;ESihf tqifrajyawmh? us *wday;onf tvDvD
vdyfrS ykqdk;rD;aygufojzifh oli,fcsif;uvSrf;ajym aemft h m; &pfw,f/ wvJq G yH ifaumif;w,f/ rpOf; rwnfazmufzsuf Adv
k af omuf&u
S ?f
onfukd apwemvGeu f rJ jd cif;a=umifh “udkwufºu pm;rqifjcifol/ w,loefwapmufuef;orm;[k
a&æ/ rif; rD;uif;rapmifyh ge@J awmhæ”[k qdv k m.? ppfwyfu nm wdik ;f jynfem
±d;k pGy.
f ? aemufq;kH “&SiEf iS rhf aygi;f Edik æ f ”[kqu kd m
b,fwwfEikd rf vJ/ apwemud;k æ? a0;ygavao; 'Drdka&;
tdrrf q S if;oGm;.? usaemfu h kd “udw k ufºuæ/ &Siu f
'Dvekd @J tajccHynmtxufwef;atmifc. hJ ? w tck wufºur[kwfawmhbl;æ/ ºuGwufjzpfae ppfwyftkyfcsKyf wdkif;jynfpkwf
uUov kd f 'kw, d ESpt f a&muf rdzrsm;u r&Srd hJ &Srd hJ xkcGJ +yæ D ”[k pGypf . JG ? t[kwfrJGaw/ jynfolawG?
a&mif;csaiGav;rsm;jzifh usaemf om;}u;D =oo&udk rjzpfawmhæ i,fawmhonfr[kwf/ touf
aumif;pm;apcsiI f vm;æ/ rsupf ±d y_ I f vm;rod/ *s 'gawGudkawG; jyefzdk@a&;
(30)ausmf (40)em;a&mufae+y;D oli,fcsi;f rsm;u pdwful;xJawmifrawG;
yefo@kd yd@k vduk . f ? usaemf*syefa&muf.? rsm; r=umrDS a&Smifz,fa&Smifz,f vkyaf e=uonft h xJ ZeD;r,m;
±_r+i;D zG,f cspZf eD;av;wa,mufvnf; &vdu k .f ? a0;ao;æ a0;ao;æ
uvnf; tdrfay:uqif;oGm;.? txD;usefvm
usaemf.wufºupdwfwdk@uraysmuf/ ‘ydkIqdk; awmh usaemfu h , kd u f saemf oH;k oyf&awmhrnf? aecsKjd rifjh rifh
Pg-17
ArmEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f mausmif;om;or*~tzG‹J csKyfOuUXrif;udEk ikd o
f wif;rsm;
etzxkwjf yefonfh tusO;f om; 4000 ausmx
f w
J iG f ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrif;udEk ikd t
f ygt0if Edik if aH &;tusO;f om; 28 om&Sd
ArmEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f m ausmif;om;or*~rsm;tzJ@G csKyrf if;udEk ikd u
f kd Ed0k ifbmv 20 &ufae@u ppfawGtusO;f axmifrS
tdrw f ikd ,
f ma&muf jyefy@kd ay;cJah =umif; rdom;pkw@kd uajymqdo k nf? ,ckvjkd yefvw $ af y;cJah omvnf; etz tay: wpHw k &m
taumif;rjrif=u&efvnf; udrk if;udEk ikd fu rdom;pk0ifrsm;udk ajymqdck o hJ nf? xd@k twl trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;
vkyif ef;pOfY oufqikd o f t
l m;vH;k ±d;k om;r_&=dS u&efuv kd nf; ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifrif;udEk ikd u f wdu k wf eG ;f vdu k o
f nf?
tarSmiftrd rf ufurBmrS Ed;k xvm&ovdk cHpm;&rda=umif;/ aumif; aumif;tdyaf &;r0ao;ovdk aea&mif'%fuv kd nf;
rcHEikd af o;a=umif;/ 16 ESpef ;D yg;=um wdu k cf ef;wnf;Y wOD; wnf;aecJ&h ojzifh pum;ajym&qd&k onfrmS tcuftcJjzpfae
ao;onf[kvnf; ajym=um;ygonf?
,ckuo hJ @kd xif&mS ;onfah usmif;om;acgi;f aqmifrif;udEk ikd f
tygt0if Edik if aH &;tusO;f om; 28 OD;udk v$waf y;cJah omfvnf;
OD;0if;wiftygt0if OD;wifO;D ESihf a':atmifqef;pk=unfw@kd ryg
rdbESpyf g;ESit
hf wl awG@&aom &Sad o;ay? xd@k tjyif vGw&f ufaphaeonfh tzJ@G csKyv f w G af wmf
rif;udEk ikd f ud, k pf m;vS,f a'guw f moef;+ird ;f udk xyfrI H yk'rf (10)u
jzifh 2 vwdwd qufvufxdef;odrf;vdkufa=umif;vnf; od&
onf? ,ckuo hJ @kd etz.vky&f yftay: rauseyfojzifh rdrt d m; jyefrvGwyf gu aoonftxd tpm
iwfcqH ENjy&ef qH;k jzwfcsucf sxm; a=umif;vnf; od&&dS ygonf?
txl;owdxm;&rnft h csurf mS ab;usyef u H syf awG@aeaom etzonf twlwuGvyk cf =hJ u tif;pdeaf xmifa&Sw › iG f óuqdak eonfrh o
d m;pkrsm;ESijhf ynforl sm;
onfh Adv
k cf if!e$ @f tay: tjypfyckH saeaomfvnf; ‚wd@k &ifxYJ pl;pl;aeonf[k ,lqaeaom OD;wifO;D /
a':atmifqef;pk=unf/ OD;0if;wif/ rif;udkEdkifwdk@udk wae&mwnf;wGif 'kwd,'DyJ,if;vdk tpDtpOfcsI vkyf=uHowfjzwfrnfh udpPjzpfonf? ( DVB/MTK )
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrif;udkEdkifvGwfajrmufjcif; *k%fðyyJGtxdrf; rif;udkEdkifaemufqHk;a&;pyfaomuAsm
trS w f t m; e³t³ztcG e f ± H k ; a&S › w G i f
pHw
k q
JG akd yrJh
usi;f yòyvkyf ud,
k t
hf a=umif;eJ@ud, k yf gav//
armif&iS (f bm;rm;rD',
D mowif;axmuf)
xrf;yd;k oH em;ukepf iG hf
jrefrmEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f m ausmif;om;or*~ vufnKd ;!$e&f m ajcukezf iG hf
rsm;tzJG@csKyf OuUXrif;udkEdkifonf e³t³ uGi;f us,f us,w f t hJ av#muf
zppftkyfpk. rw&m;zdESdyfr_'%fudk r±H_;r ta0;ypf vSr;f ayguaf wG'g%f
ay;yJ 16 ESpaf usm=f umjrihpf mG ausmif;om; yGu
J syf usyw f t hJ wdik ;f
pdwf"gwf/ cGyfa'gif;pdwf"gwfwdk@jzifh =uH=uHcH &du
k f odik ;f tkyf rd;k ckwx f ;kd 'g%f
wGef;vSefcJh+yD; ,cktcg jyefvnfvGwf (q&mwd@k ajymajymaewJ)h
ajrmufvmonhftwGuf av;pm;*k%fðy &ifbwf}u;D ppfppfe@J cHcw hJ myg/
aomtxdrf;trSwf tcrf;tem;tm; *syefEdkifiH/ wdkusKdòr@&Sd e³t³ztcGef±Hk; um;csyaf wGay:
a&Sw› iG f 'Drukd a&pD tiftm; pkrsm;rS ,ae@(Ed0k ifbm 23 &uf)ae@vnf 3;00 wHceG f uwkwaf wG csa&$@prf;aecsed af vmufyJ
em&DrS nae 5;00 xd usi;f yjyKvyk cf yhJ gonf? a[m'Dcspfjcif;rJh
OD;pGmyxr rif;udEk ikd Ef iS hf aqGrsK;d awmfpyfow l OD;rS ,ae@ vma&muf=uonhf ppfwvif;&Jh ygw=f um;ayguaf wGxJ
&Jabmftaygif;udk aus;Zl;wifpum;ajym=um;+yD;/ tzJG@tpnf;toD;oD;rS a¹rra=umuf uif;ra=umuf
yk*Kd~ vrf sm; trSmpum;ajym=um;I ay;yd@k vmonfh o0%fvm$ rsm;udk zwf=um; a&waygut f wGuf vufEu d_ cf iG rhf mS
ygonf? xdk@aemuf OD;wifOD;/a':atmifqef;pk=unfwdk@tygt0if usef&Sdae =unfE;l p&m ajzodrzhf , G f
ao;onhf EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; tjrefqHk;v$wfay;zdk@twGufudkvnf; tm&Hak jymif;zd@k awGu
aºu;a=umfoHrsm;ESihf awmif;qdkcJha=umif;vnf;od&Sd&ygonf? tqdkygyJGodk@ jrm‡ ;OD; toGm;&mawG &SaewJh
wufa&mufvmol pkpak ygi;f 50 ausmcf ef@&Syd gonf? ydecf u
G cf u
G &f ifbwf=u;D udk jiif;cJw h mcsn;f yJ
aemufq;kH awmhvJ
zdwaf c:tyfygonf tmoHEdkifarmfuGef;rSm
"g;xufa=umif;om tcgcgre$ ;f wmyg
OD;wifO;D / a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm; vGwaf jrmuf 'dik ;f / v$m;/ umawGta=umif;
a&;twGuf tywfpOf t*Fgae@wdkif; 0wf±Gwfqkawmif;yJGudk rnfolrqdk pmvH;k awmif raygi;f ygz;l / /
vma&mufEikd yf ga=umif; zdwaf c:tyfygonf?
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif rif;udEk ikd f jyefvnfvw
G af jrmufvmonft h wGuf
080 3025 1668/ 090 8171 8465/ 090 8720 9017
rd;k aomuf=u,ftzJ@G om;rsm;rS 0rf;ajrmufpmG }uKd qdyk ga=umif;
pg-18
uAsm uAsm uAsm

uAsmq&m owif;pmq&m awmifawmfyef; -umcJh_yDav


armifatmifyiG Ehf iS hf armif_idr;f opfo‹kd
ykyg` ;awmifu pum;0gyef;
=umcJ+h yDavæ
awmifóuawmif=um;rSm yGiv
hf ef;w,f?
usnq
f efwacsmif;u ol@&eH@udk b,fawmhrSrpGef@ wcsK› d =uawmh
&ifacgi;f wckukd azguf azguf zufprd ;f uav;eJ@ xkyx
f m;vnf; ‘csm’oGm;=uw,fæ?
OD;acgi;f wckukd azguf azguf ar$;wmyJæ wcsK› d ‘cg’oGm;=uw,fæ?
wa,mufomxdwmyg? wcsKd ‹ ‘tm’vd‹k aumif;wke;f ygyv
J m;æ
ykvif;xJxnf+h yD; awmifawmfyef;vd@k
wcs›Kd‘ta&;awmfyHkatmif&rnf’aºu;a=umf&if;
a&mif;&ifvnf;
uavmifwacsmif;u woif;oif;ysH›aewmyJ? =umavaumif;av qkawmif;ae=uw,fæ?
OD;acgi;f awG axmifaomif; wcsK› d jynfwiG ;f xd;k azguzf ‹kd xuf
toJaygif;uaÉuÉm awmifay:rSm yGiyhf iG hf a&mufw
f t
hJ &yfrmS vlwiG u
f s,æ
f
awmifatmufrmS vef;vef;
tcgaygif; woef;ESpfoef; 0g;vH;k acgix
f J vomae=uw,fæ?
pum;0gyef;uawmh
wacwf+yD; wacwfjzwfoef;
&eH@rjy,fbl;?
xdrSefxdk;azgufoGm;vdrfhr,f? 'DvdkeJ‹æ
ae&mtwuftusudk tEW&m,frsm;ol}uD;tjzpf(odk‹r[kwf)
atmifyGifhwdk@ olra±G; e0w&J‹ &efolawmftjzpf(odk‹r[kwf)
ol@tvkyfuawmh
uavmifzGifhcJh+yDæ &DjzL*sDtjzpf todtrSwfcH&+yD;wJhaemufæ
ar$;zdk@ygyJ?
tawmifjr‡iI
hf ysaH pownf;? (uAsmq&marmifatmifyGifhESihf wcsK› (d wcsK› ad jymygw,f) tar&duef[m
armif+idr;f opfo@kd *k%ðf yuAsm) yef;wdik f jzpfomG ;=uawmhw,f?
armifprG ;f &nf
wifr;kd
Ed0k ifbm 17 &uf 2004 xl;0if;&Sed f
Edk0ifbm 20 &uf 2004

jrefrmh'rD u
kd a&pDvy+ &f mS ;olajcmufO;D udk *syefv0u rS ,D,maexdik cf iG Ehf iS v
hf w
$ af y;cJ_h yD; ESpOf ;D udk txl;aexdik cf iG t
hf jzpf todtrSwjf yK
armif&iS (f bm;rm;rD',
D mowif;axmuf)
,ckvtwGi;f *syefv0urS umvDz;kd rif(h ac:) ,m,Daexdik cf iG t hf mrcHjzifh *syefEikd if tH ajcpduk f jrefrmh'rD u kd a&pDa&; v_y&f mS ;olajcmufO;D udk jyefvw $ af y;cJ+h y;D
ESpf=umpGm jiif;y,fjcif;cHxm;&olESpfOD;udk txl;aexdkifcGifhtjzpf todtrSwfðyvdkufa=umif; od&Sd&ygonf?
,m,Daexdik cf iG jhf zifh jyefvw$ v f molrsm;onf &Sief m*0g&dS *syefv0u±H;k wGif wvw}urd f ajccsKyo f abmrsK;d vufrw S f oGm;xk;d &jcif;/ *syefEikd if t
H wGi;f w
jcm òr@e,fwckco k @kd oGm;a&mufvykd gu oufqikd &f mod@k óuwifciG ðhf ycsuo f mG ;a&muf,&l jcif;/ tvkyv f yk cf iG rhf &Sjd cif;ponhf cyfa=umifa=umifqefvaS om *syef
v0u. Oya'rsm;ESihf wkwaf ESmifxm;onfukd cH&ygonf? xd@k tjyif tmrcHa=u;tjzpf ,ef;ig;ode;f rS ,ef;oH;k ode;f txd *syefv0uod@k ay;&ygonf?
jyefvnfvw $ af jrmufvmolxrJ S wOD;u-“usKyw f @kd udk tvkyv
f yk cf iG rhf &Sb
d ;l qdw
k hJ pmom;}u;D ygaewm awmfawmfq;kd w,fæ? ud, k phf m;0wfaea&;twGuf
tvkyv f yk +f y;D &SmazGv@kd r&bl;qd&k if olw@kd u wm0ef,rl vm;qdak wmhvnf; bmwm0efrrS ,lwt hJ jyif &pfcsif uspcf siaf o;w,fæ? rwwfomvd@k om olw@kd qDrmS
ae&w,fæ? 'DaumifawGvyk &f yfu ol wd@k zde@f zde@f wkeaf tmifa=umuf&wJh ajrmufu&kd ;D ,m;eJ@ twlwyl æ J ”[k ajym=um;cJyh gonf?
*syeftpd;k &onf usqif;vmaom pD;yGm;a&;u'fa=umifh Edik if jH cm;om;rsm;tay: tjypfyckH sum ydwpf yd w f u kd zf rf;qD;r_rsm; w&pyfðyvkyaf eonfu h mvwGif
jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;aeolrsm;udkyg wrifzrf;qD;r_rsm; vkyfaqmifaeygonf? &Sifem*0g&Sd v0u tusOf;axmifwGif 15 OD;&Sd+yD; wdkusKdESifh
tvGew f &ma0;uGmaom tdbm&mudwiG f 30 ausmf use&f adS eao;a=umif;vnf; od&ygonf?

