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1 53 01 01

2008

65.011.56 + 317.7


9 17 2008
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5 03 2009

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:
,
..
,
..
, . .
:
1 53 01 01
. : , 2008. 240.

,
. 10 ,

, ,
.
1 53 01 01
,
.

65.011.56 + 317.7

, 2008

10

10

1.

1.1 .
..................................................................................................
1.2 ........................................
1.3 . .
1.4 ...
1.5 ...
1.6 ..
1.7 .
..
1.8
1.9 .
. ..
1.9.1 .......................................................................................
1.9.2

2.

2.1 .
.
2.2 . -
...
2.2.1 ...
2.2.2
2.2.3 .
2.3 ...
2.3.1 .
2.3.2
...
2.3.3

2.3.4
2.4 ..
2.5 . .
2.6 ..
2.6.1
..
2.6.2
.
...
2.7 ..
2.7.1 ..
2.7.2 ...
2.7.3 ...
3

10
11
12
13
14
14
15
16
17
17
18
19
19
21
21
22
23
23
23
24
25
26
27
27
29
29
30
31
32
33
35

2.7.4
2.7.5 ...
2.7.6 ...
2.7.7 .
..
2.8 . .
2.8.1
.
2.8.2
.
2.8.3
..
2.9
2.9.1 ..
2.9.2
2.9.3 ..

46
47
47
48
48

...

49

3.1 ...
3.2 .
.
3.3 .
3.3.1 .
...
3.3.2 .
...
3.3.3 .

3.4 ...
3.5 . ,

3.5.1 .

3.5.2 .
..
3.5.3 .
.
3.6 ...
3.7 .
.
3.8 .
3.8.1 .
3.8.2 ..
3.9 ,
. ..
3.10 ,
. .
3.11 . ...

49

3.

36
38
39
42
45
45
46

50
51
51
53
54
56
57
58
60
61
63
64
67
67
67
68
70
72

3.11.1
3.11.2 ,
. ...
3.11.3 .

3.11.4 ...
3.11.5 cos . -
...
3.12
3.12.1 ..
3.12.2
3.12.3 .
..
3.13 ...
3.14 ..
3.14.1 . ..
3.14.2 .
..
3.14.3
3.14.4 ...
3.14.5

3.14.6 - ...

4.

73
76
77
77
79
79
81
83
85
87
87
88
90
92
94
95

4.1 , .

4.2 ,
..
4.3
..
4.4 ,
.
4.5
, ..
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3 ..
4.6 .
, ..
4.7 .
..
4.7.1 ...
4.7.2 .
4.7.3 ..
4.8
..
5

72

96
96
96
98
100
100
101
102
103
103
105
105
106
107
108

4.9

...

110

...

112

5.1 .
5.2 ...
5.3 .
.
5.4 ..
5.5 .
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.6 ..
5.7

112
114

5.

115
116
117
117
119
120
121

6.
... 122
6.1 . .
6.2
.
..
6.3
6.4 .
.
6.5 .
..
6.6
.
6.7
6.7.1
6.7.2
...
6.7.3
6.7.4
6.8
6.8.1 ...
6.8.2 ..
6.8.3 ...
6.9
, ...
6.9.1
6.9.2 ..
6.9.3 ..
6.10 .
...
6.10.1 ,
,

6.10.2
6

122
123
124
124
126
127
128
128
129
130
131
133
133
134
135
137
139
140
141
143
144

..
6.11 ...
6.11.1
6.11.2 .
6.12 .
6.13
.........................
6.14 .
...
6.14.1
6.14.2 .
6.14.3
6.14.4
6.15
6.15.1 ...
6.15.2
6.15.3 .
6.16
.
6.17 .

6.17.1
.
6.17.2 - .........................................................
6.17.3 .
.
6.18 .

6.19 .
6.19.1 ...
6.19.2
6.20 ..
6.20.1 ..
6.20.2 ..
6.21 .
..
6.22 .
...................
6.23
..

146
147
148
150
152
153
154
155
155
156
157
158
158
160
160
161
162
162
163
164
165
166
166
167
169
169
170
171
174
176

177

7.1 . .
7.2
.
7.2.1 ..
7.2.2 ...

177

7.

178
178
179

7.2.3
7.2.4
7.2.5 ..
7.3 .
,

7.4
...
7.4.1
..
7.4.2
..
7.5 ..
7.5.1

7.5.2

7.5.3

7.5.4 ..
7.5.5

7.5.6

7.6 .
7.6.1 . .
7.6.2 .
7.6.3 .
7.6.4 - ..
7.6.5 .
7.6.6
7.7 .
7.7.1 ..
7.7.2 .

179
180
180
181
182
183
183
184
184
185
187
187
188
190
191
191
192
194
196
197
198
199
199
200

8. ... 201
8.1 . ,
.
8.2
. .........
8.3 .
8.4

8.5 .
.
8.5.1
..
8.5.2 ..
8.6 .
.
8

201
203
205
206
207
207
207
209

8.7 ...
8.7.1
. ..
8.7.2 .
.
8.7.3
.

8.7.4

.
8.7.5

210
210
211
212
214
215

215

9.1
9.2 ..
9.3 -
...
9.4 ,
.
9.5 .
9.5.1
.
9.5.2
.
9.6

215
216

226

10.1
10.2
..
10.3

10.4

10.5 ..
10.6 .
10.7
, .
10.7.1 ...
10.7.2
10.7.3 ..
10.8 .

10.9 .

226

9.

10.

217
219
222
222
223
224

226
228
229
230
232
233
233
234
235
235
237

... 238


()
,
( 1 53 01 01 2007).

,

, .

,
, ,

.
,
.
,

.
,
( ) . ,
,
,
.
,

. , ,
,

. , ,
,
.

1.
1.1 .

,
.
( )
, .

.
:
;
;
.
( 1.1).
10

1 , 2 ,
3 , 4
1.1


,
.
1.2
,
, , .

. 1.2 a , b , c
d .

1.2

, ,
( 1.2), ().
.
,
. 1.2
a R1 E1 b , a R2 b , a R3 c , b R4 d , c R5 d c R6 d .
,
. , ,
, ( ). , 1.2
, E1 , R1 , R2 (1-
), R2 , R3 , R5 , R4 (2- ) R5 , R6 (3- ).
11


.
,
, ,
. ,
,
( 1.3, ), ( 1.3, ).

1.3 () ()

1.4 () ()

( )
1.4.
1.3 .

.
,
. i ,
I ; : [ i ] = 1 ().
t
q ,

q dq
=
.
t 0 t
dt

i = lim

(1.1)

1 ,
.. i < 0 , i = 0 , i > 0 .

.
12

2
.
, , ( )
- ; ,
.
1.4
,
.
, .

.
u , U ; :
[ u ] = 1 ().
q A ,

u=

A
.
q

(1.2)

, ,

A = q( a b ) ,
(1.3)
a b a b
( 1.5).

1.5

(1.2) (1.3) ,
U ab = a b .
(1.4)
(1.4) .

.

, ..
. , , a > b ,
(1.5)
U ab = a b > 0 , U ba = b a < 0
a b

U ab = U ba .
(1.6)
2 2-

(. 1.5).
13

3
, .
1.5
,
, , . ,
,
, ,
( ).
(, ,
.), .
,
, ()
e , E ; : [ e ] = 1 ().
q A* ,

e=

A*
.
q

(1.7)


a b
( 1.6):
E = b a = U ba .
(1.8)

1.6


(.. ),

(. 1.6).
1.6
,
, . p , P ;
: [ p ] = 1 ().
t
W ,

W dW
=
.
t 0 t
dt

p = lim

(1.9)

t = 0 t

14

q (t )

W (t ) =

q (0 )

dq(t )
u (t )dq = u (t )
dt = u (t )i(t )dt ,
dt

(1.10)

q(t ) ,
t . (1.9) (1.10) ,
:

p = iu .

(1.11)

.
: ( i > 0 , u > 0
i < 0 , u < 0 ) ( p > 0 ),
; ( i > 0 , u < 0 i < 0 , u > 0 )
( p < 0 ), (
).
1.7

.

. ,
, ,
, .
, , () ,
.
,
( 1.7).
( 1.7, )
,
,
.

1.7 (), ()
()

( 1.7, )
,
, ,
.
( 1.7, )
,
, ,
.

1.1
15

1.1 ( )

R,

L,

C,

1 ()
1 = 106
1 = 103

1 ()
1 = 10 3
1 = 10 6

1 ()
1 = 10 6
1 = 10 9

u
i=
R

1
i = iL (0) +
udt
L

u = iR

di
u=L
dt


(
)

i=C

du
dt
t

1
u = uC (0 ) +
idt
C
0

1
1 iL (0 ) =
L

udt

1
uC (0 ) =
C

idt

1.1


t = 0 . iL (0) = 0 uC (0 ) = 0 ,
:
t

1
i=
udt ,
L

1
u=
idt .
C

(1.12)

2 ,
, .
R , L C , , .
3
,
,

(. 1.7).
1.8
, 1.1, .. ,

( ),
() ()
. , , R
; L
; C .
,
,
16

( )
,
.
,
, .
.
,
1.8.

1.8 (), ()
()

( 1.8, ) R
, LR C R . LR ,
C R .
( 1.8, ) L
, RL C L . RL
, C L .
( 1.8, ) C
, RC LC . RC
, LC .
,
.
,
, .
1.9 .
.
.
, ,
. ,
.

.
(, , )
, (,
).
,
. .
1.9.1
: , ,
, :
17

i = i ,
k

(1.13)

k =1

k =1

m , , n , .
: ,
, :
p

i = 0 ,

(1.14)

k =1

p = m + n ( ), .
1- (1.13)
; (1.14) ,
, +, .

1.9 ,

1.9 1-
:
i1 + i2 = i3 + i4 + i5 i1 + i2 i3 i4 i5 = 0 .
1.9.2
:


, :
n

u = e , i R = e ,
k

k =1

k =1

k =1

(1.15), (1.16)

k =1

n , m , , Rk
k - .
:
:
n

u = 0 .
k

(1.17)

k =1

1 2- (1.15) (1.16)

. u k = ik Rk +,
ik .
18

ek ,
. (1.17) ,
, u k
ek .
2 2- (1.16)
, u k = ik Rk ,
, (1.16) :
n

k =1

i R + L dik + u (0 ) + 1
k
Ck
k k
dt
Ck

ik dt =

e ,
k

(1.18)

k =1

Lk , Ck k - ,
uCk (0 ) .

1.10 ,

1.10
( ).
2- :
i1 R1 i2 R2 + i3 R3 i4 R4 = e1 e3 e4 .

2.

2.1 .

, , .
, I , U E
.

, .. U L I C , , I = const U = const

UL = L

dI
=0,
dt

IC = C

dU
= 0.
dt

(2.1)

,
,
19

,
, , .
,
, .
, .. I = I (U ) ,
- ().
.
, ,
( ).
( 2.1, ),
( 2.1, ).

2.1 - () ()

,
, .
1- 2-
(1.13) (1.18) (2.1).
: ,
, , , ,
, :
m

I = I , I
k

k =1

k =1

= 0,

(2.2)

k =1

m , , n , ,
p = m + n ( ), .
:

, :
n

I R = E ,
k

k =1

(2.3)

k =1

n , m , , Rk
k - .
(2.2) (2.3)
, (1.13) (1.17) (.
1.9.1 1.9.2).
20

2.2 . -


: .

.
2.2.1
( )
,
.
2.2.

2.2 () - ()

( 2.2, ):
U =E,
(2.4)
.. U E .

. ,

R ( 2.3, ). R

.

2.3 () - ()

21

( 2.3, ):
U = E IR ,
(2.5)
.. U E U = IR .
R = 0 , (2.4) (2.5),
-
, . ,
E
( R = 0 ).
2.2.2
( ) ,
.
2.4.

2.4 () - ()

( 2.4, ):
I=J,
(2.6)
.. I J .
, ,
. ,

G = 1 R ( 2.5, ). G
.

2.5 () - ()

22

( 2.5, ):
I = J UG ,
(2.7)
.. I J I = UG .
R = , G = 0 (2.6) (2.7),
-
, . ,
J
( R = ).
2.2.3
, 2.3,
2.5, (.. ), :

U = E IR ,

U=

J
I

,
G G

(2.8)

U .
(2.8) ,

G =

1
,
R

J=

E
= EG
R

(2.9)

R =

1
,
G

E=

J
= JR
G

(2.10)

( ).

. ,
.
(2.9)
;
(2.10) .
2.3
,
, .
:
1) , .. ,
( );
2) , ..
( );
3) .
2.3.1

( 2.6).

1.1 .
U ab = IR
(2.11)
23

( )
.

2.6

(2.11)

I=

a b
R

U ab
,
R

(2.12)

.
2.3.2

,
, .. ( 2.7).

2.7

2.7,
:
1) ( 2.7, );
2) ( 2.7, ).
1- ( 2.7, ) U ab
a b .
ac I a c , ..
a c ,
a > c (2.11)
U ac = a c = IR ,
a :
a = c + IR .
(2.13)
cb E c
b , .. c
b , c < b
b c = E ,

(2.14)
b = c + E .
(2.13) (2.14)

U ab = a b = ( c + IR ) ( c + E ) = E + IR
24

U ab = E + IR .

(2.15)

2.7, , ,
U ab = E + IR .
(2.16)
(2.15) (2.16)
:
U ab = E + IR .
(2.17)
(2.17) :

I=

E + a b E + U ab
=
.
R
R

(2.18)

ab ,
:
(2.18) E +,
( 2.7, );
, ( 2.7, ).
(2.17), , E
, +.
2.3.3

(2.17) (2.18),
, ,
. ,
: E
J .

E J , ,
2.8.

)
2.8

, E ,
25

J I .
1- , 2.8, ,
U ab I .
ab U ab I ab
(2.15):
U ab = E + I ab R .
(2.19)
I ab 1-
J I :
I ab = J + I .
(2.20)
(2.19) (2.20)
U ab = E JR + IR .
(2.21)

,
2.8, 2.8, , :
U ab = E + JR + IR , U ab = E JR + IR , U ab = E + JR + IR .
(2.22)
(2.21) (2.22)
, :
U ab = E JR + IR .
(2.23)
(2.23) :

E JR + a b E JR + U ab
=
.
(2.24)
R
R
(2.24) E J
+, I ;
, I .
(2.23), , I
E J E J ,
I=

+.
2.3.4

( 2.9).

2.9

a = b (
) (2.17)

I=

E
,
R + R

R .
26

(2.25)

2.4

- .
, ,
.

2.10

a ( a = 0 ),
abcdefa ( 2.10),
:
b = a + I1 R1 , c = b + E1 , d = c + I1 R4 ,
e = d E4 , f = e I 2 R2 , a = f E2 = 0 .
abcdefa
2.11.

2.11


R1 R4 , I1 .
2.5 .
A ,
q ,
27

U
:
A = qU .
(2.26)
t , ..
I = const , q = It (2.26)
A = IUt .
(2.27)
(2.27) ,

I=

U
R

U = IR ,

(2.27)

U2
t.
A=
R

A = I Rt ,
2

(2.28)


P .

A
,
t

P=

(2.29)

.. A t ,
. (2.27) (2.29) ,
:

P = IU ,

P = I R,
2

U2
.
P=
R

(2.30)

: [ A ] = 1 (); :
[ P ] = 1 (). ( ), .. , 1 1 .
1 = 1 , 1 = 3 600 000 .
,

:
m

(P

k =1

(P ) ,
k

(2.31)

k =1

m n , , P
P .
(2.31)
.

1 E (2.31) , ..
P = EI > 0 , E I
( 2.12, ).
: P = EI < 0 ( 2.12, ).
2 J (2.31) , ..
P = UJ > 0 , J

28

U ( 2.12, ).
: P = UJ < 0 ( 2.12, ).
3 R
P = I 2 R .

P = EI > 0

P = EI < 0

P = UJ > 0

P = UJ < 0

2.12 ,
(), () (), ()

, 2.10, ,
, :
( E1 + E4 )I1 E2 I 2 + ( E3 + E5 )I 3 = I12 (R1 + R4 ) + I 22 R2 + I 32 R3 .
2.6
.
,
.
2.6.1


2.13, ,
, 2.1.

2.13 () ()
29

2.1 ,

I = const

I = I1 + I 2 + K + I n ,
I k = Ug k , k = 1, n

U = U1 + U 2 + K + U n ,

U = const

U k = IRk , k = 1, n

()

R = R1 + R2 + K Rn

g = g1 + g 2 + K + g n

g = 1 R (. 2.1) ;
: [ g ] = 1 ().
2.6.2
.

,
, .
,
( )
( ).
,

, ,
,
, .

2.14
() ()

, , I1 , I 2 I 3
, 2.14, .
R

30

R = R1 + R23 = R1 +

R2 R3
,
R2 + R3

R23
R2 R3 ( 2.14, ). I1

I1 =

E
,
R

, U 23 = I1 R23 U 23
R2 R3 , :

I2 =

U 23
,
R2

I3 =

U 23
.
R3

,
()
, 1 , , ,
E * . , E *
E ,
k = E E* I1 , I 2 , , I n ,
I1* , I 2* , , I n* k :

I1 = kI1* , I 2 = kI 2* , , I n = kI n* .

(2.32)
, , I1 , I 2 I 3
2.14, .
I 3* = 1 E * ,
.. , R3
1 ( 2.14, ).
*
R2 R3
U 23
U 3* R3 , ..
*
U 23
= U 3* = I 3* R3 , I 2* R2
*
I 2* = U 23
R2 . I1*
I1* = I 2* + I 3* , E *
*
*
E* = U1* + U 23
= I1* R1 + U 23
,

U 1* = I1* R1 R1

I1* . , k = E E* ,
I1 , I 2 I 3 (2.32).
2.7
, ( )
.

. , 1- 2-
, .
31

.
.
,
. 2.7.1 2.7.6 ,
. ,
, (),
, .
2.7.1

( ).
1- 2-
.
,
(
).

1)
.
2) 1- .
n1 = m 1 , m .
3)
2-
n2 = p m k + 1 , p , k .
4) .
5)
.

2.15 ,

, 2.15, 2 3 , .. m = 2 ,
p = 3 k = 0 ( ). 1-
n1 = 1 , 2- n2 = 2 . 1 a
I1 + I 2 I 3 = 0 ,
32

2- abcda adefa
I1 (R1 + R4 ) + I 2 R2 = E1 + E2 E4 , I 2 R2 I 3 (R3 + R5 ) = E2 + E3 E5 .

, I1 , I 2 , I 3 .

1 , 2-
(. 3 ), ,
, .
2 ,
, ,
.
3 n , 1-
2- :
n = n1 + n2 = (m 1) + ( p m k + 1) = p k .
( k = 0 ),
n = p , .. ( ).
2.7.2

, .
2- .
,
, .. n = p m k + 1.

1)
.
2) n = p m k + 1
.
3)
2- .

.
4)
.
5)
, . ,
,
+, .
, 2.16, n = 2 ,
: I11 1- I 22
2- .

(R1 + R2 + R4 )I11 R2 I 22 = E1 + E2 ;
(2.33)

R2 I11 + (R2 + R3 + R5 )I 22 = E2 E3 .
I1 , I 2 , I 3 (. 2.16)

:
33

I1 = I11 ,

I 2 = I11 I 22 ,

I 3 = I 22 .

2.16 ,

(2.33)
n ,
I11 , I 22 , , I nn :

R11 I11 + R12 I 22 + K + R1n I nn = E11 ;


R I + R I + K + R I = E ;
21 11
22 22
2 n nn
22

...............................................
Rn1 I11 + Rn 2 I 22 + K + Rnn I nn = Enn .
( k = 1, n ) ()

k - ,
Rkm ( k , m = 1, n k m ) k m
( ), Ekk ( k = 1, n ) k - .
, , (2.33) R11 R22
: R11 = R1 + R2 + R4 , R22 = R2 + R3 + R5 ; : R12 = R2 ,
R21 = R2 ; : E11 = E1 + E2 , E22 = E2 E3 .

Rkk

(2.34)

(2.34)
:
RI = E ,
(2.35)
R n , I -
, E - ,

R11
R
R = 21
M

Rn1

R12 K R1n
R22 K R2 n
,
M
M
M

Rn 2 K Rnn

I11
I
I = 22 ,
M

I nn

E11
E
E = 22 .
M

Enn

(2.35)
I = R -1 E ,
(2.36)
-1
R R .
(2.34) ,
.. :
34

E11
1 E22
I11 =
M
Enn

R12 K R1n
R11
R22 K R2 n
1 R21
, K , I nn =
M
M
M
M
Rn 2 K Rnn
Rn1

R12 K E11
R22 K E22
.
M
M
M
Rn 2 K Enn

(2.37)


(2.34) ( R ):

R11
R
= det R = 21
M
Rn1

R12 K R1n
R22 K R2 n
.
M
M
M
Rn 2 K Rnn

(2.38)

(2.37), (2.38) ,
(2.37) ,
:

I kk = E11

1k

+ E22 2 k + K + Enn nk ,

(2.39)

mk ( m = 1, n ) Rmk (2.38):

mk = ( 1)m+k *mk .

(2.40)

*mk Rmk , .. ,
m - k - .

