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HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

9.4 The Search for Better Health:

1. What is a healthy organism?
Discuss the difficulties in defining the terms health and disease:
Health is difficult to define as health has many components, such as physical,
mental, and social, some of which ae !ey su"#ecti!e
$isease is also difficult to define, as it also has many components% Because it is
desci"ing a state of impaied functioning, it depends on an oganisms nomal
le!el of functioning, and what they e&pect thei 'uality of life to "e%
Health: ) state of complete physical, mental and social health, and not meely
the a"sence of disease o infimity%
Disease: ) state of impaied functioning of an oganism, including impaied
physical, social and mental functioning%
Outline how the function of genes, mitosis, cell differentiation and
specialisation assist in the maintenance of health:
*enes contol the poduction of poteins in the "ody +needed fo pope
functioning, and so healthy genes ensue the coect poteins ae made%
-hough poduction of poteins +especially en.ymes,, genes ensue the coect
cell pocesses occu, maintaining meta"olism and homeostasis%
/itosis is the pocess that ena"les genetic mateial to "e copied e&actly,
ensuing the genes ae coect and a"le to maintain health in thei own way
/itosis is also the pocess that oganisms use to gow, and maintain and epai
"ody cells, maintaining health
ell Differentiation an! S"ecialisation:
-hese 2 pocesses esult in cells which ae specialised fo specific functions in
the "ody, such as ed "lood cells, etc%
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
-ogethe, all the specialised "ody cells wo0 togethe in a coodinated way to
maintain the health and pope functioning of the oganism%
Use available evidence to analyse the links between gene expression and
maintenance and repair of body tissues:
) healthy oganism is the esult of(
-he coect functioning of genes
-he poduction of pefect copies of genetic mateial "y mitosis
-he e&pession of genes in cell specialisation and diffeentiation
-he "odys cells ae always "eing eplaced all the time, so the coect specialised
cells must "e poduced to eplace them%
-his is done though mitosis, followed "y gene e&pession%
Healthy cells ha!e thei cell cycle egulated "y poteins that ae poduced "y
diffeent types of genes
D#$ re"air genes ensue that the $1) is accuately copied
2 genes that egulate the cell cycle ae(
%roto&oncogenes: -hese poduce poteins that stimulate di!ision
T'mo'r s'""ressor genes: -hese poduce poteins that stop di!ision
2n healthy cells, these two ae "alanced
2n unhealthy cells(
/utated poto-oncogenes ae called oncogenes and cause uncontolled cell
di!ision +cances,
/utated tumou suppesso genes lose thei a"ility to contol cell di!ision%
-he ate of cell di!ision inceases and uncontolled gowth occus this also
leads to cances%
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
(. )*er +,,, years ago the hinese an! He-re.s .ere a!*ocating
cleanliness in foo!/ .ater an! "ersonal hygiene:
Distinguish between infectious and noninfectious disease:
2nfectious $isease(
Caused "y an in!asion of the "ody "y 3)-H4*51S%
) "athogen is an infectious agent that causes disease
-he disease can "e tansfeed fom one oganism to anothe
3athogens can "e micoscopic o macoscopic
5%g% !iuses +influen.a,, "acteia +tonsillitis,, poto.oans +malaia,, pions
+C6$,, fungi +tinea,%
1on-infectious $isease(
2n!ol!es no pathogens
-hee is no tansfe of the disease fom one oganism to anothe
0nherite! +genetic, disease( $owns Syndome, haemophilia
#'tritional disease( scu!y, "ei"ei, 0washio0o
1n*ironmental disease( s0in cance, as"estosis
!xplain why cleanliness in food, water and personal hygiene practices
assist in control of disease:
"leanliness in #ood:
Contaminated food is a souce of pathogens +such as salmonella,, and can
!ey eadily spead diseases
But mico"es in food only "ecome a health is0 when they ae allowed to
multiply and each lage num"es
/oden methods to educe the num"es of mico"es in food include(
Heating( 5%g% coo0ing food to 0ill mico"es, pasteuisation
Cooling( 7efigeation of foods slows down the gowth of mico"es
$ying: $ehydating foods, such as fuit o !egeta"les, and smo0ing meat,
0ills mico"es, ma0ing them last longe
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
)ll these methods ae used to educe the num"e of mico"es and to contol
the spead of disease
"leanliness in $ater:
8ac0 of clean wate, such as in de!eloping counties with no wate
puification o sewage systems, is a lage facto in speading disease%
-he ma#o cause of disease ae the pathogens that oiginate fom faeces
9ate will always contain mico"es, "ut educing the num"es though
teatment contols the spead of disease
-eatment of wate, in pocesses such chloination, educes the is0 of disease
%ersonal &ygiene(
3esonal hygiene is the pocess of 0eeping ou "odies clean in ode to
maintain health%
Sanitation efes to the maintenance of conditions that pomote health,
including emo!al of wastes
7educing pathogen num"es in moden times in!ol!es(
Steili.ation( -his is the complete emo!al of all taces of mico"es% -his
is e'uied in situations whee pathogens ae paticulaly dangeous, eg
sugical ooms%
$isinfecting( -his in!ol!es educing mico"es to a safe le!el, such as
washing clothes o dishes with disinfectant%
'dentify the conditions under which an organism is described as a
4ganisms ae called pathogens when they cause disease%
2f an pathogen is to cause disease, it must(
Ha!e virulence( that is, "e pesent in sufficient num"es to cause the disease
5nte the host though a cetain pat of the "ody o su!i!e on the "ody
without "eing destoyed "y the "odys natual defences
5scape fom one host to anothe
Su!i!e tansmission fom one host to anothe
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
Describe ways in which drinking water can be treated and use available
evidence to explain how these methods reduce the risk of infection from
9ates fom lage undistu"ed catchment aeas need little teatment, as the