Pg-19
twˆKy~wdW

OD;0if;wif&‹J ajc&mrsm;
armifprG ;f &nf
OD;0if;wifudk usaemf pwifodu|rf;cJh&wmu vufcyH gw,f? 'gayr,fh *E<0if*sme,f[m ESpyf wfyJ ysufvmygw,f? rEWav;rSm wckwnf;aom o
awmh a=u;rHo k wif;pm t,f'w D mwa,muftae oufwrf;&Sv d u kd yf gw,f? OD;0if;wifvJ vGwv f yfa&; wif;pmtjzpf qufvuf&yfwnfaewJh vlxko
eJ@yg? a=u;rHo k wif;pmudk atmifAvac: OD;aomif; &pacwfu wuUov kd uf bJ@G &pmayorm;awG 0if wif;pmudv k J 1967 ckEpS rf mS ydwyf pfvu kd cf yhJ g+y?D
u pwifwnfaxmifvu kd +f y;D Z0e/ pdecf ifarmif&/D a&mufvyk u f ikd &f mjzpfwhJ ‘pmayAdrmef’ pmtkyx f w
k f t*Fvyd v f ufatmufra&mufcif jrefrmEdik if rH mS
OD;0if;wifw@kd 0dik ;f 0ef;tm;xkwrf a_ =umifh w[kex f ;kd a0a&;vkyif ef;udyk J 0ifa&muftr_xrf;ygw,f? pG,f ‘&wemyHk’qdkwJh yxrOD;qHk; jrefrmowif;pmudk
xifay:ausm=f um; vlóuufrsm;vmcJyh gw,f? pHu
k sr;f awG pwif±u kd Ef ydS f xkwaf 0aewJh umvayg?h xkwfcJhwJh &wemyHkrEWav;rSmvJ owif;pmr&SdwJh
ae&m+rJ+rJ ZGJaumif;aumif;eJ@ tm;xkwfolu tJ'gu 1953 ckEpS yf g? &mxl;u vufaxmuf jrefrmh'w k , d òr@awmf}u;D tjzpfe@J [mvm[if;vif;
awmh OD;0if;wifyg? OD;0if;wif[m bJ@G r& owif;rvSjzpfcJh&ygw,f?
cifuwnf; u pmayAdrmefrmS vkyaf e rEWav;vdkòr@}uD;rSm ckvdk owif;rJhjzpf
&mu e,fomvefEikd if /H trfpum'rfòr@ aewm tawmf=umawmh &efuek rf mS jynf
rSm yHkESdyfxkwfa0r_ynmudk vufawG@ olyikd o f rd ;f xm;wJh [Hom0wDowif;pmudk
qnf;yl;vkyu f ikd zf @kd wm0efay;cH&ygw,f? yd@k vdu k yf gw,f? tJ'g 1969 ckEpS yf g? t,f'D
tJ'u D jyefvmawmh vcaumif;wJh pm wmcsKyu f usaemfw@kd &J@ rdwaf qG}u;D OD;0if;
ayAdrmeftvkyf udk pGe@f v$wx f m;cJ+h y;D r wifyg? 'DawmhrS usaemfw@kd tcsi;f csi;f ,H, k kH
aocsmra&&mwJh pme,fZif;avmuxJ =unf=unf &if;&if;ESD;ESD; &SdvmcJhygw,f?
udk ajcpHyk pf+y;D 0if vmcJw h myg? ref;[Hom0wDzGifhyJGrSmawmh q&m}uD;a±$O
wu,fawmh OD;0if;wifu bJ@G &+y;D u a'gi;f / q&m}u;D jrrsK;d vGi/f vlxOk ;D vS/ vlxk
wnf;u pme,fZif;avmuxJukd ajcpHk a':trmwd k @ eJ @ twl txuf A rmEd k i f i H
ypf0ifzdk@ óu;pm;cJhwmyg? ol0ifa&muf pma&;q&mtoif;u vli,fawGvJ yg=uyg
vk y f u d k i f r ,f h a e&mu ol a v;pm;,H k w,f? usaemfw@kd uvJ tJ't D csed t
f xd us
=unfr&_ w dS hJ ae&mrsK;d rSmyJ vkycf siw f ,f? aemfw@kd toif;udk rzsuaf o;bJ &yfwnf
'ga=umifh ole@J &if;ES;D wJh xifvif;ac: OD; xm;Edik af o;w,f?
ode;f armifukd '*kew f m&mqD vdu k yf @kd cdik ;f OD;0if;wifudk ol@txufu ygwaD umif
zl;ygw,f? pDawGrmS vdu k w f mu ‘'kw, d vlxo k wif;
vGwfvyfa&;&umpu urm±Gwf/ pmrjzpfap&’qdkwmygyJ? 'gayr,fh OD;0if;
vS n f ; wef ; &yf / &ef u k e f w uU o d k v f e J @ eD ; wJ h t,f'w D myg? ol e,fomvefEikd if /H trfpwm'rfòr@/ wif v d k wu,f h o wif ; pmorm;u owif ;
td r f w td r f r S m pmayorm; vl i ,f a wG Zrfbmwef(Jambarton) pmtkyx k af 0a&; ukr` pmbd k ; at}uD ; a±$ O a'gif ; wd k @ vd k / wouf v H k ;
f w
pka0;aexdik af vh&zdS ;l w,f? wcsK› u d 'Dtrd rf mS yJ tdy=f u %DrSm pmtkyfxkwfa0r_ynmeJ@ pme,fZif;ynm owif;vkyv f mwJh 0g&ifo h wif;pmq&m}u;D OD;vS/
pm;=uowJ?h wcsK› u d naebuf ausmif;qif;csed u f s qnf;yl;cJw h mu('*kew f m&m&J@ =umyef;a&pifpmtkyf a':trmwd@k vdk yk*Kd~ vrf sK;d awGukd b,frmS ausmif;cdik ;f
rS vma&mufpak 0;=uowJ?h tJ'gu OD;cifarmifvwf/ rSm) 1955 ckEpS u f 1957 ckEpS x f d 2 ESprf # =umyg ypfy,faeEdik yf grh vJ? OD;0if;wifu rEWav;pme,fZif;
a':cifrsK;d cspw f @kd &J@tdryf g? olw@kd uvJ i,fwek ;f ±G,f w,f? bd;k at}u;D rsm;udk tm; xm;ovdk rEWav;òr@uvJ
wke;f ayhg? yx ruawmh waumif;aqmifem;rSmvd@k Ú
pmayAdrmefu vlxkody`Husrf;awGeJ@ ESpfig; OD;0if;wifvkd pme,fZif;orm;ppfppfukd tm;xm;=u
=um;zl;w,f? wuUov kd ef @J eD;vd@k wuUov kd b
f ufu q,fEikd if aH &;/ vlra_ &;/ ,Ofaus;r_pmtkyw f aGJ wGukd ygw,f?
ausmfatmif/ jroef;(wifh)/ oef;wif/ =unfvif/ ±du k Ef ydS xf w k af 0cJ&h wm jzpfygw,f? yHEk ydS w f u kd rf mS vkyf cufwmu vlvnf}u;D OD;ae0if;uvJ OD;0if;wif
=unfat;wd@k eJ@twl olw@kd atmufenf;enf;i,fwhJ &if; owif;ay;pmpOfav;rsm;udkvnf; Oa&my udk tm;udk;,Hk=unf[efjyygw,f? ol rEWav;udk
ud0k if;wifw@kd vJ yg=uowJ?h a&muf jrefrmynmawmfoif ausmif;om;awGt a&muf&if rEWav;òr@ rsuEf mS zH;k pme,fZif;orm;
olw@kd xud}u;D olawGuawmh '*kew f m&m/ oef; wGuf ud, k w f ikd af &;om; wnf;jzwfxw k af 0 jzef@csyd g awG/ ,Ofaus;r_e,fy,fpu kH yk*Kd~ vaf usmaf wGukd eef;
aqG/ aomfwmaqG/ xifvif;wd@k ygyw J ?hJ 'ga=umifh ao;w,f? q&m0if;wif 'ufcsb f mompum;eJ@ a&; wGif;rSm pka0;apzdk@ OD;0if;wifudkyJ pDpOfcdkif;avh&Sdyg
udk0if;wifu pmayopftodkif;t0dkif;eJ@ eD;pyf+yD; om;xm;wJh aqmif;yg;wapmifudk r*~Zif;wckrSm w,f? OD;0if;wifuvJ bmrqdk vlxOk ;D vS/ vlxak ':
jynfol@pmt,ltqbufudk pma&;q&mrjzpfcif jrifz;l vdu k w f ,fv@kd usaemfrw S rf ad eygw,f? trmwdk@udk tm;udk;w}uD; csOf;uyfwdkifyif vkyf
uyJ a&muf&Sdaeol pmayvli,fwOD;jzpfcJhyHk&yg OD;0if;wiftaeeJ@ a=u;rHo k wif;pm}u;D rSm tm;cJ aqmifwmygy?J
w,f? vkyu f ikd af e&if; ppftyk pf w k ufvm+y;D owif;pmawG [Hom0wDtcsyyf q kd +kd y;D ppfAv kd w
f a,muf cs,f
'*kew f m&mu ‘*E<0if*sme,f’xkwaf wmh q&m udk jynfoyl ikd o f rd ;f wm cHvu kd &f ygw,f? owif;pm vS,zf @kd ay;xm;wm[mvJ wjznf;jznf;eJ@ ref;vlxk
xifvif;udk vdu k yf @kd cdik ;f +y;D pme,fZif;avmuxJukd udk ppfwyfeJ@ ppfwyfygwDjzpfwJh rqvu }uD;=uyf &J@ ,Ofaus;r_pifjrifw h ck jzpfvmygw,f? [Hom0wD
ajcpHyk pf0ifvu kd wf m jzpfygw,f? '*kew f m&muvJ vdu k w f t hJ cg owif;pmq&mppfppfawGrmS t&om we*FaEGtcsyfydkawG[m wefzdk;&SdrSef;odvdk@ cktcg
Ú
a':atmifqef;pk=unf&@J jrefrmjynfuvmwJph m(20)rSm 1954 ckEpS rf mS awmh 'wfcsfowif;pmukr% ` wD ck&@J t=uaH y;t,f'w D mvd@k qdyk gw,f?
pg-20
twˆKy~wdW
uGeyf sLwmwuUov kd pf m=unfw h u kd rf LS ;tjzpf wm0ef
xrf;aqmifaewJh a±$ref;ol rwifwif0if;u pmpkpm OD;0if;wifudk ol@txufu ygwaD umif pDawGrmS vdu k wf mu ‘'kw, d vlxo k wif;
&if; vkyx f m;+y;D a=umif;udv k nf; owif;aumif; ay; pmrjzpfap&’qdw k mygy?J 'gayr,fh OD;0if;wifvkd wu,fo h wif;pmorm;u owif;pm
vdkufyg&ap? bd;k at}u;D a±$Oa'gi;f wd@k vd/k woufv;kH owif;vkyv f mwJh 0g&ifo h wif;pmq&m}u;D
OD;0ifwifu vlxOk ;D vS/ a':trm/ a'guw f moef; OD;vS/ a':trmwd@k vdk yk*Kd~ vfrsKd;awGukd b,f rSmausmif;cdik ;f ypfy,faeEdik yf grh vJ?
xGe;f wd@k udk trSL;xm;+y;D paepmay0dik ;f pmwrf;zwf
yJw
G ckuv kd J [Hom0wDowif;pmwdu k rf mS yJ au|;arG;
{nfhcH+yD; tywfpOfusif;ywJhtcg &efukefu OD;odef; t&m&S}d u;D awG[m 'grsK;d awGukd av#mufvm$ wif+y;D OD;0if;wifaewJt h rd ef @J rvSr;f rurf;rSmyJ tdru f av;
azjrifhwdk@yg pmwrf;wufzufcJh=uygw,f? pmay txufyikd ;f rSmyJ tkypf m;vku d =f uygwmyg? OD;0if;wif wvH;k iSm;+y;D aecJzh ;l w,f? a&pufv@kd qd&k rSmayg?h eef;
,Ofaus;r_avmutwGuf tifrweftzdk;wefwJh uawmh &vmwJ[ h meJ@ owif;pmwdu k af &S› òr@v,f a&Sr› mS awmh yefwsmausmif;eJ@vJ eD;w,f? ausmif;
pmwrf;aygi;f csKyw f tkyv f J xkwaf 0vkyu f ikd Ef ikd cf yhJ g vrf;rrSm eHuw f ikd ;f vufzuf&nfazsmaf &mif;=uyg tky}f u;D u aemiftcg 'g±u kd w f m0if;azvd@k emrnf
w,f? w,f? }u;D wJh yef;csq D &m0if;azayg?h
'gawG[m ygw&D @J OD;aqmifr/_ aumifp&D @J }u;D =uyfr_ aps;vJoufom/ t&omvJ&w dS hJ pHcsed rf v
SD ufzuf OD;0if;wifu yef;csu D vkd J awmfawmfpw d 0f ifpm;yg
rygyJ vkyaf ewmawGqakd wmh ygwaD umifpeD @J ppf &nfqakd wmh csKid q hf GJ ygq,fa&mif;&wm vufrvnf w,f? Oa&mywcGirf mS yef;csjD ywdu k af wGtESH vnf
axmufvrS ;f a&;uyg rsupf pD yg;ar$; pl;vmygawmh Edik af tmifygy?J ol@wdu k o f m;awGvJ aumif;aumif; ywfczhJ ;l owJ?h &efuek /f vrf;opf&yd o f mwdu k cf ef;rSm
w,f? OD0if;wifuawmh ppftm%m&Sif&J@'%fudk aomuf&wJhtjyif wu,fvJ oufomacsmifcsr_ aeawmhvJ wywfwcgqo kd vdk tEkynm0dik ;f zJ@G jzpf
b,favmufcHEdkifygtHk;rvJ? &Sdygw,f? w,fv@dk qd&k rSmayg?h q,fayywfvnf tcef;ESpf
OD;0if;wif[m pme,fZif;vkyif ef;awGukd b0yg rqvacwfrmS 0efxrf;awG 0ifaiGe@J ukeaf ps; cef;quf ajccsp&mr&Sad tmif vlpnfum;ygw,f?
ðryf+yD; ,Hk,Hk=unf=unf av;av;eufeuf vkyfae E_ef;rr#vdk@ =uyfwnf;+yD; ‘roufrom’ jzpf=u& ol@tdru f jynfvrf;ay:rSmqdak wmh b,furqdk vm
wmjzpfygw,f? owif;pmwdu k u f kd tvnfomG ;&if w,f? 'ga=umifh ‘oufomacsmifcsad &;qdik ’f awGqkd vd@k vG,w f ,f?
ol@&J@ rcrf;rem; rom;em;vSwhJ t,f'w D mpm;yJrG mS +y;D ±H;k }u;D awGrmS ay:vmayr,fh wu,froufom o&ufawmrSwfwdkifrSmqif;/ vrf;opf&dyfom
ajryJa=umfwyef;uef/ vufzuf&nftzefu wu =uygbl;æ? aps;E_ef;oufomayr,fh tpm;t 0if; tay:armh=unfah wmh c&rf;a&mif/ tjyma&mif
&m;eJ@ OD;acgi;f razmfpwrf; tvkyv f yk af e+rJ jzpfyg aomuf tqift h wef; rjrifb h ;l ? ypPn;f awGukd aps; opfcGyef;vSvS}uD;awG yGifhaewJhtcef;? ckawmh
w,f? armif0efZif;trnf0u S w f cke@J vJ pmtkyaf 0 oufoufomomeJ@ 0,fv@kd &&if bmjzpfv@kd tpm; etz u cef;vH;k jynfh pmtkyaf wGa&m/ tcef;yg
zefcsu/f pmaya0zefa&;aqmif;yg;awGvJ wnfwnf taomuf tqift h wef; rjrif&h rSmvJ? 'ga=umifh odr;f ,lomG ;cJyh g+y?D r&Suw f uf±rkH u owif;pmxJ
+ird +f ird ef @J 0ifa&;aeygao;w,f? ppftm%m&Siv f uf qef/ qD/ om;ig;awGuv kd J OD;0if;wifu oufomwJh rSmawmif olwdk@&J@ cdk;&myg/ wdkuf&mygypPnf;
atmuf owif;pmq&mb0rSm tcGit fh m%mrJyh u kH kd aps;E_e;f eJ@&atmif oufqikd &f mawGukd av#mufvm$ awGreS ;f rodbJ vlo&d iS =f um; azmfjyvdu k yf gao;
oltodqHk;qdkawmh ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;&J@ rsufcHk; wif+y;D 0,fay;w,f? w,f? tJ'gawG jyefawmif;&r,f?
ar$;ay:rSmvJ p}ueF af v#mufwm u|r;f usiaf eyg+y?D 0ef x rf ; awG pk a ygif ; csuf p m; =u±H k r u vrf;opf&yd o f mrSm OD;0if;wifaewJw h ukd ef @J rsuf
OD;0if;wif[m ol@vufatmufu tvkyo f rm; tjyif u vl a wG u d k v J a&mif ; vd k u f a o; w,f ? ESmcsi;f qdik rf mS awmh ajrnDxyfwu kd cf ef;xJuxGu+f y;D
awGuv kd J ppfwyft&m&Sad wG/ AsL±du k &ufawGvkd tm tJ ' gvJ vuf r vnf a tmif a &mif ; &vd k @ ‘vlpHk+yDvm;’vdk@ rsufrSefw0if;0if; armh=unfhwuf
%myg0gjy+y;D qufqaH jymqdak vhr&Sb d ;l ? tm;vH;k udk avmufawmifravmufbl;? OD;0if;wifvJ ol@vl olu ‘q&mZ0e’ jzpfygw,f? 0dkif;rSm pma&;q&m
&Jabmf&b J ufawGvkd oabmxm;ygw,f? ulnpD awGe@J vuf&nfwjyifwnf; pm;avh&ydS gw,f? xJu Adv k af omfu/ ausmaf tmif/ rif;ausm/f ewfE, G /f
&m&S&d if av;av;pm;pm;ulnw D ,f? ol vrf;opf&yd f OD;0if;wif tm;vyf&ufawGrSmawmh cif&mcif armifae0if;wd@k vmavh&w dS ,f? yefcsq D &m0if;azeJ@
omrSmaewke;f u ol@wl ol@om;avmuf&w dS hJ pmay a=umif; rdwaf qGawGuzkd w d +f y;D aysmaf ysmyf g;yg; xrif; ay:OD;oufvJ ñu&H wwfw,f? 'g±u kd wf marmifr;kd ol/
orm; ausmif;q&mwa,muf tvnfvm&if; ol@ csupf m;avh&ydS gw,f? olu, kd w f ikd cf suw f myg? rif;om;jrwfav;eJ@ 0if;OD;wdk@vJ ygwwfw,f?
qDrSmwnf;cdk+yD; tao;pm; rjzpfpavmuf cJGpdyfr_ rEW av;eef ; a&S › r S m tpd k ; &wd k u f c ef ; wcef ; owif;pmq&m udo k mbef;eJ@ [Hom0wDrmS vuf
cH,lw,f? OD;0if;wifvlysKd}uD;u oludk,fwdkif csuf usaemf&awmh olvJ usaemfeJ@ rvSrf;rurf;rSm wJGcJholawGvJ t+rJvm+yD; ulnDcsufðywfwwfyg
ðywfau|;arG;±Hkru ol@&J@twGif;cHpGyfus,fawG/ tcef;wcef;&yg w,f? ol@tcef;rSm zdtm;oHk; w,f? wifr;kd eJ@ usaemfuawmh &Hcgayg?h tEkynm
abmif;bDawGyg zGyaf v#maf y;ygw,f? tJ'aD usmif; aygi;f td;k (y&uf&mS uGuu f m;)eJ@ om;ig;awGaygi;f +y;D avmuom;awG tpHv k m=uwmyg?
q&mav;udak wmh ud, k xf ul , kd x f vkyEf ikd v f suef @J csufwmyg? tJ'D wkef;u zdtm;oHk;aygif;tdk;awG ta&;awmf y H k u mvrS m awmh OD ; 0if ; wif w
bmjzpfvdk@ 'Dvkd ‘t&om’cHae&ovJqdk+yD; roifh acwfrpm;ao;bl;? a,muf/ Adv k af omfu/ 0if;cuf/ armifp;l prf;/ wifr;kd /
awmfa=umif; usaemfu usdwf+yD; qHk;rcJh&ygao; OD;0if;wif eef;a&Su › rdk ajymif;cifuvJ rEWav;bl armifr;kd olpwJh pmay&JabmfawGe@J twl aq;±H}k u;D
w,f? wm}u;D ta&Sb › uf ajreDusi;f vrf;rSm usaemfe@J w a&Sr› mS a&m/ aq;±H0k if;twGi;f rSma&m a[majymyJpG if
rqvtpd;k &vufxuf rEWav; [Hom0wD o vrf;wnf; rsuaf pmif;xd;k tdrrf mS vmaewmyg? tJ'g jrifrh mS w±ke;f ±ke;f eJ@ayg?h usaemfa&mufwikd ;f tJ'rD mS
wif;pmwdkufrSm oltkyfcsKyfaewkef;uqdk&if Edk@qD/ u usaemf&mS ay;wJt h rd yf g? usaemfe@J wtdraf usmf csn;f awG@&wmqdak wmh olw@kd tdrjf yeftyd w f thJ csed f
vufzufajcmuf/ o=um;pwmawGukd aps;E_e;f ouf rSm uAsmq&m/ yef;csq D &mrsK;d jrifah qGaeygw,f? us &,fv@kd &Srd &S ydS grh vm;vd@k awG;rdp&mygy?J
oufomomeJ@&atmif xkwv f yk jf zef@cs&d m yif&if; aemfw@kd wuUov kd af usmif;om;b0wke;f u uAsm
XmeawGukd av#mufvm$ wif+y;D 0,fay;w,f? wcsK› d q&mwifr;kd / 0if;ºu,f/ armifpef;aomfw@kd eJ@twl ck qufvufazmfjyygrnf

