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Car Parking Guard Circuit Using Infrared

Sensor
September 6, 2013 By Administrator 4 Comments




Introduction: While parking the car the driver should be more careful because he cannot see the
back of the car while parking or taking reverse, if there is any obstacle and ran over it might be
get damage to the car. Our project will help the person in the driving seat and give alarm if there
is any obstacle or a wall while parking or while driving in reverse.
Block Diagram of Car Parking Guard:

The IR sensor will detect the obstacle with in 100cm, if there is any obstacle it will sense and
give information to the tone detector which will enable the LM555 timer to generate a PWM for
the buzzer. The LM555 will generate the pulse which helps to buzz the buzzer so driver can
understand that there is an obstacle.
Main Component Explanation:
LM567: is a tone detector which can interpret the frequency generated by the other component
and give the output according to the application designed by the engineer. For example if a
component is attached to the input of LM567 which can generate a 40 kHz signal , but we to
function the following circuit when the component has reached to the 40KHz. At this decision
making we will use tone detector. The tone detector is mainly used in touch tone decoders,
ultrasonic controls, frequency monitoring and control etc.
LM555: is a timer which can generate a PWM signals in various width and duty cycles. The 555
timer is mainly used to control the other peripherals like motors, detectors, regulators etc.
IR Sensor: the main function of the IR sensor is to produce a beam for certain distance (the
distance of the beam is always depends on the IR sensor, different IR sensor have different range
of beam distance) if the there is any obstacle in the beam it will conduct and give signal.
Photo Darlington Transistor: the photo darlington transistor will act as a photo detectors. They
will conduct to the light or electro magnetic signals. The main function of this transistor is to
amplify the input signal of the transistor. But it will work slowly when compared to the other
transistors. It is having a maximum frequency of 20 KHz.
Circuit Diagram of Car Parking Guard:
Explanation:
The reverse indicator light supply is given to the 7805 regulator to give 5v to the rest of
the circuit. The diode D6 is used to eliminate the reverse current and wrong supply
polarity.
When the car is driving in reverse the car battery will provide DC supply the reverse light
indicator at the back of the car when this supply came to the reverse light indicator the
circuit will have the power supply.7805 will regulate the DC voltage to 5V and give to
the IR Sensors through the transistor with 20 KHz modulating frequency of the LM567
(TONE DETECTOR) available at Pin5. The resistor R1 will resists the IR senor current.
At this point the pin8 of LM567 is high which will enable the LM555 timer operating in
astable multivibrator mode. The output of the timer is enabled which can be assured by
the LED (blinking) and also buzzer will beeps at determined rate given by the resistors
R6, R7 and capacitor C7. The timer output also is given to the lamp through a transistor.
The lamp will blink as a warning signal because of the PWM signal generated by the
timer, transistor will work as a switch and resistor R10 will limit the current. This
condition is maintained until the 20 KHz signal is received by the pin3 of the LM567.
The above condition is when there is no obstacle in the path of the car while taking
reverse. If there is a obstacle the IR beam will radiate back to the IR sensor and the
20KHz modulated signal is given to the pin3 of LM567 through photo Darlington
transistor, at this point the pin8 of the LM567 is turned to low and also gets locked to
detect the 20Khz signal. By this the LM555 is turned low and disabled by this the led will
remain lighting and buzzer makes the continuous sound to alert the driver.
Note: This complete circuitry will be attached to the back bumper and placed at the center. The
buzzer and led should be placed on the dash board for visibility of light and hearing purpose for
the driver.
Make the connection to the reverse indicator light and the circuit in parallel and beware of the
polarity.
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Circuit Diagram of Cell Phone Detector:

Circuit Diagram of Cell Phone Phone Detector ElectronicsHub.Org
Circuit Components:
V1 = 12V
L1 = 10uH
R1 = 100Ohms
C1 = 100nF
R2 = 100K
R3 = 3K
Q1 = BC547
R4 = 200 Ohms
R5 = 100 Ohms
IC1= LM339
R6 = 10 Ohms
LED = Blue LED
Cell Phone Detector Circuit Design:
Detector Circuit Design:
The detector circuit consists of an inductor, diode, a capacitor and a resistor. Here an inductor
value of 10uH is chosen. A Schottky diode BAT54 is chosen as the detector diode, which can
rectify low frequency AC signal. The filter capacitor chosen in a 100nF ceramic capacitor, used
to filter out AC ripples. A load resistor of 100 Ohms is used.
Amplifier Circuit Design:
Here a simple BJT BC547 is used in common emitter mode. Since the output signal is of low
value, the emitter resistor is not required in this case. The collector resistor value is determined
by the value of battery voltage, collector emitter voltage and collector current. Now the battery
voltage is chosen to be 12 V (since maximum open source collector emitter voltage for BC 547
is 45V), operating point collector emitter voltage is 5 V and collector current is 2 mA. This gives
a collector resistor of approx 3 K. Thus a 3 K resistor is used as Rc. The input resistor is used to
provide bias to the transistor and should be of larger value, so as to prevent the flow of maximum
current. Here we chose a resistor value of 100 K.
Comparator circuit Design:
Here LM339 is used as comparator. The reference voltage is set at the inverting terminal using a
potential divider arrangement. Since output voltage from the amplifier is quite low, the reference
voltage is set low of the order of 4V. This is achieved by selecting a resistor of 200 Ohms and a
potentiometer of 330 Ohms. An output resistor of value 10 Ohms is used as a current limiting
resistor.
Mobile Phone Tracking Circuit Operation:
In normal condition, when there is no RF signal, the voltage across the diode will be negligible.
Even though this voltage is amplified by the transistor amplifier, yet the output voltage is less
than the reference voltage, which is applied to the inverting terminal of the comparator. Since the
voltage at non inverting terminal of the OPAMP is less than the voltage at the inverting terminal,
the output of the OPAMP is low logic signal.
Now when a mobile phone is present near the signal, a voltage is induced in the choke and the
signal is demodulated by the diode. This input voltage is amplified by the common emitter
transistor. The output voltage is such that it is more than the reference output voltage. The output
of the OPAMP is thus a logic high signal and the LED starts glowing, to indicate the presence of
a mobile phone. The circuit has to be placed centimeters away from the object to be detected.
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Theory Behind Cell Phone Tracking System:
Mobile Phone Signal Detection using Schottky Diode:
The signal from mobile phone is a RF signal. When a mobile phone is present near the circuit,
the RF signal from the mobile induces a voltage in the inductor via mutual induction. This AC
signal of high frequency of the order of GHz is rectified by the Schottky diode. The output signal
is filtered by the capacitor. Schottky diodes are special diodes formed by combining N type
semiconductor material with a metal and are typically low noise diodes, operating at a high
frequency. These diodes have a unique property of conducting at a very low forward voltage
between 0.15 to 0.45V. This enables the diode to provide high switching speed and better system
efficiency. The low noise is due to the very low reverse recovery time of about 100 per sec.
Signal Amplifier using BJT:
BJT or bipolar junction transistor in its common emitter form is the most common amplifier
used. A transistor amplifier works on the fact that the input base current is amplified to the
output collector current by a factor of . Here the emitter is the common terminal. The circuit is
biased using a voltage divider circuit formed by combination of two resistors. When a transistor
is biased in active region, i.e. the emitter base junction is forward biased and the collector base
junction is reverse biased, a small base current results in a larger collector current.
LM339 as Comparator:
LM339 is a comparator IC containing 4 comparators. Here we are using only one comparator.
When the voltage at non inverting (+) terminal is higher than the voltage at inverting terminal,
the output voltage goes high. When the voltage at inverting terminal is higher, the output voltage
goes low.
Cell Phone Detector Circuit Applications:
1. This circuit can be used at examination halls, meetings to detect presence of mobile phones and
prevent the use of cell phones.
2. It can be used for detecting mobile phones used for spying and unauthorized transmission of
audio and video.
3. It can be used to detect stolen mobile phones.
Limitations of Mobile Phone Detector Circuit:
1. It is a low range detector, of the order of centimetres.
2. The Schottky diode with higher barrier height is less sensitive to small signals.