1 Rkk > 0 k
, .
2 Rkm ( Rkm = Rmk )
, , k
m . (2.34) +,
I kk I mm , ,
. Rkm .
k m , Rkm = 0 .
3 Ekk k
, , + ,
k (
I kk ). Ekk .
4 (2.34),
(2.35) ,
.
,
(2.10).
2.7.3

. (
35

), ,
, ,
,
.

1)
.
2)
, .
,
.
3) ,
.
4)
() .
, ,
+,
.
2.17
,
, 2.18.

2.17

2.18

I1 , I 2 , I 3
2.17 , ()
, 2.18:
I1 = I1 I1 , I 2 = I 2 + I 2 , I 3 = I 3 + I 3 .
I1 , I 2 , I 3 , I1 , I 2 , I 3
.

, ,
. ,
, :
P = I 2 R P = U 2 R .
2.7.4
,
36

I :
I = ( E + a b )g ,
(2.41)
E , a b a b , g
, .
,
, .
,
. , , n + 1
n+1 = 0 , 1 , 2 , , n
( ) n+1 :

G111 + G12 2 + K + G1n n = J11 ;


G + G + K + G = J ;
21 1
22 2
2n n
22

...............................................
Gn11 + Gn 2 2 + K + Gnn n = J nn ;

(2.42)

Gkk ( k = 1, n ) k , Gkm ( k , m = 1, n , k m )
k m , J kk k - .
(2.41) (2.42)
.
(2.42)
:
G = J ,
(2.43)
G n , -
, J - ,

1

= 2 ,
M

n

G11 G12 K G1n


G
G22 K G2 n
21
,

G=
M
M
M
M

Gn1 Gn 2 K Gnn

J11
J
J = 22 .
M

J nn

(2.43)
= G -1 J ,

(2.44)

G -1 G .

1 Gkk ( Gkk > 0 ) k


, .
3 Gkm 0 ( Gkm = Gmk ) k m
, . k
m , Gkm = 0 .
4 J kk k
p

J kk =

E g +J ,
i

i =1

i =1

37

(2.45)

Ei g i , k , J i
, . Ei J i
(2.45) +, ,
, .

2.19 ,

, 2.19, 3 , 1,
2 3. 3 = 0 , 2- 1 2
:

G111 + G12 2 = J11 ;

G211 + G22 2 = J 22 .
G11 = g1 + g 2 + g 3 ,
G12 = G21 = g 3 ,

G22 = g 3 + g 4 + g 5 ,
J11 = E1 g1 E3 g 3 J 6 + J 7 , J 22 = E3 g 3 E4 g 4 + E5 g 5 J 7 , g i = 1 Ri ( i = 1,5 )
R1 , R2 , R3 , R4 R5 ,

(2.41):
I1 = (3 1 + E1 )g1 , I 2 = (3 1 )g 2 , I 3 = (1 2 + E3 )g 3 ,
I 4 = ( 2 3 + E4 )g 4 , I 5 = ( 2 3 E5 )g 5 .
2.7.5

()
( 2.20). ,
,
.

. ,
2.20 2 = 0 ,
U 0 = 1 2 (2.42).
2.20 G111 = J11 ,
(2.45)
38

E g +J
=
g
k

U0

k =1

k =1

(2.46)

k =1

Ek J k +,
U 0 , ,
.

2.20 ,


(2.41), :
I k = ( Ek U 0 )g k ,
(2.47)
Ek U 0 +,
I k , , .
, 2.20, , :

U0 =

E1 g1 E3 g 3 + E4 g 4 + E6 g 6 J 2 + J 5
,
g1 + g 3 + g 4 + g 6

I1 , I 3 , I 4 I 6
I1 = (E1 + U 0 )g1 , I 3 = ( E3 U 0 )g 3 , I 4 = ( E4 + U 0 )g 4 ,

I 6 = (E6 U 0 )g 6 .

2.7.6
( ,
) ,
( ) .
, ,
( ), ,
,
( 2.21, ).
39

2.21 ()
() ()


( ), .. ,
I
U ab , ( 2.21, ).
,
E
R ( 2.21, )
J G = 1 R ( 2.21, ).
E , R J , G ,
, ab ( 2.21), :

I =

E
,
R + R

I =

J
,
1 + G R

(2.48)

R .
,
,
.
: ,
, ,
,
, , :
E = U , R = R ,
(2.49)
U R
.
: ,
, ,
, ,
, :
J = I , G = G ,
(2.50)
I G = 1 R
.

40

U
2.22.

2.22 ()
()

(2.48) (2.49) (2.50) :

I =

U
,
R + R

I =

I
.
1 + G R

(2.51)

(2.51)
.

1 R
,
, .
,
, , , .
2.23.

2.23 ()
()

2 U , I , R .
U , I
( ),
2.22, R
41

. , R = 0 ( )
(2.51)

R =

U
.
I

(2.52)

2.7.7 .


,
( 2.24, ).
,
.

2.24 ()

()

(
)
( ) E , R
J , G .
()
R ( ).


E ( 2.24, ). , ,
( ) .
R
.
R
, :
1) ( R = ),
, , U
, : U = E ;
2) ( R = 0 ),
, ,
I = E R ;
42

3) ( R = R ),
;
4) ,
I , U , .. ,
-.

:
1) P , ;
2) P , ,
;
3) P , .
, 2.24,

P = E I , P = I 2 R , P = I 2 R .
(2.53)

I=

E
,
R + R

(2.53) :

E2
,
P =
R + R

E2 R
P =
,
(R + R )2

E2 R
P =
.
(R + R )2

(2.54)

,
P = I 2 (R + R ) , P = UI , P = (E IR )I ,
(2.55)
U = IR = E IR ( R ).

().
P P :

P
P
.
=
P P + P

(2.56)

(2.53), (2.54) (2.56)


:

R
,
R + R

= 1

P
P

= 1

IR
.
E

(2.57)

R ,
P .
P R .
(2.54)

(R + R ) 2 R (R + R ) = 0 ,
dP
= E2
dR
(R + R )2
2

R = R .
43

(2.58)

(2.58)
. ,
,
.
(2.54) (2.58) , P ,
P P :

E2
P =
,
2 R

E2
E2
P =
, P =
,
(2.59)
4 R
4 R
(2.57) (2.59) = 0.5 , ..
E R .
, ,
. R >> R ,
.. .

2.2.
2.2

E
0

0
E2
R

0
E2
R

0
E
R

E
2 R

E2
2 R
P

E2
4 R

E2
4 R
P

E
2
U

0.5

2.25 P (I ) , P(I ) , P (I ) (I ) .
.

2.25


.
44


,
( R >> R ).
( 1 ), ()
. , ,
, , ,
.
,
.
2.8 .

.
,
.
, ,
, , .
2.8.1

( 2.26, ), ( ),
, ( 2.26, )
( ).

2.26 () ()

,
,
.

Rab = Ra + Rb +

Ra Rb
,
Rc

Rbc = Rb + Rc +

Rb Rc
,
Ra

Rac = Ra + Rc +

Ra Rc
.
Rb

(2.60)

Ra =

Rab Rac
,
Rab + Rbc + Rac

Rb =

Rab Rbc
,
Rab + Rbc + Rac
45

Rc =

Rac Rbc
.
Rab + Rbc + Rac

(2.61)

, (2.60) (2.61),
,
a , b c ( 2.26)
.
2.8.2



( 2.27, ),
E *
R* ( 2.27, ).

2.27 () ()

E * R*

E g +J
k

E =
*

k =1

k =1

g =
*

g ,
k

R* =

k =1

1
,
g*

(2.62)

g k = 1 Rk ( k = 1, n ) Rk .
(2.62) + Ek
J k , , E* .
Ek J k .
, 2.27, ,
:

E* =

E1 g1 J 2 + E3 g 3 + J 4
,
g*

g * = g1 + g 3 .

2.8.3

( 2.28, )

n

E =
*

E .
k

k =1

46

(2.63)

2.28 ()
()

( 2.28, )

n

J =
*

(2.64)

k =1

1 Ek J k (2.63) (2.64)
, (2.62), ..
Ek J k E *
J * +;
.
2 ,

, .
,
, , .
2.9
:
(), .
2.9.1

():
, .

(2.39).
E1 , E2 , , Ek , .
( k )
:
(2.65)
I k = E1 g k1 + E2 g k 2 + K + Ek g kk + K + En g kn ,

47

g kk () k , g km
k m ( m = 1, n ).
g kk k I k
Ek ,
g km k m I k
Em :
I
I
g kk = k , g km = k .
(2.66)
Ek
Em

1 g kk
, .
2 g km
,
g km = g mk ,
(2.67)
. ,
I k k
(
).
2.9.2
: Ek ,
k , I m m
, Ek ,
m , k I m .

2.29 ,

,
2.29;
(2.67).
2.9.3
.
, R
,
E U = IR ,
I .
48

, R
,
J I ,
I .
,
2.30, 2.30, ;
2.30, 2.30, .

2.30 () ()
()

,
, ,
-
.

3.
3.1
, , .
t
, , i , u e
, .

m , ,
I m , U m Em , .
,
,
. :
1) T ,
; : [ T ] = 1 ().
2) f , ;
: [ f ] = 1 ().
3) , 2
; : [ ] = 1 ( ).
T , f

f =

1
,
T

= 2f ,

49

2
.
T

(3.1)

,
,
. ,

(3.2)
i(t ) = I m sin(t + i ) , u (t ) = U m sin(t + u ) , e(t ) = Em sin(t + e ) ,
t + i , t + u t + e , .. ,
, i , u e
, .
( ) t ,
t = 0 .

3.1 ,

3.1 ()
, T , i ,
u e.
3.2 .

( )
. , ,
:

2
I =
T

T 2

i(t )dt .

(3.3)

2
U =
T

T 2

u(t )dt ,

2
E =
T

T 2

e(t )dt .

(3.4)

i (t ) = I m sin t (3.3)
:

I =

2I m

(3.5)

, (3.4), ,
:
50

U =

2U m

E =

2 Em

(3.6)

(
) :
T

1 2
I=
i (t )dt .
T

(3.7)

:
T

1
U=
u 2 (t )dt ,
T

1 2
E=
e (t )dt .
T

(3.8)

(3.7) :

I=

Im
.
2

(3.9)

, (3.8), ,
:

U=

Um
,
2

E=

Em
.
2

(3.10)

(3.7)
RT , R ( .
3.5.1), :
T

RI 2T = Ri 2 (t )dt .
0

,
I , R
T ,
i .
3.3

: , ,

3.3.1 .

,

i(t ) = I m sin(t + i ) ,
u (t ) = U m sin(t + u )
e(t ) = Em sin(t + e ) .
.
3.2
, I m , U m i ,
u . 3.2 t .
51

3.2 ,
() ()

1

. > 0
( u (t ) 3.2, ), < 0
( i (t ) 3.2, ).
2 , ,
(
), :
= (t + ) (t + ) = .
(3.11)
,
u i ( ):
(3.12)
= u i .
3 (3.11), (3.12) .
3.1
.
3.1


u
i

u > i

>0

u < i

<0

u = i

=0

u = i

= u i


( )

( )

( )

3.2,
( > 0 ), 3.2, ( < 0 ). ,
52

( = 0 ) 3.3, ; ,
( = ) 3.3, .

3.3 , ()
()

3.3.2 .

a(t )
(3.13)
a(t ) = Am sin(t + a ) ,
Am . , ,
, , ,
Em , U m I m ,
.
r
3.4 I m ( 3.4, )
i ( 3.4, )

3.4 ()
()

r
1 3.4 , Am ,
(3.13),
53

OX t + a t ,
a t = 0 .

2 Am OY
t , ..
Am sin(t + a ) .
3 a(t )

A , A = Am 2 .
, ,
, . ,
,
. ,
t ,
t = 0 .

1) ,
-,
. .
2) ( OX ),
.
3)
( ),
( ).
4)
.

3.5 ()
()

3.5
( 3.5, ) ( 3.5, )
.
3.3.3 .

A&
- A& ( 3.6, ) ,
:
54

A& = Am e j = Am (cos + j sin ) = a + bj ,


(3.14)
Am , a b
() .

3.6 ()
() -

+ 1
() , + j , j = 1
. Am -,
A& , + 1,
a b + 1 + j ( 3.6, ).
Am , , a b :

Am = a 2 + b 2 ,

= arctg (b a ) ,

a = Am cos ,

b = Am sin .

(3.15)

:
e + j = cos + j sin , e j = cos j sin .
(3.16)

= t + a , A& (t )
:
A& (t ) = Am e j (t + a ) = Am cos(t + a ) + jAm sin(t + a ) .
(3.17)
(3.17) ,
, ,
:
Re A& (t ) = Am cos(t + a ) , Im A& (t ) = Am sin(t + a ) ,
(3.18)
Re A& (t ) Im A& (t )

A& (t ) . (3.18) , a(t ) ,


(3.13), :
a(t ) = Am sin(t + a ) = Im Am e j (t + a ) = Im A& (t ) .
(3.19)
(3.19)
a(t ) ,

A& (t ) = Am e j (t + a )
55

(3.20)

.
A& (t )
( 3.6, ). , a(t )

A& (t )
+ j ( 3.6, ). ( = const )
t = 0
A& m () A& :

A& m = Am e j a ,

A& = Ae j a ,

A = Am 2 a(t ) .

3.2.

(3.21)

3.2 ,

()

i (t ) = I m sin(t + i ) u (t ) = U m sin(t + u ) e(t ) = Em sin(t + e )


i (t ) = Im {I m e j (t + i ) }

u (t ) = Im {U m e j (t + u ) } e(t ) = Im {Em e j (t + e ) }

I&m (t ) = I m e j (t + i )

U& m (t ) = U m e j (t + u )

E& m (t ) = Em e j (t + e )

I&m = I m e j i

U& m = U m e j u

E& m = Em e j e

I& = Ie j i

U& = Ue j u

E& = Ee j e

A& m A&
Am a ,
.

a(t ) = Im A& m e jt , a(t ) = Im 2 A& e jt .


(3.22)

3.4

I&m , U& m I& , U&
,
.
.

:
56

U& Ue j u U j ( u i )
Z = = j i = e
= Ze j ,
I& Ie
I

(3.23)

Z , .
, ,
,
:

Z=

U
,
I

= u i .

(3.24)

, , ..

I j ( u i )
1 I& Ie j i
Y= = =
=
e
= Ye j ,
j

u
&
Z U Ue
U

(3.25)


, .
(3.25) Y , ( )
.

,
,
:

Y=

I
,
U

= i u .

(3.26)

Z=

U& m
,
I&m

Y=

I&m
.
U& m

(3.27)

3.5 . ,


: ,
.
3.3.
3.3

X L = L

bL = 1 X L

g =1 R

ZR = R

Z L = jX L

57

X C = 1 (C )

bC = 1 X C

Z C = jX C

3.3

YR = g

Y L = jbL

Y C = jbC

( )

Um
,
R
I m = gU m

i=

u
R

di
dt

i=C

Um
,
XL

Im =

u=L

Im =

Im =

I m = bLU m

I = bLU
U&
I& =
,
ZL
I& = Y LU&

i = u

i = u

I=

i = I m sin(t + i ) ,

Um
,
XC

I m = bCU m

U
,
XL

U
,
R
I = gU
U&
I& =
,
ZR
I& = Y RU&
I=

du
dt

I=

U
,
XC

I = bCU
U&
I& =
,
ZC
I& = Y CU&

u = U m sin(t + u )

i = u +

3.5.1 .

R ( 3.7, )

i=

u
.
R

(3.28)

3.7 (), () ()

58

u = U m sin(t + u ) (3.28)
:

i=

u Um
=
sin(t + u ) = I m sin(t + i ) .
R R

(3.29)

Um
,
R

(3.30)

(3.29) ,

Im =

i = u ,

(3.31)
.. = u i = 0 , ,
.
3.7, ;
3.7, .
R
,

R=

l
,
S

, l , S
. ,
,
,
.
,
. , , ..

g=

1
,
R

(3.32)

I = gU .

(3.33)

.
(3.30)
. 2 ,
:

I=

U
,
R

,
(3.33) :

U&
I& =
,
ZR

I& = Y RU& ,

(3.34)

Z R Y R
.


I& = Ie j i = Ie j , U& = Ue j u = Ue j ,
Z R Y R (3.23) (3.25) :

59

U& Ue j u Ue j U 0
Z R = = j i = j = e = R ,
I& Ie
Ie
I

YR =

1
1
= =g,
ZR R

..
:
ZR = R, YR = g .
(3.35)
3.5.2 .

L ( 3.8, )

i=

1
udt .
L

(3.36)

3.8 (), () ()

u = U m sin(t + u ) (3.36)
:

i=

U
1
1
udt =
U m sin(t + u )dt = m cos(t + u ) =
L
L
L
U

= m sin t + u = I m sin(t + i ) .
2
L

(3.37)

(3.37) ,

Im =

Um
,
XL

i = u

(3.38)

(3.39)

.. = u i = 2 , ,

2 .
3.8, ; 3.8, .

60

X L = L

(3.40)

.

- ,
. ,
, ..

bL =

1
,
XL

(3.41)

.
(3.38)
. 2 ,
:

I=

U
,
XL

I = bLU .

(3.42)

,
(3.42) :

&
&I = U ,
ZL

I& = Y LU& ,

(3.43)

Z L Y L
.

j u
2

, U& = Ue j u ,
Z L Y L (3.23) (3.25) :

I& = Ie

j i

= Ie

U j2
U& Ue j u
Ue j u
Z L = = j i = = e = jX L ,
j u
I
I& Ie
Ie 2

YL =

1
1
=
= jbL ,
Z L jX L

..
:
Z L = jX L , Y L = jbL .
(3.44)
3.5.3 .

C ( 3.9, )

du
.
(3.45)
dt
u = U m sin(t + u ) (3.45)
i=C

i=C

du
d
= C (U msin(t + u )) = CU m cos(t + u ) =
dt
dt
61

= CU m sin t + u + = I m sin(t + i ) .
2

(3.46)

3.9 (), () ()

(3.46) ,

Im =

Um
,
XC

i = u +

(3.47)

(3.48)

.. = u i = 2 , ,

2 .
3.9, ; 3.9, .

XC =

1
C

(3.49)


.
-
. , , ..

bC =

1
,
XC

(3.50)

.
(3.47)
2 ,
.
:

I=

U
,
XC

I = bCU .

(3.51)

,
(3.51) :
62

U&
,
I& =
ZC

I& = Y CU& ,

(3.52)

Z C Y C
.

j u +
2

, U& = Ue j u ,
(3.23) (3.25) :

I& = Ie
Z C Y C

j i

= Ie

U j2
U& Ue j u
Ue j u
Z C = = j i = = e = jX C ,
j u +
I
I& Ie
Ie 2

YC =

1
1
=
= jbC ,
ZC
jX C

..
:
Z C = jX C , Y C = jbC .
(3.53)
3.6
() ,

.
,
,
.
a ( & a = 0 ),
, 3.10, :
&b = &a jX L 2 I&2 , &c = &b RI&2 , & d = &c + jX L1 I&1 = & a + E&1 ,

&e = &c ( jX C I&3 ) = &a + E& 2 .

3.10 ()
()

,
63

, 3.10, .
3.7 .

, R , L
C ( 3.11),
u = U m sin(t + u ) ,
, 3.5,
:
i = I m sin(t + i ) .

3.11
,

2-
:

u R + u L +u C = u

di
1
Ri + L + uC (0 ) +
idt = u ,
dt
C

(3.54)

uC (0 ) .
,
, 2 ,
(3.54)

RI m sin(t + i ) + LI m sin t + i + +
I m sin t + i +
2 C
2

1
+
I + u (0 ) = U m sin(t + u ) .
C m C

(3.55)

(3.55) , ,
, ,

1
I + u (0 ) = 0 .
C m C

(3.55) t .
t , t = 0 . (3.55)

64

RI m sin i + LI m sin i + +
I m sin i = U m sin u .
2 C
2

(3.56)

(3.21),
(3.56) :

1 j2
2
I m e R + Le +
e = U m e j u ,
C

, 2 ,
j i

I&{R + j ( X L X C )} = U& .

(3.57)

(3.57) :

U&
I& = ,
Z

I& = U& Y .

(3.58)

(3.58) , Z
Y
. (3.23)
Z (3.57) :

U&
= Ze j = R + j ( X L X C ) = R + jX .
(3.59)
&I
R
( ), X
Z=

( ):
X = X L XC .
(3.60)
Z , (3.59),

Z = R2 + (X L X C ) = R2 + X 2 .
R , X Z :
X XC
X
R = Z cos , X = Z sin , = arctg = arctg L
,
R
R

(3.61)
(3.62)

.
(3.61) (3.62)
,
R , X
Z ( 3.12, ).
(3.61), ,
, (3.62)
.
(3.25) (3.59),
:

Y=

1
1
R jX
R
X
R
X
X
=
= 2
= 2 j 2 = 2 j 2L C2 ,
2
Z R + jX R + X
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z

65

g=

R
,
Z2

bL =

XL
,
Z2

bC =

XC
,
Z2

(3.63)

1
= Ye j = g j (bL bC ) = g jb .
(3.64)
Z
g
( ), b
Y=

( ):
b = bL bC .
(3.65)
Y , (3.64),

Y = g 2 + (bL bC ) = g 2 + b 2 .
g , b Y :
2

g = Y cos ,

b = Y sin ,

b
g

bL bC
g

= arctg = arctg

(3.66)

(3.67)

(3.66), (3.67)
g , b Y ( 3.12, ).
.