Pg-21
pmtkyt
f !Ge;f

rd;k aomuf-u,fpmtkypf if
ausmfatmif- ta&;}u;D +yD aoG;pnf;=upd@k
trSwpf Of - 0109
Ekid if w
H Ekid if rH mS yxrta&;ygqH;k u Ekid if o H /l Ekid if oH m;awG/ 'kw, d ta&;ygqH;k u tpd;k &tzG@J &J@ t=u;D tuJjzpfw@J orRw(ok@d )
0ef=u;D csKyf/ wwd,uawmh tpd;k &tzJ@G / ta&;rygqH;k uawmh tJ't D pd;k &tzJ@G &J@ tzG@J 0ifawGygbJq+kd y;D w±kyyf nm&Siw f OD;&J@
ajym qdck sufukd jrefrmh'rD u kd a&pDacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unfuvnf; jyefvnfajymqdck zhJ ;l a=umif;/ a'gufwmatmifcif&@J
avvdi_ ;f xJu pmtkypf ifu¾uae rSwo f m;cJ&h bl;ygw,f?
'Dawmh Ekid if o H /l Eikd if o
H m;awGtaeeJ@ rdrw d @kd &J@ ta&;ygru _ kd jywfjywfom;om; ,H=k unfvufc+H y;D wdik ;f jynf&@J Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/
vlra_ &;pwJh u¾toD;oD;awGrmS wOD;eJ@wOD; tjyeftvSef av;pm;r_awGe@J pnf;vH;k nDnw G pf mG wdik ;f jynfwm0efawGukd ausaus
¹yGef¹yefxrf;aqmif=ur,fqdk&ifjzifhæ
'Dwywf rd;k aomuf=u,f&@J pmcspo f rl wd af qGw@kd eJ@ rdwq f ufay;rSmuawmh q&mausmaf tmif&@J ‘ta&;=u;D +y/D aoG;pnf=upd@k ’
qdw k hJ pmtkyyf gb?J
q&mausmfatmif[m vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;/ jynfwGif;ppf/ u&ifta&;/ tr_xrf;oydwf/ ausmif;om;oydwf/ ygvDref'Drdkua&pDwdkufyGJpwJh
ta&;tcif;awGrmS ud, k w f ikd yf g0ifvy_ &f mS ;cJo h l jzpfv@kd ol@&J@ ud, k af wG@ tawG@t=uKH awGe@J aygi;f pyf+y;D uavmifprG ;f xufxufe@J 'Dpmtkyu f kd yHak vmif;cJyh ykH gy?J
ygvrD ef'rD u kd a&pDacwfrmS Ekid if aH &;acgi;f aqmifawG pnf;vk;H r_ +yKd u&JG mrStp/ tdraf pmift h pd;k &wufvmwJah cwf/ jy;D awmh 0ef=u;D csKyOf ;D Ek&@J yxpacwf/ jynfaxmif
pk=u;D +yKd uaJG wmhr,fqw kd hJ ta=umif;jycsuef @J rw&m;tm%modr;f +y;D wufvmwJh Adv k af e0if;&J@awmfveS af &;aumifpaD cwfpwJh acwftqufqufrmS jzwfoef;cJ&h
wJh jynfov l x l &k @J vlaer_tqift h wef;/ Ekid if aH &;tqift h wef;/ ,Ofaus;r_tqift h wef; pwmawGukd ynmom;ygyge@J Edi_ ;f ,SOaf z:jyxm;wmudk awG@&ygw,f?
wdik ;f jynfw;kd wufatmif tpGr;f ukef aqmif&u G cf siaf yr,fv h nf; tcGirhf omvd@k oufjyif;csae&wJh acwfynmwwfvil ,fawG&@J cHpm;csuaf wG/ qH;k &_;H epfem
r_awGtwGuf bmwckrS jyefvnfawmif;qdck iG rhf &=ubJ acgi;f iH@k cHae&wJh tvkyo f rm;xk&@J b0awG/ jynfwiG ;f ppf rD;awmufr;D v#aH wG=um;rSm 'kuaQ 0ae&wJh
jynfov l x l &k @J cdu k ;kd &mrJt h jzpfawG/ 'D=um;xJ tm&S&@J pyg;us/D jrefrmjynfrmS qefjywfjyw D æ hJ
'Dvt kd csed rf mS bJ ‘vlwikd ;f acgi;f aqmifjzpfonf’qdw k hJ uae'gq&m0ef a'guw f maemfrefAufoeG ;f &J@ acgi;f aqmifw&m;udk emema[mvdu k /f tvkyo f rm;awG&@J
0g%Zd j… yoemawGukd ajz&Si;f vdu k ef @J pdwaf rm/ vlarmjzpfaewJh Zifa,mfww H m;aqmufvyk af &;wm0efcH vli,ftif*sief , D m udak omif;'ef/ ukvm;xdik ef @J pm;yGeJ @J vkyf
rS tvkyv f @kd xifaewJh acwf}u;D rSm oluawmh wdik ;f jynftusK;d twGuf awmifawG@vrf;azmuf/ acsmif;awG@wHwm;aqmufz@kd tvGepf w d t f m;xufoefaewJo h ?l
ynmwwfveG ;f wJo h al wGuvnf;/ ud, k u f sKd ;csn;f r=unfb h J wdik ;f jynftwGuf tepfemcHz@kd pdwu f ;l xJxnf&h r,fwæ hJ ? 'gu aomif;'ef&@J tjrif/ olu, kd wf ikd f
uawmh Ïmeu Ekid if jH cm;ynmawmfoifvw $ zf @kd a&G;cs,cf x H m;&+y;D umrS tjcm;olwOD;udk tm%m&So d al wG&@J rpr_e@J olae&mrSm tpm;xd;k vdu k v f @kd tEkid u f sihf
cHvu kd &f wJo h æ l pojzifh wdik ;f jynfe@J vlx&k @J qd;k &Gm;edru hf svw S hJ tjzpfawGukd bufaygi;f pHu k ae yDyjD yifjyife@J &oajrmufatmifwifjy&if; rdrw d @kd &J@ qH;k ±H;_ epfemr_
awGukd jrifwwfatmif pma&;q&mu rD;armif;xd;k jyxm;ygw,f?
wHwm;aqmufz@kd wdik w f wdik pf u kd +f y;D umrS a&atmufrmS ausmufzsmawG@vd@k wJh aomif;'efwa,muftusy±f u kd jf y?D 'D=um;xJ Adv k w f ikd ;f ausmaf cgi;f aqmifw@J
vufeufuikd af omif;useo f t l zJ@G u wHwm;udk r& &atmif zsurf ,fw?hJ uJ- wHwm;udk tcuftcJtrsKd ;rsKd ;=um;u aomif;'efubJ +y;D atmifaqmufEidk rf vm;/
Adv
k wf ikd ;f ausmu f bJ rysuf ysuaf tmif zsuEf ikd rf vm;qdw k mæ q&mausmaf tmifuawmh bmbJjzpfjzpfAsmæ ta&;uawmh =u;D ae+y/D usaemfw@kd aoG;pnf;=uzd@k
bJq+kd y;D wdu k w f eG ;f xm;w,fqw kd mudk azmfjy&if; &yfem;yg&ap? pmtkyef yH gwu f awmh (0109) yg?
armifz;kd aZmf

rd;k aomuf=u,frS aus;Zl;pum;


tm[m&udk rd;k aomuf=u,ftjzpf emrnfajymif;a±$@zGiv hf pS yf tGJ wGuf o0%fvm$ rsm;ay;yd@k =uaom jynfya&muf jrefrmpmay
ynm&Si}f u;D rsm;/ twlvufwv GJ yk af qmifae=uonfh pm=unhw f u kd n f aD emifrsm;/ rtm;rvyfonf=h um;rS wufa&mufcs;D jri‡ =hf uaom
*syefrw d af qGrsm;/ NGO's tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;/ JRU rS wm0ef&ydS *k Kd~ vrf sm;/ a&Sa› ersm;/ pmay&Jabmfrsm;/ tppt&m&m 0dik ;f 0ef;ulnD
ay;cJah om rdwaf qGo*F[taygi;f wd@k ESiw hf uG tcrf;tem;rSL;tjzpf aqmif±u G af y;aom Mr. Tanabe(OD;a±$b)/ av;av;(wdu k sK)d
wd@k tm; txl;rSww f rf;wif av;pm;*k%ðf yyga=umif;?
aemufaemifrsm;rSmvnf; arwWmxm;I usaemfw@dk . tm;enf;csurf sm;/ csKd @,Gi;f r_rsm;&Scd @J ygv#if &ifYjzpfaom om;orD;yrmxm;I
oGeo f ifq;Hk r =o0g'ay;yg&efvnf; q&m}u;D rsm;tm; arwWm&yfct H yfonf?