pocess of sedimentation ta0es place natually +li0e in a dam,
Howe!e, wate fom i!es that lead fom industial sites, fams, o waste aeas
e'uies e&tensi!e teatment%
-he teatment of wate usually has : stages%
3imay -eatment(
Screening out lage de"is using "as and sceens
Degritting the emo!al of lage git paticles
2locc'lation mi&ing of the wate with chemicals to fom suspended
paticles that contain many microbes
Se!imentation of suspended microbefull paticles to the "ottom of tan0s
Sl'!ge "rocessing collection and pocessing of sediment fom tan0s
Seconday -eatment(
2iltration this emo!es nealy all the emaining mico"es and othe paticles
"y passing the wate though sand "eds o chacoal%
-etiay -eatment(
hlorination adding chloine to the wate 0ills of the emaining hamful
4the chemicals ae added hee, such as fluoides, depending on the location
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
+. D'ring the secon! half of the nineteenth cent'ry/ the .or3 of %aste'r
an! 4och an! other scientists stim'late! the search for micro-es as the
ca'se of !isease:
Describe the contribution of %asteur and (och to our understanding of
infectious diseases:
Until the mid ;<
Centuy people thought that li!ing things wee poduced "y
spontaneous geneation( that they came into e&istence diectly fom non-li!ing
=o e&ample, the )ncient *ee0s thought that ats came fom ga"age
5o'is %aste'r 617(8 17989:
3asteu disco!eed that infectious diseases ae caused "y mico-oganisms
-his is 0nown as his *em -heoy of $isease
3asteus 5&peiment(
He sought to dispo!e the theoy of spontaneous geneation
He hypothesised that mico"es wee in the ai e!eywhee, and food spoils
when these mico"es land thee and "ecome acti!e
3asteu poued nutient "oth into 2 identical swan-nec0ed flas0s, and
"oiled "oth of them to 0ill off all mico"es
-hen he "o0e one of the nec0s and left "oth flas0s out in the open ai
)s he pedicted, the flas0 with the "oth open to the ai de!eloped cloudy
"acteial gowths, while the flas0 with the swan-nec0 stayed clea
-his po!ed that the mico"es that spoil food come fom the ai, and
dispo!ed spontaneous geneation%
3asteus 9o0 with )ntha& and >accination(
3asteu demonstated that antha& was caused "y a od-shaped "acteium
He de!eloped a wea0ened stain of the "acteium, and using this, poduced
the fist !accine%
He too0 ?@ sheep, and inoculated 2? of them with the wea0ened stain%
)fte they eco!eed, he in#ected all the sheep with the nomal antha&
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
-he 2? that wee inoculated su!i!ed, while the othe 2? died
3asteu and =ementation(
3asteu e&amined samples of fementing wines unde the micoscope
He o"se!ed A5)S-S, which wee con!eting the sugas to alcohol
He also o"se!ed B)C-572), which wee con!eting sugas to lactic
-he "acteia wee also o"se!ed in sou mil0 and wee the cause of food
3asteu showed that heating the wine o mil0 to ??BC fo a few minutes
0ills the mico"es that spoil them% -his pocess is called pasteuisation
:o-ert 4och 6174+ 191,9:
Coch also studied the antha& disease
)ntha& is a "acteial disease that affects "oth sheep and humans
-he pocess of his in!estigation was(
;% He o"tained infected matte fom a sheep suffeing fom antha&
2% He placed it on a slide, o"se!ed it unde a micoscope and saw acti!e od-
shaped cells and inacti!e, domant spoes
:% He esta"lished that the "lood of animals with the disease always contained
these mico-oganisms, while the "lood of healthy animals did not
D% He found that if "lood fom an infected animal was in#ected into a healthy
animal, it would cause disease%
?% He gew cultues of the od-shaped "acteia to infect mice they
de!eloped the disease% -his po!ed that it was the "acteia, and not any
othe "lood component that caused disease%
Cochs 3ostulates +fo esta"lishing a cetain mico"e causes a disease,(
-he mico-oganism must "e pesent in e!ey oganism with the disease
-he mico-oganism must "e isolated fom the host and cultued
) potential host, when inoculated with the cultued mico-oganism, must
de!elop the same symptoms as the oiginal host
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
-he mico-oganism must "e a"le to "e isolated fom the second host and
"e identified as the same species as the oiginal cultue%
Distinguish between prions, viruses, bacteria, proto)oans, fungi and macro
parasites and name one example of a disease caused by each type of
-hey ae non-cellula infectious agents that cause disease in mammals
)e a"nomal poteins that ae alteed fom nomal shape +no $1) o 71),
-hey can also con!et nomal poteins to a"nomal poteins
Can "e passed fom one animal to anothe +usually "y "ain o spinal tissue,
5*( Bo!ine spongifom encephalopathy, Ceut.feld 6aco"s disease%
1on-cellula pathogens, simply a potein coat aound genetic mateial
)e found in eu0ayotic and pocayotic cells
Can only epoduce inside othe cells +host cells,, 0illing them%
1o cue fo !ial diseases !accinations can educe pe!alence
5*( )2$S, smallpo&, influen.a
Unicellula, pocayotic cells% Cell wall suounding cell%
1o mem"ane "ound oganelles
4nly some ae pathogenic and cause diseaseE many ae useful
/ost li!e feely, "ut some ae paasites
5*( -etanus, pneumonia, antha&
Unicellula eucayotic, animal-li0e oganismsE no cell wall
=ee-li!ing, o paasitic%
5*( Sleeping sic0ness, giadiasis, amoe"ic dysentey
5ucayotic oganismsE ha!e a cell wall made of chitin +not cellulose,
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
Some ae unicellula +eg yeast,, most ae multicellula
-hey play an impotant ole in decomposition of oganic molecules, togethe
with "acteia
5*( 7ingwom, tinea
8age disease causing oganisms that can "e seen with the na0ed eye
5&tenal paasites ae called ectopaasites, intenal ae called endopaasites
5*( 7ingwom, tic0s, fleas, oundwoms
'dentify the role of antibiotics in the management of infectious diseases:
)nti"iotics ae su"stances that ae capa"le of destoying o inhi"iting the gowth
of "acteia that cause disease%
-hey ae chemicals that act selecti!elyE they attac0 the "acteia "ut not the host