3.12 () ()

1 X L X C
, ,
X
X L X C .
bL bC b .
2 (3.63) ,
, .. R , X L X C ,
g , bL bC . ,
,
.
, ,
(3.32), (3.41) (3.50), g , bL bC
R , X L X C .
66

3 (3.58), (3.61) (3.66) ,


I=

U
U
=
,
2
Z
R2 + (X L X C )

I = UY = U g 2 + (bL bC ) .
2

(3.68)

(3.68)
.
3.8
,
, .
3.8.1
1-
:
p

i = 0 ,

(3.69)

k =1

p , .

2 I&k e jt , (3.69)

ik , ik = Im
:
p

I& = 0 .

(3.70)

k =1

(3.70) 1-
.
:
.
3.8.2
2-

, :
n

u = e ,
k

(3.71)

k =1

k =1

n , m .
u k ek ,

u k = Im

2U& k e jt ek = Im
n

2 E& k e jt , (3.71) :
n

U& = E& , I& Z = E& ,


k

k =1

k =1

k =1

(3.72)

k =1

Z k k - .
(3.72) 2-
.
67

:

, .
3.9 ,
.

R , L C
2- , :
U& = U& R + U& L + U& C ,
(3.73)
U& R , U& L U& C R , L C , U&
( 3.13, ).

3.13 ,
() ()

U& = U R , U& = U& L + U& C (3.73)

U& = U& + U& .

(3.74)

U& , I& ,
, U& ,
2 ,
.

I& = Ie j i , U& = Ue j u ,
U& R , U& L U& C (3.73) :

U& R = RI& = RIe j i = U R e j i , U& L = jX L I& = jX L Ie j i = jU L e j i ,


U& C = jX C I& = jX C Ie j i = jU C e j i .
, .. U& U& , , :
U& = U& R = U e j i ,

U& = U& L + U& C = j (U L U C )e j i = jU e j i ,

(3.75)


:
68

U = IR ,

U = U L U C = I ( X L X C ) = IX .

(3.76)

(3.75) (3.74)
U& ,

Ue j u = (U + jU )e j i

Ue j = U + jU ,

(3.77)

= u i .
(3.16) (3.77)
Ue j = U cos + jU sin .
(3.78)
(3.77) (3.78) :

U = U cos ,

U = U sin ,

U UC
U
.
= arctg L
U
U

= arctg

(3.79)

U , (3.77),

U = U R2 + (U L U C ) = U 2 + U 2 .
2

(3.80)

(3.79), (3.80)
U , U U ( 3.13, ).
.
(3.73) .
U& L U& C
, , .
3.4,
3.14.
3.4




U L UC

X L XC

()

U L > UC

U L < UC

U L = UC

X L > XC

X L < XC

X L = XC

i = I m sin(t + i ) ,

i < u ,
= u i > 0

u = U m sin(t + u )

i > u ,
= u i < 0

i = u ,
= u i = 0

3.4 , X L = X C ( U L = U C )
R , L C
( = u i = 0 ),

69

.
.

3.14 - (), - ()
()

3.10 ,
.
R ,
L C
1- , :
I& = I&R + I&L + I&C ,
(3.81)
I&R , I&L I&C R , L C , I&
( 3.15, ).

3.15 ,
() ()

I& = I&R , I& = I&L + I&C (3.81)

I& = I& + I& .

(3.82)

I& , U& ,
,

I& ,

2 ,
.
70

I& = Ie j i , U& = Ue j u ,
I&R , I&L I&C (3.81) :

I&R = gU& = gUe j u = I R e j u , I&L = jbLU& = jbLUe j u = jI L e j u ,


I&C = jbCU& = jbCUe j u = jI C e j u .
, .. I& I& , , :
I& = I&R = I e j u ,

I& = I&L + I&C = j (I L I C )e j u = jI e j u ,

(3.83)

:
I = Ug , I = I L I C = U (bL bC ) = Ub .
(3.84)
(3.83) (3.82)
I& ,

Ie j i = (I jI )e j u

Ie j = I jI ,

(3.85)

= u i .
(3.16) (3.85)
Ie j = I cos jI sin .
(3.86)
(3.85) (3.86) :

I = I cos ,

:

I = I sin ,

I I
I
= arctg L C .
I
I

= arctg

(3.87)

I , (3.85),
I = I R2 + (I L I C ) = I 2 + I 2 .
2

(3.88)

(3.87), (3.88)
I , I I ( 3.15, ).
.
(3.81) .
, ,
, .
3.5,
3.16.
3.5




IL IC

bL bC

()

I L > IC

I L < IC

I L = IC

bL > bC

bL < bC

bL = bC

71

3.5

i = I m sin(t + i ) ,

i < u ,
= u i > 0

()

u = U m sin(t + u )

i > u ,
= u i < 0

i = u ,
= u i = 0

3.5 , bL = bC ( I L = I C )
R , L C
( = u i = 0 ).
.

3.16 - (), - ()
()

3.11 .

, :
(3.89)
p = iu .

. , i = 0 ,
(3.12) , u = .
:
u = U m sin(t + ) , i = I m sin t .
(3.90)
(3.89) (3.90)
p = UI cos UI cos(2t + ) .
(3.91)
,
,
.
3.11.1

:
72

1
P=
T

p(t )dt .

(3.92)

: [ P ] = 1 ().
(3.92) (3.91)
:
P = UI cos .
(3.93)
(3.76), (3.79) (3.84) (3.87), (3.93)
,
:
P = I U , P = IU , P = I 2 R , P = U 2 g .
(3.94)
,
,
(, ).
3.11.2 ,
.

(, )
3.6 ,
3.17 3.19.
3.6

T
4

T
T
<t <
4
2

3T
T
<t <
2
4
3T
<t <T
4

i = I m sin t

u = U m sin t + u = U m sin t
2
2

pR = UI (1 cos 2t ) , pL = UI sin 2t , pC = UI sin 2t


i > 0 , i Im
u > 0 , u Um
u > 0, u 0
u < 0, u 0
pR > 0
pL > 0
pC < 0
i > 0, i 0
u < 0 , u U m
u > 0 , u Um
u > 0, u 0
pR > 0
pL < 0
pC > 0
i < 0 , i Im
u < 0 , u U m
u < 0, u 0
u > 0, u 0
pR > 0
pL > 0
pC < 0
i < 0, i 0
u > 0 , u Um
u < 0 , u U m
u < 0, u 0
u = U m sin t

0<t <

73

3.6

pR > 0
P = UI

pL < 0

pC > 0
P=0

( 3.17)
, ..

. (3.93)
P = UI , = 0 , , cos = 1 .

3.17 ,

( 3.18)
.

3.18 ,


(1- 3- );
.
(2- 4- ) .
, , ,
, . ,
,
74

. (3.93)
( P = 0 ), = 2 , , cos = 0 . ,
.

, ,
:

QL = I LU L ,

QL = I X L ,
2
L

U L2
,
QL =
XL

QL = U L2bL .

(3.95)

( 3.19),
, , .

3.19 ,

,
(2- 4-
).
.
(1- 3- ) .
, ,
. , ,
.
(3.93) ( P = 0 ), = 2 ,
, cos = 0 . , ,
, .
,
:

QC = I CU C ,

QC = I X C ,
2
C

U C2
,
QC =
XC

QC = U C2 bC .

(3.96)

,
, ,
P , (3.93),
Q , ,
:
Q = UI sin .
(3.97)
: [ Q ] = 1 (- ).
75

(3.76), (3.79) (3.84) (3.87), (3.97)


,
:
Q = I U , Q = IU , Q = I 2 X , Q = U 2b , Q = QL QC .
(3.98)
3.11.3 .

, ..
S = IU ,
(3.99)
. : [ S ] = 1
(-).
,
, cos = 1
( = 0 ), .. .
(3.68), (3.99)

U2
S=
,
Z

S =I Z,
2

I2
S= ,
Y

S = U 2Y .

(3.100)

(3.93), (3.97)
(3.99) ,
P , Q S :

P = S cos ,

Q = S sin ,

S = P 2 + Q 2 = P 2 + (QL QC ) .
2

(3.101)
(3.101)

P , Q S ( 3.20).

3.20

, ,
. I& = Ie j i
U& = Ue j u , I&* = Ie j i
, I& (- ).
~
S ,
, :
~
S = U&I&* .
(3.102)
(3.102)
~
S = U&I&* = Ue j u Ie j i = UIe j ( u i ) = UIe j ,
(3.103)
= u i .

)(

76

(3.16), (3.103)
:
~
S = UIe j = UI cos + jUI sin = P + jQ = P + j (QL QC ) .
(3.104)
(3.104) ,
; ;
:
~
~
~
P = Re S , Q = Im S , S = S .

( S )
, ,
, ,
, .
.
3.11.4

,

.
.
(3.100) ,
:
m

~
S

k =1

(S~

),

k =1

(3.105)

m n , , S

S () .

.
, ..
~
S , (3.105) ,
(2.31) (. 2.5 1, 2).
3.11.5 cos . -


. ( 3.20) ,

:

cos =

P P
.
=
S IU

(3.106)

.
-
1)
U ,
77

, I ,
, ..
S = U I . cos P = S cos << S ,
, ,
. ,
P ,
S : P S . ,
: cos 1 .
2) P I = P (U cos ) ,
cos . ,
,
,
, .

1)

.
cos = 0.8 0.9 , ,
cos = 0.3 0.4 .
,
.
2)
.
- ,
3.21.

3.21 () ()
-


C ( 3.22, ) I& , 3.22, ,
U& , .. cos ,
( ) P :
* < , cos * > cos ,
78

, *
.

3.22 () ()
-


.
cos
.
,
,
.
,
. -
, , ,
, . , ,
, .
3.12
,
,
. ,
, .
:
;
.
3.12.1

( 3.23, ),
R , L C ,
.
U
I :
79

I=

U
=
Z

U
R + (X L X C )

(3.107)

3.23 ()
()

, ,
,
, .. i = u , .

:

0 L =

X L = XC ,

1
,
0 C

(3.108)

0 , ,
. (3.108) ,
, , ,
. 0 , L0
C0 , , (3.108)

0 =

1
,
LC

L0 =

1
,
2C

C0 =

2L

(3.109)

U R ,
(3.107) I 0 , ..
X = X L X C = 0 Z = R ,
:

I 0 = I max =

U
.
R

0 L =

1
L
=
=.
0C
C

(3.110)

( )
.
80

U L (0 ) U C (0 ) 0 LI 0
I0

=
=
=
= .
U
U
RI 0
0CRI 0 R
d = 1 q .
q=

(3.111)

,
.
, .. q >> 1 ( d << 1 ),
( )
, , .
, , X L = X C ,
: U L (0 ) = U C (0 ) . ,
n ( n > 1 )
, .. X *L (0 ) = nX L (0 ) X C* (0 ) = nX C (0 ) ,
, n :
U *L (0 ) = nU L (0 ) U C* (0 ) = nU C (0 ) .
.
, ..
I ( ) U ( ) , R , L C
,
. 3.23, I ( ) , U ( ) , U L ( )
U C ( ) .

,
. , ,
, ,
.
3.12.2

( 3.24, ),
R , L C ,
.
U
I :
(3.112)
I = UY = U g 2 + (bL bC ) ,
bC R , L C
2

g , bL
(3.32), (3.41) (3.50).
,
,
.
:

bL = bC ,

1
= 0 C ,
0 L
81

(3.113)

0 , ,
. (3.113)
(3.108) ,
, 0 ,
L0 C0 , ,
(3.113) (3.109):

0 =

1
,
LC

L0 =

1
,
2C

C0 =

2L

(3.114)

3.24 ()
()

(3.114) , (
)
, , .
U R ,
(3.112) I 0 , ..
b = bL bC = 0 Y = g ,
:
I 0 = I min = Ug .

0C =

C
1
=
= .
0 L
L

(3.115)

( )
.

:

I L (0 ) I C (0 )
U
CU
=
=
= 0
= .
(3.116)
I0
I0
0 LgU
gU
g
(. 3.12.1), d = 1 q , ,
q=

.
,
.
82

, .. q >> 1 ( d << 1 ),
( )
, , . ,
, bL = bC ,
: I L (0 ) = I C (0 ) . ,

n ( n > 1 ) , .. b*L (0 ) = nbL (0 )


bC* (0 ) = nbC (0 ) , ,
n : I *L (0 ) = nI L (0 ) I C* (0 ) = nI C (0 ) .

.
, ..
I ( ) U ( ) , R , L C
,
. 3.24, I ( ) , U ( ) , I L ( )
I C ( ) .

. , ,
.
3.12.3 .

,
, .. L C ,
RL RC , ( 3.25, ).

3.25 ()
()

U
I (3.112),
g , bL bC RL , L , RC C
:

g = g L + gC ,

gL =

RL
,
2
RL2 + (L )
83

gC =

RC
,
2
RC2 + (1 C )

(3.117)

bL =

L
,
2
R + (L )
2
L

bC =

1 C
.
2
RC2 + (1 C )

(3.118)


, 3.24, ,
:
bL = bC
(3.119)
, (3.118),

1 C
L
= 2
.
2
2
R + (L )
RC + (1 C )
2
L

(3.120)

(3.120) ,
,
RL RC . , (3.120) ,
, RL , L , RC C
.
,
(3.120) . L , C
, (3.120).
L C
.
(3.120) ,
:

2 RL2
= 0
,
(3.121)
2 RC2
0 , (3.114), (3.110).
RL RC
. , , ..
, .
RL = RC = 0 , .. ,
.
RL = RC = = 0 0 , ..
.
U RL RC
, (3.119) I 0 , ..
b = bL bC = 0 Y = g ,
:
I 0 = I min = Ug ,
g (3.117).

3.25, .

, .. RL << RC << . ,
84

, (3.121),
0 , 3.24, : 0 .
3.13
(3.70), (3.72),
, ,
:
p

I& = 0 , I& Z = E& .


k

k =1

k =1

k =1

, , ( )
.
,
,
.

1)
, , ..
e(t ) j (t ) , E& J& , R , L C
( )
Z R = R , Z L = jX L Z C = jX C .
3.7.
3.7

85

2) 1- 2-
.
3)
, , I& .
4)
,
, i (t ) .

, 3.26, .

3.26 ()
()

:
j (t ) = J m sin t + j e(t ) = Em sin(t + e ). ,

3.26, , 3 5 , .. m = 3 , p = 5 k = 1 ( 1
). 1- n1 = 2 ,
2- n2 = 2 . 1-
a b
J& + I&1 I&2 = 0 , I&2 + I&3 I&4 = 0 ,
2- , E , L , C (1-
) C , R (2- ),
R1 I&1 + jX L I&2 + jX C I&3 = E& , jX C I&3 + R2 I&4 = 0 .
, 3.26, ,
,
I&1 , I&2 , I&3 I&4 . J& E&

E
J j
E& = m e j e , J& = m e j .
2
2

,

( ,
.),
.
86

,
, 2.6 2.7,
I I& , U U& , E E& ,
R Z , g
Y .. , , (2.34)
:

Z 11 I&11 + Z 12 I&22 + K + Z 1n I&nn = E&11 ;


&
Z 21 I11 + Z 22 I&22 + K + Z 2 n I&nn = E& 22 ;

...............................................
Z n1 I&11 + Z n 2 I&22 + K + Z nn I&nn = E& nn ,
Z kk ( k = 1, n ) () k - ,
Z km ( k , m = 1, n k m ) k
m , E& kk ( k = 1, n ) k - .
I&11 , I&22 , , I&nn ()

.
3.14
,
.
, ,
.
3.14.1 .
i1 i2 ,
,
( 3.27).

3.27


( ) :
1 = 11 + 12 , 2 = 22 + 21 ,
(3.122)

87

1 , 2 , 11 , 22
(), 12 , 21 . 12
, i2 ; 21
, , i1
( 3.27).
w1 w2 11
12 :
11 = w111 , 12 = w112 .
(3.123)
22 21 :
22 = w2 22 , 21 = w2 21 .
(3.124)

L1 =

11
i1

w111
,
i1

L2 =

22
i2

w2 22
i2

(3.125)

w2 21
(3.126)
i2
i1
i1
. M 12
; M 21
M 12 =

12

w112
,
i2

M 21 =

21

.
M 12 = M 21 = M ,
.
3.14.2 .


,
, .
,
, .. , .
,
.
1 2
, , 11 , 12 22 , 21 ,
.

1 =11 12 = w111 w112 = L1i1 Mi2
(3.127)

2 = 22 21 = w2 22 w2 21 = L2i2 Mi1 ,
(3.128)
+ ,
.

,
, y , , * .
88

,
( 3.28, ); , ( 3.28, ).

3.28 () ()

, ,
,
:

.

3.29 3.30 . 3.29 y
,
3.30 .

3.29


()
()

3.30


()
()

.
.

d1
d (11 12 )
=
= e11 e12
dt
dt

(3.129)

d 2
d ( 22 21 )
=
= e22 e21 ,
dt
dt

(3.130)

e1 =

e2 =

e11 =

di
d11
= L1 1 ,
dt
dt

e22 =

di
d 22
= L2 2
dt
dt

,
89

(3.131)

e12 =

d12
di
= M 2 ,
dt
dt

e21 =

d 21
di
= M 1
dt
dt

(3.132)

.
,
, :

k12 =

e12 M di2 dt M
=
=
e22 L2 di2 dt L2

(3.133)

k 21 =

e21 M di1 dt M
=
=
e11 L1 di1 dt L1

(3.134)

.
,
( ).
M
L1 L2 :

K=

M
.
L1 L2

(3.135)


,
.
(3.133) (1.135) ,
K
k12 k 21 :

K = k12 k 21 .

(3.136)

3.14.3

3.31.

3.31
() ()

u ,
i . 2-
:
u = u1 + u2 ,
(3.137)
90

di
di
di
di
(3.138)
M , u 2 = iR2 + L2 M ,
dt
dt
dt
dt
+ M di dt
( 3.31, ); ( 3.31, ). R1
R2 (3.138) ; L1 L2
; M .
u1 = iR1 + L1

(3.137), (3.138)
:
U& = U& 1 + U& 2 ,
(3.139)

XM

U& 1 = R1 I& + j (L1 M )I& , U& 2 = R2 I& + j (L2 M )I& .


(3.140)
X 1 = L1 X 2 = L2 ,
= M , (3.140)

U& 1 = R1 I& + j ( X 1 X M )I& ,

U& 2 = R2 I& + j ( X 2 X M )I& .

(3.141)

(3.141) (3.139),

U& = (R1 + R2 )I& + j ( X 1 + X 2 2 X M )I& = (R + jX )I& ,

R = R1 + R2 ,

(3.142)

X = X 1 + X 2 2 X M

(3.143)

. (3.142)
:

Z =

U&
= R + jX .
I&

(3.144)

U&
.
I& =
Z

(3.145)

(3.144)
():


X ; X .
(3.143) :

X = X 1 + X 2 + 2 X M ,

X = X 1 + X 2 2 X M ,

(3.146)

.. X > X , (3.145)

:

.
(3.146)
M :

M=

X X
4

91

(3.147)

3.32 ( 3.32, )
( 3.32, )
I& .

3.32 () ()

(3.141), (3.142).
3.14.4

3.33.

3.33
() ()

u ,
i , i1 i2 . 2-
92

,
, :

di1
di
di
di
M 2 , u = i2 R2 + L2 2 M 1 ,
(3.148)
dt
dt
dt
dt
+ M di1 dt M di2 dt
u = i1 R1 + L1

( 3.33, );
( 3.33, ). R1 R2 (3.148)
; L1 L2 ; M .
(3.148)
:
U& = R1 I&1 + jL1 I&1 jMI&2 , U& = R2 I&2 + jL2 I&2 jMI&1 .
(3.149)
Z 1 = R1 + jL1 Z 2 = R2 + jL2
, Z M = jM ,
(3.149) :
U& = Z 1 I&1 Z M I&2 , U& = Z M I&1 + Z 2 I&2 .
(3.150)
(3.150) I&1 I&2 ,

1 =

U&
U&

Z1

ZM

ZM

Z2

ZM
= U& (Z 2 m Z M ) ,
Z2
U& (Z 2 m Z M )
I&1 = 1 =
,
Z 1 Z 2 Z 2M

= Z1Z 2 Z M ,

2 =
I&2 =

Z1
ZM

U&
= U& (Z 1 m Z M ) ,
&
U

2 U& (Z 1 m Z M )
=
.
Z 1 Z 2 Z 2M

(3.151)

I& 1-
:
I& = I&1 + I&2
(3.152)
, (3.151),

U& (Z 1 + Z 2 m 2 Z M )
I& =
.
2
Z1Z 2 Z M

(3.153)

3.34 () ()

93

3.34 ( 3.34, )
( 3.34, ) .
(3.150), (3.152).
(3.151) ,
,
( (3.151)
; + ).
3.14.5


1- 2-
( , ,
3.14.3 3.14.4).
,
3.35.

3.35 ,

n = 2 ,
: I&11 1- I&22 2-
.