q&m}u;D rsm;.vrf;n$erf c_ ,
H v
l #uf-
rk;d aomuf=u,ftzG@J om;rsm;

pg-22
tzrf;tqD;owif;
-um;vdu
k &f aom toHrsm;
,ckwavm *syefa&muf armeif;pwm;wd@k a±$jrefrmawG=um;rSm =um;&æ =um;&æ em;0rSmrcsr;f omqdo k vdk b,foal wmh ygomG ;jyef+yæ D b,f0gu
tvkyaf &mufrvmvd@k pHpk rf;ay;ygO;D æ usra,muFsm;tzrf;cH&vd@k ulnaD y;ygO;D æ usaemfn h D *syefa&mufwm oH;k vausmaf usmb f &J adS o;w,fæ 'Dvmzd@k ukef
xm;wJt h aºu;awmifra=uao;bl;æ bmvky&f rvJqw kd m t=uaH y;ygO;D æpwJh pwJh toHawGe@J twl tultnDawmif;cHra_ wGe@J yg ae@wdik ;f eD;yg; ñuaH e&awmh
*syef&eJ @J v0uyk*Kd~ vaf wG jrefrmudrk S a±G;zrf;ovm;vd@k awmif xifrw d ,fæ?
'D=um;xJ armeif;pwm;wd@k vdk ulnED ikd w f t
hJ cGit
hf vrf;awG &S&d @J om;eJ@ oluawmh buf*sux f cd u
kd rf mS pd;k vd@k tvkyq
f if;+y;D armeif;pwm;wd@k udak wmh ‘E_wcf sKd
v#Lwd yg;’qdw k hJ aqmify'k ef @J tnD zke;f av;eJ@ “oGm;awG@ay;ygO;D æ”qd+k y;D ,Of,Ofuav;eJ@ cdik ;f wmawGvnf; ñu&H ao;w,fæ? wu,f'u k aQ &muf+y;D ulnrD hJ
todrw d af qGr&Swd v
hJ u
l kd pdwaf &m uk, d af &m uln&D wm tyef;r}u;D ayrJh ud, k u
f ,
kd w
f ikd f tultnDay;Edik &f @J om;eJ@ wifp;D wJyh pkH rH sK;d =uawmh aomufnifuu kd yf
w,fæ? rulnaD y;jyef&if ud, k af ±$u,kd rf sK;d rsm;u a±$pwd af wmfq;kd &wmeJ@ pdwaf umuf&wmeJ@ ñu&H ao;w,fæ? uJygæ ‘'gawGajym&if igavarmw,f’qdo k vdk
vdk&if;a&mufawmhrSmr[kwfvdk@ ,ckv =um;vdkuf&wJh tzrf;tqD;toHrsm;udk a&;&r,fqdk&ifjzifh-
tajy;rawmfawmhpcef;
jrefrmtrsm;aysmyf g;wJh ‘bmbm’wv$m;u um&mtdak uqdik w f ckrmS ‘ygomG ;w,fæ’qdw k hJ toHukd p=um;&w,fæ ? jzpfyu kH t&ifqakd ewJq
h ikd u
f ae
wjcm;qdkifwckudktul; reufoHk;em&DavmufrSm ywfwa&mif&Jum;eJ@ wdk;ygava&mæ? ESpfa,mufu qdkifxJudktjref0ifayrJh usefESpfa,mufu
‘*syef&rJ sm;uGmæ’qdw k hJ AE<Kvpdwt f jynfah rG;+y;D qdik xf u J kd jznf;jznf;csi;f av#mufvrS ;f vd@k ºujref;awmfro l wJæ
h ? tJ'rD mS wif rouFmvd@k aemufuvdu k v f mwJh
&Ju ppfaq;awmhrS armifrif;}u;D om;rsm;u xGuaf jy;ygava&mæ? rl;uvnf;rl; tzrf;cHrmS vnf;a=umufqakd wmh vkyrf v d yk &f mvky&f if; xGuaf jy;=uwm
olw@kd aemufuae renf;rSaD tmifvu kd &f wJ&h uJ m;u bmbmblwma&Sr› mS ydwzf rf;wmudk cHvu kd &f w,fwæ hJ ? aexkid cf iG &hf w
dS hJ qdik &f iS ef @J wjcm;olawG vku
d af jymayrJh
r&awmh b l ; æ? ol w d k @ ud k ‘rif ; ud k i f ; (vl o G m ;awG @ jcif ; )awG @ wJ h v l w d k i f ; ud k &J u “b,f v k d y wf o uf o vJ æ ? b,f a vmuf & if ; ES D ; ovJ æ ”qd k + yD ;
pHpk rf;ppfaq;wmawmifc&H w,fæ? bmyJajymajym tckvkd acwfysuaf ewJu h mvrSm taetxdik q f ifjcifwm taumif;qH;k vd@k t=u^H m%fay;yg&apæ?
bmbmudc
k sDvmwJh *syef&e
J @J v0uwyf
aemufowif;wcku- “bmbmrSm 23 &ufae@(±H;k ydw&f ufae@)us&if *syef&aJ &m/ v0ua&m pDrcH suef @J 0ifzrf;r,fwæ hJ ? bmomjyefawGuakd wmif reuf
ig;em&Dta&muf ac:xm;w,fæ? v0uum; 5pD;eJ@ ydwzf rf;rSmæ”qd+k y;D b,fou l b,fvzkd v G ukd o
f vJrodb;l æ/ wa,mufpum; wa,mufem;eJ@ p+y;D um;
vmvdu k wf m armeif;pwm;wd@k udak wmif tJ'aD e@nuwnf;u tultnDay;zd@k ajymoH/ qdo k aH wGe@J ñu&H w,fæ? 'Dxufyq kd ;kd wmu tJ'aD e@ reuf ig;em&D
avmufu bmbmu jrefrmqdik rf mS tvkyv f yk af ewJo
h w
l OD;qDukd trnfrodvw l a,mufu “tck bmomjyefawGa&mæ v0ua&mæ &Ja&m bmbmblwma&S›
a&mufae+yæ D ”qd+k y;D zke;f vSr;f qufowJæ h ? tJ'ge@J armeif;pwm;wd@k vnf; tdycf sirf ;l wl;eJ@ blwmudak &mufomG ;awmh &xm;vufrw S af pmifah wGe@J aomufpm;+y;D
jyefvm=uwJh *syefawGub kd J jrif&w,fæ? rauseyfv@kd bmbmwcGif ywf=unf+h y;D blwma&Sr› mS reuf 10;30 txd apmif=h unfah eao;w,fæ? aocsm&if
wjcm;olawGukd a&Smifcikd ;f zd@k avæ? aemufq;kH awmh tcsed u f ek f vlarm+y;D zke;f cawGuek =f uwmbJ&w dS ,fæ? 'Dae&mrSm today;csiw f mu b,ft&mrqdk t
ajccHususpOf;pm;+yD; ,Hk=unfygvdk@ ajymcsifw,fæ? yxrtcsufu 'Dvkdzrf;r,fæ qD;r,fqdkwJhowif;rsKd;[m b,fawmhrS owif;raygufygbl;(jrefrm
jynfr[kwyf g)æ? 'kw, d tcsuu f v0uu b,faomtcgrS blwmawGrmS apmif+h y;D wJt h vkyrf vkyb f ;l qdw
k hJ tcsuf ygæ(&Juom tJ't D vkyv f yk yf gw,f)?
wwd,tcsuu f pae/we*FaEGe@J *syef±;kH ydw&f ufawGrmS v0uu b,fawmhrS tvkyrf vkyyf gb;l æ? r,H&k if v0urSm acwWc% tcsKycf aH e&wJo h al wG/
tmrcHe@J jyefxuG v f mwJv h al wGukd ar;=unhyf gæ? tJ'aD e@awGrmS txJrmS &Sw d v
hJ al wGukd a&awmifay;rcsK;d ygb;l æ? 'ga=umifh b,ft&mrqdk csi, hf vkH @kd bJ
ajymcsifygw,fæ
acwfro
D w
l i
kd ;f &jzL*sDav#muf=uonf
armeif;wd@k &J@ a±$trsK;d orD;wa,muf t&ifwacguu f oH;k vADZmeJ@ *syefukd tvnfwacguv f ma&muf+y;D jynfawmfjyefomG ;owJæ h ? wvavmuft=um
'kwd,t}udrf uyfcGmeJ@ em&Dwmavqdyfudk jyeft0ifrSmawmh *syefv0uu EdkifiHul;pmtkyfudk rouFmvdk@ ppfaq;wJhtcgrSm uyfcGmrSef;vnf;oda&m
jyefuefawmhwmayghæ? tajctaetrsKd;rsKd;a=umifh jynfawmfrjyefcsifwJh tJ'DtrsKd;orD;u =um;bl;em;0uav;uvnf; &Sdxm;awmhæ “rjyefbl;æ
&jzL*sw
D ifr,fv@kd ” vkyaf &mæ? v0uuvnf; avmavmq,f jyefy@kd vd@k vnf; r&awmh avqdyrf mS wif tvky±f y_ ±f y_ ef @J csKyx f m;w,fqw kd ohJ wif;udk oJo h ahJ v;
eJ@ em;rqHah tmif =um;vku kd &f ygw,f? jrefrmvlrsK;d wdik ;f [m ud, k Ehf ikd if &H @J tajctaea=umifh jyefv@kd r&vd@k &jzL*sq D w
kd hJ 'kuo Q nftjzpf cdvk c_H iG ahf v#muf=u&ayrJh
av#mufwv hJ w
l ikd ;f ukd vG,v f , G ef @J ray;ygb;l æ? 'gayrJh wcsK› w
d csK› ad om 'Dru kd a&pDtrnfcH ud,k u f sK;d &SmpD;yGma&;orm;awGe@J oef;ig;q,faom jynfoal wGvw G f
ajrmufz@kd twGuf tar&dum;oGm;+y;D vkyrf &S w,fqw kd hJ tcGit hf a&;&Sm ta&ðco H rm;awG&@J vky&f yfu=kd unf+h y;D tar&duef'AD 'GD x D ;kd wmxufpm&if *syefrmS &jzL*sD
av#mufwmurS aocsmw,fqw kd hJ tawG;awG *syefa&muf jrefrmawG=um;rSm acwfpm;vmcJw h m =umyg+y?D armeif;pwm;wk@d udak wmif &Sief m*g0u *syef
v0uawGu “rif;wd@k jrefrmawG tzrf;cH& &if &jzL*saD v#mufwm awmfawmfa&yef;pm;aew,faemfæ”qd+k y;D &doo hJ phJ um;udk atmift h if;+y;D cH&wmvnf;
rsm;ygyaumæ
trsKd;om;awGowdxm;
tckaemufq;kH =um;vdu k &f wJth oHuawmh &Si;f b&Srd mS tvkyv f yk af ewJh vifr,m;ESpaf ,muf reufyikd ;f tvky+f y;D vd@k twlwjl yeftvmrSm a,musmF ;udb
k zJ rf;
vdkufygowJh? bmbJajymajym b0tarm/ rdom;pktarmawGeJ@ *syefa&mufjrefrmawG &Jb,muif;uGmygapvdk@ qkawmif;&if;/ tultnDvdk&if
atmufygzek ;f eHygwaf wGquD kd tcsed rf a±G;quf+y;D awmif;cHEikd yf ga=umif;eJ@ ed*;kH csKyv
f u
kd yf g&apæ armeif;pwm;wifp;kd
03 3364 5163/ 090 8720 0917/ 090 4128 4725/ 090 7008 0026/ 090 4456 8219

Pg-23
&SeD m*g0ESihf tDbm&muD v 0 u tusO;d pcef;rS &Jabmfrsm;. &ifziG o
hf rH sm;

vlom;wd@k onf rdrod rdik ;f udk rdrud ,kd wf ikd af &; ordik ;f aumif;a&;rnfavm ordik ;f qd;k a&;rnfavm
om;ae=uolrsm;jzpf+y;D / aumif;aom ðyr_jcif;udv k yk f apmrd;k vif;(&SeD m*g0g v0utusO;f axmif)
aqmifcyhJ gu aumif;aomordik ;f rSww f rf;rsm;tjzpf ±l;aygufpuav;rsm;&J@ av;pm;r_/ *g&0ðyr_udkyif awmfrsm;rsm; tzrf;cH&+y;D 0Ëfvnfae=u+yjD zpfonf?
rSwfausmufwifcH&rnfjzpf+yD;/ raumif;aomðyr_ rcHc&hJ wJh b0ed*;kH csKyu f kd oH;k oyfrnfqv kd si/f ae0if; vl@b0qdkonfrSm tvGefyif wdkawmif;vSyg
jcif;udk vkyaf qmifcyhJ gu/ raumif;aomordik ;f rSwf onf wdik ;f jynfEiS v hf rl sK;d twGuf aumif;wmrvky/f onf? wdik ;f jynftyk cf sKyf rif;vkyaf eolrsm;/ tm%m
wrf;tjzpf rSwfausmufwifcH&rnf jzpfygonf? qd;k wmvkycf o hJ nfh ordik ;f qd;k }u;D udk a&;cJah om twˆK vufqyk v f ufuikd ,f x
l m;onfh tm%mydik rf sm;.
urBmEh ikd if aH cgi;f aqmifrsm;/ tm%m&Sirf sm;. ðyr_ y`wWda=umifhjzpfayonf? =oZmtm%mqdo k nfrmS vnf; aumuf±;kd rD;uJo h @kd
ajymqdk vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;onf ordik ;f rSww f rf;rsm; olarG;xm;cJah om e0w§etz tm%m±l; ppf [ke;f ueJ awmufavmifum wr[kwjf cif; jymus
tjzpf usef&pfcJh=uayonf? Tordkif;&mZ0ifrsm; Adv k rf sm;onfvnf; 1988 ckEpS f jynfv;kH u|w'f rD u kd ouJo h @dk =um&Snrf wnf+ryJ g[k ajymcsiyf gonf? tm
teuf Armjynf. EdkifiHa&;ordkif;&mZ0ifrsm;t a&pDawmif;qdrk u _ kd ppftiftm;jzifh acsre_ ;f tajz&Sm %mvk,jl cif;/ pD;yGm;a&;pm;usuv f jk cif;rsm;onf Edik f
a=umif; a&;om;wifjyvdyk gonf? ArmjynfEikd if aH &; cJ+h y;D a±G;aumufyt GJ Edik &f NLDygwu D kd tm%mrvJG iHhtusKd;/ jynfol@tusKd;twGuf bmrS aumif;usKd;
ordkif;wGif e,fcs›JudkvdkeDt*FvdyfvufatmufrS ay;bJ tcsed q f vGJ mcJo h nfrmS ,ckqkd 16 ESpw f m r&Sod nfrmS trSeyf ifjzpfonf? Ak'j< rwfpmG bk&m;onf
vGwfvyfa&;udk óu;pm;&,lay;cJh=uonhf rsKd;cspf =umjrihv f mcJ+h yjD zpfonf? xd@k tjyif‚wd@k =oZmcH rD'D 31 bHu k siv f nfuek af om owW0grsm;udk jrwfaom
ocifrsm;/ vGwfvyfa&;Adokum}uD;tjzpf jynfol ,mrsm;rS 'Dru kd a&pDEikd if aH wmfay:ayguaf tmif óu; w&m;a[m=um;+y;D qH;k r=o0g'w&m; a[m=um;cJh
jynfom;rsm;. av;pm;cspcf if =unfnKd jcif;udck cH &hJ pm;tm;xkwfaea=umif;/ wdkif;jynfròyuJGa&;t aoma=umihf tu|ufw&m;&=uavonf?
aom Adv k cf sKyaf tmifqef;tygt0if Edik if aH &;acgi;f wGuf xde;f odr;f xm;&a=umif; 0g'jzef@=uonf? xdk Ak'<bmomxGef;um;aom jrefrmjynfwGif ppf
aqmiftmZmenf}u;D rsm;/ rsK;d csppf mqdak wmf}u;D jzpf od@k 0g'jzef@aeonfh etztm%mydik rf sm;tm; 'Dru kd tm%m±l;wd@k onf wefc;kd }u;D q&mawmf}u;D rsm;.
onfh q&m}u;D ocifu, kd af wmfri_d ;f tygt0if tjcm; a&pDEikd if aH wmfay:xGe;f vma&;twGuf 16 ESpw f m =o0g'w&m;awmfrsm; em=um;+y;D rnfonft h u|wf
xif&mS ;cJah om rsK;d csppf mayynm&Si}f u;D rsm;/ urBmh umvtwGi;f / 'Dru dk a&pDenf;vrf;usus bmrsm; w&m;rsm; &&Scd yhJ goenf;[k ar;cGe;f xkwv f ykd gonf?
+ird ;f csr;f a&;bcif}u;D jzpfonfh ukvor*~taxGaxG vkycf yhJ govJæ´[k ar;cGe;f xkwcf siyf gonf? NLD tdEdN,jynfodk@ tvnfc&D; oGm;a&mufcJh+yD;/ Ak'<*g
twGi;f a&;rSL;wm0efukd xrf;aqmifcahJ om q&m tygt0if EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;tm; ESdyfpufn‡if; ,mod@k bk&m;zl;xGucf ahJ om tm%m&Si}f u;D oef;a±$/
}u;D OD;oef@uJo h @dk tar#mt f jrif}u;D rm;cJo h nfh ynm yef;jcif;/ vl@tcGit hf a&;csK;d azmufjcif;/ rw&m;t"rR rnfonfhoHa0*rsm; &vmygoenf;[k ar;csifyg
&Sif}uD;rsm; vufcsKd;a&wGufI rukefEdkifavmuf tvkyfapcdkif;jcif;/ OD;wifOD; a':atmifqef;pk=unf onf? ‘yg;pyfu bk&m;bk&m;/ vufu um;&m;um;
atmif xif&mS ;a=umf=um;cJyh gonf? tygt0if 'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmifrsm;tm; zrf;qD; &m;’vkyaf eor# cif!e$ @f uJo h @kd arwWmwefjyefjcif;cH
usaemfw@kd acwfvil ,frsm;onf Edik if t H usK;d udk xde;f odr;f jcif;wd@k onf 'Dru kd a&pDusiphf Ofukd qef@usif &+yD;/ 0Ëfvnfvdrfhrnf[k owday;vdkygonf?
o,fy;kd xrf;aqmifcahJ om ud, k u f sK;d pGe@f rsK;d cspaf cgi;f aeonfh vkyaf qmifrr_ sm;yifjzpfonf? etzppftyk pf o k nf trsK;d om;&if=um;apha&;udk
aqmif}u;D rsm;.ajymqdrk ed @f =um;cJo h nfh rde@f cGe;f rsm; etztm%mydik w f @kd onf urBmu h v k or*~tyg a&S;±_+yD; oHk;yGifhqdkifaqG;aEG;jcif;rsm;ðyvkyfum +idrf;
a&;om;azmfjycJo h nfh ordik ;f rSww f rf;rsm;/ ausmif; t0if/ tar&duefEiS hf Oa&myor*~Eikd if rH sm;. pD;yGm; csrf;aomenf;jzihf tajz&Smoifh+yDjzpfonf? etz
oifcef;pmrsm;ESihf q&m q&mrrsm;. ajymqdo k if a&;ydwq f @kd zdtm;ay;r_rsm;udk *kwaf oG;pkwf tmqD,H tm%mydik af wG tm%mòyif+y;D / ud, k u f sK;d pD;yGm;&Sm
=um;yd@k cscsurf sm;/ ouf}u;D ±G,t f kd rsK;d cspEf ikd if aH &;o Edik if rH sm;u tumtuG,af y;aeI/ ‚wd@k touf ae&ifawmh trdjrefrmjynf.tem*wfonf ydkI
rsm;}u;D rsm;. a[majymyJrG sm;/ rdbbd;k bGm;rsm;. ±_acsmifae&jcif;jzpfonf? w±ky/f *syef/ tdE, Nd Edik if H qdk;±Gm;±Hkom&Sdrnf?
ajymjycsurf sm;rS od&cdS &hJ +y;D xdEk ikd if aH &;acgi;f aqmif rsm;vnf; tmqD,eH nf;wl rdrEd ikd if . H tusK;d tjrwf ,ck j zpf y suf a eonf h wd k i f ; jynf t ajctae
rsK;d cspjf ynfcsprf sm;. ud, k uf sK;d pGe@f um vGwv f yfa&; udkom ar#mfudk;+yD; usifhoHk;ae=uonfrSm ,ae@ rsm;udo k ;kH oyfum tem*wfjrefrmjynftwGuf o
twGuf wdkufyJG0ifcJh=uonfh ordkif;rSwfwrf;tjzpf xufwikd yf ifjzpfonf? xd@k twGuaf =umifh Armjynf rdkif;aumif;a&;rnfavmæ´ ordkif;qdk;a&;rnf
tysurf sm;udk rSwo f m;od&cdS &hJ +y;D *k%, f tl m;us *g& . 'Drdkua&pDpepfjzpfxGef;a&;/ ppftm%m&Sifpepf avmæ´qdkonfh ar;cGef;udk etztm%mydkifwdk@
0ðyrdygonf? tb,fa=umifhqdkonfrSm xdkrsKd;cspf oufqdk;&Snfa&;twGufomjzpfa=umif; rSwfwrf; ezl;ay:vufwif+yD; aoaocsmcsmpOf;pm;um t
Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmif}u;D rsm;. ordik ;f &mZ0if tpOf wif&rnfjzpfonf? vkyjf zifh oufaojyoif+h y[ D k wdu k wf eG ;f a&;om;vdu k f
tvmaumif;rsm;a=umifyh if jzpfonf[k aumuf 2004 ckEpS f atmufwb kd mv 19 &ufae@wGif &ygonf?
csufcs&rnfjzpfygonf? etz0ef}uD;csKyfcif!$ef@udk vmbfpm;r_jzifh t
Advk cf sKyaf tmifqef; pnf;urf;wuswnfaxmif a=umif;jyzrf;qD;vdu k +f y;D / oabmxm;wif;rmonfh t*FvefEikd if q H ikd &f m etzoHtrwf
cJo
h nfh wyfrawmfonf Adv k cf sKyrf &So d nfh aemufyikd ;f oef;a±$/ armifat;tkyfpkrS tEdkif,lcJh=uonf? cif Edik if aH &;cdv
k c_H iG ahf v#mufxm;a=umif;od&
umvrsm;wGif tm%m±l;ae0if;. vufatmuf !$ef=oZm&SdpOfu jrefrmjynf'Drdkua&pDta&;t 'DADGbD 23/ Edk0ifbm/ 2004
a&muf&SdcJh+yD;/ ae0if;óu;qJG&m uae&onfh tusifh wGuf oH;k yGiq hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJrG sm;udk taumiftxnfr
ysuf ±kyaf o;ppfwyf jzpfc&hJ ygawmh onf? xd@k aemuf azmfcJhjcif;/ ppfwyftm%mwnf+rJa&;twGuf ±kyf vef'efu0ifa&mufvmonfhowif;t& t*F
wdik ;f jynfc|wðf cu H sum b,foal oao/ iawrm+y;D rufukd rw&m;taumiftxnfazmfcjhJ cif;/ Edik if aH &; vefEikd if q
H ikd &f m etzoHtrwf}u;D a'guw f mausmf
a&mqdw k hJ rSm;,Gi;f wJh ordik ;f vrf;a=umif; trSm;}u;D ygw0D ifrsm;ESihf Edik if aH &;orm;rsm;tm; axmifoiG ;f 0if; rae@eHeufyikd ;f u Edik if aH &;cdv
k cH_ iG ahf v#mufxm;
udk raxrJjh rifav#mufcI hJ ‚aoqH;k onft h cg wdik ;f ESyd pf ufcjhJ cif;pwJh tqifjcifrahJ om ordik ;f qd;k }u;D udk vdu
k +f y[
D k od&onf? xdo k wif;ESiyhf wfoufI etz
oljynfom;rsm;u ESajrmwojcif;r&Sdonfhtjyif vkyfcJhonfhtwGuf ‘0ËfrSmt+rJ i&JrSmty’qdkonhf tcGef±Hk;odk@ qufoG,far;jref;cJhaomfvnf; wpHk
0rf;awmifom=uonf? olarG;xm;cJo h nfh tm%m twdkif; cif!$ef@tygt0if axmufvSrf;a&;awmf w&mjyefvnfajz=um;&ef jiif;qdo k mG ;onf?
pg-24
tcef;qufu,
kd af wG‹aqmif;yg;
OD;oefŒta&;tcif;(ed*;kH ydik ;f )
[efe&Dp;kd 0if;
(a±$yad wmufpmapmifr)S