)nti"iotics wo0 at the cellula le!elE they destoy the cells of the "acteia
Howad =loey and )le&ande =leming disco!eed the fist anti"iotic( penicillin
Some anti"iotics affect the stuctue of the "acteia penicillin destoys cell walls
and amphoteicin destoys cell mem"anes
Boad-spectum anti"iotics affect a wide ange of "acteia, naow-spectum act
on only one o two%
*race the historical development of our understanding of the cause and
prevention of malaria:
D BC( *ee0s thought that the symptoms of malaia wee caused "y eithe
"eathing in mash !apous o "ites of insects that li!e in mashes
;GG@( 5a*eran o"se!ed mico-oganisms in fesh "lood fom malaial patients
and suggested that malaia was caused "y this mico-oganisms
;GG6( Golgi o"se!ed ase&ual epoduction of mico"e in "lood of patients
;G<D( 3atic0 Manson poposed that malaia is tansmitted "y mos'uitoes
;G<G( Grassi disco!eed that malaia was tansmitted "y the +nopheles mos'uito%
;G<H-;G<<( :onal! :oss esta"lished that the poto.oan 3lasmodium was the
cause of malaia, winning the 1o"el 3i.e%
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
5aly 2@
( -eatments of malaia wee de!eloped, including anti-malaial dugs
such as 'uinine% 5ffots to stop the spead of malaia include using $$- to 0ill the
disease !ecto the mos'uito%
-oday( 7esistance to 'uinine and othe dugs "y the 3lasmodium, as well as $$-
esistance "y the mos'uitoes has "ecome a po"lem% $e!elopment of a malaial
!accine is the main diection eseach is going%
Describe one named infectious disease in terms of its: ,- "ause .-
*ransmission /- &ost 0esponse 1- 2a3or 4ymptoms 5- *reatment 6-
%revention 7- "ontrol:
Disease: /alaia
a'se: D species of the poto.oan, %lasmodium
Transmission: -he +nopheles mos'uitoes ae the hosts that tansmit the disease
to humans duing the "lood-suc0ing pocess%
Sym"toms: -he diffeent stages in the life cycle of the poto.oan cause the
diffeent symptoms of the disease(
9hen the pathogen fist entes the "lood, it ta!els to the 82>57 C588S,
whee it hides fom the immune system% -hee, it multiplies apidly, poducing
do.ens of cells called meo.oites
-he meo.oites then ta!el "ac0 into the "lood, whee they infect 75$
B844$ C588S, again, multiplying ase&ually poducing many cells%
-he meo.oites "ust out of the ed "lood cells e!ey DG-H2 hous, and as they
elease to&ins in this pocess, this causes the symptoms%
-he to&ins cause ecuing attac0s of shi!eing, fe!e, headaches, nausea,
sweating and lethagy% -he destuction of many ed "lood cells causes
Host :es"onse: )t each stage of the paasites life cycle, it poduces a diffeent
set of antigens +they stimulate the immune esponse,% -he host poduces
anti"odies to fight the pathogens, "ut the antigens continually change, so the
immune esponse is not effecti!e% -he meo.oites in the li!e escape detection
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
Treatment: 1atual esistance can de!elop, "ut only !ey slowly% -eatment of
suffees includes using anti-malaial dugs such as 'uinine +effecti!e against
paasites in ed "lood cells,, and pima'uine phosphate +wo0s in "oth "lood and
li!e cells,% Some stains of plasmodium ae esistant howe!e%
%re*ention: 3otecti!e clothing, insect epellent, mos'uito nets%
ontrol: )ims to 0eep incidence of disease to a minimum in population% $ugs to
destoy !ecto, and paasite% $estoying !ectos ha"itat% >accines against
plasmodium% *enetic engineeing of mos'uitoes to esist paasite%
Discuss problems relating to antibiotic resistance ICase StudyJ(
2 Stains of dug-esistant "acteia(
4treptococcus %neumonia and 4taphylococcus +ureus8
-hey cause meningitis and pneumonia
-hey cannot "e teated with common anti"ioticsE they ae esistant
4ne stain of 48 +ureus has added a new gene, ena"ling it to spead though s0in
contact and e!en infect healthy people%
-he supe-"ugs ae moe common o!eseas than in )ustalia
-hey ae "lamed fo thousands of meningitis and othe infections e!ey yea%
3esent tends suggest that "y mid 2@@D, a"out D@K of 48 %neumonia "acteium
will "e esistant to the two most common anti"iotics +penicillin and
-o o!ecome these po"lems, steps must "e ta0en to limit the use of anti"iotics as
the geate the use, the geate the is0 of a mutation gi!ing "acteia esistance%
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
4. )ften .e recognise an infection -y the sym"toms it ca'ses. The imm'ne
res"onse is not so o-*io's 'ntil .e reco*er:
'dentify defence barriers to prevent entry of pathogens in humans such as
skin, mucous membranes, cilia, chemical barriers, and other bodily
=27S- 8215 4= $5=51C5
3esent fom "ith%
-hese physical "aies, e%g% s0in, potect the "ody at possi"le enty points
-he potection po!ided is non-specific it potects against all mico"es
=oms a tough oute "aie that suounds the "ody
4ute layes contain C57)-21, which mico"es cannot penetate, unless the
s0in is "o0en e%g% a cut
S0in has its own population of hamless "acteia% -hese 0eep the num"es of
in!ading pathogens low stops them multiplying +competition,
Se"aceous glands +oil glands, secete se"um +oil,% -he lipids in the se"um ae
"o0en down "y the s0ins "acteia into acids which inhi"it "acteial and
fungal gowth
2f the s0in is "o0en, a seal +clot, is 'uic0ly fomed "y the "lood-clotting
mechanism to pe!ent pathogen enty%
M'co's Mem-ranes:
-he digesti!e, espiatoy, epoducti!e and uinay tacts ae lined with thic0
mucus it is stic0y and taps dust paticles and pathogens%
/ucus also contains an anti"ody 2g) which eacts with potential pathogens
=luids such as sali!a, teas and nasal secetions wash o!e mucus mem"anes
and contain lyso)yme this "ea0s down "acteia cell walls%
Cilia ae minute hais that po#ect fom cells lining the nose, tachea and
"onchial tu"es
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
Cilia "eat and sweep mucus +containing dust and pathogens, towads the nose
o thoat opening whee it is coughed out o swallowed
hemical Barriers:
-hese ceate conditions which ma0es the sufaces inhospita"le fo the
potential pathogens%
5%*% 2n the digesti!e system(
-he acidic en!ionment in the stomach