&
1

I11 (R3 + j3 L3 jM )I&22 = E&1 ;


+

+
+

R
j
L
j
R
j
L
j
M
1
1
3
3

(R3 + j3 L3 jM )I&11 + R2 j
+ R3 + jL3 I&22 = E& 2 .

C 2

,
, ,
, , .
,
,
.
,

94

, ,
( . 3.14.6).
3.14.6 -

, - .
,

,
.

,
,
.
, ,
, 3.36.

3.36

2- 3.36
:
E&1 = R1 I&1 + jL1 I&1 jMI&2 , E& 2 = R2 I&2 + jL2 I&2 jMI&1 .
(3.154)

3.37 ,

jMI&1 (3.154),
jMI&2 . :
95

E&1 = R1 I&1 + j (L1 M )I&1 + jM (I&1 I&2 );


E& 2 = R2 I&2 + j (L2 M )I&2 jM (I&1 I&2 ).

(3.155)

(3.155) ,
3.37.
3.37 -
L1 L2 , 3.36. ,
, , .

4.

4.1 , .


.
. ,
, ,
, , (. 7)
.
,
.
(, ,
).
(, )
(, ),
.

i (t ) , 4.1

4.1


i = i (t ) , u = u (t ) , e = e(t ) , ,
, . ,
, .
4.2 ,

s (t ) (, , )
96

() T ,
s (t ) = s(t T ) .
(4.1)
s (t ) , , (
1- ),

s (t ) = A0 +

km

sin(kt + k ) .

(4.2)

k =1

A0 (4.2)
, A1m sin(t + 1 )
, Akm sin(kt + k ) k > 1 ,
. = 2f = 2 T
( ), Akm k
. Akm
, k .

().

Akm sin(kt + k ) = Akm cos k sin kt + Akm sin k cos kt =


= Bk sin kt + Ck cos kt .

s (t ) = A0 +

(B sin kt + C cos kt ).
k

(4.3)

k =1

A0 Bk Ck

A0 =

1
T

(T )

s (t )dt ,

Bk =

2
T

s (t ) sin ktdt ,

Ck =

(T )

2
T

s(t )cos ktdt ,

(4.4)

(T )

T , , ( T 2; T 2 ) , (0; T )
..
Akm k (4.2)
Bk Ck (4.3). Bk = Akm cos k , Ck = Akm sin k ,

2
(cos 2 k + sin 2 k ) = Akm2 ,
Bk2 + Ck2 = Akm

tg k =

sin k Ck
=
cos k Bk

, ,

Akm = Bk2 + Ck2 ,

k = arctg

Ck
.
Bk

(4.5)

(4.2) (4.5) ,
,
97

A0
Akm sin(kt + k ) . , , ,
:

i = I0 +

km

sin(kt + ik ) ,

u = U0 +

k =1

km

sin(kt + uk ) ,

k =1

e = E0 +

sin(kt + ek ) ,

km

(4.6)

k =1

i , u , e , I 0 , U 0 , E0
, I km , U km , Ekm , ik , uk , ek
.
s (t ) , ,
( ),
:
1) , , T
T ;
2) s(t ) T , s = s(at ) ( a 0 )
T a;
3) s (t ) T
T , t

t +T

s(t )dt = s(t )dt .

(4.7)

4.3


. 3.2
(3.7)
:

1
I=
T

i 2 (t )dt .

(4.8)

i (t ) (4.2), ..

i = I0 +

km

sin(kt + ik ) ,

k =1

i (t ) (4.8) :
2

i (t ) = I + I 0
2

2
0

km

sin(kt + ik ) +

k =1

I
k =1

98

2
km

sin 2 (kt + ik ) +

(4.9)

I
k =1

I nm sin(kt + ik ) sin(nt + in ) .

km

(4.10)

n=1
k n

(4.10)

1
I =I +
2
2

2
0

(4.8),

2
km

k =1

I=

2
k

= I 02 + I12 + I 22 + K + I k2 + K ,

(4.11)

k =0

I1 = I1m 2 , I 2 = I 2 m 2 , K , I k = I km 2 K ,
(4.9).
,
(4.11)
.
, , ..
u (t ) e(t ) , (4.6), (3.8) ,
:

U=

2
k

E=

k =0

2
k

(4.12)

k =0

U k = U km 2 Ek = Ekm 2 ( k = 1, )
.

( ) .
, ,

I =

2
T

T 2

i(t )dt .

(4.13)

2
U =
T

T 2

u(t )dt ,

2
E =
T

T 2

e(t )dt .

(4.14)

, (4.13), (4.14)
, , , i (t ) ,
:

1
I =
T

2
i (t ) dt =
T

T 2

i(t )dt .
0

1 (4.6), ,
, (4.4)
99

,
( ):
T

1
I0 =
i (t )dt ,
T
0

1
U0 =
u (t )dt ,
T
0

1
E0 =
e(t )dt .
T
0

2 ,
.
,
.
,
.
4.4 ,



: k , k ,
k k .

, , :

I
.
I

k =

(4.15)

k =

I max
.
I

(4.16)

I1
.
I

(4.17)

k =

k =

I
k =2

I1

2
k


: k = 2 2 1.11 , k = 2 1.41 , k = 1 k = 0 .

(4.18)

4.5
,
(4.4)

. ,
4.1.
100

4.1

s(t ) = Am sin t

s (t ) =
+

2 Am T

(sin sin t +

1
1

sin 3 sin 3t + 2 sin 5 sin 5t + K


2
3
5

8A
1
s (t ) = 2m sin t 2 sin 3t +

3
1

+ 2 sin 5t K
5

4A
1
s (t ) = m sin t + sin 3t +

3
1

+ sin 5t + K
5

4.2
, ( 4.2, ), (
4.2, ) ( 4.2, ) .

4.2 ,
(), (), ()

, , ,
,
.
.
4.5.1

101

T
s (t ) = s t + ,
2

(4.19)


. ,
( 4.3) .

4.3

A0 = B2 = C2 = K = B2 k = C2 k = K = 0

s (t ) =

(B

2 k +1

sin(2k + 1)t + C2 k +1 cos(2k + 1)t ) .

(4.20)

k =0

4.5.2

s (t ) = s( t ) .
(4.21)
, ( 4.4)
.

4.4

B1 = B2 = K = Bk = K = 0

s (t ) = A0 +

C cos kt .
k

k =1

102

(4.22)

4.5.3

s (t ) = s( t ) .
(4.23)
, ( 4.5)
.

4.5

A0 = C1 = C2 = K = Ck = K = 0

, ,

s (t ) =

B sin kt .

(4.24)

k =1

4.6 .
,

. ,

sin kt =

1 jkt
j (e
e jkt ),
2

cos kt =

1 jkt
(e + e jkt ),
2

, (4.3)

1
(Ck + jBk )e jkt + (Ck jBk )e jkt .
2
(4.4) Bk Ck
2
2
Ck + jBk =
s(t )e jkt dt , Ck jBk =
s(t )e jkt dt .
T
T
Bk sin kt + Ck cos kt =

(T )

(T )

(Bk sin kt + Ck cos kt ) =

k =1

k =1

1 jkt
e
s (t )e jkt dt +
T
(T )

1 jkt
=
e
s (t )e jkt dt +
T
k =
(T )

,
103

k =1

k =1

1 jkt
e
T

1 jkt
e
s(t )e jkt dt .
T
(T )

(T )

s(t )e jkt dt =

1
A0 =
T

1 jkt
jkt

s(t )dt =
e
s (t )e
dt ,
T

(T )
(T )

k =0

(4.3)
+

S ( jk )e ,
S ( jk ) = s (t )e
dt .

1
s (t ) =
T

jkt

(4.25)

k =

jkt

(4.26)

(T )

(4.25) s (t )
. k -
( k < 0 k > 0 ),
:

1 jkt
1
2

e S k ( jk ) + e jkt S k ( jk ) = Re e jkt S k ( jk ) .
T
T
T

j k
S k ( jk ) = S k (k )e ,
2
2
2
Re S k ( jk )e jkt = S k (k ) cos(kt + k ) = S k (k ) sin(kt + k ) ,
T
T
T
k = k + 2 .
,

2
2
2
S k (k )e j k = j S k (k )e j k = j S k ( jk )
T
T
T
k - :
A& km = Akm e j k ,

(4.27)

A0 =

1
S0 ,
T

Akm =

2
S k ( jk ) .
T

(4.28)


.
.
, , .
,
Akm k .
Akm > 0 , k , .

, - () () .
4.6,
u (t ) , 4.6, .
(. 4.1):

u (t ) =

1
4U m
1

sin t + sin 3t + sin 5t + K .


5

3

104

(4.29)

4.6 ()
()

4.7 .

, ,
:

u = U0 +

km

sin(kt + uk ) .

(4.30)

k =1

ku =

U1

(4.31)

2
k

k =0

4.7.1
R ( 4.7, )

i (t ) =

u (t )
.
R

(4.32)

4.7 ()
()
105

(4.30)
(4.32)

i = I0 +

sin(kt + ik ) ,

(4.33)

U km
,
R

(4.34)

km

k =1

I0 =

U0
,
R

I km =

ik = uk .

(4.33), (4.34)

I1

ki =

2
k

k =0

U1

(4.35)

2
k

k =0

(4.31) (4.35) , ki = ku , ..
,
. 4.7,
(4.29)
.
4.7.2
L ( 4.8, )

i (t ) =

1
u (t )dt .
L

(4.36)

4.8 ()
()

(4.30)
(4.36)

i=

km

sin(kt + ik ) ,

(4.37)

k =1

I km =

U km
,
kL

ik = uk
106

(4.38)

(4.37), (4.38)

ki =

I1

U1

I k2

k =1

k =1

1
Uk
k

(4.39)

(4.31) (4.39) , ki > ku , ..


, , ,
. 4.8,
(4.29) .
4.7.3
C ( 4.9, )

i (t ) = C

du (t )
.
dt

(4.40)

4.9 ()
()

(4.30)
(4.40)

i=

km

sin(kt + ik ) ,

(4.41)

k =1

I km = (kC )U km ,

ik = uk +

(4.41), (4.42)

ki =

I1

I k2

k =1

U1

2
.

(4.42)

(4.43)

(kU k )2

k =1

(4.31) (4.43) , ki < ku , ..


, , , ,
. 4.9, (4.29)
.
107

4.8

, .. ,
,

.


.
,
:

e(t ) = E0 +

km

sin(kt + ek ) .

(4.44)

k =1

, .. R , L C ,
,
:

i (t ) = I 0 +

km

sin(kt + ik ) ,

(4.45)

k =1

I0 =

E0
,
Z0

I km =

Ekm
,
Zk

ik = uk k .

(4.46)

Z 0 , ..
, Z k k , k
Z k k
.
R , L C
, , :
2

1
kL 1 kC

.
Z k = R + kL
, k = arctg
R
kC

Z 0 = , ,
2

, .
(4.44) (4.46) :

e(t ) = E0 + Im

E&

km

jkt

k =1

i (t ) = I 0 + Im

I&

km

e jkt ,

(4.47)

k =1

E& km = Ekm e j ek ,

I&km = I km e j ik .

(4.48)
(4.47), (4.48) ,
, ,
I&km , E& km ,
k .
k ( )
108

Z k = Z k e j k .

(4.49)
, , , 4.10,
i (t ) .

4.10 ,


, (4.44) n -
, ..

e(t ) =

km

sin(kt + ek ) .

(4.50)

k =0

i (t ) 4.10
, 4.11. 4.11,
,
E0 ; 4.11, ,
Ekm sin(kt + ek ) , k = 1, n .

4.11 () ()

X Lk = kL X Ck = 1 (kC ) 4.11,
k -
, E& km I&km (
(4.48)).
4.11,

I0 =

E0
.
R1 + R2
109

(4.51)

4.11,
:

E&
(4.52)
I&km = km ,
Zk
Z k k - :
R ( jX Ck )
.
(4.53)
Z k = R1 + jX Lk + 2
R2 jX Ck
(4.51) (4.53) i (t ) n -

i (t ) = I 0 +

km

sin(kt + ik ) ,

(4.54)

k =1

I km k - (4.52),
ik :

I km = I&km ,

ik = arg I&km .

(4.55)

(4.51) (4.55) , ..
n i (t )
, 4.10,
(4.50). ,

.


1)
, ..
(4.6).
2)
.
3)
.

1 , -
.
2 ,
, ,
( ),
, ,
(). ,
(., ,
4.11, ) , ,
.
4.9

110

p(t ) = i (t )u (t )

(4.56)
.

:

1
P=
T

1
p(t )dt =
i (t )u (t )dt .
T

(4.57)

i (t ) u (t )
(4.6), ..

i = I0 +

km

sin(kt + ik ) ,

u = U0 +

k =1

km

sin(kt + uk ) ,

k =1

(4.56) :

p(t ) = I 0U 0 +

I U
0

km

sin(kt + uk ) +

k =1

U I

0 km

sin(kt + ik ) +

k =1

U km sin(kt + ik ) sin(kt + uk ) +

km

k =1

I
k =1

km

U nm sin(kt + ik ) sin(nt + un ) .

(4.58)

n =1
k n

(4.58)

(4.57),

P = I 0U 0 +

I U cos ,
k

(4.59)

k =1

k = uk ik k - .
(4.59) ,

:

P = P0 +

P ,
k

Pk = I kU k cos k .

P0 = I 0U 0 ,

(4.60)

k =1

(4.59) :

Q=

Q = I U sin .
k

k =1

(4.61)

k =1

S = IU =

I U
2
k

k =0

2
k

(4.62)

k =0


:
111

P
cos = =
S

I 0U 0 +

I U cos
k

k =1

I U
2
k

k =0

(4.63)

2
k

k =0

, ( )
, ..
,

S P2 + Q2 .

T = S 2 (P 2 + Q 2 )

(4.64)


i (t ) u (t ) .
, ,
Q = 0 T = 0 .

5.
5.1
,
,
.
, ,
2 3 (120 ).

, 5.1.

1 , 2
5.1 ,
112

: .
,
.
A , B C , X , Y Z .
2 3 , .. 120 .
,
. ,
, .

e A (t ) , eB (t ) eC (t ) ,
. 120 ,
120 .

(. 5.2).

5.2

e A (t ) = Em sin t ,

eB (t ) = Em sin t
3

eC (t ) = Em sin t
3

(5.1)

Em .
:

E& A = E ,

E& B = Ee

2
3

E& C = Ee

4
3

(5.2)

E = Em 2 .

2
3

1
3
,
= + j
2
2

, (
)

a=e

2
3

(5.3)

a =e
2

4
3

a 3 = e j 2 = 1 ,

a 4 = a3 a = a ,
113

1 + a + a2 = 0 .

(5.4)

, (5.2),
(5.3), (5.4)
E& A = E , E& B = a 2 E& A , E& C = aE& A .
(5.5)
, (5.1), (5.2)
(5.5), 5.3.

5.3 () ()

(5.1) ,
(5.6)
e A (t ) + eB (t ) + eC (t ) = 0 .
(5.2) ,
E& A + E& B + E& C = 0 .
(5.7)
,
.
. ( 5.3, ) B
A , C B ; ABC
, ACB .
5.2

( 5.4, ) ( 5.4, ).

5.4 () ()

114

X , Y Z N
( 5.4, ), ( ) .
NA , NB , NC AB , BC , CA .
E& A , E& B , E& C E& AB , E& BC , E& CA ,
( 2- )
E& AB = E& A E& B , E& BC = E& B E& C , E& CA = E& C E& A ,
(5.8)
, E& A , E& B E& C
:
E& AB + E& BC + E& CA = 0 .
(5.9)
E E
:

E = 3 E .

(5.10)

( 5.4, )
AB , BC CA .
:
E = E .
(5.11)
5.3 .

( 5.5, )
( 5.5, ).
x , y z n
( 5.5, ), ( )
.
Aa , Bb Cc (. 5.5),
, , nN ( 5.5, ),
( )
.
U&
() (),
.
( 5.5, )
U& A , U& B U& C ;

U& a , U& b U& c . ( 5.5, )


U& ab , U& bc U& ca .
U&
( ).
, 5.5, U& AB , U& BC U& CA
.
I& ,
; I& , .
115

)
5.5 () ()

( 5.5, ) I&a , I&b , I&c ;


I&ab , I&bc , I&ca .
I&A , I&B , I&C .
5.4

.
, :
Z a = Z b = Z c a = b = c ,
(5.12)
Z a , Z b , Z c , a , b , c
.
:
Za = Zb = Zc.
(5.13)
Z a = Z a e ja , Z b = Z b e jb Z c = Z c e jc
.
(5.12) (5.13) ,
. :
116

1) ( ,
); Z a Z b Z c a b c ;
2) ( ,
); Z a = Z b = Z c , a b c ;
3) ( ,
); Z a Z b Z c , a = b = c .
5.5
( 5.6)
:
I&A = I&a , I&B = I&b , I&C = I&c ,
(5.14)
:
U& AB = U& A U& B , U& BC = U& B U& C , U& CA = U& C U& A .
(5.15)
(5.14) ,
I I , ..

I = I .

(5.16)

5.5.1
,
( 5.6) , U& A , U& B , U& C
U& a , U& b , U& c :

U& a = U& A ,

U& b = U& B ,

U& c = U& C .

(5.17)

5.6

, I&A , I&B , I&C (


I&a , I&b , I&c ) :

U&
I&A = I&a = a ,
Za

U&
I&B = I&b = b ,
Zb

U&
I&C = I&c = c .
Zc

(5.18)

U& A , U& B , U& C


( Z a = Z b = Z c )
117

, I&nN , 1-
, :
I&nN = I&A + I&B + I&C = 0 .
(5.19)
,
,
( 5.6) ( 5.7).

5.7


5.8.

5.8
,

, (5.5), ,
U& AB , U& BC , U& CA
U& A , U& B , U& C ( U& a , U& b , U& c ) 30 .

U = 3U ,
(5.20)

118

U& AB = 3U& Ae 6 ,

U& BC = 3U& B e 6 ,

U& CA = 3U& C e 6 .

(5.21)

5.5.2

U& nN (. 5.6 5.7).
:

U& Y + U& B Y B + U& C Y C


U& nN = A A
,
(5.22)
Y A + Y B + Y C + Y nN
Y A , Y B , Y C , Y nN
. Z A , Z B
Z C , Z nN , :
1
1
1
1
, YB =
, YC =
, Y nN =
.
(5.23)
YA =
ZA
ZB
ZC
Z nN

U& a = U& A U& nN , U& b = U& B U& nN , U& c = U& C U& nN .
(5.24)
,
Z A , Z B Z C
Z a , Z b Z c :
Z A = Za , Z B = Zb, ZC = Zc.
(5.25)
Z nN = 0 ,
Y nN = . (5.22) , Y nN =
( 5.6) U& nN = 0 ,
U& a , U& b , U& c (5.24) U& A , U& B ,

U& C , .. (5.17). ,
U& a , U& b , U& c
, I&A , I&B , I&C
(5.18). , , ,
.
:
I&nN = I&A + I&B + I&C 0 .
(5.26)

5.9, .
( 5.7),
U& nN 0 , ,
:
U& a U& A , U& b U& B , U& c U& C .
(5.18),
U& a , U& b , U& c (5.22) (5.24).

5.9, .
119

5.9
, ()
()

5.6
( 5.10)
:
U& AB = U& ab , U& BC = U& bc , U& CA = U& ca ,
(5.27)
:
I&A = I&ab I&ca , I&B = I&bc I&ab , I&C = I&ca I&bc .
(5.28)

5.10

(5.27) ,
U U , ..

U = U .

(5.29)


, I&ab , I&bc , I&bc :
120

U&
I&ab = ab ,
Z ab

U&
I&bc = bc ,
Z bc

U&
I&ca = ca ,
Z ca

(5.30)

Z ab , Z bc Z ca .

5.11 ()
() ,


5.11.
5.11, , (5.28), (5.30) ,
I&ab , I&bc , I&ca

I&A , I&B , I&C 30 .


I = 3I ,

(5.31)

I&ab = 3I&Ae 6 ,

I&bc = 3I&B e 6 ,

I&ca = 3I&C e 6 .

(5.32)

5.7
, , ,
.

:
P = Pa + Pb + Pc ,
(5.33)
Pa = U a I a cos a , Pb = U b I b cos b , Pc = U c I c cos c ,
(5.34)
U a , U b , U c I a , I b , I c , a , b , c
.

:
Q = Qa + Qb + Qc ,
(5.35)
121

Qa = U a I a sin a ,

Qb = U b I b sin b ,

:
S a = U a I a , Sb = U b I b ,
:

Qc = U c I c sin c .
Sc = U c I c .

S = P2 + Q2 .
:
Pa = Pb = Pc = P = U I cos , Qa = Qb = Qc = Q = U I sin .

(5.36)
(5.37)
(5.38)
(5.39)

, ,
P = 3U I cos .
(5.40)

:
Q = 3U I sin , S = 3U I .
(5.41)

1 (5.33) (5.41) ,
, .
, ..
, : U ab , U bc , U ca I ab , I bc , I ca
.
2
, U I .

U = 3U , I = I ,

U = U ,

I = 3I .

,

:
P = 3U I cos , Q = 3U I sin . S = 3U I .
(5.42)
, (5.42)
.