ausmif;om;ESifh oHCmawmfrsm;. qENrsm; uJG pum;vH;k rsm;(“usr vuf&Sdae0if;ppftkyfpk vkyfyHk


jym;jcm;em;aeygonf? udik yf akH v;awGukd vGwv f w
G v f yfvyf 'Dru
kd a&pDus
tajctaejzpf & yf t m;vH k ; ud k jh y ef v nf p D p Of us a0zef&wJhtwGuf rsm;pGm tm;&auseyfvSyg
aomtcg ae 0if;ppftkyfpkonf +yD;pvG,f OD;oef@ w,f? tckvdkajymvdk@ usrudkzrf;+yD; axmifcs&if
(urBmu h v k or*~twGi;f a&;rSL;csKyaf [mif;). ±kyf vnf; usraxmifxrJ mS ae±kyH gb?J bma=umifv h nf;
uvmyfukd =uaH wmfoif;csKid ;f wGif o+*Kõ v&f ef tpD qdak wmh axmifxrJ mS rS xrif;av;rSerf eS f pm;&rSm”)
tpOfðyvkyfygonf? ausmif;om;ESifh jynfolvlxk onf Eke,fvaS om ausmif;oluav; jzpfvifu h
OD;oef@psmyeudpPESifhywfoufI ausmif;om;
onf rauseyfEikd I f av;pm;*k%ðf yxdu k af om OD; pm; oluav;.cHpm;&r_wdk@onf jyif;xefvSyg
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ oHCmawmfrsm; tjyeftvSef
oef@tm; EdkifiHawmfpsmyetcef;tem;ðyvkyf&ef/ onf?
aqG;aEG;=u+yD;/ tpnf;a0;.qHk;jzwfcsufudk trsm;
ae0if;ppftkyfpktm; awmif;qdkcJhygonf? jynfol &efukef 0dZ…mESifhody`HwuUodkvfe,fajrwckvHk;
oabmwl n D c suf j zif h qH k ; jzwf r nf j zpf a =umif ; /
vlxkESifh ausmif;om;wdk@. awmif;qdkr_udk wkef@ onf ajccsp&mr&Sd/ jynfolvlxk}uD;ESifh jynfhvsHae
ud,k pf m;vS,w f OD;csi;f pDu qEN,rl nfjzpf a=umif;/
jyefrr_ &SI
d / aemufq;kH ausmif;om;wd@k touf aoG; ygonf? rEWav; aqmif 11 OD; psmyeaumfrwD
xd k t pnf ; a0;od k @ wuf a &muf o l t m;vH k ; u
ac|;ES i f h p aw;cJ h o nf h ausmif ; om;or*~ tpnf;a0;+yD;onfESifh ausmif;om;rsm; tkyfpkuJG
oabmwlnD=uavonf? yxrOD;qHk; OD;oef@
a[mif;ae&mwGif OD;oef@±kyu f vmyfukd o+*Kõ v+f y;D oGm;ygonf? pufrw _ uUov kd rf S ausmif;om; oH;k
±kyfuvmyf o+*õLvfa&;tpDpOfudk 'DZifbmv 12
tkw*f El iS hf *lArd mefwnf aqmufygonf? OD;onf aemufxyfqufvufI psmyetpDpOf
&uf/ 12 em&DwdwdwGif pwif&ef oabmwlnD=u
or*~taqmufODae&mwGif vkyftm;ay;ae tpnf;a0;udk uef@uGufonfhoabmESifh quf
avonf? qufvufI atmufygtcsuEf pS cf suf ukd
aom jynfol ausmif;om;rsm;/ bJ@G ESi;f obifcef;r vuf r wuf a &muf = uawmh b J tk w f * l w nf
aqG;aEG;+y;D qH;k jzwfrcJ &GJ ygrnf?
wGi;f OD;oef@±kyu f vyfukd apmifah &Smufaeaom jynf aqmuf&m ausmif;om;or*~taqmufODa[mif;
(1) OD;oef@.±kyu f vyfudk bJ@G ESi;f obifcef;rrS
olausmif;om;rsm;/ t"dywdvrf;ray:wGif tvSLaiG ae&mudk pufr_wuUodkvf. pk&yfvdk@ owfrSwf
ausmif;om;or*~ae&m ausmif;om;rsm; aqmuf
aumufcaH eaom jynfoal usmif;om;rsm;/ OD;oef@ vdkufygonf? wa,mufpum; wa,mufem;qdk
vkyx f m;aom OD;oef@tkw*f al y:wGif OD;oef@±kyu f
±kyu
f vmyfukd aemufq;kH *g0&ðy=uaom jynfow l ouJo h @kd OD;oef@.±kyu f vmyfukd ausmif;om;jynf
vyfudkwifI OD;oef@rdom;pkrsm;/ jynfolvlxk/
&yfv;kH . vdt k ifqENonf pm=unfw h u kd tf aqmuf ol w d k @ ac|;ES i f h w nf a qmuf o nh f tk w f * l w G i f
ausmif;om;/ oHCmawmfrsm; aemufq;kH *g0&ðy+y;D
ODae&mrS tkwfcsyfrsm;udk wa,mufwvufESifh o+*õKvf&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufygonf?
uefawmfrifyef;jco H @kd o,faqmif&ef?
vufqifu h rf;o,f,l aqmufwnfaeonfh tkw*f l or*~a[mif;0ef;usifwckvHk;udk pufr_wuU
(2) OD;oef@.±kyfuvyfudk ausmif;om;ESifh
wGif OD;oef@±kyu f vyfukd o +*Kõ v+f y;D qufvufI odv k af usmif;om;rsm; ae&m,l apmif=h uyfvu kd yf g
jynfow l @kd . ac|;ESiahf qmufwnfaeonfh OD;oef@
OD;oef@*lArd mef aqmufwnf&efjzpfonf? onf? OD;oef@±kyu f vmyfukd tkw*f al y:wGif aemuf
tkw*f w l iG f o+*Kõ v+f y;D OD;oef@*lArd mefukd ausmif;om;
“vl u av;&,f æ / tzG m ;vJ tk w f w csyf qHk;*g0&ðy+yD; csufjcif;o+*õKvf*lydwf&ef bdvyfajr
rsm; toufaoG;ESiahf c|;paw;cJo h nfh ausmif;om;
avmuf 0ifo,f ,l ukov kd ðf yyg&apæ”qdkonfh (Concrete cement mixture)ESihf yef;&Hq
or*~ae&mwGifwnfaqmuf&ef?
tzGm;wdk@.toHESifh/ rr#onfhvkyftm;jzifh OD;oef@ &m(Masonary) tqifoifh&Sdygonf? wufnD
wOD;csi;f qENvu kd , f al omtcg 7 rJ/ 4 rJEiS hf yx
tkwf*laqmuf&mwGif tzGm;wdk@vJ yg0ifvkyftm; vufnD wm0efukd,fpDESifh ausmif;om;rsm; nD
rtcsufudk oabmwlnD=uygonf? 7 rJxJrSm OD;
ay;cJyh gonf? tkw*f El iS hf *lArd mefwnfaqmuf&m wGif !$wf=uygonf? bJG@ESif;obifcef;rwGifvnf; OD;
aomif;/ a'guw f mwifjrifOh ;D / oHCmawmfEpS yf g;ESihf
vkyftm;ay;ae=uonfh jynfol/ &[ef;oHCm ESifh oef@±kyfuvmyfudk touf aoG;ESifh umuG,f
useaf usmif;om;uk, d pf m; vS,o f ;kH OD; yg0ifygonf?
ausmif;om;wdk@twGuf xrif;xkyfrsm;udk &yf apmifha&Smuf rnfh taocH 12 OD;/ ausmif;om;
4 rJxrJ mS usaemfw@kd pufrw _ uUov kd rf S ausmif;
uGufrsm;rS vma&mufvSL'gef;=uygonf? xrif; ausmif;olrsm; cGyfa'gif;acgif;pD;eDrsm;pD;I jcH&ef
om;oHk;OD;ESifh aq;wuUokdvfudk,fpm;ðy ausmif;
xkyrf sm;wGiv f nf;- “ighnw D @kd rif;wd@k &J@ rSeu
f efwhJ apmifh=uyfae=uygonf?
om;wOD;tygt0if ausmif;om;av;OD;onf 'kw, d
vkyf&yfudk igwdk@tm;ay;w,fæ? vkyfief;+yD;qHk; 'DZifbmv 8 &uf/ 12 em&D 1974 ckEpS f
tcsufudk rJay;ygonf?
onfxd qufvufvyk af qmifygæ”qdkonfh pm bJG@ESif;obifcef;r0ef;usifwckvHk;/ wuUokdvf
TwGif OD;oef@±kyu f vmyfukd 7 rJ 4 rJEiS hf uef
±Gufi,fuav;rsm;jzifh jynfolvlxkqENudk ajym e,fajr t"dywdvrf;wavsmufvHk;wGif OD;oef@
awmfrifyef;jcHwGif o+*õKvf&ef qHk;jzwf=uygonf/
=um;aeygonf? ±kyu f vmyfukd aemufq;kH vma&muf*g0&ðy=u aom
jrefrmhtoHa&'D,kdrSvnf; 12 &uf ae@vnf 12
xdkwGifru rauseyfEdkifonfh OuUvmy&yf jynforl sm;ESihf jynfv h saH eygonf? ausmif;om;or*~
em&DtcsdefwGif psmyetcrf; tem;pwifrnf[k
uGufu jynfolwdk@ onf ausmif;om;jynfolrsm; a[mif; ywf0ef;usiw f ckv;kH udk pufr_ wuUov kd f
a=unmygonf?
twGuf xrif;xkwt f vSLcHonfh tzG@J udk wm;jrpf ausmif;om;/ ausmif;olrsm; vufwrGJ jywf apmifh
ausmif;om;ESio hf C H mwd@k onf ausmif;om;xk
onfh &Jpcef;udk rD;±_d@zsufqD;vdkufygonf? =uyfxm;ygonf? OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk bJG@ESif;o
ESifh jynfolvlxkudkudk,fpm;ðyI Ttpnf;ta0;
bJG@ESif;obifcef;r&Sd [pfwdkifrdkufu±dkzkef;rS bifcef;rrS rsm;jym;vSonhf ausmif;om;xk=um;rS
odk@ wufa&mufvmjcif;jzpfygonf? rJcJG&mwGif
vnf; ausmif;olrav;wOD;. &ifzGifhed*Hk;csKyf cJ&mcJqpf ausmif;om;or*~ ae&ma[mif;odk@
Pg-25
tcef;qufu, kd af wG‹aqmif;yg;
o,faqmif vm&avonf?
or*~a[mif;ae&m tkw*f l ausmif;om;ESihf jynfov l x l k onf rauseyfEikd I f av;pm;*k%ðf yxdu k af om OD;oef@tm; Edik if aH wmf
ES i f h ,m,D * l A d r mef w d k @ onf
psmyetcef;tem;ðyvky&f ef/ ae0if;ppftyk pf t k m; awmif;qdck yhJ gonf? jynfov l x l Ek iS hf ausmif;om;wd@k .
wa,muf w vuf e J @ wnf
aqmufcJhygonf? OD;oef@±kyfyHk awmif;qdrk u _ kd wke@f jyefrr_ &SI d / aemufq;kH ausmif;om;wd@k touf aoG; ac|;ESiphf aw;cJo h nfh ausmif;om;
yefcsDum;csyfonf *k%f&SdvSyg or*~a[mif;ae&mwGif OD;oef@±kyu f vmyfukd o+*Kõ v+f y;D tkw*f El iS hf *lArd mefwnfaqmufygonf?
onf ? tvH a wmf o H k ; ck
v$ i f h x l x m;ygonf ? Ak ' < b m
omtvHawmf/ ukvor*~tvHawmfEiS hf ausmif; ment mixture)ESifh yef;&Hq&m(Masonary) &efukef0dZ…mody`HwuUokdvf e,fajrwckvHk;udk odrf;
om;or*~cyG af 'gi;f tvHawmfrsm; wifw h ,fx,f0g vufpGrf;ESifh tkwf*ludk xm0&ydwfvdkufygonf? ydkufvdkufygonf?
jyef@jrL;ae=uygonf? wcsdefu Tae&monf atmif+yæ D atmif+yæ D atmif+yæ D [laom aºu; e,f a jrwck v H k ; twG i f ; od k @ t0if t xG u f u d k
ausmif;om;rsm;pkpnf;&m ausmif;om;or*~ t a=umforH sm; rd;k uJv G rk wuf jrnf[ed ;f oGm;ygonf? yd w fvdkufygonf? 11 &uf 12 v 1974/ reuf 2
aqmufO}D u;D wnf&cdS yhJ gonf? oH C mawmf r sm; y&d w f w &m;em+yD ; / taocH em&DwGif ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh qENjyolrsm; t