-he al0aline en!ionment in the small intestine
)ther Bo!ily Secretions:
3opulations of hamless "acteia in the !agina act on dead "ody cells to ceate
acidic conditions these pe!ent "acteial and fungal gowth
Uine is steile and acidic it flushes out the uetes, "ladde and uetha,
pe!enting mico"ial gowth%
'dentify antigens as molecules that trigger the immune response:
)n antigen is a molecule that tigges the immune esponse
/oe specifically, antigens cause the fomations of anti"odies%
)ntigen )1-2"ody-*51eating su"stance
2t may "e pat of a pathogen o e!en a to&ic molecule
1.G. -he glyco-potein spi0es on the suface of the influen.a !ius act as
antigens, tiggeing the immune esponse% -he !enom of poisonous sna0es also
contains antigens%
!xplain why organ transplants trigger an immune response:
)ll an indi!iduals cells ae ecognised "y the immune system as "elonging to the
"ody the "ody ecognises it as self
)ny othe su"stances ae ecognised as non-self foeign%
) tansplanted ogan contains su"stances which the immune system ecognises as
"eing foeign% -hese su"stance acts as )1-2*51S%
-his stimulates the "ody to ma0e anti"odies and othe su"stances which attac0
and can possi"ly destoy the ogan
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
'dentify defence adaptations, including:
'nflammation response:
9ymph system:
"ell death to seal off pathogen:
S5C41$ 8215 4= $5=51C5
-his second line of the immune system is also non-specific +li0e the fist line of
defence,% 2t is pesent fom "ith%
-his means that it will ecognise any antigen and ma0e no distinction "etween
them% -he immune esponse will "e the same egadless of the natue of the
0nflammation :es"onse:
9hen "ody tissue is damaged, whethe physically, o "y mico"es, the
inflammation esponse "egins
2t is chaacteised "y D symptoms pain, edness, heat and swelling
-he in#ued cells elease chemo0ines which stimulate basophils and mast cells
to elease the chemicals H2S-)/215 and 374S-4*8)1$21%
-hese two chemicals cause the "lood !essels aound the aea to dilate and
incease thei pemea"ility
2t has : stages(
;% Blood !essels aound the damaged aea !ilate and incease thei
pemea"ility +due to histamine and postaglandin, this inceases "lood
flow to the aea%
2% -he inceased "lood flow "ings heat and fl'i!s, which ma0e the
en!ionment inhospita"le to the mico"es% )lso, the inceased "lood flow
"ings 3H)*4CA-5S these cells engulf foeign "odies%
:% -issues "egin to epai afte the theat is emo!ed% 1ew tissue is ceated,
with the s0in epaiing fist, to pe!ent moe infectious agents enteing%
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
-he : "eneficial functions of inflammation ae(
2t destoys the cause of infection and emo!es it fom the "ody
2t limits the cause of infection to a small aea
7eplaces o epais tissue damaged "y infection
3hagocytosis is the engulfing and destuction of foeign "odies "y phagocytes
3hagocytes ae white "lood cells +leucocytes, that can engulf foeign "odies
thee ae two 0inds( /)C743H)*5S and 15U-743H28S
3hagocytes can change shape and suound the foeign "odies% )fte it is
engulfed, the foeign "ody is destoyed "y com"ining it with en.ymes%
5ym"h System:
-he lymphatic system is a system of !essels that "egins nea the capillaies,
un paallel to the !eins and e!entually empty into the !eins "efoe they each
the heat%
-he lymph !essels contain a fluid called 8A/3H, which is "lood without ed
"lood cells, platelets and lage plasma poteins
-he !essels collect into lymph nodes these nodes ae stoage stuctues fo
lymphocytes and macophages%
-he lymph system contains ogans which ae !ey impotant in the immune
system, such as the "one maow +whee white "lood cells ae fomed, and
whee B cells matue, and the thymus gland +whee - cells matue,%
ell Death to Seal )ff %athogen:
9hen the "ody is una"le to neutalise an antigen, it seals off the pathogens in
a cyst o within a goup of cells
-hese cells die so the pathogen can no longe su!i!e
-his cluste of cells, also called a ganuloma, is made of a coe of dead tissue,
suounded "y layes of macophages, then lymphocytes, then fi"o"lasts,
which poduce a tough oute wall%
-hese stuctues ae poduced in diseases such as tu"eculosis and leposy
$nti&Micro-ial %roteins I5&taJ(
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
21-5=5741S ae a goup of poteins poduced "y cells in!aded "y !iuses
-hey cause suounding cells to fom thei own anti-!ial chemicals,
pe!enting the spead of the !ius I)cts 418A on !iusesJ%
-he C4/385/51- SAS-5/ is a goup of 2@ poteins that act in a
cascade of eactions to destoy pathogens%
-his means that the fist potein causes the poduction of the second, and the
second the thid, and so on%
-he final potein em"eds itself in the pathogens cell wall +o mem"ane,
causing it to die "y lysis +cell-"usting,%
4how how a named disease results from an imbalance of microflora in
/icofloa ae mico-oganisms that li!e on o in the "ody, and usually do not
cause disease%
-hey ae often pat of the fist line of defence the hamless "acteia that secete
acids to destoy pathogens ae an e&ample%
an!i!iasis, o thush, is a disease caused "y an im"alance in the num"es of
the fungus, Candida al"icans%
-he disease can happen in the mouth, the espiatoy tact, the gastointestinal
tact, and the female epoducti!e tact%
-he fungus is usually 0ept in chec0 fom competition fom othe mico"es such as
"acteia li!ing in the same aea
-he ta0ing of cetain medications, such as wide-spectum anti"iotics +which can
0ill "eneficial "acteia, , o contacepti!e pills, can upset the "alance of
micofloa in the "ody, which can esult in a incease in the num"es of the
Candida fungus, leading to thush%
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
8. Mac2arlane B'rnet;s .or3 in the mi!!le of the t.entieth cent'ry
contri-'te! to a -etter 'n!erstan!ing of the imm'ne res"onse an! the
effecti*eness of imm'nisation "rograms:
'dentify the components of the immune response:
: "ells:
* "ells:
-H27$ 8215 4= $5=51C5
-his is ac;uired immunity o specific immunity +-he specific immune esponse,