6.

6.1 .
,
() ,
. , ..
,
.

122

( 6.1, , 6.1, , 6.1,


).

6.1 (),
(), ()

,
, .. . ,
.. t = 0 .
t = 0 ,
t = 0 + .
,
, ,
.
,
.
.
:
:
(6.1)
iL (0 ) = iL (0+ ) ,
iL .
:

:
uC (0 ) = uC (0+ ) ,
(6.2)
uC .
,
.
6.2
.



:
WL WC :

WL =

Li 2
,
2

WC =

Cu 2
.
2

(6.3)

WC dWC
=
= .
t 0 t
dt

(6.4)

,
p L pC ,

WL dWL
=
= ,
t 0 t
dt

pL = lim

pC = lim

123

,
WL WC .

: , ..
.
,
,
,
.
, , ,
,
.
, .
6.3

:
1) ,
, .
2) ,

1- , ( ).
3) , ,

,
.
4) ( ),
()
.
6.4 .

( ),
.

( )
( ) (. 1.1), ,
,
n - :

an

dx(t )
d n x(t )
d n 1 x(t )
+
a
+
K
+
a
+ a0 x(t ) = f (t ) ,
n

1
1
dt n
dt n 1
dt

(6.5)

x(t ) (, .); f (t ) ,
(
); an , an1 , K , a1 , a0
,
( R , L C ).
(6.5),
, :
124

1) , ..
t 0 ;
2) , 2-
;
3) 1- 2-
,
.
x(t )
(6.5)
x(t ) = x (t ) + x* (t ) ,
(6.6)
x* (t ) (6.5) f (t ) 0 ,
x (t ) ,
(6.5) , .. f (t ) = 0 :

d n x(t )
d n 1 x(t )
dx(t )
an
+
a
+
K
+
a
+ a0 x(t ) = 0 .
(6.7)
n

1
1
dt n
dt n 1
dt
x (t ) (6.7)
, f (t ) , ,
. , x (t ) ,
, x (t ) , .. x (t ) = x (t ) .

,
.
x* (t ) (6.5), ,
f (t ) , ..

, . . x* (t )

, .. x* (t ) = x (t ) .

(6.6) (6.5), , :
x(t ) = x (t ) + x (t ) .

(6.8)

(6.8) ,
,
, ,
.
,
(6.5)
,
.

, ,
, .. lim x (t ) = 0 . (6.8) ,
t +

x (t ) = x (t ) .

125

x (t )

(6.9)

x (t ) ,
.
6.5 .

(6.7), ..
x (t ) k

an n + an1 n1 + K + a1 + a0 = 0 ,
(6.10)
(6.7) x(t )
, m , m ( m = 1, n ).
k -,
, x (t )
(6.11)
x (t ) = y1 (t ) + y2 (t ) + K + yk (t ) ,
yk (t ) ( k n )
(6.10).
n
6.1.
6.1 ,


mk

mk = 1

mk ,

mk > 1

yk (t ) ,
k

k =

yk (t ) = Aet

A = const

k =

yk (t ) =

mk

Amt m1et

m=1

k = j

yk (t ) = Aet sin(t + )

mk = 1

mk ,

mk > 1

k = j

yk (t ) =

mk

A t
m

m=1

e sin(t + m )

m1 t

Am = const ,
m = 1, mk
A = const ;
= const

Am = const ;
m = const ,
m = 1, mk

, ,
,
.
Am m yk (t ) (. 6.1)
.
126

( )
, .. t = 0 .
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .

t = 0 ; t = 0 + .
,
, ,

.

,
.
, .
6.6



:
1)
(
2- );
2) x(t )
,
;
3) (6.8), ..
x (t ) x (t ) ;
4) x (t )

;
5) (6.10) k ;
6) x (t )
(6.11) 6.1;
7) ; ,

t = 0 ;
8) Am m ;
9) Am , m , x (t ) k

x(t ) = x (t ) + x (t ) ,

.
( 6.7 6.9)
.
.
127

6.7
,
R L (
).
6.7.1
, R , L
( ) E = const ( 6.2, ).

6.2 ()
()

, K ,

di
+ Ri = E .
dt

(6.12)

, i ,

di
+ Ri = 0 .
dt

(6.13)

L + R = 0

(6.14)

= R L ,
t

i = Ae = Ae

R
t
L

= Ae ,

(6.15)

= L R : [ ] = 1 ().

i =

E
.
R

(6.16)


, (6.15) (6.16) :

i = i + i = Ae

E
.
R

(6.17)

A 1-
128

. ( iL (0 ) = 0 ),
, iL (0 + ) = i (0 + )
:

iL (0 ) = iL (0 + ) = i (0 + ) = A +

E
= 0.
R

A = E R , (6.17)

E
i = 1 e
R
t

L
,
R

(6.18)

.. (6.16)
, .
R
(6.18):
t

u R = Ri = E 1 e

(6.19)

L :
t

di
u L = L = Ee .
(6.20)
dt
i , u R u L ,

(6.18) (6.20), 6.2, .



u L (0 + ) = E , .
,
e 2,72 .
,
.
,
t = (3 5) .
6.7.2

, R , L
( )
R0 ( 6.3, ).

di
+ (R + R0 )i = 0 .
dt

(6.21)

,
, : i = i , i = 0 .
(6.21)
(6.15)

(6.14),

i = i = Ae ,

129

(6.21)

= L (R + R0 ) .
, ..

i (0 ) =

E
,
R

A = E R
t

E
i= e ,
R

L
.
R + R0

(6.22)

6.3 ()
()

:
t

di
R + R0
R
u R = Ri = Ee , u R0 = R0i = 0 Ee , u L = L =
Ee .
(6.23)
dt
R
R
i , u R , u R0 u L ,

(6.22), (6.23), 6.3, .


R0 ,
,
( E ). , R0 = nR
( n > 1 ),

u R0 (0 + ) =

R0
nR
E=
E = nE .
R
R

,
, , ,
R0 , ,

.
6.7.3
,
R , L ( ),
( 6.4, ).
130

6.4 ()
()

di
+ Ri = 0 .
dt

(6.24)

(6.24) , ..
(6.13), :

i = i = Ae ,

= L R .

i (0 ) =

E
,
R + R

R ,
A = E (R + R )
t

E
i=
e,
R + R

L
.
R

(6.25)

:
t

R
di
R
u R = Ri =
Ee , u L = L =
Ee .
(6.26)
R + R
dt
R + R
i , u R u L ,

(6.25), (6.26), 6.4, .


6.7.4
, R , L
( ) ( 6.5, ):
e = Em sin(t + e ) ,
Em , e , .
, e
131

R , L
.

6.5 ()
()

di
+ Ri = e .
dt

(6.27)

i = I m sin(t + e ) ,

(6.28)

Im =

Em
R +X
2

2
L

= arctg

XL
,
R

X L = L .

(6.29)

i
(6.13), (6.15), :

i = i = Ae ,

= L R . (6.28) (6.29)
:

i = Ae + I m sin(t + e ) .

(6.30)
A (6.30) ,
iL (0 ) .
, iL (0 ) = 0 ,
,
iL (0 ) = iL (0 + ) = i(0 + ) = A + I m sin( e ) = 0 A = I m sin( e ) .
,

i = I m sin( e )e ,

i = I m sin(t + e ) I m sin( e )e .
(6.31)
i , i , i e ,

(6.28), (6.29) (6.31), 6.5, .


,
132

e . , e = ,
(6.31) i = 0 , ..
,
:
i = I m sin t .
e = 2 , i
I m
.
T ( >> T ),
.
e = 2
.
6.8
,
R C (
).
6.8.1
, R , C
() E = const , ..
C R ( 6.6, ).

6.6 ()
()

, K ,

RC

duC
+ uC = E .
dt

(6.32)

, u ,

RC

duC
+ uC = 0 .
dt
133

(6.33)

RC + 1 = 0
= 1 (RC ) ,
t

uC = Ae = Ae

1
t
RC

(6.34)

= Ae ,

= RC .

uC = E .

(6.35)

(6.36)


, (6.35) (6.36) :

uC = uC + uC = Ae

+E.
(6.37)
A 2-

.
( uC (0 ) = 0 ), , ,
uC (0 + ) :
uC (0 ) = uC (0+ ) = A + E = 0 .
A = E , (6.37)
t

uC = E 1 e

= RC ,

(6.38)

.. (6.36)
,
.
C , .. R , C
:
t

du
E
i=C C = e .
dt
R

(6.39)

R
(6.39):

u R = Ri = Ee .
(6.40)
uC , i u R ,

(6.38) (6.40), 6.6, .


, ..
i(0 + ) = E R ,
: u R (0 + ) = E . ,
, .
,
, .
, ,
.
6.8.2
,
134

R , C (), , ..
C R ( 6.7, )

6.7 ()
()

RC

duC
+ uC = 0 .
dt

(6.41)

(6.41) , ..
(6.33), :

uC = uC = Ae ,

= RC .

uC (0 ) = E ,
A = E

uC = Ee ,

= RC .

(6.42)
:
t

E
(6.43)
i = e , u R = Ee
R
uC , i u R ,

(6.42), (6.43), 6.7, .


6.8.3
, R , C
() ( 6.8, ):
e = Em sin(t + e ) ,
Em , e , .
, e
R , C .

135

6.8 ()
()

RC

duC
+ uC = e .
dt

(6.44)

uC = U Cm sin t + e ,
2

(6.45)

U Cm = I m X C ,

Em

Im =

R 2 + X C2

XC
,
R

= arctg

XC =

1
.
C

(6.46)

uC
(6.33), (6.35), :

uC = Ae ,

= RC . (6.45) (6.46)
:

uC = Ae

+ U Cm sin t + e .
2

(6.47)

A (6.47) ,
uC (0 )
. ,
uC (0 ) = 0 , ,

uC (0 ) = uC (0 + ) = A + U Cm sin e = 0 A = U Cm sin e .
2
2

= U Cm sin e e ,
2

uC

136

uC = U Cm sin t + e U Cm sin e e .
2
2

(6.48)


du
U

i = C C = I m sin(t + e ) + Cm sin e e .
(6.49)
2
dt
R

uC , uC , uC e ,
t

(6.45), (6.46) (6.48), 6.8, .


, , ,

e . , e = 2 , (6.48) uC = 0 , ..

,
:
uC = U Cm sin t .
e = , uC
U Cm
. ( U Cm R ) .
R << X C ,
, I m .
,

2
R
=
<< 1 ,
XC T

, , << T . uC
U Cm
.
6.9
,
,
R , L
C ( 6.9). ,
,
R
L , .. R , L (
).
2-
:
u R + u L + uC = 0 .
, u R = Ri , u L = L

du
di
i = C C ,
dt
dt

2-

137

d 2 uC
du
LC 2 + RC C + uC = 0 .
dt
dt

(6.50)

d 2uC R duC
1
+
+
uC = 0
2
dt
L dt
LC

(6.51)

(6.50) LC :

R
,
2L

0 =

1
,
LC

(6.52)

, 0 .
(6.51), (6.52)

d 2 uC
du
+ 2 C + 02uC = 0 .
2
dt
dt

(6.53)

6.9

(6.53),
, ,
uC = uC ,
.
(6.53)
2 + 2 + 02 = 0 .
(6.54)
( R , L C )
(6.54) :
1) , , .. > 0
R > 2 , =

L C;

2) , , .. = 0
R = 2 ;
3) -, , .. < 0
R < 2 .

,
.
138

6.9.1
(6.54) :

1 = + 2 02 ,

2 = 2 02 .

(6.55)

(6.53)
uC = A1e 1t + A2 e 2t ,
(6.56)
A1 A2

: iL (0 ) = iL (0 + ) , u C (0 ) =u C (0 + ) , .. ,
1- 2- .
(6.56) :

duC
= C (1 A1e 1t + 2 A2 e 2t ).
(6.57)
dt
i (0 ) = iL (0 ) = 0 uC (0 ) = U 0 , U 0
( 0 < U 0 E ), (6.56) (6.57)
A1 A2 :
A1 + A2 = U 0 1 A1 + 2 A2 = 0 .
i=C

A1 =

U 0 2
,
1 2

A2 =

U 0 1
.
1 2

(6.58)

(6.58) (6.56) (6.57), ,


:

uC =

U0
(
2 e 1t 1e 2t ),
1 2

i=

U0
(
e 1t e 2t ).
L(1 2 )

(6.59)

uL = L

di
U0
(
=
1e 1t 2e 2t ) .
dt
1 2

(6.60)

(6.55) :
1 < 0 2 < 0 .
, uC , i u L 2- ,
1 2 .
uC , i u L , (6.59)
(6.60), 6.10.
6.10 , uC
U 0 , . ,

, .
i (. 6.10)
t = t1 , , .
u L
u L (0 + ) = U 0 ( t = t1 ), , ,
( t = t 2 ) .
139

t1 uC ,
i , u L .
i u L t 2 .

6.10

6.10 , pC :
pC = uC i < 0 , ,
.
, , , 0 t1 ,
p L = u L i > 0 , , ..
, ,
. t1
, ,
0 t1 .
, .
6.9.2
(6.54) :
1 = 2 = .
(6.61)
(6.53)
uC = ( A1 + A2t )e t ,
(6.62)

duC
= C ( A1 + A2 A2t )e t .
(6.63)
dt
A1 A2
, i (0 ) = iL (0 ) = 0 uC (0 ) = U 0 . (6.62) (6.63)
i=C

C ( A1 + A2 ) = 0 .

A1 = U 0 , A2 = U 0 .
(6.64)
(6.64) (6.62) (6.63), ,
:

A1 = U 0

140

uC = U 0 (t + 1)e t ,

i=

U 0 t
te .
L

(6.65)

di
= U 0 (t 1)e t .
(6.66)
dt
uC , i u L
(6.65), (6.66), uC , i u L ,
uL = L

6.10.
, ; ,
, . ,
.
.

R = 2 ,
,
.
6.9.3
(6.54) -:

1 = + j 02 2 = + j ,

2 = j 02 2 = j ,

(6.67)

= 02 2 .
(6.53)
uC = Ae t sin( t + ) ,
(6.68)

i=C

duC
= CAe t { sin(t + ) + cos( t + )},
dt

(6.69)

A , .
, , ..
i (0 ) = iL (0 ) = 0 uC (0 ) = U 0 , (6.68) (6.69)
A :
A sin = U 0 CA( cos sin ) = 0 .

A=

0
U ,
0

= arctg

(6.70)

(6.70) (6.68) (6.69), ,


:
uC = U Cm e t sin( t + ) , i = I m e t sin( t + ) ,
(6.71)
U Cm I m ,

U Cm =

0
U ,
0

141

Im =

U0
.
L

(6.72)


di
= U Lm e t sin( t ) , U Lm = 0 U 0 .
(6.73)
dt

uC , i u L ,
uL = L

(6.71) (6.73), 6.11.

6.11

(6.71) (6.73), 6.11


, .
.
, ,
.
.

.
, , , , -,
.
, uC ,
, ,
,
.

,
, , .

,
,
:

uC (t )
= eT ,
uC (t + T )

= ln = T ,

(6.74)

T = 2 .
(6.74) , .
R .
R , R = R .
142

, R R = 0 ( )
.
6.10 .



2- ,
, 1-
, ,
.

6.6,

( 6.12).

6.12

1- 2-
:
i1 i2 i3 = 0 ;
(6.75)
i1 R1 + i2 R2 = E ;

di3 1
+
i3 dt = 0 .
dt C3
i1 i2 ,
i2 R2 + i3 R3 + L3

i3 :

d
L3C3 (R1 + R2 )

i3

dt 2

+ C3 (R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R1 R3 )

di3
+ (R1 + R2 )i3 = 0 .
dt

(6.76)

(6.76) ,
, .. i3 = i3 .
i3 ,

L3C3 (R1 + R2 )2 + C3 (R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R1 R3 ) + (R1 + R2 ) = 0 .
(6.77)

( 6.7 6.9)
.
(6.77), 6.1 i3
143

(6.11)
. ,
,
. , , 6.12, i1 i2
i3 :

i1 =

E + i3 R2
,
R1 + R2

i2 =

E i3 R1
.
R1 + R2


,
.
:
1)
(6.7);
2)
;
3)
() .

6.7 6.9 .
.
6.10.1 ,
,


,

. ,
i = i + i , u = u + u
i , u . ,
(6.75) :
i1 i2 i3 = 0 ;
i1 R1 + i2 R2 = 0 ;
(6.78)

i2 R2 + i3 R3 + L3

di3 1
+
i3 dt = 0 .
dt C3

,
Ae pt , p ,
, , , ..
6.1 p : p = k =
p = k = j . ,
i = Ae pt , A i1 , i2 ,
i3 , p .
,
,
144

,
.
:

Ae pt i
i dt = Ae dt =
= ,
p
p
, pi ,
, .. Ldi dt ( pL )i .
i p ,
i ( pC ) .
di d
= (Ae pt ) = pAe pt = pi ,
dt dt

pt

(6.78):
i1 i2 i3 = 0 ;
(6.79)
i1 R1 + i2 R2 = 0 ;

1
i3 = 0 .
i2 R2 + R3 + pL3 +
pC
3

(6.79)
i1 , i2 , i3 (6.78)
.


. (6.79), ,
(6.78).

6.2.
6.2

u R

u L

Ri

Ri

uC

1
i dt
C

di
dt

( pL )i
1

i
pC


. , p (6.79) i1 ,
i2 , i3 :

i1 =

1
,

i2 =

2
,

i3 =

3
,

(6.80)

(6.79), 1 , 2 3

, 1-, 2- 3-
(6.79).
145

= R1

1
R2

R2

1
0
R3 + pL3 +

1 , 2 3 :

1 = 0 ,

2 = 0 ,

(6.81)

1
pC3

3 = 0 ,

(6.82)

,
(6.79), .
,
, , (6.80)
(6.82) ,

i1 =

i2 =

i3 =

, , = 0 .
,
.
( p ) = 0
(6.83)
,
,
p .
, (6.83)
, .. (6.77),
(6.76).
(6.81),

( p ) = L3 (R1 + R2 ) p + (R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R1 R3 ) +

1
(R1 + R2 ) ,
pC3

(6.83)

L3C3 (R1 + R2 ) p 2 + C3 (R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R1 R3 ) p + (R1 + R2 ) = 0 .


(6.84)
p = (6.77).

6.10.2


:
1) Z ( j )
;
2) j Z ( j ) p ;
3) Z ( p ) .

Z ( p ) = 0
(6.85)
.
146

Z ( j )
.
.
,
;
.
6.12

R2 R3 + jL3 +

j
C
3
.
Z ( j ) = R1 +
1
R2 + R3 + jL3 +
jC3
j p (6.85) ,

R2 R3 + pL3 +
pC
3
Z ( p ) = R1 +
=0
1
R2 + R3 + pL3 +
pC3

L3C3 (R1 + R2 ) p 2 + C3 (R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R1 R3 ) p + (R1 + R2 ) = 0 .

(6.86)

(6.86) (6.84) p =
(6.77).
6.11

1- , .
1- ,
, .. ,
, .
,
1- ,
. ,
. ,

, iL (t ) uC (t )

.

,
t 0 (
). 1- , , ..
, , n
.

147

6.11.1

x1 , x2 , K , xn ,

dx1
= x1 = a11 x1 + a12 x2 + K + a1n xn + f1 (t ) ;
dt
dx2
= x2 = a21 x1 + a22 x2 + K + a2 n xn + f 2 (t ) ;
dt

(6.87)

..

aij ( i , j = 1, n )

dxn
= xn = an1 x1 + an 2 x2 + K + ann xn + f n (t ) ,
dt
n n ,

, f i (t ) ( i = 1, n )
,
.

i (t ) u (t )
n - (6.5), ..

d n x(t )
d n 1 x(t )
dx(t )
an
+
a
+
K
+
a
+ a0 x(t ) = f (t ) ,
n

1
1
dt n
dt n 1
dt
x(t ) = i (t ) x(t ) = u (t ) . ,
(6.5)
(6.87) .

x1 (t ) = x(t ) ,

dx(t )
,
x2 (t ) =
dt

d 2 x(t )
,
x3 (t ) =
dt 2

(6.5)
1- :

d n1 x(t )
.
xn (t ) =
dt n1

dx1 (t )
dx2 (t )
dx (t )
= x2 (t ) ;
= x3 (t ) ; K ; n1 = xn (t ) ;
dt
dt
dt
dxn (t )
a0
a1
an1
f (t )
,
xn (t ) +
= x1 (t ) x2 (t ) K
dt
an
an
an
an

(6.87).
(6.88) :

x1 (t ) 0
x (t ) 0
2
M = M

0
xn1 (t ) a0
xn (t )
an

0
a
1
an

0
a
2
an

0
a
K n2
an

148

0 x (t ) 0
1
0 x (t ) 0
2
M M + M f (t )


1 x (t ) 0
1
a n1
n1 x (t )
an n an

(6.88)

X = AX + BV .