q&m}uD;OD;oef@onf urBmwGif jrefrmjynf ausmif;om;wyfzJG@u/ urBmhukvor*~ tvH rsm;pktdyfarmuscsdefavmufwGif t"dywdvrf;&Sd
om;wdk@.*k%fudk aqmifcJhonfomru urBmhuk awmfESifh tkwf*ludk vusfm&pfoHk;ywfywf+yD; t t"du yifr0ifaygufwHcg;}uD;tm; u&def;jzifh wGef;
vor*~. taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyfwOD; jzpf av;ðyygonf? xd@k aemuf ukvor*~tvHawmf udk vSezf supf ;D I ausmif;0if;twGi;f 0ifa&mufzrf;qD;
onft h m;avsmpf mG ol. aemufq;kH c&D;rSm Edik if jH cm; tkw*f x l ufwiG f v$r;f ðcv H ukd yf gonf? =uygonf? xdo k @kd 0ifa&muf&mwGif bJ@G ESi;f obif
oHwrmefrsm;/ Edik if jH cm;owif;axmufrsm; aemuf ‚ae@ nbufwGif ae0if;ppftkyfpkbufrS jref cef;rae&m uGufvyftm; rD;armif;rsm;xdk;+yD;
qHk;rSwfwrf;wif owif;,l&ef a&muf&Sdae=uyg rmhtoHuwqifh ausmif;om;rsm;u OD;oef@ rd &Jrsm;u 'dik ;f umrsm; vufuikd w f w k rf sm;jzifh pwif
onf? xdk@xufonfomru wcgrS pkpnf;r_r&SdcJh om;pk.qENudk jiif;y,fI ausmif;om;rsm;wnf 0if a &muf + y D ; rs u f & nf , d k A H k ; rs m ;/ aj raumfpufrsm;/
aom bkef;awmf}uD;rsm; te,fe,ft&yf&yfrS aqmufonfh tkwf*lwGif OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk armfawmfum;rsm; toHk;ðy+yD; qENjyolrsm;tm;
vma&mufI ausmif;om;rsm;ESihf yl;aygi;f vufwGJ o+*õ K vf a =umif ; / pm=unh f w d k u f t aqmuf O D t vlpkcJGum OD;oef@tkwf*ltm;vnf; òzcsI ±kyfu
vsufaeonfrSm tHhzG,f&mjzpfygonf? wGufxm;aom aqmufvkyfa&;ypPnf;rsm;udk t vmyftm; jyefvnfac:,l +yD; a±$wd*Hkbk&m;teD;
OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk ausmif;om;rsm;wnf vJGoHk;pm;ðyvkyf+yD; tkwf*lwnfaqmufonfht uefawmfrifyef;jcaH b;&Sd ocifu, kd af wmfri_d ;f tkwf
aqmufaom tkw*f al &S› pm;yJaG y:wGif wifI/ oH wGuf jynfolydkifypPnf;zsufpD;r_ESifh ta&;,l&ef/ &ef *lab;ae&mod@k nwGi;f yif ajymif;a±$@ðryfEo HS nf?
Cmawmfrsm;/ OD;oef@rdom;pkrsm;/ EdkifiHjcm;oHw ukefwdkif; aqmufvkyfa&;aumfydka&;&Sif;rS pmydk@ xkod @dk =urf;wrf;pGm zsuq f ;D zrf;qD;onft h wGuf
rmefrsm;/ jynfoal usmif;om;rsm; aemufq;kH *g0& a=umif; a=ujimygonf? ausmif ; om;wcs› K d aoqH k ; cJ h = u&ygonf ? w
ðy=uygonf? tpDtpOft& OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk ausmif;om;rsm;taeESifh *lAdrmefqufvuf csK› rd mS awmh ppfzed yfpmxdI t±d;k usK;d / wkwrf sm;.
uefawmfrifyef;jcHodk@ o,f,lrnf[k a=ujim wnfaqmuf&ef/ taocHwyfzJG@trnfwyfum ±dkufcsufa=umifh acgif;uJG+yD; vJusolrsm;vnf; &Sdyg
vdkufonfESifh OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk or*~0if;t +idrf;csrf;a&;bcif}uD;OD;oef@twGuf toufudk y onf? vufeufrahJ om jynfo/l oHCmawmfrsm;/
wGif;rS b,fudkrSrxkwf&bl;qdkonfh aºu;a=umfoH "merxm;bl;qdo k nfh cH,cl suEf iS hf OD;oef@tkw*f l udk ausmif;om;rsm;udk tcsKyu f m;ay:od@k twif;t "rR
rsm; wcJeuf qlno H mG ;ygawmhonf? apmif h a &S m uf x m;ygonf ? rauseyf E d k i f o nf h zrf;qD;wifaqmifI nwGif;csif;yif tif;pdeft
or*~ a[mif;a&S&› dS rEWav;aqmifcef;r toHcsJ› jynfolvlxk}uD;ESifh ausmif;om;wdk@onf ae0if; usO;f axmifo@kd yd@k ygonf? o,faqmif&mppfum;
pufrS OD; cef@taeESihf jynfoEl iS hf ausmif;om;xkukd ppftkyfpk. wygwD0g'udk qufvufuef@uGuf .taemufydkif; trdk;tumrJhwGif tm;vHk;udk yk
arwWm&yfcHpum; tenf;i,f ajym=um;oGm;yg qENjyae=uygonf? qpf';l wkw/f vufEpS zf ufukd acgi;f ay:wif/ acgi;f iH@k
onf? OD;oef@±kyu f vmyfukd ausmif;om;rsm;wnf ausmif;om;rsm; ydkrdkI pnf;vHk;nD!$wfvmyg v_yfr&atmifxdkifcdkif;+yD; ppfum;.aemufydkif;
aqmufxm;aom tkwf*lwGif xm0&o+*õKvf&ef onf? wOD;udw k OD; nDtudak rmifErS ozG,f apmifh av;bufaxmifhwGif ppfom;av;OD;onf *sDo&D;
aºu;a=umfoHrsm; qlnHonfxuf qlnHvmyg a&Smuf=uygonf? ae0if;ppftkyfpk. olvsKdtrf aoewfrsm;ESihf csed x f m;ygonf? ppf±yk &f iS u f m;rsm;
onf? tajctaerSm oufqdkif&mausmif;om; tdkifrsm;udk rsufajcrjywf ppfaq;I zrf;rdaom rS ppfyJGtusOf;orm;rsm; zrf;qD;ouJhodk@ ae0if;
ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;u wpHw k ckrS rðyvkyyf gu usef trftdkifrsm;udk ausmif;om;rsm;u ±dkufESufowd ppftkyfpkonf ausmif;om;/ jynfol/ &[ef;oHCm
ausmif;om;rsm;u twif;0ifa&muf o+*Kõ vrf nfh ay;vdkuf=uygonf? awmfrsm;udk rw&m;zrf;qD;csKyaf ESmifcyhJ gonf?
tajcaewGif &Sad eygonf? w&uf/ ESpf&uf/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf quf nydkif;rSpwifzrf;qD;+yD; tif;pdefaxmifodk@ ydk@
aemufq;kH ausmif;om;ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;u OD; vufI *lAdrmef+yD;pD;a&;twGuf qufvufvkyf aqmifaom aemufq;kH ppfum;onf eHeuf 8 em&D
oef@±kyfuvmyfudk ausmif;om;rsm;wnfaqmuf udkifae=uygonf? oHCmawmfrsm;/ ausmif;om; tcsdefxdjzpfygonf? TjrifuGif;onf jynfolvlxk
aom tkw*f w f m xm0&o+*Kõ vrf nfjzpf a=umif; ausmif;olrsm;ESihf jynfow
l iG o l @kd onf owif;pmrsm; ESihf w&yfvHk;twGuf &ifeifhzG,f&m rwwfomvdk@
a=ujimvdu k o f nft h csed rf oS m/ ausmif; om;xkEiS hf a&'D,w kd @kd rS ausmif;om;rsm;tm; ae0if;ppf tkypf . k vufydkuf=unfhae&onfh tajcaewGif&Sdygonf?
jynf o l r sm; vuf c H a useyf = uavonf ? trsK;d rsK;d ±_wcf sa0zefrr_ sm;udk cH,al e=u& ygonf? jrefrmAk'<bmomxHk;pHudkrS *±krpdkuf/ tkwf*ludk
a=ujim+yD;onfhtwdkif; ausmif;om;rsm; OD;oef@ oH;k &ufajrmufae@/ 'DZifbmv 10 &uf ae@ 1974 azgucf +GJ y;D o+*Kõ v+f y;D onfh ±kyu f vmyfux kd w
k , f jl cif;/
±kyfuvmyfudk ykcHk;ajymif;o,f,l+yD; tkwf*lwGif ckESpf/ ae0if;ppfwyfonf ausmif;om; rsm;udk jynfol/ oHCmawmfESifh ausmif;om; ausmif;ol
o+*õKvfvdkufygonf? bdvyfajr(Concrete ce- ES d r f e if ; &ef wd w f w qd w f p D r H + yD ; ppf w yf u rsm;ud k &uf & uf p uf p uf
pg-26
ema&;owif;
ausmif;om; Edik if aH &;tusO;f om; udak ZmfrsK;d xuf tonf;a&m*gjzifh uGev
f eG f Ed0k ifbm 2 (tjrifopf)
axmif'%fwoufcsrSwfcHxm;&aom ausmif;om;EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; udkaZmfrsKd;xuf(28ESpf)onf atmufwdkbm 19 &ufae@Y tonf;a&m*gjzifh
&efuek òf r@wGif uG,v f eG cf o
hJ nf? Edik if aH wmfacgi;f aqmifrsm;tm; vky=f u&H efóu;pm;r_/ wdik ;f jynfqyl rl j_ zpfatmif zefw;D r_ponfh pGypf cGJ surf sm;jzifh udak ZmfrsK;d xufonf
+y;D cJo
h nfEh pS v
f ,fyikd ;f Y tm;upm;*sme,ft,f'w D m udak ZmfoufaxG;wd@k ESit hf wl zrf;qD;cHc&hJ +y;D ao'%ftrde@f rS axmuf'%fwouf/ xkrd S axmif'%f 3
ESpo f @kd ajymif;vJtjypfay; cH&oljzpfonf? Edik if aH wmfyek u f efrp_ cGJ sujf zifh axmuf'%fwoufrS axmif'%fo;kH ESpo f @kd ajymif;vJcsrwS cf cH &hJ aomfvnf; axmiftwGi;f
1 ESpaf usmaf exdik cf &hJ pOf uG,v f eG cf &hJ jcif;jzpfonf? udak ZmfrsK;d xufonf 1988 ckEpS af emufyikd ;f jrefrmppftyk pf . k tusO;f axmifrsm;twGi;f uG,v f eG cf &hJ aom
93 OD;ajrmuf EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;jzpfonf?
Adv
k w
f axmif t,f'w
D mcsKyfa[mif;OD;xdev
f if;uGev
f eG f axmifpjk ywif;*sme,frS
Adkvfwaxmifowif;pm t,f'DwmcsKyfa[mif; OD;xdefvif;ac: Adkvfxdefvif; 79 ESpfonf Edk0ifbm 4 &uf =umoyaw;ae@ eHeufapmapmwGif
uG,v f eG o
f mG ;cJyh gonf? vGwv f yfa&;wdu k yf 0GJ ifa[mif;wOD;jzpfaom OD;xdev f if;onf jynfo@l &JabmfEiS hf yrnwtzJ@G 0ifrsm;wGif yg0ifI Edik if aH &;v_y&f mS ;cJ+h y;D
awmfveS af &;aumifpaD cwfwiG f Adv k wf axmifowif;pmt,f'w D mvkycf o
hJ nf?
2000 ckEpS af emufyikd ;f wGif OD;xdevf if;onf a&'D,o kd wif;Xmersm;rSwqifh etztm%m&Sirf sm;. rSm;,Gi;f aomvky&f yfrsm;tm; &J&0J 0hH ahH 0zefajym=um;cJo h l
jzpfonf? xdo k @kd a0zefra_ =umihf axmufvrS ;f a&;rsm;. owday;cHc&hJ um aetdrw f ,fvzD ek ;f udv
k nf; jzwfawmufjcif;cHc&hJ onf?

&Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f ifAv


kd rf LS ;atmifueG v
f eG &f mS _yD Ed0k ifbm 11 (tjrifopf)
jrefrmvGwv f yfa&;twGuf *syefEikd if o H @kd ppfynmoGm;a&mufoif,cl o hJ nfh ordik ;f 0if &Jabmfo;kH usyd t f zJ@G rS ouf&x dS if&mS ;useaf eol
3 OD;teuf wOD;jzpfol Adv k rf LS ;atmif(94 ESp)f onf &efuek òf r@aetdrYf 96 yg;aoma&m*gjzifh Ed0k ifbm 9 &ufae@Y uG,v f eG cf o
hJ nf?
Adv
k rf LS ;atmifonf 1910 ckEpS f =o*kwv f 10 &ufae@wGif yJc;l wdik ;f / ausmufwcH g;òr@wGif arG;zGm;cJo h nf? trnf&if;rSm udpk v H i_d jf zpf+y;D
wd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k od@k 0ifa&muf+y;D Edik if aH &;v_y&f mS ;&mrS ocifpv H id_ jf zpfvmcJo h nf? *syefomG ; ppfynmoif &Jabmfo;kH usyd t f zJ@G wGif
yg0ifc+hJ y;D Advk tf rnfcu H mrS Adv k rf LS ;atmifjzpfvmcJo h nf?
1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDa&; tHkºuv_yf&Sm;r_wGif wufwufºuºu yg0ifcJh+yD; OD;EkzJG@pnf;aom pifòyiftpdk;&tzJG@wGif v$wfawmf
OuUXtjzpf‚/ 'Drdkua&pDESifh+idrf;csrf;a&;tzJG@csKyf('D§+idrf;). 'kwd,OuUXtjzpf‚/ OuUXtjzpf‚ wm0ef,lcJhonf?
jrefrmhvw G v f yfa&;Adouk m}u;D OD;atmifqef;ESit hf wl *syefo@kd ppfynmoif,+l y;D e,fcst J› *Fvyd Ef iS hf zufqpf*syefw@kd udk ±Gy±f yG cf |cH |H
wdkufyJG0ifcJhol AdkvfrSL;atmifonf touf&SifaexdkifcJhonfh umvwav#mufvHk; jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;/ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;/ ppf
tm%m&Sifpepfwdkufzsufa&;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;ESifh trsKd;om;jyefvnf&if=um;apha&;twGuf pGrf;pGrf;wrH aqmif±GufcJhol 0g&ifhrsKd;cspf
awmfveS af &;orm;}u;D Edik if aH &;orm;}u;D wOD;jzpfonf? acwfopfjrefrmhordik ;f Y yxrOD;qH;k zJ@G pnf;cJo h nfh &Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f ifrsm;teuf ouf&x dS if&mS ;useaf eqJ
use&f aJ bmfo;kH usyd Ef pS Of ;D rSm w±kyef ,fpyftajcpdu k f Adv
k rf LS ;csKyaf [mif;ausmaf Zm/ &efuek òf r@&Sd Adv k &f xJ ËG wf @kd jzpf=uonf?
(udak ZmfrsK;d xuf/ OD;xdev
f if;ESihf Adv
k rf LS ;atmifueG v
f eG af =umif; od&&dS onft
h wGuf rd;k aomuf=u,ftzJ@G om;rsm;rS rdom;pkEiS t
hf wl 0rf;enf;a=uuGrJ yd ga=umif;?)

wzuf rS « ae0if;ppfaxmufvSrf;a&; trftdkifyk*~dKvfrsm;udk toHk;ðyvsuf aetdrfrsm;rS


vdu k v f zH rf;qD;ygonf? Eke,fi,f±, G vf oS nfh ausmif;om;ESihf jynfo&l [ef;
owfjzwfzrf;qD;jcif;qdkonfh owif;udk=um;onfh jynfolvlxk}uD;rSm oHCmawmfrsm; toufqHk;±H_;cJhygonf? axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom ausmif;
ae0if ; ppf t k y f p k . vk y f & yf u d k vuf c H E d k i f p G r f ; r&S d o nf h t qH k ; eH u f 8;30 om;jynfow l @kd udk axmifcsxm;onf? useaf usmif;om;rsm;onf td;k ypftrd f
tcsd e f a vmuf w G i f &ef u k e f + rd K @wG i f tpd k ; &ES i f h o uf q d k i f o nf h jref r mh ypf ynma&;qH;k ±H;_ cH+y;D olw@kd . zrf;qD;r_rS a&Smifwrd ;f ae&ygonf?
qdk&S,fvpfygwD,lepf±Hk;rsm;/ &Jpcef;rsm;/ ±kyf&Sif±Hktcs›Kdudk rD;±_d@zsufqD;/ wefjyef a&Smifwdrf;ae&aom ausmif;om;wcsKd@onf awmwGif; awmfvSefa&;
t=urf;zufqENjy=uygonf? tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;od@k wcsK› ad &muf=uygonf? wcsK› v d nf; Edik if jH cm;wdik ;f jynfrsm;
igw@kd wygwaD umif;pm;a&;qd&k , S v
f pf0g0udk xdyg;vm&ifawmh ae0if;ppf odk@ cdk;xGufykef;v#Kd;ae&ygonf? olwdk@.b0a&S›a&;onf rnfuJhodk@zefwD;
tkyfpkonf rnfoludkrS toufcsrf;omay;rnfr[kwfa=umif;/ w±kyfjynfrS rnfukdum; rnfolurS rajymEdkifatmifjzpfygonf?
uGefjrLepfacgif;}uD; armfpDwkef;.pum;ESifhE_dif;I ‘tm%monf aoewf. aumufcH&&Sdaom&efyHkaiG 310000 usyf rnfolxHwGif&Sdaeonfudk pm
ajymif;0wGif&Sda=umif;’ jynfolvlxk}uD;tm; vufawG@owfjzwfjyygonf? a&;oltaeESifh owif;rSefrod&Sdaomfvnf; pm;&rJh/ aomuf&rJh/ 0wf&rJh t
ppfwyfajymif;0uk/d jynfow l @kd tm; csed 0f ,fjypfcwfErdS ef if;ygonf? &efuek f ajctae=um;rS Tr#aom aiGyr%mudk OD;oef@*lArd mefwnfaqmuf&ef vSL
òr@wGi;f wGif aoewforH sm;/ zH;k v$r;f vsuf vlaygi;f rsm;pGm aoG;ajrusc&hJ yg onf? wef;=uaomvlx}k u;D . apwemudk od&EdS ikd yf gonf? *k%ðf yxdu k of u l kd *k%f
&efukefòr@wGif;0,f ppfe,fajrouJhodk@ wifhum;}uD;ESifh vSnfhvnf vsuf/ ðy&rnfqdkonfudk omrmeftod^m%f&Sdolwa,mufyif od&Sdygonf? urBmh
*sD o &D ; aoewf } uD ; rsm;ES i f h ypf c wf a eygonf ? &ef u k e f ò r@wG i f ; ud k v nf ; +idrf;csrf;a&;bcif}uD;OD;oef@udk tod^m%f&Sdonfh vlom;tm;vHk;u xdkuf
ppftkyfcsKyfa&;a'otjzpfowfrSwf+yD;/ nrxGuf&trdef@rsm; xkwfjyefonf? oifph mG o+*Kõ v&f ef óu;pm;cJah omfvnf; rar#mv f ifo h nfw h ek @f jyefcsurf sm; a=umifh
zrf;rdonfhjynfolrsm;udk jynfolydkifypPnf; csKd;azmufzsufpD;r_qdkonfh rw jrif r aumif ; / =um;raumif ; touf r sm;pG m paw;+yD ; aoG ; ajrus+yD ;
&m;yk'frwwfum axmif 3 ESpfrS axmif 5 ESpfcsum tpGrf;jyaeygonf? +ird ;f csr;f a&;bcif}u;D psmyetcef;em;udk +y;D qH;k vduk &f ygonf?
OD;oef@psmyeudpPwGifyg0ifaom jynfol/ oHCmawmf/ ausmif;om;rsm;udk
Pg-27
eufay:rS[morsm;
vlreS af e&mrSef
(ordefppfrkef;)
Adv
k cf sKyrf LS ;}u;D oef;a±$wa,muf Edik if aH cgi;f aqmifwa,muftaeeJ@ tdE, Nd Edik if u
H o
kd mG ;ygw,f? wcsucf w k f oH;k csujf ywfjzpfatmif obm0"gwaf iG@vnf;
a&mif;/ ppfvufeufypPn;f aygacsmifaumif;av;awGvnf;0,f/ tukov kd af wGvnf;aysmufz@kd Ak'*< g,rS ,=wmacs&if;aygah v? ol@vufxufrmS bke;f }u;D awGzrf;/
axmifcs/ ausmufqnfta&;tcif;eJ@ wqufwnf;jzpfcw hJ hJ rEWav;òr@rSm qENjyoHCmawmfawG ypfred @f ay;vd@k ysv H eG w f mawG &Scd o hJ ud;k ?
tpd;k &tcrf;tem;eJ@oGm;&if tcsed =f um=um bk&m;zl;cGirhf &rSm/ olvyk o f r# Edik if w
H umowif;axmufawG rSww f rf;wif"gwyf ±kH ukd rf mS / ar;jref;=urSm olrvdv k m;
bl;? 'Dawmh em;&ufrmS vrf;jywa,mufimS ;+y;D Ak'*< g,rSm ol@tjypfawG ,=wmacs aq;a=umzd@k pDpOfowJ?h yxrOD;qH;k bk&m;yGi&hf m atmifajrt&ifq;kH oGm;
qkawmif;+y;D tjypfuif;pifatmif vkycf siw f thJ a=umif; vrf;jyudk ajymjyw,f?
vrf;jyu óuwifrmS xm;wJt h wdik ;f oGm;&mrSm owif;axmufawGrodatmifv@kd vdLS @0Suo f mG ;&vd@k atmifajrra&mufcif vrf;ckvwfrmS c%em;w,f? 'D
ae&ma&mufrS vrf;jyu Adu k ef mvmvd@k aemufaz;aemufzo D mG ;csiv f @kd “'Dae&myJ”vd@k ajymum tdro f mqD ajy;xGuo f mG ;owJ?h
Adv
k cf sKyrf LS ;}u;D u atmifajr a&mufy[qd+k y;D æ
“'Dae&mrSm a&S›vlcHpm;&wJhtwdkif; cHpm;&ygap”vdk@ udk;e0if;a=uatmif udk;}udrfqkawmif;aewkef; &Spf}udrfajrmufrSm
vrf;jya&mufvmw,f?
vrf;jy?? ? 'DrmS bmvkyaf ewmvJ Adv k cf sKyrf LS ;}u;D
oef;? ? a&Sv › al wG tusK;d rsK;d cHpm;zd@k qkawmif;aewm?
vrf;jy? ? [- 'Dae&mudk bmxifv@kd vJcifAs?
oef;? ? bk&m;&Siyf iG o hf mG ;wJah tmifajravæ/ bk&m;&Siv f kd t&m&matmifjrifz@kd aygæ h
vrf;jy? ? atmifajrvd@k b,fou l ajymvd@k vJæ
oef;? ? armif&ifu, kd w f ikd f 'Dae&myJv@kd ckav;wifbJ ajymwmav?
vrf;jy? ? t&rf;Adu k ef maevd@k pum;qH;k atmif rajymcJ&h wmæ 'Dae&myJ a'0'wfajrrsKcd &H wJah e&mvd@k ajymrvd@k cifAsæ?
oef;? ? a[æ
acwfòyiftifwmeufpmrsufEmS rS ul;,lazmfjyygonf?
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

ukov
dk o
f nf
(tmumrdkufwD;)
ylyal EG;aEG;uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;wJh 0ef}u;D wa,mufe@J wuUqu D m;armif;orm;wa,mufw@kd ,rrif;qDa&mufomG ;ygw,f? wòyifwnf;a&mufomG ;wJh ESpOf ;D ayr,fh
tcGithf a&;usawmh rwlb;l wJ?h
wuUqo D rm;ukd tcef;tus,u f s,rf mS Zdru
f susxm;ayr,hf 0ef}u;D a[mif;udak wmh wud, k pf mxdik af vmufwhJ ae&muav;wckyJ pDpOfay;xm; ygw,f?
'Dawmh 0ef}u;D a[mif;u b,fauseyfrvJ? 'ge@J yJ ,rrif;udk awG@cGiahf wmif;+y;D txGe@f wufawmhwmayg?h
,rrif;? ? armifrif;u usKyu f kd bma=umifah wG@csi&f wmwke;f ?
0ef}uD;? ? ,rrif;}u;D rr#rw vkyx f m;wmudk ajymcsiv f @kd yg?
,rrif;? ? [æ igu bmawGukd rr#rw vkyx f m;vd@k vJ?
0ef}uD;? ? ,rrif;yJ pOf;pm;=unfah v? usaemfe@J twlwal &mufvmwJh um;orm;u =urf;=urf;&rf;&rf;orm;As?
,rrif;? ? atmifrmæ rif;u b,fvv kd yk o
f v d ?J
0ef}uD;? ? odwmaygæ h ? 'Daumifu tarmif;=urf;vd@k ,mOfxed ;f &J c%c% tzrf;cH&wJah umify?J ol@vdik pf iford ;f r,fvyk v f @kd usaemfqu D kd
awmif toem;cHpm wifcahJ o;w,f?
,rrif;? ? at;ætJ'gawmh [kwcf si[ f w k rf mS ayg?h 'gayr,fh igu vlwa,muftay: qH;k jzwfwt hJ cg trsm;twGuf b,favmuftusK;d &So d vJ/
r&Sbd ;l vJ qdw k mudk =unf+h y;D qH;k jzwfwm?
0ef}uD;? ? usaemfv h ufxufrmS vlawGtwGuf wwfEikd o f avmuf vkyaf y;wmyJ? 'gq&kd if trsm;twGuf tusK;d r&Sb d ;l vm;?
,rrif;? ? tJ'gu wm0eft& vkyw f mavuGm? olu wm0eft&r[kwb f J olwyg; tukov dk pf wd af vsmyh g;atmif ae@wdik ;f vkycf w
hJ muG?
0ef}uD;? ? Asmæ 'Daumifuæ [kwv f m;? olu bmawGrsm;vkyv f @kd vJ?
,rrif;? ? olu tarmif;=urf;awmh ol@um;udpk ;D wJh c&D;onfwikd ;f tukov kd pf w
d rf arG;awmhbJ bk&m; w&m;tm±Hðk y+y;D vku kd =f u&wmuG?
'ga=umifh 'Daumifu h kd aumif;aumif;xm;&wm?
{&m0wDtifwmeufpmrsufEmS rS ul;,lazmfjyygonf?
pg-28
tifwmeufowif;rsm;
jrefrmuav;rsm;twGuf tar&duefwiG f jrefrmpmoifausmif;wck pwifziG v
hf pS f
(November 12, 2004 1366 ck wefaqmifrek ;f vqef; 1 &uf aom=umae@)ay;yd@k ol-om;i,f
tar&duefEikd if H atmf&*D eG jf ynfe,f/ aygw h v
f if;a&muf jrefrmh'rD u kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;rS rsKd ;qufopf jrefrmuav;
i,frsm;twGuf jrefrmpmoifausmif;wcktm; ,ck Ed0k bFmv 10 &ufae@rS pwifziG v f pS of if=um;aejyjD zpfonf?
ausmif;udk tywfpOf paeESifh we*FaEG&ufrsm;wGif rGe;f vGJ 1 em&DrS 4 em&Dtxd zGiv hf pfrnfjzpfum ausmif;om;
15 OD;ESihf pwifziG v fh pfrnfjzpf+y;D jrefrmpum;udk aumif;rGepf mG a&;wwf zwfwwf ajymwwf&efEiS hf jrefrmhordik ;f udk
od&Sd&ef oif=um;rnf[k od&onf?
,ckuo hJ @kd tar&duefjynfaxmifpw k iG f jrefrmpmoifausmif; zGiv hf pS jf cif;tay: zavmf&'D ga&muf jrefrmausmif;om;
wOD;uvnf; “‘Dvdk pmoifausmif;av;awG rsm;rsm; zGifhbdk@vdktyfw,f? wcsKd@vnf; ausmif;awGzGifhjyD; aemufydkif; ysufoGm;wmu rsm;w,f?
wcsKd @vnf;taxmufyhH ya&mh*su&f vd@k tjzpfoabm vky=f uwmvJ&w dS ,f? tck vkyo f al wG[m 'grsK;d rjzpfoifb h ;l ? wwfEikd &f if ud, k xf u
l ,
kd x
f vkyf oifwh ,f?
olw@kd b,fvdk vky=f uw,fqw kd mawmh usaemfrodao;bl;ayghaemf? vuf&dS tajctaerSmuawmh usaemfw@kd uav;awGu t*Fvyd pf m/ t*Fvyd pf um;bJ
ajymae=uw,f? wcsdK@qd&k if Armpum; eJeb J w J wfawmhw,f? pmudk vH;k 0rwwfawmhb;l ? wcsdK@qd&k if pum;awmif rwwfawmhb;l ? usaemfw@kd
uav;awGwu G f ausmif;uav;awGziG &hf r,f? tdrrf mS oif&ifvJ rdbutvkyrf sm; pdwrf &Snw f mawGe@J roifjzpf=ubl;? usaemfw@dk u ol rsm;wkid ;f jynfrmS
vmaeayrJh wae@ tdrf jf yef=urSmqkad wmh ud, k u hf av;awGvJ jrefrmpmeJ@ pum; ,Ofaus;r_/ udak wmh &if;ES;D aeoifw h mayghæ”
“usaemfw@kd wwd,Edik if aH wGrmS vmjy;D tajccs ae=u&olawG[m jrefrmuav;i,fawGukd jrefrmpum;/ jrefrmpm/ Ak'b < momeJ@ jrefrmh,Ofaus;r_
"avhx;kH pH tpOftvmawGukd rarhaysmufapbJ &if;ES;D u|rf;0ifapbd@k / txl;ojzifu h awmh usaemfw@kd u 8888 rsdK;qufawG jzpfawmh 8888 ordik ;f ukd
uav;awG &if;ES;D u|rf;0ifo&d jdS y;D raysmufrysufapbd@k &nf&, G jf y;D ausmif;udzk iG yhf gw,fæ” [k vGwfvyfaomowif;tzGJ@odk@ ausmif;q&mwOD;jzpfol
udak toifu ajym=um;cJo h nf? (FIG-vGwv f yfaomowif;tzG@J )