-his immunity is 14- pesent at "ith it is gained though e&posue to infection
-he specific immune esponse acts only against s"ecific mico"es o su"stances
-hat is, it only acts against cetain antigens
2t has a /5/47A( this means that the cells can ecognise antigens fom pe!ious
infections, and so can act faste and moe efficiently in the second e&posue%
)e poduced "y the "ody in esponse to the pesence of specific antigens
-hey ae made "y 38)S/) B-C588S
-hey ae made of poteins called 2//U14*84BU821 in a A shape%
)nti"odies ciculate in "lood +in the plasma, and com"ine with antigens to
destoy them%
)ll anti"odies ha!e 2 L"inding sitesM these "ind to the antigens%
)nti"odies inacti!ateNdestoy antigens in D ways(
1eutalisation( -hey can stic0 to the "inding sites of !iuses, o disa"le
"acteial to&ins "y coating them% -hese ae then engulfed "y phagocytes%
)gglutination( )nti"odies clump togethe solid antigens such as "acteia,
com"ining many "acteia into a solid mass% -his mass is then engulfed%
3ecipitation( Solu"le antigens ae stuc0 togethe "y multiple anti"odies,
and ae pecipitated out of the solute +plasma,% 3hagocytosis follow%
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
Complement )cti!ation( -he anti"odies can stic0 to the sufaces of
"acteial cells, acting as tags fo destuction "y complement poteins%
)e a type of 8A/3H4CA-5%
8ymphocytes ae white-"lood cells that act only against specific antigens
B-Cells ae lymphocytes that matued in the "one maow
B-Cell Bone maow
-hese cells contol the specific immune esponse only in the B844$
-hus, B-Cells gi!e h'moral +"lood, o anti-o!y&me!iate! immunity
B-Cells usually ae found inacti!ated in the "lood and lymph, "ut ae acti!ated
"y the pesence of antigens
-hee is only 415 B-Cell fo 415 antigen%
4nce this 415 B-Cell is acti!ated, it clones itself, and then diffeentiates into(
%lasma B&ells( -hese cells ceate the anti"odies% )fte the infection is
gone, these cells e!entually die off%
Memory B-ells( -hese cells ae fomed in small num"es in the oiginal
infection, "ut do not die off% -hey stay "ehind to ecognise the antigen if it
appeas again, hence ha!ing memoy%
B-Cells wo0 mainly in the "lood and intestitial fluids%
)e also lymphocytes +-he - and B-Cells ae the only lymphocytes,
--Cells ae lymphocytes that matue in the thymus gland
T-Cell Thymus gland
-hese cells contol the specific immune esponse in infected C588S
-hus, --Cells po!ide cell&me!iate! immunity%
)fte the --Cells ae acti!ated "y antigens, they diffeentiate into D types,
which ae e&plained in moe detail lateO
Hel"er T&ells( -hese cells ae fo acti!ating cytoto&ic +0ille, --Cells
and the B-Cells I-his will "e e&plained lateOJ
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
ytoto<ic 64iller9 T-ells( -hese cells attach to infected cells and
poduce chemicals which destoy to pathogens
Memory T-ells( 7emain in the "ody and gi!e long tem immunity%
S'""ressor T-ells( -hey suppess the num"es of B and --cells%
Describe and explain the immune response in the human body in terms of:
'nteraction between : and * lymphocytes:
*he mechanisms which allow interaction between : and *
*he range of * lymphocyte types and the difference in their
2nteactions Between B and --Cells(
=istly, the antigen ta!els in the "lood until it is engulfed "y a macro"hage
-he macophage then "ecomes an antigen&"resenting cell & it displays the
antigen it has engulfed on its suface%
-he macophage then alets the immune system to the pesence of lage
num"es of antigens in the "ody "y presenting the antigen to a Hel"er T&ell%
-he Helpe --Cells then poduce the chemical 21-5785UC21, which
stimulates - and B-Cells to diffeentiate into thei diffeent types
14-5( -he B and --Cells can "e acti!ated eithe "y Helpe --Cells, li0e
a"o!e, o acti!ated directly "y antigens% Both pocesses ha!e the same esult(
-he --Cells ae also acti!ated "y infected cells displaying the antigens
-he B-Cells ae also acti!ated "y free antigens in the "lood%
-he --Cells diffeentiate into 4iller 6cytoto<ic9 T&ells, Memory T&ells and
S'""ressor T&ells%
-he B-Cells diffeentiate into %lasma B&ells and Memory B&ells
-he 3lasma B-Cells then destoy the antigen "y seceting anti"odies, and the
Cytoto&ic --Cells also destoy the antigen in ways desci"ed lateO
-he /echanisms of 2nteaction(
lonal Selection:
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
-his is the wo0 of /ac=alane Bunett
Befoe an antigen entes the "ody, thee ae aleady many types of
lymphocytes in the "ody
-he enty of an antigen causes the selection of only 415 of the types of
lymphocyte the one that has the "inding site which matches the antigen
-his esults in this lymphocyte cloning itself into lage num"es of this
same lymphocyte, so it poduces the anti"ody that matches the antigen
-his selection means that all the lymphocytes that ae poduced in the
esponse +all the - and B Cells, ae all specific 418A to that antigen
-his means that, fo e&ample, the Cytoto&ic --Cells fo influen.a "acteia
cannot 0ill the pneumonia "acteia
/acophages engulf and 0ill all foeign cells lymphocytes only act
against the antigens that they specifically match%
yto3ines an! 0nterle'3ins(
Cyto0ines ae a goup of S2*1)8821* C4/34U1$S made of poteins
o polysacchaides that ae used fo communication "etween cells
-hey coodinate the functions of cells so that they can act togethe as a
whole, such as in the immune esponse
2nteleu0ins ae a type of cyto0ine that ae seceted "y Helpe --Cells and
the macophages
9hen these cells secete inteleu0ins, they ae signalling, o stimulating,
the othe cells to diffeentiate, in esponse to an antigen such as a B-Cell
changing into a 3lasma B-Cell
-his is the main mechanism that is used fo intecellula inteaction
-ypes of --Cells(
Hel"er T&ells( -hese cells stimulate the B-Cells and --Cells to diffeentiate
into thei diffeent foms% -hey ecei!e the antigen fom macophages and
only stimulate the B and --Cells with the same antigen-"inding sites%
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
ytoto<ic T&ells( ) type of lymphocyte whose main function is to ecognise