(6.89)
X X n 1
( n ):
T
T
X = [x1 (t ) x2 (t ) K xn (t )] , X = [x1 (t ) x2 (t ) K xn (t )] ,
(6.90)
A n n ,
, B n m
( m ), V
m 1 ( ),
.
(6.89)
T
X (0 ) = [x1 (0 ) x2 (0 ) K xn (0 )] ,
(6.91)
T .
, ,
.
y1 , y2 , K , yk k 1

Y = [ y1 (t ) y2 (t ) K yk (t )] .
T

(6.92)
(6.92), (6.90)

Y = CX + DV ,
(6.93)
C k n
() ( k ), D
k m .
(6.89) (6.93),
1-
,
.
.

6.13, i2 i3 .

6.13 ,

1- 2- :
i1 i2 i3 + J = 0 ;

i1 R1 + L1

di1
+ uC 3 = E ;
dt
149

(6.94)
(6.95)

i2 R2 uC 3 = 0 .

i3 = C3 duC 3 dt ,
(6.96)

(6.94)

(6.95)

(6.96)

duC 3
1
1
1
uC 3 + i1 + 0 E +
J;
=
dt
C3 R2
C3
C3
1
1
di1
R
= uC 3 1 i1 + E + 0 J
dt
L1
L1
L1
:

uC 3
C3 R2
i =
1 1
L1

C3 uC 3
+

R1 i1 1

L1
L1

1
C3 E
.
0 J

(6.97)

C R
A= 3 2
1
L1

1
C3
,
R1

L1

0
B=
1
L1

u
X = C3 ,
i1

1
C3
,
0

E
V = ,
J

(6.97) (6.89)
uC 3 i1 . (6.93), ..
i2 i3 (6.94) (6.96):

1
i2 R2
i = 1
3
R2

0
uC 3 0 0 E
+
J .
i
0
1

1 1

i
Y = 2,
i3

1
R
C = 2
1
R2

0
,
1

0 0
D=
.
0
1

X [0] = [uC 3 (0 ) i1 (0 )] = [JR2


T

0] .
T

6.11.2

.
,
. ,
, .
(6.89).
, ..
V = 0 , (6.89) :
150

X AX = 0 .

(6.98)
(6.98) .

X (t ) = e At X (0 ) ,
(6.99)
e At .
, .. V 0 ,
(6.89)
X (t ) = e At (t ) ,
(6.100)
(t ) .
,
(6.100):

d
d
X (t ) = Ae At (t ) + e At (t ) .
dt
dt

(6.101)

(6.100) (6.101) (6.89)


:

e At

d
(t ) = BV (t ) .
dt

e At ,

d
(t ) = e At BV (t ) .
dt

(6.102)

(6.102), ,
t

(t ) =

BV ( )d ,

(6.103)

.
(6.103)
t

(t ) = e

BV ( )d + e A BV ( )d

(6.100) :
0

X (t ) = e

At

BV ( )d + e

At

e A BV ( )d ,

(6.104)

, t = 0
0

X (0 ) =

e A BV ( )d .

, (6.104)
:
t

X (t ) = e At X (0 ) + e A(t - ) BV ( )d .

(6.105)

(6.105) , ..
151

. , ,
. (6.99)
,
. , V
, (6.105) :
X (t ) = e At X (0 ) + e At 1 A -1 BV .
(6.106)

e At .
,

At

( A 1)
i

i =1,i k
n

k =1

( )
k

e k t ,

i =1,i k

1 n , k A , ..
det ( A 1) = 0

a11
a21
M
an1

a12
a22
M
an 2

a13 K
a1n
a23 K
a2 n
= 0,
M
M
M
an 3 K ann

aik ( i , k = 1, n ) A . ,
k A k (6.10).
6.12 .

, f (t )
t , ,
F ( p ) p , ( ),

+

F ( p) =

f (t )e pt dt .

(6.107)


: F ( p ) G f (t ) F ( p ) = 3[ f (t )].
,
f (t ) F ( p ) :
+ j

f (t ) = lim

F ( p)e dp .
pt

152

(6.108)

: f (t ) = 3 1 [F ( p )] .
(6.107)

, , ,
.
.
6.13

6.3.
6.3

a f (t ) G a F ( p ), a
k

k =1

k =1

f (t ) G pF ( p ) f (0 + )

f ( )d G

F ( p)
p

F ( p ) G tf (t )

F ( p )dp G

f (t )
t

1 p
f (at ) G F
a a
f (t ) G e p F ( p )

f (t )e t G F ( p + )

F1 ( p )F2 ( p ) G

= const

f ( ) f (t )d = f (t ) f ( )d
1

6.4 ,
.
6.4

A (t )

153

6.4

A
p
A
p2
An!
p n+1
A
p +
A
( p + )2
An!
( p + )n+1
A
p2 + 2
Ap
2
p + 2
A( p sin + cos )
p2 + 2
A( p cos sin )
p2 + 2
A
( p + )2 + 2
A( p + )
( p + )2 + 2

At
At n
Ae t
Ate t
At n e t
A sin t
A cos t
A sin(t + )
A cos(t + )
Ae t sin t
Ae t cos t


.
6.14 .

,
, , .. i (t ) , u (t ) e(t ) ,
I ( p ) , U ( p ) E ( p ) ,
(6.107):
+

I ( p) =

i (t )e dt ,
pt

U ( p) =

u (t )e dt ,

154

pt

E( p) =

e(t )e pt dt

i (t ) G I ( p ) , u (t ) G U ( p ) , e(t ) G E ( p ) .
i (t ) , u (t ) e(t ) I ( p ) , U ( p )

E ( p )
,
. .
6.14.1

:

Z ( p) =

U ( p)
.
I ( p)

(6.109)

, , ..

Y ( p) =

I ( p)
U ( p)

(6.110)

.
Z ( p ) Y ( p ) ,
(6.109) (6.110),
.

: , .
6.14.2
R ( 6.14, )
( )
u (t ) = Ri(t ) , i (t ) = gu (t ) ,
(6.111)
g = 1 R .

6.14 () ()

(6.111)
:
U ( p ) = RI ( p ) , I ( p ) = gU ( p )

(6.112)
U ( p ) = Z R ( p )I ( p ) , I ( p ) = YR ( p )U ( p ) ,

155

Z R ( p) = R ,

YR ( p ) = g

(6.113)

(6.112)

.
,
6.14, .
6.14.3
L ( 6.15, )
( )

di (t )
u (t ) = L
,
dt

1
i (t ) = iL (0 ) +
u (t )dt .
L

(6.114)

6.15 ()
() ()


(6.114)
:

U ( p ) = LiL (0) + pLI ( p ) ,

I ( p) =

iL (0 ) 1
+
U ( p).
p
pL

(6.115)

iL (0 ) (6.115)
U ( p ) = Z L ( p )I ( p ) , I ( p ) = YL ( p )U ( p ) ,
(6.116)

Z L ( p ) = pL ,

YL ( p ) =

1
pL

(6.117)


. (6.115) (6.116)
.
,
6.15, 6.15, .
( 6.15, ) iL (0 )
( LiL (0 ) ),
156


, .
( 6.15, )
( iL (0 ) p ),
.
6.14.4
C ( 6.16, )
( )
t

1
u (t ) = uC (0 ) +
i (t )dt ,
C

i (t ) = C

du (t )
.
dt

(6.118)

6.16 ()
() ()


(6.118)
:

U ( p) =

uC (0 ) 1
+
I ( p ),
p
pC

I ( p ) = CuC (0 ) + pCU ( p ) .

(6.119)

uC (0 ) (6.119)

U ( p ) = Z C ( p )I ( p ) , I ( p ) = YC ( p )U ( p ) ,
(6.120)

ZC ( p ) =

1
,
pC

YC ( p ) = pC

(6.121)


. (6.119) (6.120)
.
,
6.16, 6.16, .
( 6.16, ) uC (0 )
(
CuC (0) ),
.
157

( 6.16, )
( uC (0 ) p ),
,
.
6.15
,
, .. I ( p ) , U ( p ) E ( p ) , Z ( p )
Y ( p ) ,
(3.58), (3.70)
(3.72) .
6.15.1
, R , L C ,
iL (0) 0 uC (0 ) 0 ,
e(t ) ( 6.17, ).

6.17 () ()

2-
:

u R (t ) + u L (t ) + uC (t ) = e(t )

1
di (t )
Ri(t ) + L
+ uC (0 ) +
i (t )dt = e(t ) ,
dt
C

(6.122)

uC (0 ) .
e(t ) i (t ) ,
, I ( p ) E ( p ) , .. e(t ) G E ( p ) i (t ) G I ( p ) .
,
6.14.2 6.14.4, (6.122)
:
158

RI ( p ) LiL (0 ) + pLI ( p ) +

uC (0 ) 1
+
I ( p ) = E ( p ),
p
pC

u (0 )
1
R + pL +
I ( p ) = E ( p ) + LiL (0 ) C
pC
p

(6.123)

Z ( p )I ( p ) = E* ( p ) ,

(6.124)

1
pC

(6.125)

Z ( p ) = R + pL +

E* ( p ) = E ( p ) + LiL (0 )

uC (0 )
p

(6.126)

.
E* ( p )
: .
, iL (0 ) = 0 uC (0 ) = 0 , E* ( p ) = E ( p ) , . .
, .
(6.123), ,
6.17, , , 6.17, .
.
,
L C
Z L ( p ) = pL Z C ( p ) = 1 ( pC ) , i (t ) e(t ) I ( p ) E ( p ) ,
, t = 0 ,
LiL (0 ) uC (0 ) p .
LiL (0 ) uC (0 ) p (6.126) E* ( p )
( ) ,
( LiL (0 ) )
( uC (0 ) p ). e(t ) , E ( p ) ,
.
(6.124) ,

I ( p) =

E* ( p )
,
Z ( p)

I ( p ) = E* ( p )Y ( p ) .

(6.127)

(6.127) .
Y ( p ) , .. ,

1
1
.
(6.128)
=
Z ( p ) R + pL + 1 ( pC )
, p = j Z ( p ) ,

Y ( p) =

(6.125),

159

Z ( j ) = R + j L j

1
.
C

(6.127)
() (3.33)
.
6.15.2
1- ,
, :
m

i (t ) = 0 ,

(6.129)

k =1

m , .
ik (t ) ik (t ) G I k ( p ) ,
(6.129)
m

I ( p) = 0 .

(6.130)

k =1

(6.130) 1-
.
:

, , .
1-
(6.130) 1- (3.30)
.
6.15.3
2-

, :
n

u = e ,
k

(6.131)

k =1

k =1

n , m .
, ,

1
di (t )
uk (t ) = Rk ik (t ) + Lk k + uCk (0 ) +
dt
Ck

i (t )dt .

(6.132)

ik (t ) G I k ( p ) , e(t ) G E ( p ) ,
(6.127), (6.131) (6.132)
n

k =1

uCk (0 )
1
I k ( p ) =
+
Rk I k ( p ) Lk iL k (0 ) + pLk I k ( p ) +
p
pCk


160

E ( p) ,
k

k =1

k =1

1
Rk + pLk +
I k ( p ) =
pC

k =1

u (0 )
Ek ( p ) + Lk iLk (0 ) Ck
p

Z ( p)I ( p) = E ( p),
k

k =1

*
k

(6.133)

1
pCk

(6.134)

k =1

Z k ( p ) = Rk + pLk +

k ,

Ek* ( p ) = Ek ( p ) + Lk iLk (0 )

uCk (0 )
p

(6.135)

.
(6.133) 2-
.
:


,
.
2-
(6.133) 2- (3.32)
.
6.16



:
1) ()
, , .. e(t )
j( t ) , E ( p ) J ( p ) , R , L C
Z R ( p ) = R , Z L ( p ) = pL
Z C ( p ) = 1 ( pC ) . 6.5.
6.5

161

6.5

2) 1- 2-
;
3)
, , I ( p ) ;
4)
, , i (t )
.

,

( , .),
.
.

6.17


-
, ,
.
.
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
6.17.1

:
162

f (t )e

pt

dt = F ( p ) ,

(6.136)

F ( p ) -, f (t ) -,
.
(6.136)
.
(6.108):
+ j

f (t ) = lim

F ( p )e pt dp .

(6.108) ,
.
.
6.17.2 -

,
( , ,
6.4).
,
.
, ,
R , L ( )
E = const ( 6.18, ).

6.18 () ()

, 6.16,
( 6.5)
( 6.18, ), I ( p )
:

E* ( p )
I ( p) =
,
Z ( p)
163

E* ( p ) = E ( p ) + LiL (0) = E ( p ) ,
, , iL (0) = 0 .
E ( p ) 6.3: E ( p ) = E p . Z ( p ) = R + pL .
, I ( p )

I ( p) =

E
E1
1
.
=
p(R + pL ) R p p + R L

6.3 , .. -

E
i = 1 e
R

L
,
R

(6.18),
(. 6.7.1).
6.17.3 .

,
, ..
F ( p )
. f (t )
( ) .
:

Am ( p ) am p m + am1 p m1 + K + a1 p + a0
,
F ( p) =
=
Bn ( p )
bn p n + bn1 p n1 + K + b1 p + b0
Am ( p ) Bn ( p ) ( m < n ),
ak bk , pk Bn ( p ) = 0

f (t ) =

k =1

Am ( pk ) pk t
e .
Bn ( pk )

(6.137)

(6.137) . Bn ( pk )
Bn ( p ) p = pk , ..

Bn ( pk ) =

dBn ( p )
.
dp p= pk

, .. (6.137),

n Bn ( p ) = 0 . n > 4 , n > 2
Bn ( p ) .
(6.10).
,
,
.
164

1. Bn ( p ) , p1 , ,
(6.137) :

A (0 )
f (t ) = m +
Bn (0 )

AB ((pp )) e
n

k =2

pk t

(6.138)

Bn ( p ) ( p1 = 0 ),
.
(6.138)
.
2. Bn ( p ) p1 = j
p2 = j , (6.137) :

A ( j ) jt Am ( j ) jt
f (t ) = m
e +
e +
Bn ( j )
Bn ( j )

k =3

Am ( pk ) pk t
e .
Bn ( pk )

(6.139)

Bn ( p )
,
.
(6.139)
.
3. Bn ( p ) p1 , p2 , K , ps ( s < n ),

, , - pn , .. Bn ( p ) = Cs ( p )( p pn ) ,
, (6.137)

f (t ) =

Am ( pk ) e pk t

d [C ( p)( p p ) ]
k =1

dp

p = pk

1
d 1 Am ( p ) pt
e
.
+
( 1)! dp 1 Cs ( p ) p= p

(6.140)

,
,
(6.140).
6.18 .

( ) ,

, .. .
.
, f (t )
, f k (t ) , ..

f (t ) =

f (t ).
k

k =1

xk (t ) f k (t ) ,
, x(t )
f (t ) xk (t ) , ..
165

x(t ) =

x (t ).
k

k =1

,
:
1) xk (t ) f k (t ) ;
2) () xk (t )
() f (t ) .
xk (t ) f k (t )
.
f k (t ) f (t )
, , xk (t ) ,
, .
6.19

1(t )
- ( ) (t ) .
6.19.1
1(t ) ,
( 6.19, ), :

0 t < 0;
1(t ) =
1 t > 0
t = 0 .

(6.141)

6.19 (),
() ()

1(t ) ( 6.19, )
1(t + ) ( 6.19, ):

0 t < ;
1(t ) =
1 t > ,

0 t < ;
1(t + ) =
1 t > .

(6.142)

, ,
.
166

t = t0 u (t ) ,
f (t ) = u (t )1(t t0 ) , ..
:
( 6.20).

6.20

6.21

( 6.21)

f (t ) = U m [1(t t1 ) 1(t t2 )] ,
U m .

, :

0 t < 0;
A 1(t ) =
A t > 0.

6.19.2
(t ) , -
,

,
, .
,
, .. .
- (t )
( 6.22).
6.22 , (t , t ) ,
, A t
:

A=

1
,
t

S = At = 1,

S .
t A , S
: S = 1 = const .
167

6.22 ,

(t , t )

0 t < 0 t > t ;
A 0 < t < t

(t , t ) =

(6.143)

(t , t ) =

1(t ) 1(t t )
.
t

(6.144)

(6.143) (6.144),
( t 0 ),
( A ), (t )
- :

1(t ) 1(t t )
.
t 0
t

(t ) = lim (t , t ) = lim
t 0

(6.145)

- :
+

(t ) = 0 ( t 0 ),

(0) = ,

(t )dt = 1.

(6.146)

-
+

(t ) = 0 ( t ),

(t )d = 1.

(6.147)

-
() f (t )
t = :
+

f (t ) (t )d = f ( ) , f (t ) ( )d = f ( )

, , .. = 0
+

f (t ) (t )dt = f (0).

168

(6.148)


, (6.145).
,
,

(t ) =

d1(t )
= 1(t ) ,
dt

(6.149)

.. - . (6.149)

t

1(t ) = ( )d .

(6.150)

6.20

.
h(t ) g (t ) .
6.20.1
h(t ) ()
( 6.23), ..
f (t ) = 1(t ) , h(t ) = x(t ) .

6.23 ,

t = 0 , h(t ) = 0
t < 0 ,
h(t ) 1(t ) .
(, )
t = 0 ,
1 , 2 , K , k ,
, ..
h(t 1 ) , h(t 2 ) , K , h(t k )

h(t 1 ) 1(t 1 ) , h(t 2 ) 1(t 2 ) , K , h(t k ) 1(t k ) .

h(t )

,
6.6.
6.6

f (t )

x(t )

h(t )

ki (t )
z (t )
169

6.6

f (t )

x(t )

h(t )

y (t )
ku (t )


.
:
;

.
:
;

.
R , C ,
6.6, . 6.8.1 ,
( ) ( E )
(6.39):
t

E
i (t ) = e ,
R

= RC .

i (t ) E ,
R , C :

i (t )
1
hi (t ) =
1(t ) = e 1(t ) .
E
R
t

(6.151)

6.20.2
g (t ) ( )
() -
( 6.24), .. f (t ) = (t ) ,
g (t ) = x(t ) .

6.24 ,

t = 0 , g (t ) = 0
t < 0 ,
g (t ) 1(t ) .
(, )
t = 0 ,

170

1 , 2 , K , k ,

, ..

g (t 2 ) , K , g (t k )

g (t 1 ) ,

g (t 1 ) 1(t 1 ) ,

g (t 2 ) 1(t 2 ) , K , g (t k ) 1(t k ) .

-
,
g (t ) h(t ) :

g (t ) =

dh(t )
= h(t ) ,
dt

(6.152)

..
. (6.152)

h(t ) =

g ( )d .

(6.153)

(6.152)

g (t ) = (h(t ) 1(t )) = h(t ) 1(t ) + h(t ) (t )

,
(6.154)

g (t ) = (h(t ) 1(t )) = h(t ) 1(t ) + h(0 ) (t ) .

(6.155)

.

(6.154) (6.155).
:
, , <<
;
.
R , C ,
6.6, . 6.20.1 (6.151)
.
(6.155)

1 t
g i (t ) = e
R

0
t

1
1 1
1(t ) + e (t ) =
e + (t ) .

R
R

6.21 .

i (t ) ,
h(t ) ,
u (t ) , .. f (t ) ,
() : f (t ) = u (t ) , x(t ) = i (t ) .
u (t ) 6.25.
171

6.25

t
.
, 0 t .
u (t ) i (t ) t ,
u ( ) i ( ) .
u (t )
u (0 ) , = 0 ,

u1 , u2 , K , uk , K , un ,

k ( k = 1, n ) ( 6.25).
u (0) .
t .
u1 , 1 ,
,
t (t 1 ) .
, ,
,
uk , t (t k ) ..
,
u (t )

u (t ) u (0 )1(t ) + u11(t 1 ) + u 21(t 2 ) + K + uk 1(t k ) + K + un 1(t n )


u (t ) u (0 )1(t ) +

u 1(t ) .
k

(6.156)

k =1

( )
u (0 )
uk , .
172

u (0)1(t )
i ( ) , t i (t ) = u (0 )h(t ) .
1 u1 ,
i1 = u1h(t 1 ) .
, , k
uk ik = uk h(t k ) ..
,
t , ..

i (t ) u (0 )h(t ) + u1h(t 1 ) + u2 h(t 2 ) + K + uk h(t k ) + K + u n h(t n )


i (t ) u (0 )h(t ) +

u h(t ),
k

(6.157)

k =1

n , 0 t .
, ,
, () k
d ,
( n ).
, .. lim uk = duk = uk ( )d , d , n , (6.157)
. , i (t )
u (t ) :
t

i (t ) = u (0 )h(t ) + u ( )h(t )d ,

(6.158)

u ( ) t = .
(6.158)
. (6.158)
. (6.158)
u (t )
h(t ) . , , , ,
,
.
, f1 (t )
f 2 (t )
t

f (t ) f ( )d = f ( ) f (t )d ,
1

(6.159)

.
.

(6.159).

173

i (t ) = u (0 )h(t ) + u(t )h( )d .

(6.160)


(6.158), :
t

i (t ) = u (0 )h(t ) + u( )h(t )d = u (0 )h(t ) + h(t )du ( ) =


0

= u (0)h(t ) + u ( )h(t ) 0 + u ( )h(t )d .


t

,
t

i (t ) = u (t )h(0 ) + u ( )h(t )d .

(6.161)

(6.159) (6.161)
:
t

i (t ) = u (t )h(0) + u (t )h( )d .