a':atmifqef;pk-unfvw
G af jrmufa&; urBmEh b
kd ,fv_f idr;f csr;f a&;qk&iS rf sm;pkaygif;awmif;qdk
2004 ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbm 15 (acwfòyifowif;rS)
Edkb,fvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk&Sif a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk ¹cif;csufr&Sdjyefv$wfay;&ef urBmh+idrf;csrf;a&;qk&Sifrsm;u Edk0ifbm 12
&ufae@wGif qkaygi;f awmif;qdv k ukd of nf?
tDwvDEikd if H a&mròr@wGif Ed0k ifbm 10 &ufrS 12 &ufxd usi;f yonfh 5 }urd af jrmuf urBm+h ird ;f csr;f a&;qk&iS rf sm;. tpnf;ta0;
wGif xdo k @kd awmif;qdv k u
kd jf cif;jzpf+y;D ,if;awmif;qdck suu f kd etzOuUX Adv k cf sKyrf LS ;}u;D oef;a±$xH ay;yd@k oGm;rnf[k The Com-
mand Postowif;wGif azmfjyonf?
aqG;aEG;yJw G ufa&muforl sm;u jrefrmEdik if w H iG f Edik if aH &;ESihf jynfov l x l tk cGit hf a&;/ vl@tcGit hf a&;rsm; av;pm;vdu k ef m&ef
'Dru
kd a&pDEiS hf vGwv f yfr. _ oauFwjzpfonfh a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf olrudak xmufco H rl sm;tm; jyefvw $ &f efwu
kd wf eG ;f xm;onf?
,if;aqG;aEG;yJo G @kd qdAk uf,ufjynfaxmifpak cgi;f aqmifa[mif; Mikhail Gorvachev/ awmifu;kd &D;,m;orwa[mif; Kim
Dae Jung/ ydv k eforwa[mif; Lech Valesa / ta&Sw › aD rmEdik if jH cm;a&;0ef}u;D Ramos Hortawdk@tygt0if Edkb,fvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk&Sif 25 OD; wuf
a&muf=uonf? urBmEh b kd ,fvq f &k iS rf sm;u aqG;aEG;yJrG sm;udk 1999 ckEpS rf pS I wESpw f }urd u f si;f ycJ+h y;D 4 }urd af jrmufaqG;aEG;yJu G kd tDwvDEikd if /H a&mròr@rSmyif
,refEpS f Edk 0ifbmvu usi;f ycJo h nf? ,cESpf {+yD 13 &ufae@uvnf; Edb k ,fvq f &k iS f 14 OD;wd@k u a':atmifqef;pk=unftygt0if pma&;q&mrsm;udk
jyefvw
G af y;&ef etzudk awmif;qdck =hJ uonf?

rJaqmufa&mifjcnfO;D tzG‹J udk awmifu&kd ;D ,m;Edik if rH S _idr;f csr;f a&;ESihf w&m;r#wa&;qkcs;D jr‡ihf
(Nov 22, 2004 1366 ck wefaqmifrek ;f qef; 11 &uf wevFm)
awmifu&dk ;D ,m;Ekid if /H jird ;f csr;f a&;ESihf w&m;r#wa&;tzG@J rS 2004 ckEpS t f wGuf +ird ;f csr;f a&;ESihf w&m;r# wa&;qkTji
Hak-soon Justice & Peace Award tm; xkid ;f Ekid if /H rJaqmuftajcpku d f a&mifjcnfO;D tzG@J tm; cs;D jri‡ v
hf u
dk of nf?
tqkyd g qkay;yGuJ dk 'DZifbmv 10 &uf tjynfjynfqidk &f mvl@tcGit hf a&;ae@wGif awmifu;dk &D;,m;Ekid if H qkv d ;f +rKd @&Sd
jidrf;csrf;a&;ESif@ w&m;r#wa&; azmifa';&Sif;tzGJ@txl;cef;rwGif ay;tyfcsD;jr‡ifhrnfjzpfjyD; qktaejzifh tar&duef
a':vmwaomif; ay;tyfrnfjzpf+yD; wm0efcH udkrdk;aqGrS wufa&muf vufcH,lrnfjzpfonf?
xdik ;f tm%mydik rf sm;/ tvky&f iS v f rl u
kd rf sm;. +crd ;f acsmufrr_ sK;d pH=k um;rS xkid ;f Edik if aH &muf jrefrmtvkyo f rm;rsm;.
tvkyform;tcGifhta&;rsm; tjynfht0&&Sd&ef }udK;pm; aqmif&Guf cJhojzifh a&mifjcnfOD;tzGJ@tm; qkay;tyfcJhjcif;
[kod&onf?
awmifu&dk ;D ,m;Ekid if H jird ;f csr;f a&;ESi@f w&m;r#wa&;tzG@J onf 1997 ckEpS rf pS I uk&d ;D ,m;Ekid if t H ygt0if tm&SEidk if rH sm;&Sd vlrv _ y_ &f mS ;a&;tzG@J tpnf;rsm;ukd
a&$;cs,I f ESppf Ofqak y;cs;D jri‡ ahf eaomtzG@J jzpf +y;D ,ckEpS f a&mifjcnfO;D tvkyo f rm;tzG@J tm; tXr}urd af jrmuf a&G;cs,cf o hJ nf?
xdik ;f Edik if t
H wGi;f jrefrmtvkyo f rm; 1 oef;cGcJ ef@&Sad ejy;D trsm;pkonf xdik ;f tvky&f iS rf sm;. acgi;f yHjk zwfjcif;udk tpOftjrcJ aH e=u&onf? rJaqmuf+rKd @wGif
a&mifjcnfO;D tvkyo f rm;tzG@J tjyif/ rd;k aomufyef;tvkyo f rm;or*~/ jrefrmEdik if t
H vkyo
f rm;aoG;pnf;nDnw G af &;tzG@J wd@k vnf; v_y&f mS ;aqmif&u G af e=uonf??
Pg-29
tifwmeufowif;rsm;
a':pke‹J jrefrmjynftwGuf urBmausmaf wG&‹J FOR THE LADYoDcsi;f t,fbrf tar&duefEikd if w
H iG f vltrsm;od&adS tmif a-unmxm;jcif;
2004 ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbm 24 &uf (rZÆdr)
Edkb,fvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk&Sif a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh jrefrmjynftwGuf &nf!$ef;+yD; *k%fðypyfqdk
xm;aom For The Ladyaw;oDcsif;acG a=umfjimqdkif;yk'f}uD;udk tar&duefEdkifiH/ vpfAD;*pfwGif
awG@&pOf?
urBmausmf tqdak wmfrsm;jzpf=uonhf aygvrf ufumae/ tJ&yfpu f vifwefw@kd yg0ifoq
D xkd m;onhf
‚pD;&D;onf jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk &nf!$ef;oDqdkxm;jcif;jzpfum
aetdrtf us,cf sKyuf scaH e&aom a':pkvw G af jrmufa&;ESihf jrefrmjynftwGuf awmif;qdx k m;jcif;jzpf
onf?
u&ifeeD ,fajrwGi;f etzrS ajrjrKyfrikd ;f toH;k jyKqJ
(November 20, 2004 1366 ck wefaqmifrek ;f vqef; 9 &uf Ak'[
< ;l ae@)
u&ifeD e,fajrtwGi;f etzwyfrsm;onf ajrjrKyrf ikd ;f rsm; qufvufcsxm; toH;k jyKaeojzifh a'ocH u&ifeD &Gmom;
rsm; rdik ;f xdaoqH;k ae&onf?
Ed0k ifbmv 11 &uf eHeuf 9 em&DwiG f u,m;jynfe,f/ zg;aqmif;òr@e,f/ a*vd&k mG om;jzpfol udw k ifa±$EiS hf aemft,fu;l
wd@k .om; apmzd;k vdk touf 20 ESpo f nf u&ifeED iS hf u&ife,fpyf armfa';±GmteD;wGif etzwyfrsm;rS axmifxm;aom
ajrjrKyfrdkif;wvkH; eif;rdojzifh b,fzufajcaxmuf jywfoGm;cJha=umif; u&ifeD owif;xkwfjyefcsuft& od&onf?
{jyv D 26 &ufeeH uf 9 em&DwiG f u,m;jynfe,f/ zg;aqmif;òr@/ armfcs;D tkypf k [kq d mcD;±GmESihf yGm'd±k mG t=um;wGif wyfr
55 vufatmufcH wyf&if;wckrS axmifxm;aom rdik ;f wvH;k eif;rdum ajcaxmuf jywfomG ;cJ&h onf?
,cktcg etzonf u,m;jynfe,f/ vGKd uaf umfòr@/ avmydw"gwt f m;ay; puf±ykH wf0ef;usiw f iG v
f nf; rdik ;f tvH;k aygi;f
5000 cef@ csxm;qJjzpfonf[k od&onf? tqkyd g ajrjrKyrf ikd ;f rsm;tm; aus;&Gmom;rsm;rS r=umc%eif;rdum aoqH;k jcif;/ ud, k v f uf t*Fg qH;k ±_;H jcif;rsm;
jzpfay:avh&adS =umif; vGKd uf aumfòr@om;wOD;rS ajymjyonf? xk@d tjyif v,f,mvkyif ef;cGirf sm;wGif toH;k jyKaom u|EJ mG ;rsm;/ opfqqJG ifrsm;yif etzajrðryfrikd ;f rsm;
eif;rdavh&adS =umif; vnf; a'ocHrsm;rS ajymjy=uonf? ? (FIG-vGwv f yfaomowif;tzG@J )

jrefrmpme,fZif;orm;rsm;jyefvw
G af &; pme,fZif;tkypf rk sm; yl;wJaG wmif;qdk
2004 ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbm 25 (acwfòyifowif;rS)
zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f cHxm;&onfh pme,fZif;orm;rsm;jzpfaom OD;0if;wif/ armifatmifyiG /hf OD;pdet f ek ;f / OD;jrifo
h ed ;f / OD;aomif;xGe;f / rH±k mG atmif&iS /f OD;tke;f óuif/
OD;pdev
f OS ;D / OD;ode;f wef/ OD;aerif;/ vZdev
f axmf/ OD;aZmfoufaxG;ESihf OD;atmifjrifw
h @kd 13 OD;udk jyefvw$ af y;&ef e,fjcm;rJo h wif;axmufrsm;tzJ@G ESihf jynfya&muf
jrefrmowif;or*~wdk@u ppftkyfpktm; awmif;qdkvdkufa=umif; od&Sd&onf?

pg-30
\ pOf
rd;k aomuf-u,fpm-unfw

trnf
h u kd t
f wGuf aiGa-u;vSLwef;cJ-h uolrsm;pm&if;ESihf
,cifvoH;k pJcG ahJ om aiGpm&if;&Si;f wrf;xkwjf yefcsu?f
vSLwef;aiG vuQ&H &So
|
d nfah eŒ

1? udpk ;kd jrifh 12000(waomif;ESpaf xmif,ef;) Ed0k ifbmv(14) &uf


2? udn
k Kd 0if;ode;f 10000(waomif;,ef;wdw)d ?
3? udak rmifarmifatmif 10000(waomif;,ef;wdw)d ?
4? udv
k aS t;armifšrrDro D ef; 10000(waomif;,ef;wdw)d ?
5? USHIKU NGO's 10000(waomif;,ef;wdw)d ?
6? udak Zmf0if;vdi+ f 7000(ckEpS af xmif,ef;wdw)d ?
7? ra':vD 5000(ig;axmif,ef;wdw)d ?
8? KIM SAN 5000(ig;axmif,ef;wdw)d ?
9? r&D&o
D uf 2000(ESpaf xmif,ef;wdw)d ?
10? rd;k aomuf-u,f pm-unhw f ukd t
f r+aqmiftzJ‹G 22000(ESpaf omif;ESpaf xmif,ef;) ?
Ed0k ifbmv vufuseaf iG 47924(av;aomif;ckEpS af xmifu;kd &mESpq
f ,fah v;)

pkpak ygif; 140924(q,fah v;aomif;ud;k &mESpq


f ,fah v;)

pm-unhw
f u
kd zf iG yhf t
GJ oH;k pm;&dwf 15390(waomif;ig;axmifo;kH &mud;k q,f)
uAsmq&m}uD;wifr;kd . pmtkyx f w
k &f efo;kH aiG 20000(ESpaf omif;,ef;wdw)d
tm[m&pmapmif(45)pm±du k cf 10085(waomif;&Spq f ,fih g;,ef;)
pmyd‹k c 1930(waxmifu h ;kd &moH;k q,f,ef;)

'DZifbmvvufuseaf iG 93519(ud;k aomif;oH;k axmifig;&mwq,fu


h ;kd ,ef;)
rSwcf suf? ?tm[m&pmapmif trSwpf Of(45)rS&&Sad om a=umfjimaiG waomif;,ef;ESihf tdbm&muDtusO;f pcef;&Sd udck ifarmifaxG;rS aumuf
cH&&Sad om ,ef;oH;k aomif;(pkpak ygi;f av;aomif;,ef;)udk e,fpyfa'o&Sd cGyaf 'gi;f &Jabmfrsm;od@k Ed0k ifbm 24 &ufae@wGif ay;tyfcahJ =umif;?

Pg-31
*syefa&muf pmay0goemygol/ pmzwfcsio
f rl sm;twGuf

rd;k aomuf-u,f pm-unfw


h u
kd f
1234567890123456789012345678901212345
1234567890123456789012345678901212345
1234567890123456789012345678901212345

pm=unfw
h u
kd zf iG &hf uf? ? pae/ we*FaEG/ wevFmESihf ±H;k ydw&f uf
pm=unfw
h u
kd zf iG chf sdef? ? ae@vnf 12;00 em&DrS n 10;00 xd
pm=unfw
h u
kd zf ek ;f eHygwf? ? 03 3364 5163
rSwcf su?f ? rvmcif zke;f óuqufyg

rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unfw h u
kd u
f kd jynfya&muf jrefrmpmayynm&Si}f u;D rsm. yHyh ;kd ulnrD /_ uAsmq&mwifr;kd ESihf pma&;q&marmifprG ;f &nf
wd@k . pDpOf!e$ =f um;r_jzifh pm=unhw f u kd t
f r_aqmifEiS hf vkyif ef;wm0efcrH sm;udk atmufygtwdik ;f zJ@G pnf;vdu
k o
f nf?

pm=unfwu
dk t f wdik yf ifceH m,ursm;
uAsmq&mwifr;kd / pma&;q&marmifprG ;f &nf

tr_aqmifrsm;
1? wifwif0if; 2? rif;rif;ðy;H 3? Adv
k af usmf 4? pd;k 0if;&Sed f 5? 0if;aX; 6? ae0ef; 7? armifarmifatmif
8? apmode;f 9? rif;xufaZmf 10? armifoef@ 11? av;av;(wdu k sK)d 12? csprf ;kd (Mr. KUROSAKI )

rd;k aomuf=u,f*sme,fEiS hf pmqdak wmfae@txdr;f trSwf pmtkyx f w


k af 0a&;vkyif ef;wm0efcH
pd;k 0if;&Sed /f ae0ef;/ rif;xufaZmf

e,fpyf'u k o
Q nfrsm;ulnaD xmufyahH &;vkyif ef;wm0efcH
0if;aX;/ rif;xufaZmf/ armifoef@/ armifarmifatmif/ wifwif0if;

Edik if w
H umqufo, G af &;wm0efcH rSww
f rf;"gwyf EkH iS hf tifwmeuf(Home Page)wm0efcH
wifwif0if;/ rif;rif;ðy;H apmodef;

b¾ma&;rSL; *syefpm=unfwh u kd rf sm;ESiq


hf ufo,
G af &;wm0efcH
av;av;(wdu
k sK)d csprf ;kd (Mr. KUROSAKI )

rSwfcsuf? ? pmaya[majymyJEG iS hf &efyakH iG&mS azGa&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk rd;k aomuf=u,fpm=unhw f u


kd t
f r_aqmifrsm;ESihf
*syefa&muf pmaycspjf rwfE;kd olrsm; pkaygi;f I aqmif±u G v f yk u
f ikd o
f mG ;rnfjzpfonf?

pg-32