and 0ill "ody cells that ae infected "y pathogens% -hey only wo0 against
infected cells, not diectly against pathogens% How they wo0(
-hey ae poduced in esponse to Helpe --Cells, o fee antigens
2nfected "ody cells display the antigen of the pathogen within them using
MH 0 ma0es on thei suface% -hese /HC 2 molecules hold the antigen
and pesent it to the Cytoto&ic --Cells%
-he Cytoto&ic --Cell has eceptos which then "ind to the antigen
2t then eleases a chemical called 357=4721 this pefoates o ma0es
holes in the cell mem"ane of the infected cell%
-he "ody cell lyses wate apidly entes "y osmosis and it "usts
-he infected "ody cell is 0illed, togethe with the mico"e inside it%
Memory T&ells( -hese cells ae poduced duing the time of infection, li0e
all the othe lymphocytes, "ut they emain domant and su!i!e fo many
yeas afte the antigen is gone% -hei function is to ecognise the antigen
apidly if it eappeas in a second e&posue and to po!ide a 'uic0 and
enhanced esponse this is why in a second e&posue, the symptoms
disappea much faste, o aent e&peienced at all%
S'""ressor T-ells( -hese ae poduced only fo a shot while% -hese cells
secete chemicals to suppess the actions of B and --Cells afte the immune
esponse has ended%
Outline the way in which vaccinations prevent infection:
>accination +o immunisation, is the pocess of ma0ing people esistant to
infection caused "y a pathogen
2t in!ol!es gi!ing people an in#ection o oal dose of a !accine
>accines can "e(
8i!e !iuses
Cilled o wea0ened pathogens
)ttenuated +hamless, stains of a pathogen
2nacti!ated to&ins
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
)nti"odies fom "lood of la"oatoy animals
-hese !accines ae in#ected into the "ody with the intention of po!iding
immunity to the disease without gi!ing the symptoms
>accines can gi!e eithe )C-2>5 o 3)SS2>5 immunity(
$cti*e 0mm'nity: -his is gained though in#ecting the antigen of the
pathogen in the !accine% -his stimulates the whole immune esponse,
including anti"odies and - and B /emoy Cells that ae specific to that
antigen, without the symptoms of the infection% -he poduction of memoy
cells has 2 implications(
2f the pathogen does ente the !accinated indi!idual, the memoy cells
initiates a 'uic0 immune esponse, so the indi!idual does not e&peience
an infection%
2t po!ides long-tem potection, as memoy cells last a long time%
5%*% /easles !accine
%assi*e 0mm'nity( -his in!ol!es the in#ection of anti"odies staight into the
indi!idual, in esponse to infection "y a pathogen% -he anti"odies come fom
othe oganisms(
2t "y-passes the whole immune esponse immediate potection
*i!es potection fom diseases the "ody has ne!e "een infected "y
1o memoy cells poduced% -his means potection is only shot-tem
2t may "ing the is0 of a eaction against foeign "lood poteins
5%*% -etanus seum
Outline the reasons for the suppression of the immune response in organ
transplant patients:
) tansplanted ogan is ecognised as foeign tissue "y the immune system
SU3375SS241 of the immune system is needed to pe!ent the "ody fom
re=ecting the ogan
9ithout suppession, the immune system would ceate anti"odies and cytoto&ic --
Cells to ty and destoy the ogan%
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
-he chances of e#ection is educed "y matching the tansplant ogan tissue with
the tissue of the patient, and "y po!iding immunosuppession dugs%
-he dange of this theapy is the ina"ility of the patient to fight off any infections,
since the immune system is suppessed% -he "enefits of immunosuppession has
to "e "alanced against the change of life theatening infection%
!valuate the effectiveness of vaccination programs in preventing the spread
and occurrence of once common diseases, including smallpox, diphtheria
and polio:
a'se an! Sym"toms:
Caused "y the smallpo& !ius
2t entes though the thoat and lungs, then undegoes a ;2-day incu"ation
Symptoms of the disease includes o"!ious !esicles on the s0in, headaches,
"ac0aches and fe!e
=ist appeaed in )sia o )fica aound ;@@@@ BC
Spead aound the wold "y e&ploes, tades and cusades
7esponsi"le fo ; in ;@ of all deaths in 5uope in the ;<
7eached )ustalia in ;HG<, with ealy 5uopean settles, and had a
de!astating effect on )"oiginal communities
>accination %rograms:
5dwad 6enne pefomed the fist smallpo& !accination "y inoculating
people with cowpo&
-he !accine was used "y the 9H4 on a glo"al scale in ;<6H
-he 9H4 outinely immunised people with the !accine, po!ided
supplementay !accinations and caefully supe!ised aeas with the
potential fo infections
2n ;<G@, the 9H4 announced the wold fee of smallpo&
1*al'ation of 1ffecti*eness(
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
Since the !accination pogams esulted in the complete eadication of the
disease fom the planet, it can "e said that the pogams wee e&temely
a'ses an! Sym"toms:
2t is a "acteial infection that is spead though the ai into espiatoy
sufaces, o "y close physical contact
2t gi!es thoat infections, which esults in "eathing difficulties and death
;@@ yeas ago, ?@K of all those infected with diphtheia would die
8age epidemics occued in 5uope afte 9922
-hee ha!e "een ecent out"ea0s in )lgeia and China
>accination %rograms:
2n ;<2:, a !accine was eleased
2n ;<HD the 9H4 "egan to e&pand its immunisation pogam glo"ally
2n ;<<@, the woldwide immunity ate was G@K
1*al'ation of 1ffecti*eness:
-he !accination pogam educed the spead of the disease fom cyclic
academics to occasional "ea0outs of low density
5!en though the ate of immunity is high, the disease is still pesent in
de!eloping counties and has not yet "een eadicated
a'ses an! Sym"toms:
3olio is the attac0 "y polio !iuses on the moto neuones of the spinal
chod and the "ain
Symptoms include high fe!e, "ac0 pains, muscle spasms and paalysis
$isease e&isted in )ncient 5gypt and 0illed hundeds and thousands of
people in the ;<
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
-he ate of polio "egan to fall in the 2@
>accination %rograms:
-he !accination was fist intoduced in ;<??