(6.162)

(6.162) .
,
(6.158), (6.160) (6.162) :
t

d
i (t ) =
u ( )h(t )d ,
dt
0

d
i (t ) =
u (t )h( )d .
dt

(6.163)

(6.163)
.

.
. , u (0 ) = 0 , (6.158)
(6.160) ,
. h(0 ) = 0 , (6.161) (6.162)
. h(t ) ,
(6.161) (6.162),
.
6.22 .


.
.
i (t ) ,
g (t ) ,
174

u (t ) , .. f (t ) ,
() : f (t ) = u (t ) , x(t ) = i (t ) .
u (t ) 6.26.

6.26

u (t )

u ( ) d ( 6.26).
, 0 t , t
, .
g (t ) -
(t ) t = 0 . -
, .. (t ) g (t ) .
u ( ) (t )d
:
di(t ) = u ( )g (t )d ,
g (t ) t
.
,
di (t ) ,
, t ,
t

i (t ) = u ( )g (t )d .
0

(6.164)

(6.164) u (t ) g (t ) ,
() u ( )g (t )d
u ( ) (t )d .
(6.159) (6.164)
:
175

i (t ) = u (t )g ( )d .

(6.165)

(6.164), (6.165)
. .
g (t )
h(t ) . (6.164) (6.165)
, 6.20.2
, .
, (6.155) g ( ) = h( ) + h(0 ) ( ) ,
(6.165)
t

i (t ) = u (t )g ( )d = u (t )h( )d + h(0 ) u (t ) ( )d .
0


(6.148) u (t )h(0 ) .

t

i (t ) = u (t )h(0) + u (t )h( )d ,
0

.. .
6.23



( 1- ):
1) h(t )
1(t )
;
2) h(t ) t (t ) ;
3) , ,
u ( ) ;
4) (6.158)

.

,
,
, .
g (t )
, h(t ) .
g (t ) h(t )
(6.155).
176

7.
7.1 .

R , L C . , ,
, .. R = R(i ,u ) ,
L = L(i ,u ) C = C (i ,u ) .
-, - -.
, ..
i = i (u ) , - ( 7.1, ).
, ..
= (i ) , - ( 7.1, ).
, .. q = q(u ) ,
- ( 7.1, ).

7.1 - (), - () - ()
( 1) ( 2)

, R , L C
, . i = i (u ) , = (i ) q = q(u )
( 1 7.1).
R , L C ,
. i = i (u ) , = (i ) q = q(u )
( 2 7.1).
, ,
.


, , .. , .
(
), ( )
( ).
7.2.
177

7.2 (),
() ()

i = i (u ) , = (i ) q = q(u )
. , ,
i = i (u ) , = (i )
, q = q(u )
.
7.2
.

, .
,

. ,

, R
g .

- (), .. I = I (U ) ,
U = U (I ) .
- ,
.
,
.

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) .
.
7.2.1
,
, -
. , ,
.

,
, , .

178

7.2.2

.
i = i(u )
I = I (U ) , ,
.
. , ,
. ,
,
.
7.2.3
-
.

,
-
.
( 7.3, ),
( 7.3, ).

7.3 - :
() ()

,
-

.

7.4 - :
() ()
179

( 7.4, ),
( 7.4, )
7.2.4


.
() ,
( 7.5, ).

7.5 - () () ()


. -
:
1) ,
,
( 7.5, ).
2) ,
,
( 7.5, ).
3) , ,
( 7.5, ).
7.2.5

. ( )
180

() , , , .
: -, -
-.
.
7.3 .
,

,
( R g ).
,
.

, .
,
.
(
)
-
:

U
.
I

(7.1)

U dU
=
.
I 0 I
dI

(7.2)

R =



, , ,
- :

R = lim

7.6
-

mI mU -
. (7.1) (7.2) ,
R ,
a , R
181


( 7.6):

R = mRtg ,

R = mR tg ,

a
(7.3)

mR = mU mI .

1 , ..
R > 0 ; ,
, .. . ( R > 0 )
,
( ab cd 7.7), ( R < 0 ),
( bc
7.7).

7.7
-

2 , ..
R R ,
,
:

g =

I
,
U

dI
I
=
.
U 0 U
dU

g = lim

(7.4)

3
( )

u du
=
,
i 0 i
di

R = lim

(7.5)

.
, R .
7.4

( )
(
), (
).
182


( , , , .),
.
.
7.4.1

1) ,
, , 1-
2- .
.
.
,
,
.
2) (),
,
, .

, : I = kU 2 , k
.

U 1 U 2 , , (
), : I1 = kU12 I 2 = kU 22 .

2
I = k (U1 + U 2 ) = kU12 + 2kU1U 2 + kU 22 ,
I I1 I 2 .
3) -
,
, ,
.

.
4) ,
,
, .

.
7.4.2


:
1) ,
. ,
,
183


;
2) , ,
.
,
;
3) ,
.
,
(, -).
7.5

.
.
.
7.5.1

2.6.2
.
.
.
( 7.8, )
R1 R2 , -
, .. I = I1 (U ) I = I 2 (U ) , ( 7.8, ).
I U 1 , U 2
E .

7.8 ()
(), ()

, ,
,
. , 7.8,
, 7.8, . -
184


I = I (U )

R
( )
I1 = I 2 = I = const , U = U1 + U 2
(7.6)
.
(7.6) ,
,
. ,
-
I = I1 (U ) I = I 2 (U ) R1 R2 I .
7.8, .
I = I a , a
, d ,
I = I (U ) R1 R2 .
, d I = I a

ab + ac = ad ,
(7.7)
ab ac mU U1a U 2 a
R1 R2 , I a , ad
U a R :

U1a = mU ab ,

U 2 a = mU ac ,

U a = mU ad .

(7.8)
, (7.7) 2-
U = U1 + U 2 .
I
E m ,
E ,
I = I (U ) ( 7.8, m ).
I = I (U ) , .. m ,
m
I = I (E ) . I = I1 (U )
I = I 2 (U ) U 1 U 2
R1 R2 ( 7.8, ).

, .
7.5.2

( 7.9, ) 2-
R1 R2 , -
, .. I = I1 (U ) I = I 2 (U ) , ( 7.9, ).
I , I1
I 2 R1 R2
E .
185

7.9 ()
(), ()

,
,
7.9, , 7.8, , ,
.
.

I = I1 + I 2 , U = U1 = U 2 = const .
(7.9)
(7.9) ,
,
. ,
- I = I1 (U )
I = I 2 (U ) R1 R2 U .
7.9, .
U = U a , a
, d ,
I = I (U ) R1 R2 .
, d U = U a

ab + ac = ad ,
(7.10)
ab ac mI I1a I 2 a R1
R2 , U a , ad I a
R :
I1a = mI ab , I 2 a = mI ac , I a = mI ad .
(7.11)
, (7.10) 1-
I = I1 + I 2 .
I
E m ,
E ,
I = I (U ) ( 7.9, m ).
I = I (U ) , .. m ,
186

m
I = I (E ) .
I = I1 (U ) I = I 2 (U ) I1 I 2
R1 R2 ( 7.9, ).

, .
7.5.3

,
,
-
.
:
1)
,
, 7.5.2;
2)
(. 7.5.1),
.
7.5.4

( 7.10, )
. ,
, R1 U = U1 (I )
E , ( R2 U = U 2 (I ) ) .

7.10 ()
()

( 7.10, )
2- :
(7.12)
U 2 (I ) = E U1 (I ) .

187

7.10, . ,
, U (I ) = E U1 (I ) U 2 (I ) R2 , .. a ,
U 2 (I ) R2 (7.12).
, a ,
, .. U1 U 2
R1 , R2 I ( 7.10, ).

1 U (I ) = E U1 (I ) 7.10,
U1 (I ) E I .
2

( 7.11, ).

7.11 ()
()

R1
E ,
U 2 (I ) = E R1 I1 ,
(7.13)
, U (I ) = E R1 I1 .
,
.
7.11, . U (I ) , MN ,
M N . M : I = 0 ,
U = E ; N : I = I = E R1 , U = 0 .
, a
U (I ) = E R1 I1 U 2 (I ) , .. MN U 2 (I )
R2 , : U 1 , U 2 R1 , R2
I ( 7.11, ).
7.5.5


188

,
. ( ) :
, , ,
( )
( 7.12, ).

7.12 ()
() ()

(
) a b
(
). 2.7.6,

E R ( 7.12, )
J G = 1 R
( 7.12, ).
E
U a b
( ), R
R :
(7.14)
E = U , R = R .
J
I , G
G :
J = I , G = G .
(7.15)
E , R J , G
(7.14), (7.15), I ab , ..
,
( )
.

,
7.12, ( 7.12, ) (. 2.9.3)

189

,
.
7.5.6

, ,
.
:
1) I k
U 0 , ..
(7.16)
Uk = E U0 ;
2) I k (U 0 ) k -
U 0 . I k (U k )
,
U 0 = Ek . U 0 (7.16)
, , U 0 = Ek ,
I k (U 0 ) ;
3) , 1- , ..

I (U ) = 0 .
k

(7.17)

k =1

,
7.13, .

7.13 ()
()

R1 , R2 R3 , -
7.14.
I1 , I 2 I 3 U 0 .
U1 , U 2 U 3
E1 , E2 , E3 U 0 . :
U1 = E1 U 0 , U 2 = E2 + U 0 , U 3 = E3 U 0 .
(7.18)
190

7.14 -

I1 (U 0 ) , I 2 (U 0 ) , I 3 (U 0 ) ,
(7.18), 7.13, . 1-
I1 , I 2 , I 3
I1 (U 0 ) I 2 (U 0 ) + I 3 (U 0 ) = 0 .
(7.19)
, 1- (7.19), ,
(I1 + I 3 ) I 2 , .. (7.19)
:
I1 (U 0 ) + I 3 (U 0 ) = I 2 (U 0 ) .
7.13, m .
7.6

,
, .. .
,
:
.
:
1) ;
2) - ;
3) .
7.6.1 .
-
( )
.
,
y = f ( x ) , y = I , x = U , , y = U , x = I ,
(. 7.1)
( 7.15). y = f ( x ) .
7.1

x0
y0

x1
y1

x2
y2

x3
y3

K
K
191

xi
yi

K
K

xn1
yn1

xn
yn

7.15 -

:
y = f ( x ) (- ), ..
y = ( x ) , yi = ( xi ) yi ( xi ) . ,
,
.
( xi ; yi ) ,

i = 0, n ,

, .

.
7.6.2
- y = f ( x )

, ( xi ; yi ) , i = 0 , n ,

y = ( x ) , yi = ( xi ) . x0 , x1 , K , xn1 , xn
.
( x )
y = f ( x ) y = ( x ) ,
( xi ; yi ) , i = 0 , n , ( 7.16).

7.16
192

, ( xi ; yi )
. , y = ( x )

() ( xi ; yi ) , i = 0 , n , y = f ( x )
.
, y = ( x ) ,
n ( n ,
). ( x )
, f ( x )

Pn ( x ) = an x n + an1 x n1 + K + a1 x + a 0 ,
(7.20)
f ( x ) :

Pn ( xi ) = yi , i = 0 , n .

(7.21)
Pn ( x ) n .
an , an1 , K , a1 , a0 Pn ( x )
(7.20), (7.21):

an x0n + an1 x0n1 + K + a1 x0 + a0 = y0 ;


n
n 1
an x1 + an1 x1 + K + a1 x1 + a0 = y1 ;

.....................................................
a x n + a x n1 + K + a x + a = y .
n 1 n
1 n
0
n
n n

(7.22)

, (7.22)
, x0 , x1 , K , xn1 , xn .
, Pn ( x ) ,
(7.22).

Pn ( x ) (7.22)
, ()
Pn ( x ) ,
.

Pn ( x ) =

k =0

yk

(x x0 )(x x1 )K(x xk 1 )(x xk +1 )K(x xn ) .


(xk x0 )(xk x1 )K(xk xk 1 )(xk xk +1 )K(xk xn )

(7.23)

Pn ( x ) = y0 + ( x x0 ) f ( x0 ; x1 ) + ( x x0 )( x x1 ) f ( x0 ; x1 ; x2 ) + K +
+ ( x x0 )( x x1 )K ( x xn1 ) f ( x0 ; x1 ;K; xn ) ,
f ( x0 ; x1 ) , f ( x0 ; x1 ; x2 ) , K , f ( x0 ; x1 ;K; xn ) :
y y1
f ( x0 ; x1 ) f ( x1 ; x2 )
f ( x0 ; x1 ) = 0
f ( x0 ; x1 ; x2 ) =
,
,K,
x0 x1
x0 x2
f ( x0 ; x1 ;K; xn1 ) f ( x1 ; x2 ;K; xn )
f ( x0 ; x1 ;K; xn ) =
.
x0 xn
193

(7.24)

(7.25)


1 n - Pn ( x )

.
2 y = f ( x )

, ..
[xk ; xm ] , k , m = 0, n k < m , . , , m = k + 1
[xk ; xk +1 ] (-
); m = k + 2 [xk ; xk +2 ]
(- ) .. [xk ; xm ]
( ) -
, , . -
y = f ( x ) , ,
7.17.

7.17 - -

7.6.3
( xi ; yi ) , i = 0 , n , -
7.1 ,
7.15. y = f ( x ) x = xi
.

y = ( x ) ,
, .. ( xi ; yi ) , i = 0 , n .
( x ) ,
.
( x )
:
194

1) ( x ) , ..
, (,
, ..);
2) b0 , b1 , K , bm

( x ,b0 ,b1 ,K ,bm ) .
, ..
( x ,b0 ,b1 ,K ,bm ) . b0 , b1 , K , bm
,
yi
, ..
n

S=

[y (x ,b ,b ,Lb )] = min .
2

(7.26)

k =0

b0 , b1 , K , bm ,
S (b0 ,b1 ,K bm ) , :

dS
dS
dS
= 0,
= 0, K ,
= 0.
(7.27)
dbm
db0
db1
b0 , b1 , K , bm

, 7.2.
7.2

x y n x y
i

b1 =

( x ) = b1 x + b0

( x ) = b2 x + b1 x + b0
2

( x ) = b0 x

i =1

i =1

1
b0 =
n

b2

b2

i =1

i =1

xi n

yi b1

i =1

i =1

xi

i =1

2
i

x +b x +b n = y ;
x +b x +b x = x y ;
x +b x +b x = x y .
2
i

b2

3
i

2
i

i =1

1
b0 = exp
n

b1

195

i =1
n

3
i

i =1
n

i =1
n

4
i

i =1

i =1
n

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

ln yi b1

i =1
n

i =1

i =1

ln xi ,

7.2

ln x ln y n ln x ln y

b1 =

i =1

i =1

ln yi b1

xi ,

i =1

x ln y n x ln y
i

i =1

b1 =

i =1

xi n

yi b1

i =1

1
b0 =
n

2
i

i =1

xi )

1
,
xi

(1 x ) y
i

i =1

(1 xi2 )

ln xi ,

yi b1

i =1

i =1

(1 xi )

i =1

i =1

x
i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

(y
n

i =1

b1 =

i =1

i =1

( x ) = b0 + b1 ln x

1
b0 =
n

( x ) = b0 + b1 x

(ln x )
n

b1 =

i =1

ln xi n

1
b0 = exp
n

( x ) = b0 exp(b1 x )

i =1

( y ln x ) y ln x
i

i =1

i =1

i =1

(ln xi )2

i =1

i =1

ln xi

y = ( x )
( xi ; yi ) , i = 0 , n

-
.
7.6.4 -
-
196

, 7.17.
( )
.
7.6.5

a ( 7.18) ,
,
.

7.18 - ()
()


, E0
R J 0 G .
R
, G
:

I
dU U
dI

, G =

.
(7.28)
dI
I
dU U
, , a
( 7.18, ). ab U 0
R =


U 0 = E0 + R I .
(7.29)
,
7.19, ( ).
(7.29) R
I , :
I = J 0 + U 0G = J 0 + I ,
(7.30)
G = 1 R , J 0 = E0 R , I = U 0G .
(7.30) ,
7.19, ( ).
197

7.19
- , ()
()

a
( 7.18, ). ab U 0

U 0 = E0 + R I .
(7.31)
,
7.20, ( ).

7.20
- , ()
()

(7.31) R
I , :
I = J 0 + U 0G = J 0 + I .
(7.32)
(7.32) ,
7.20, ( ).
7.6.6

. 7.6.5,
,
( )
, ..
(7.28). :

I =

U
R

I = G U .

(7.33)

(7.33) .

,
198

,
.
.
: ,
, , ,
, ,
:
m

I
k =1

= I k ,

I k = 0 .

k =1

k =1

(7.34)

:

, :
n

k =1

k =1

I k R k = Ek .

(7.38)


:
1) , .. E J ,
E J ;
2) (
), .
, -
,
, ..
. ,
,
, , ,
.
,
.
7.7
( ),
,
. : ,
, ,
.

(
) ( ).
7.7.1


x = f (x ) ,
(7.39)
x , .. x = I x = U .
(7.39) :
xk +1 = f ( xk ) , k = 0, n ,
(7.40)
199

xk xk +1 x* k - (k + 1) - ;
f ( xk ) f ( x ) k - .
,
y = f ( x ) y = x .
( x* ) (7.39)
( 7.21).

7.21

x0 7.21 x*
(7.39). (7.40)
xk +1 ,
xk

xk +1 xk ,

(7.41)

.
x0 (7.40)
f ( x ) x = 0
.
7.7.2
.

f (x ) = 0 .

(7.42)
, xk xk +1
x = xk +1 xk . , f ( xk + x ) x
( , x
),
f ( xk + x ) f ( xk ) + f ( xk )x .
(7.43)
x , f ( xk + x ) = 0 . (7.43)

x = xk +1 xk =

200

f ( xk )
f ( xk )

xk +1 = xk

f ( xk )
,
f ( xk )

k = 0, n .

(7.44)

(7.44)
(7.42). .
7.22.

7.22

x0 .
(7.44) (7.41).

1 x0 ,
, .. f ( x ) = 0
.
2 xk xk +1 ,
x* (7.42), :

df ( x )
0,
dx

d 2 f (x )
0,
dx 2

(7.45)

(7.44) .

8.
8.1 . ,

,
.
< 1 , = 0,999991 ,
= 0,999990 ; > 1, = 1,000023 ,
= 1,000176 ; >> 1 ,
= 8000 , = 2000 , = 80000 .

: (), >> 1 ,
(), 1.

,
201

, .

(). ,
, .

,
(), .
,
,
.
, , ,
, ,
,
r , .
B
r ()
r
F
,
. B
r
q , v :

r
rr
F = q [ v B ].
: [ B ] = 1 ().

(8.1)

S :

r r

= BdS ,

(8.2)

S
r
dS S . :
[ ] = 1 ().
( B = const )

= BS
(8.3)
r
M :
r
m
r
,
(8.4)
M = lim
V 0
V
r
V , m

r r
m = iS .

(8.5)

r 1 r r
H=
BM

(8.6)

r
i , S ,
. : [ M ] = 1 / ( ).

, 0 (8.6)
: 0 = 4 10 7 /.
: [ H ] = 1 / ( ).
r r
r
(8.6) , B , M H

202

r
r r
B = 0 H + M .
(8.7)
r
M

r
H :

r
r
M = H ,

(8.8)
, ,

H .
(8.7)r (8.8)
r
r r

r
r
B = 0 H + M = 0 (1 + )H = 0 H = a H ,
(8.9)
= 1 + ,
a = 0 .
8.2


.
,
() ,
B H , ..
B = B(H ) . : ,
B(H ) ( 8.1, ),
B(H ) ( 8.1, ).

8.1 () ()

( 8.1, ) ( 8.1, ).
B = B(H )
( B = 0 , H = 0 )
H .
B(H ) .
, ,
: 0 a , ab
, bc ,
, cd .

, .. B
H .
203

, ..
H = H m , ( H = 0 )
, H ,
H = H m ( H = 0 ),
B(H )
, ( 8.1, ).
H = H m
.
,
. ,
.
Br
H c .
Br
; H c
,
.
, ( 8.1, ),
;
.

. , , HdB ,
,
.

.

( 8.2, ),
( 8.2, ).

8.2 () ()

( ,
.) ,
(,
.).
204

( , .)

.
8.3

( ) ()
w
I :
F = wI .
(8.10)
: [ F ] = 1 ().
F ,
E I . ,
.

, .

: ,
, ,
.
8.3
.

8.3 ,

( ) a
b
:
(b )

U Mab =

r r
Hdl .

(8.11)

(a )

8.4

H
r
r r
dl , Hdl = Hdl cos 0 = Hdl H
- , (8.11)
205

(b )

U Mab = H dl = Hlab ,

(8.12)

(a )

lab a b ( 8.4).
: [ U M ] = 1 ().

Ma Mb ,
:
(8.13)
U Mab = Ma Mb .
(8.13), ,

a b , .. (1.4).
8.4

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .

( 8.5).

8.5 () ()

,
( 8.6).
,
( 8.5, ),
;
.
8.5,
.
.
8.6, : 1 = 2 , ,
,
, w1 I1 = w2 I 2 ( F1 = F2 ).
206

w1 I1 = w2 I 2 ( F1 = F2 ),

, ( 8.6, ).

8.6 () ()


, , ..
, .
8.5 .

, , 1- 2-
.
.
8.5.1

,

:

r r

= BdS = 0 .