2n the ;<6@s an oal fom of the !accine was intoduced and the polio
disease was "ought unde contol
2n ;<GG the 9H4 "egan an immunisation campaign
-he num"e of cases dopped "y G@K in ;<<@
1*al'ation of 1ffecti*eness:
$espite widespead success in polio contol, thee ae still small "ea0outs
in aound H@ counties%
3olio infection ates ha!e "een successfully contolled Q educed "y G@K
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
?. 1"i!emiological st'!ies in*ol*e the collection an! caref'l statistical
analysis of large @'antities of !ata. S'ch st'!ies assist the ca'sal
i!entification of non&infectio's !iseases:
'dentify and describe the main features of epidemiology using lung cancer
as an example:
1"i!emiology is the study of the factos that influence the incidence, disti"ution,
and contol of diseases within a population
=eatues of an epidemiological study that help po!e the cause of disease(
-hough analysis of statistics, it must demonstate a significant lin0 "etween
the cause and the disease
-hee has to "e a chonological ode of e!entsE that is, the cause must come
"efoe the disease
-he study must "e done on a lage ange of su"#ects, in tems of age, se&, ace,
occupation, socioeconomic status, and geogaphical position
-he esults should pesist o!e time
-he cause-and-effect elationship should "e independent of othe factos
-he geate the e&posue to the cause, the geate the incidence should "e of
specific disease
-he study should "e epeata"le "y othe in!estigatos at different time, and
diffeent placesR using different methods8
-hee ae thee types of epidemiological studies(
$escipti!e( -hese studies in!estigate(
-he fe'uency of the disease
-he pat of the population affected e%g% age, gende, occupation, etc
-he location and time peiod of those affected
)nalytical( -hese focus on finding a ca'se an! effect elationship in the
occuence of the disease(
-hese studies loo0 at factos that peceded the epidemics
-hey loo0 at control groups simila indi!iduals without the disease
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
-hey e&amine factos that affect the is0 of contacting the disease
5&peimental( -hese ae used to test the effecti!eness of a paticula
teatment, such as clinical tials of a new dug%
-he epidemiological studies concening lung cance ae a good e&ample the
studies ange o!e many decades, stating fom the ;<?@s, when le!els of lung
cance fist "egan to "ecome noticea"le%
-he people su!eyed in the studies came fom a wide ange of ages, fom 992
!eteans who had stated smo0ing "ecause they wee gi!en fee cigaettes to the
wa!e of women who had "egun to ta0e up smo0ing in the ;<H@s%
-he studies ha!e shown that thee is a stong coelation "etween smo0ing and
lung cance%
'dentify causes of noninfectious disease using an example from each of the
following categories:
'nherited diseases
<utritional diseases
!nvironmental diseases
1on-infectious diseases ae not caused "y pathogens
-hey ae not tansmitted fom one oganism to anothe
0nherite! Diseases:
-hese diseases ae caused "y gene and chomosome a"nomalities
-hey ae tansmitted "y epoduction
-hey can "e mino disodes, such as myopia o seious such as haemophilia
5%*% $own Syndome is an inheited disease that is caused "y the inheitance
of once e&ta chomosome +tisomy 2;,% 3eople with $own syndome ha!e a
chaacteistic appeaance and may ha!e a shotened life span% /othes who
ha!e childen late in life ae moe pone to poduce $own syndome childen%
#'tritional Diseases:
-hese ae caused "y incoect o insufficient diets
2t can "e o!e-eating +o"esity, o unde-nouishment +anoe&ia,
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
5%*% Scu!y -his disease is caused "y the lac0 of !itamin C in the diet% 2t
causes swelling of "ody pats and teeth stat to fall out%
1n*ironmental Disease:
/any factos in the en!ionment can cause disease
-hey include adiation, hea!y metals, pollution, etc
5%*% )sthma this disease is whee the muscles in the aiways contact and
can cause se!ee "eathing difficulties% Causes include pollution, pollen, dust
stoms, humidity, and many othe en!ionmental factos%
'dentify the cause and effect relationship of smoking and lung cancer:
) case study( 8U1* C)1C57(
Definition( Uncontolled gowth of tumous in the lungs
a'ses( -hee is a o"!ious lin0 "etween smo0ing and lung cance% -o"acco
smo0e contains many cacinogens such as "en.ene%
1ffect( )s the tumou gows, the ai sacs in the lungs ae destoyed and
"eathing "ecomes difficult% -he lungs collapse and a"scess and the patient
may "egin coughing up "lood% -he cance can metastasise +spead, to othe
!ital ogans and cause death%
Statistical 0nformation(
/ass poduction of cigaettes "egan in ;GG@ fee cigaettes wee gi!en
to 992 soldies
2n the ;<:@s thee was a sudden lung cance epidemic
-he fist epidemiological studies which showed a elationship "etween
smo0ing and lung cance wee in the ;<?@s, "ut they did not ha!e
conclusi!e esults they #ust showed a educed li!e e&pectancy
2n ;<6D the Sugeons *eneal )d!isoy Committee concluded that
cigaette smo0ing was a cause of lung cance%
2n the ;<H@s, as the num"es of female smo0es "egan to incease, lung
cance "ecame the num"e one cause of cance death%
Studies ha!e shown a coelation "etween the num"e of cigaettes
smo0ed each day and the is0 of contacting lung cance at an ealie stage
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
)lso, a gadual decease in the num"es of people smo0ing in the past 2@
yeas has "een mioed "y a decease in suffees of lung cance
+nalyse and present information about the occurrence, symptoms, cause,
treatment=management if a named noninfectious disease:
Disease: $own syndome
a'se: -isomy - it is a genetic disease that is caused "y the pesence of an e&ta
chomosome in the 2;
Sym"toms: 8owe than a!eage mental a"ility, almond shaped eyes, shote
lim"s, speech impaiment, enlaged tongue and a high is0 of heat failue
)cc'rrence: )ppo&imately ; pe H:: li!e "iths
Childen with $own syndome will need special cae in many aeas of life,
including eating, washing and geneal hygiene
-he educed mental capacity, a symptom of the disease, may "e a limiting