(8.14)

(8.14) 1- .
:
:
p

= 0,

(8.15)

k =1

p , .
1- (8.15) ,
, +,
.
8.5.2
.
,
207


, :

r r
Hdl =

I ,

(8.16)

k =1

n I k , l .

dl (8.16)
I k .
w ,
I ,
n

= wI

k =1

, ,

r r
Hdl = wI .

(8.17)

(8.17) 2- .
:
,
:
n

U = F , H l = w I ,
Mk

k =1

k =1

k k

k =1

k k

(8.18)

k =1

n , , m
.
2- (8.18)

. U Mk (8.18)
+, k
. Fk ,
.
, , ,
8.7,
(8.15), (8.18).

8.7 ,

208

1 , 2 3 , l1 . l2 l3
, .
1- 2-
:
1 + 2 3 = 0 ;
H1l1 + H 3l3 + H = w1 I1 ;
H 2l2 + H 3l3 + H = w2 I 2 ,
H1 , H 2 H 3 , H
.
8.6 .

I
.
, .. U M U . ,
( ).

.
. (8.12)
U M :
U M = Hl ,
(8.19)
H l .
H B (8.9),

(8.20)
B = 0 H ,
B (8.3), ..
= BS
(8.21)
(8.20) (8.21)

H=

,
0 S

(8.22)

S .
(8.19) (8.22) :

UM =

0 S

U M = RM ,

(8.23)

RM =

0 S

(8.24)

, (8.23)
,
RM . :
[ RM ] = 1 ().
209

(8.23) :

UM
.
RM

(8.25)

(8.23) (8.25)

, ,
:

U = R ,

R =

0 S

U
,
R

(8.26)

U R , S
.
RM R
GM G ,
, :

GM =

1
S
= 0 ,
RM
l

G =

1 0 S
=
.

(8.27)

8.7
, ,
:
1)
;
2) , ..
.
, , ;
3)
.

(8.15), (8.18) (8.25). (8.26).
8.7.1
.


.
(. 8.1).
8.1

, I
, U
(), E
, R

,
, U M
(), F
, RM

210

8.1

1- ,

1- ,

=0

k =1

=0

k =1

2- ,
n

2- ,

U = E
k

k =1

U = F

Mk

k =1

k =1

k =1

I=

U
R

UM
RM

, 8.1,
,
. , , ,
8.8, , ,
8.8, .

8.8 () ()

8.8, 8.8, ,
,
, ,
.
.
8.7.2 .



. I = I (U )
- = (U M ) ,
.

211

- = (U M )
.
B(H ) ,
.

.

B(H )
.
:
1) ,
( ) -
( );
2) ( )
( ).

:
1) ,
;
2) ,
;
3) ,
, .
8.7.3
.
, , .

,
-
. , ,
, .

, 8.9, .

8.9 () () ,

212

:
1) ( 8.9, ),
l1 , l2 , l3 , l4 ;
2) ,
Bk k -

Bk =

Sk

S k ;
3) B(H ) Bk
H k .

H =

4) 2-
:
3

F = wI =

H l + H ,
k k

k =1

.
1-
2- .

8.9, .
,
8.9, .
B(H )
F1 = w1 I1 ,
B ( 8.9, ).
:
1) 1 , 2 3
;
2)

H =


B(H ) ( B3 = B ) H 3 ;
3) 2- , ..

H 3l3 + H H 2l2 = 0
H 2 B(H ) B2 ;
4) 1-

1 = B2 S 2 + B3 S3

1 ,
213

B1 =

1
S1

B1 B(H ) H 1 ;
5) 2-

F1 = H1l1 + H 2l2 .
8.7.4
.
.
,
, .
() .
-
= (U M )
,
, .

, 8.9,
, 8.10.

8.10 () () ,

( 8.10, ),

(. 7.5.1).
- = (U M ) ,
= 1 (U M ) = 2 (U M ) ,
= (U M ) ,
, U M 1 U M 2 .
- = (U M )
1 = 2 = = const , U M = U M 1 + U M 2
(8.28)
,
, .
= (U M )
214

I = I (U )
7.5.1.
, ,
( 8.10, ),
(. 7.5.4),
- U M ( )
,

H l = wI H = F R .

k k

k =1

7.5.4

.
( 8.10, )
,
.
, , (
),
.
7.5.6
.
. , , ,
8.10, , 1 , 2 3
U M 0
, 1-
, ..
1 (U M 0 ) 2 (U M 0 ) 3 (U M 0 ) = 0 .
1 , 2 3
.
8.7.5
( ),
7.7
,
, .

.

9.
9.1

, (
) .
, .
215

,
, , i = i (u ) , = (i ) q = q(u ) , ..
-, - - .


i = i (u ) , = (i ) q = q(u ) .
,
, .
.

. , T
,
( T << ), .
T << ,
.
9.2

( ).
- = (i ) ,
i , ( 9.1, ),
, ,
: = const .

9.1 - () ()

i

:

L=

d
= = const .
di
i

(9.1)

: = (H ) . = (i )
( 9.1, ):

216

L(i ) =

d
const .
di

(9.2)

(9.2) ,
.
.

u=

d d di
di
=
= L(i ) .
dt
di dt
dt

(9.3)

(9.3) ,
.
,
,
.
( )
,
.
L , L ,
L :

d
d
, L =
.
(9.4)
I
dI
di
L
L =

L =

- .

. L
d dI ,
L
.
9.3 -

( )
, :
1) ( )
;
2) .

, ;

.

e , ..
u = e ,
(9.5)
:

e=

d
d
= w
.
dt
dt
217

(9.6)

w , .

(9.5), (9.6), .
(9.5) (9.6) ,
:

(t ) =

(9.7)

Um
cos t .
w

(9.9)

1
u (t )dt + A ,
w

A (
A = 0 ).
, ..
u = U m sin t ,
(9.8)
(9.7) (9.8) , :

(t ) =

, .. = BS ,
,
(9.8) :

B(t ) =

(t )
S

Um
cos t .
w S

(9.10)

Bm =

Um
,
wS

(9.11)

H (t )l
,
w

(9.12)

S .
(9.10) i (t ) ,
, 9.2, ,

i (t ) =

2- (.
8.5.2)

9.2 () ()

218

9.2, . ,
Bm

.
I m
U m , .. I m = I m (U m ) , -
( 9.3, ).
I = I (U ) - ( 9.3, ).

9.3 - ()
()
()

, ,
,
. ,
, .
(9.5)
:

U& = E&
U& = E& = jXI& ,

(9.13)
X
. (9.13)

X=

U
.
I

(9.14)

9.3, , ; I
U X , ,
U ( 9.3, ).
9.4 ,


(), w ( 9.4).

219

9.4

, ,

u = Ri +

d
,
dt

(9.15)

R .

= 0 + .
(9.16)
0 , ,
. ,
0 = w 0 ,
(9.17)
0 , .
, ,
( ):
= w = L i ,
(9.18)
, L .
(9.18), i ,
, ,
, , L .
0 i ,
, ,
.

u = Ri + L
,

di
d 0
+w
dt
dt

d 0
,
dt
di
u = Ri + L + u0 .
dt
u0 = w

(9.19)
(9.20)

(9.20) . , u
, i .
, (9.20)
:
220

U& = RI& + jX I& + U& 0 ,

(9.21)

X = L .

- . ,
, .
P0 ( ).
,
R0 ,
P0 , ..

U 02
P0 =
,
R0

U 02
.
R0 =
P0

(9.22)

I& (9.21) :
I& , & 0 , I& ,
& 0 :

I& = I& + I& = U& 0 ( g 0 jb0 ) ,

(9.23)

g0 =

I
P
1
= = 20 ,
R0 U 0 U 0

b0 =

I
U0

(9.24)

, (9.21),
(9.23), (9.24), 9.5, ;
9.5, .

9.5 () ()

221

9.5, ,
i u0 = d 0 dt 0 < 2
P0 .
E& 0 , 0 , e0 = wd 0 dt .
9.5
,
, ,
, .
( )
( ).
9.5.1

,
C
( 9.6, ).

9.6 ()
- ()

, ,
,
, ,
.
U L U C
, U
: U = U L U C .
U L U C I , U L = U L (I )
- , U C = (1 C )I
, ,

U (I ) = U L (I )

222

1
I.
C

(9.25)

U = U (I ) , (9.25),
. 9.6, .
U L (I ) U C (I ) ( a )
. 9.6, ,
,

. ,
, ,
.
,
,
,
.
U = U (I ) ,
U 1 3.
2
0.


.
9.5.2

,
C
( 9.7, ).

9.7 ()
- ()

,
. I L I C
, I
: I = I L I C .

223

I L I C U ,
I L = I L (U ) - ,
I C = (C )U , ,

I (U ) = I L (U ) CU .

(9.26)

I = I (U ) , (9.26),
. 9.7, .
I L (U ) I C (U ) ( a )
. 9.7, ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
.
,
,
,
.
I = I (U ) ,
I 1
3. 2
0.


.
9.6


E , C
. -
q = q(u ) , q u
, ( 9.8, ).
, .

9.8 - () ()

224

q u
:

C=

dq q
= = const .
du u

(9.27)

, ,
.
, - q = q(u )
( 9.8, ):

C (u ) =

dq
const .
du

(9.28)

(9.28) ,
.
.

i=

dq dq du
du
=
= C (u ) .
dt du dt
dt

(9.29)

(9.29) ,

.
,
D E
. ,
+ Em Em
D = D(E )
( 9.9) .

9.9


Dr .

1 ( )
,
.
C , C ,
C :
225

q
C = ,
I

C =

dq
,
dI

C =

dq
.
di

(9.30)

2 .

.
.

10.
10.1

, .. ,

R , L C , .
, ,
, ,
, .
,
.
, ,
,
.
,
. ,
.

, .. :
x t .
.
10.2


, .. , , ,
.
, ,
() L0 , C0 , R0 , G0 .
: [ L0 ] = 1 / ( ),
[ C0 ] = 1 / ( ), [ R0 ] = 1 / ( ), [ G0 ] = 1 / (
).
R0 , G0 , L0 , C0
: L0 R0
, C0 G0
. R0
, G0 . L0 C0
.
226

,
.
: x , ,
t , .

- i ( x; t )
u ( x; t ) .
,
.
x ( 10.1)
x
x + x , x , .

10.1

,
t , i ( x; t ) , u ( x; t ) ;
i ( x + x; t ) , u ( x + x; t ) . R0 , G0 , L0 , C0 ,

() R0 x L0 x
G0 x C0 x .
( 10.1)
:

u ( x + x; t )
G0 xu ( x + x; t ) i( x + x; t ) = 0 ,
t
i ( x; t )
u ( x; t ) + R0 xi( x; t ) + L0 x
+ u ( x + x ; t ) = 0 .
t

i( x; t ) C0 x

(10.1), (10.2) :
227

(10.1)
(10.2)

i ( x + x; t ) i ( x; t )
u ( x + x; t )
= C0
+ G0u ( x + x; t ) ,
t
x
u ( x + x; t ) u ( x; t )
i ( x; t )

= L0
+ R0i ( x; t ) .
t
x

(10.3)
(10.4)

(10.3), (10.4) ,
x , , x 0 , :

u ( x; t )
i ( x; t )
= C0
+ G0u ( x; t ) ,
x
t
i ( x; t )
u ( x; t )

= L0
+ R0i ( x; t ) .
x
t

(10.5)
(10.6)

(10.5), (10.6)
x
t .

.
10.3


.
f = 0 ,

.

. , i ( x; t )

u ( x; t ) (10.5), (10.6) I& , U& :


i I&e jt , u U&e jt .
(10.7)
&
&
I U x
. e jt , ,
t .
, ( I& U& ) x ,
( e jt ) t , (10.5), (10.6)
,

i
dI&
e jt ,
x
dx

u
dU&
e jt
,
x
dx

i
je jt I& ,
t

u
je jtU& .
t

(10.8)

(10.5), (10.6) (10.7), (10.8),

e jt

dI&
= e jt (G0 + jC0 )U& ,
dx

e jt

dU&
= e jt (R0 + jL0 )I&
dx

e jt 0 :

dI&
= Y 0U& ,
dx

dU&
= Z 0 I& ,
dx

(10.9)

Y 0 = G0 + jC0

(10.10)

Z 0 = R0 + jL0 ,

228

,
Z 0 Y 0 , : Y 0 1 Z 0 .
(10.9)
.
10.4

(10.9)
I& U& .
:

d 2 I&
dU&
d 2U&
2 =Y0
,
= Z0
dx
dx
dx 2
dU& dx dI& dx ,

dI&
dx

dI& dx dU& dx
(10.9). :

d 2 I&
= Z 0 Y 0 I& ,
dx 2

d 2U&
= Z 0 Y 0U& .
dx 2

(10.11)

(10.11),

,
2- .
,
(10.11) :

2 Z 0Y 0 = 0 ,

(10.12)

1,2 = Z 0 Y 0 = = ( + j ) .

(10.13)

U& = A&1e x + A& 2 ex ,

(10.14)

,
, A&1 A& 2 ,
.
I& (10.11) ,
, (10.14)
(10.9):

1 & x & x
(A1e A2e ) ,
I& =
Z

(10.15)

Z =

Z0
R0 + jL0
=
= Z e j
Y0
G0 + jC0

(10.16)

, Z ,
.
(10.14), (10.15)
.
229

10.5
A&1 A& 2 (10.14), (10.15),
, :
j
j
A&1 = A1e , A& 2 = A2e
, (10.16),
:
u ( x; t ) = 2 A1e x sin t x + + 2 A2 ex sin t + x + ,
(10.17)

i ( x; t ) =

2 A1 x
e sin(t x +
Z

)
)

2 A2 x
e
Z

(
)
sin(t + x + ) . (10.18)

(10.17), (10.18) ,
. (
) :
u ( x; t ) = 2 A1e x sin t x + .
(10.19)

x ( x = const )
t , u ( x; t )
.
t ( t = const )
(.. x ),
, 2 A1 e x
x , .. .
,
, .
(10.17), ..
u ( x; t ) = 2 A2 ex sin t + x + ,
(10.20)

, x u ( x; t )

, t
, 2 A2 ex x ,
.. .
,
, .
, u ( x; t )
, ,
.
i ( x; t ) ,
(10.18).

i ( x; t ) =

2 A1 x
e sin(t x + )
Z

(10.21)

2 A2 x
e sin(t + x + )
Z

(10.22)

i ( x; t ) =
.

230

(10.19), (10.20), (10.21) (10.22),


(10.17), (10.18)
:
u ( x; t ) = u ( x; t ) + u ( x; t ) , i ( x; t ) = i ( x; t ) i ( x; t ) .
(10.23)

10.2.

10.2 () ()

(10.17) (10.22),
, ,
,
.
,
.
(10.13) ,
, ,
. : [ ] = 1 1 , [ ] = 1 1 .
Z
, .

.

1 u ( x; t )
(10.23) ,
( ).
(10.23) :
i ( x; t ) (
),
.
2
.
, i ( x; t )
u ( x; t )
.

231

10.6
,
, ,
.

t x + = const , t x + = const ,
(10.24)

d
(t x + ) = 0 ,
dt
,

v =

d
(t x + ) = 0 .
dt

dx
=
dt

(10.25)

.
(10.24).

t + x + = const , t + x + = const
(10.26)
:

v =

dx

= ,
dt

(10.27)

, ,
.
,
2 .
:
t x + t ( x + ) + = 2 ,

(t x +

) (
)
) (t (x + ) + ) = 2 ,

(10.28)

(10.28) ,
:
t + ( x + ) + t + x + = 2 ,

(t + (x + ) +

) (
)
) (t + x + ) = 2 .

(10.25), (10.28)

= vT =

v
f

(10.29)

T , f . (10.29) , ,
, ,
.
, , ,

. , , l
232

, .
:
l > (0 ,05 0,1) .
(10.30)
(10.30) , ,
. , , f = 50 v = 3 108 /
( ) (10.29)
(10.30) ,
l > (300 600 ) . f = 108 l > (0 ,15 0 ,3)
.
10.7

, .

A&1 A& 2 , (10.14), (10.15),


, .

10.3 ,


, .. x = 0 x = l , l
( 10.3).
10.7.1
U& 1 I&1 ( x = 0 ):

U&

x =0

= U& 1 ,

I& x=0 = I&1 .

(10.14) (10.15) x = 0
233

(10.31)

A&1 + A& 2 = U& 1 ,

A&1 A& 2 = I&1 Z ,

, :

1
A&1 = (U& 1 + I&1 Z ),
2

1
A& 2 = (U& 1 I&1 Z ).
2

(10.32)

(10.32) (10.14), (10.15),

1 U&
1 U&
I& = 1 + I&1 e x 1 I&1 ex ,
2 Z
2 Z

1
1
U& = (U&1 + I&1 Z )e x + (U&1 I&1 Z )ex .
2
2

(10.33)
(10.34)

(10.33), (10.34)
shx chx ,

U&
I& = 1 shx + I&1chx ,
Z

U& = I&1 Z shx + U& 1chx .

(10.35)

(10.33), (10.34) (10.35)


.
10.7.2
U& 2 I&2 ( x = l ),
.. , , Z 2 = U& 2 I&2 :

U&

x =l

= U& 2 ,

I& x=l = I&2 .

(10.36)


. x , x = l x x = l x ( 10.3).
x (10.36)
:
(10.37)
U& = U& 2 , I& = I&2 .
x =0

x =0

(10.14), (10.15) x (l x)
(10.37), x = 0
A&1e l A& 2 el = I&2 Z , A&1e l + A& 2 el = U& 2 ,
, :

1
A&1 = (U& 2 + I&2 Z )el ,
2

1
A& 2 = (U& 2 I&2 Z )e l .
2

(10.38)

(10.38) (10.14), (10.15),

1 U&
1 U&
I& = 2 + I&2 ex 2 I&2 e x ,
2 Z
2 Z

1
1
U& = (U& 2 + I&2 Z )ex + (U& 2 I&2 Z )e x .
2
2

(10.39)
(10.40)

(10.39), (10.40)
shx chx ,

U&
I& = 2 shx + I&2 chx ,
Z

U& = I&2 Z shx + U& 2 chx .


234

(10.41)

(10.39), (10.40) (10.41)


.
10.7.3
Z ,

, :

Z =

U& 1
.
I&1

(10.42)

l Z 2 U& 2 = I&2 Z 2
(. 10.3), (10.41), (10.42) x = l

Z = Z

Z 2 + Z thl
,
Z + Z 2thl

(10.43)

thl = shl chl .

10.8 .

, , ,
L0 >> R0 , C0 >> G0 ,
R0 = 0 , G0 = 0 .
.
:
= j , = L0C0 , Z = L0 C0 .
(10.44)
(10.44) , : = 0 .
(10.41) (10.44)

U&
I& = j 2 sin x + I&2 cos x ,
Z

U& = jI&2 Z sin x + U& 2 cos x .

(10.45)

(10.43), (10.45) :

Z = Z

Z 2 + j Z tg l
.
Z + j Z 2tg l

(10.46)

(10.46) ,
l . , (10.46) ,
.
( Z 2 = 0 ) ( Z 2 = )
.
(10.46) Z 2 = 0
(10.47)
Z = j Z tgl ,
Z 2 =

Z = j

Z
.
tgl

(10.28), (10.47), (10.48)

235

(10.48)

Z = j Z tg 2 ,

Z = j Z ctg 2 .

(10.49)

(10.4)
Z ( 10.4, ) Z ( 10.4, )
l ,
.

)
10.4
() ()

236

(10.49), 10.4 , ,
,
.
10.9 .
, ,
: ( )
, ( ).
Z
.
.
,
,
. ,

,
.
,
( ).
, Z ,
v , .. .
, .
,

R0 G0
.
=
L0 C0

(10.50)

Z =

= Z 0Y 0 =

R0 + jL0
L0 R0 L0 + j
L0
Z0
=
=
=
,
Y0
G0 + jC0
C0 G0 C0 + j
C0

(R0 + jL0 )(G0 + jC0 ) =


= L0C0 (R0 L0 + j ) =

L0C0

(R0

L0 + j )(G0 C0 + j ) =

R0G0 + j L0C0 ,

= R0G0 ,

= L0C0 ,

.. , ,
. ,
(10.50), ,
. (10.50)
.
, (10.50)
, ..
,
R0 G0 .

237


1 .. . 10- . .:
. 2001. 640.
2 .. . ,
: . .: , 2005. 384.
3 : . 3 .. .1./..
[ .]. .: . 2006. 463.
4 : . 3 .. .2./..
[ .]. .: . 2004. 576.
5 .. . : .
. . . . .: . ., 1990. 400.
6 .. . : .
. . . .: . ., 1986. 352.
7 : . 5- . / .. [ .]
.: , 1989. 528.
8 : . . .
. /.. [ .]. .: . ., 1973. 592.
9 : . 2- . / .. [ .] .:
. ., 2007. 608.
10 .., .. : . 6- .
.: . . 2000. 542.
11 : . . 2 .. .1./.. [
.]. .: . ., 1989. 287.
12 : . . 2 .. .2./.. [
.]. .: . ., 1990. 272.
13 ., .
. 5- . .: , 1984. 832.
14 .., .. . 3- . .: ,
1990. 624.

238


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