facto on the de!elopment on the indi!idual in espect to social de!elopment,
schooling and the wo0foce
)n impotant issue is the physical health of the patient with the disode(
3hysiotheapy may "e needed, as childen "on with $own syndome ha!e
wea0ened muscles, and shote ams and legs
-he inceased is0 of se!eal diseases, most nota"ly cadio!ascula failue,
is an impotant issue that must "e managed with $own syndome patients%
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
B. 0ncrease! 'n!erstan!ing has lea! to a .i!e range of strategies to
"re*ent an! control !isease:
Discuss the role of ;uarantine in preventing the spread of disease and
plants and animals into +ustralia or across regions of +ustralia:
C'arantine is the contolling of the impot o e&pot of animals, plants, and othe
poducts fo the pupose of contolling the spead of disease
-he 7ole of Suaantine(
3otects the health of the human, animal and plant populations of )ustalia
3e!ents the enty of foreign "ests and contagio's !iseases into )ustalia
Suaantine laws pe!ent the enty of items consideed a is0
2mpotant animals face a time in isolation to ensue no disease is pesent%
8i!ing plants ae also 'uaantined to ma0e sue they ae not caying pests o
suffeing fom any infectious disease
3lant seeds ae e&amined to chec0 that no weed seeds ae pesent
Used !ehicles and agicultual machiney ae inspected and cleaned to ensue
no soilNplant matte entes the county
!valuate the effectiveness of ;uarantine in preventing the spread of plant
and animal diseases into +ustralia or across regions of +ustralia:
Because of )ustalias stict 'uaantine laws, )ustalian plants and animals !o not
ha*e some of the seious disease found in othe counties, such as foot and mouth
disease, mad cow disease and a"ies
5%*% )nimal disease that has not enteed )ustalia 2oot an! mo'th !isease(
) highly contagious muscle-wasting disease of clo!en-hoofed animals such as
cows, sheep and goat
Symptoms include fe!e, di""ling, lethagy and "listes on mouth, tongue,
lips, hoo!es and feet
2t is caused "y an ai"one !ius it is spead not only "y li!e animals "ut also
"y the cacass, and also in soil and e'uipment%
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
Suaantine egulations has pe!ented the enty of this disease if an out"ea0
did occu, it would cost "illions of dollas in loss%
5%*% 3lant disease that has not enteed )ustalia Sorgh'm !o.ny mil!e.(
-his disease has "een pe!ented fom enteing into )ustalia
Caused "y a fungusE if it was eleased into )ustalia, it would de!astate wheat
and othe cops gown hee
-he fungus inhi"its the plants a"ility to ma0e chloophyll, which esults in the
death of the plant
Suaantine measues include the "anning of enty of any li!e plant mateial,
and the stict e&amination of any seeds "eing "ought in%
5%*% 3e!enting spead of disease acoss egions of )ustalia 2r'it flies
Suaantine measues ha!e "een implemented that fo"id the mo!ement of
fuit acoss state "odes
-hese measues ae in place to contol the spead of fuit flies, which cause
se!ee damage to fuit cops such as "ananas
-hee is the /editeanean fuit fly in 9esten )ustalia, and the Sueensland
fuit fly, in easten )ustalia
-he 1othen -eitoy, South )ustalia and -asmania do not ha!e these pests,
"ecause of 'uaantine measues
4!eall, 'uaantine pactices ha!e "een geatly effecti!e%
$ue to the igoous implementation of 'uaantine pactices, most diseases and
pests ha!e not "een "ought to )ustalia%
!xplain how one of the following strategies has controlled and=or prevented
disease I3esticides chosenJ(
3esticides ae used usually to 0ill the !ectos that cay the disease
)n e&ample is using pesticides to contol the malaia disease
$$- +dichloo-diphenyl-tichlooethane, is the pesticide that was used to 0ill
populations of the )nopheles mos'uito, the !ecto of malaia
2t was !ey effecti!e in the "eginning, and num"es of malaia suffees went
down, "ut then pesticide-esistance educed its efficacy
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
$$- was also used to 0ill lice on the "odies of soldies duing 9922
-he lice caied diseases such as typhus fe!e
-he pesticide pe!ented thousands of deaths
Discuss the changing methods of dealing with plant and animal diseases,
including the shift in emphasis from treatment and control to management
or prevention of disease:
-he incidence of disease has moe commonly "een met with an emphasis on
teatment and contol
/oe ecently howe!e the emphasis has shifted to the impotance and
effecti!eness of pe!enting and managing diseases instead
-hese e&amples illustate this(
Smallpo&( ) widespead disease that 0illed many in the ;G
-eatments wee a!aila"le, "ut wee ineffecti!e many died% 3e!ention came
in the fom of !accinations, and this has contolled the disease fa moe
successfully than any teatments
Cances( -hee ae cuent teatments, such as chemotheapy, adiotheapy,
and sugical emo!als% -hey ae 'uite successful, especially if detected ealy%
Howe!e, they ae not ;@@K successful and can cause physical tauma to the
"ody +scas,% 3e!ention campaigns +pu"lic health campaigns, such as gi!ing
people ad!ice on pope s0in cae +s0in cance, and 'uit-lines fo smo0ing
ha!e educed the num"es of cances%
3lant $iseases( -hese include disease such as fungal oot infections, pests
such as aphids and disease causing oganisms% -he usual teatment is spaying
with pesticides% Howe!e this has had a detimental effect on the en!ionment%
3e!entati!e measues ae used, especially 'uaantine measues, "iological
contol +intoducing species to contol pests, and genetic engineeing
!vidence of pathogens and insect pests on plant leaves and shoots:
%athogens 0nsect %ests
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
- Bacteia cause spots on the suface of the
lea!es +ust on the Ban0sia lea!es,
- =ungal infections ae shown "y da0
gowths on the stems +"lac0 stem ot,
o on the undesides of lea!es%
- 2nsects +a.alea lace-"ugs, feed on the
plant itself, ceating holes and damage%
- 4the insects, such as psyllids, epoduce
on the plants, and lea!e "ehind egg shells
and holes%