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Quests and Heroes:


Teaching Archetypes, Symbolism, and Allegory through Narrative Writing in a 12
th

Grade ELA Classroom
Michael Martell
Wake Forest Teacher Education Program
Evidence #3: Unit Plan
Dr. Alan Brown
Spring 2014









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Table of Contents:
Introduction and Rationale
Assessment Plan
Overview of Pedagogical Strategies
Lesson Plans
References
Appendix A: List of Additional Resources
Appendix B Bridging English Resources & Activities
Appendix C Original Planning Sheet
Appendix E Individual Learner Profiles













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INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE
Subject Area Content
English IV Standard British Literature
Unit Overview and Rationale
This unit, Quests and Heroes: Teaching Archetypes, Symbolism, and Allegory
through Narrative Writing in a 12
th
Grade ELA Classroom, is designed to be taught as
the second unit in the standard-level English IV curriculum. Though the unit can easily
be adapted to include texts from various periods, it currently focuses on Arthurian
romances of the middle ages because the symbolism, allegory, and quest hero archetypes
are so prominent. Many of these Arthurian romance texts can be difficult to teach, even
when the language is modernized and accompanied with explanative notes, because the
distance between our cultural mindset and that of the middle ages can be enough to block
contemporary readers from connecting the stories to their personal experience. After all,
these archetypal heroes and villains often represent a single virtue or vice (e.g., patience,
honor, humility) that a twenty-first century reader may find too one-dimensional.
For this reason, the unit is designed to encourage students to consider, first and
foremost, what it means to be human, then to explore how this humanity may be reflected
in medieval literature through archetypes and symbolism, and finally to create their own
expression of the human experience by writing an original quest narrative that follows
the Heros Journey as outlined by Joseph Campbell in The Hero With a Thousand
Faces. The two major texts for the unit are excerpts from Sir Thomas Malorys Le Morte
dArthur and the alliterative poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (authors name
unknown), but the major goal for the unit is not for students merely to demonstrate their
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comprehension of these two narratives. Rather, the main objective for the unit is that
students apply their understanding of the archetypes, symbolism, and allegory of these
narratives to the task of creating their own narrative as a final project. Ideally, students
engage with the essential questions in the text through personal triggers, enter the text on
a personal level, and then draw on specific romance conventions and narrative techniques
from their reading as they write their original quest narratives. By moving from the role
of reader to writer, the student more actively engages with particular components of a
narrative, such as point of view and characterization, which may serve as important
building blocks for their future reading and writing.
To ensure that the students view the writing process as meaningful, I have chosen
to have students publish their brainstorms, rough drafts, peer-review comments, and final
products on personal blog pages. This electronic forum not only lets students share their
work with an audience larger than just the teacher, but it also allows them to view their
own growth and development throughout the writing process. The comment feature of
Google Blogger as well as the track changes and in-text comments of Microsoft
Word enhance students experience sharing and editing their work with peers. For the
second half of the unit, students work in quest writing groups of 3 or 4 students to
collaborate on brainstorming, editing, and analysis. To encourage students to reflect on
this collaboration, I have made the first of the three components of the summative
assessment a group presentation on the peer-revision experience.
Another advantage of the blog forum is that it enables students to continue
building on their work, even after the unit has ended. In fact, the second and third
components of the summative assessment extend beyond the final lesson of the unit.
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After sharing their peer-edits and completing their group presentations, students revise
their quest narrative independently, make a visual component to compliment this
narrative, and publish both pieces together on a personal blog page. Then, for the final
component of the summative assessment, students write a 1-paged analysis of their own
quest narrative, focusing on the allegorical significance of their heros quest. This
analysis assignment also serves as a formative assessment of the subsequent unit, which
culminates in an analytical research paper.
Enduring Understandings
Given that neither major text of this unit features a single salient theme, I do not
expect students to come away from the unit with a certain picture of what the Heros
Journey represents. In fact, I do not even expect all students to remember specific plot
points from these narratives even a year after reading them. I do hope, however, that the
unit instills a strong understanding of how archetypal characters and situations, though
not always memorable, represent fundamental patterns of human experience that play out
on a day-to-day basis.
I also hope that students finish the unit understanding that no textno quest, no
symbol, no allegorycan be reduced to one single meaning because each reader, in the
process of interpretation, creates meanings that reflect her own unique perspective. As
such, the creative individual projects for the unit are published online so that students
may share their work with peer readers and (just as importantly) learn from their readers
comments. In the act of writing original narratives and interpretations of others
narratives, students themselves become living proof that we as individuals create our own
meaning.
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Standards
NCTE/IRA ELA:
3. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and
appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers
and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification
strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence,
sentence structure, context, graphics).
5. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing
process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of
purposes.
11. Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a
variety of literacy communities.

Common Core Standards, ELA/Literacy Grades 11-12:
Reading Literature:
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to
support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text,
including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.3: Analyze the impact of the author's choices
regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is
set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).
Reading Informational Texts:
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.11-12.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to
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support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text,
including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
Writing:
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined
experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured
event sequences.
A. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or
observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view,
and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of
experiences or events.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time
for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or
two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
Speaking & Listening:
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1: Initiate and participate effectively in a range of
collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners
on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their
own clearly and persuasively.

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st
Century Student Outcomes:
Creativity and Innovation:
- Think Creatively: Use a wide range of idea creation techniques (such as
brainstorming); Elaborate, refine, analyze and evaluate their own ideas in order to
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improve and maximize creative efforts.
- Work Creatively with Others: Be open and responsive to new and diverse
perspectives; incorporate group input and feedback into the work.
Communication and Collaboration:
- Collaborate with Others: Demonstrate ability to work effectively and respectfully
with diverse teams; Assume shared responsibility for collaborative work, and
value the individual contributions made by each team member.
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving:
- Make Judgments and Decisions: Reflect critically on learning experiences and
processes.
Global Awareness:
- Learning from and working collaboratively with individuals representing diverse
cultures, religions and lifestyles in a spirit of mutual respect and open dialogue in
personal, work and community contexts
Class and Learner Profiles
The English IV curriculum, centering on British literature, introduces students to
a long history of linguistic and cultural development. The texts of these units, especially
the pre-modern ones, may seem inaccessible or even irrelevant to us as Americans in the
21
st
century. Thanks to the flexibility granted by the Common Core State Standards,
teachers are not held to teaching specific texts and thus often deemphasize Old and
Middle English texts in favor of more accessible, engaging works (from Shakespeare
onward). This approach, though valid, may deprive students of the chance to explore
essential questions such asHow do languages come into being? and How can
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literature reflect the fundamental values of a culture?which can deepen their
understanding of how any given literary text connects to us as readers. For this reason,
my English IV curriculum begins with these essential questions and continually
encourages students to connect textsranging from Beowulf to Philip Larkin, from
scientific articles to literary criticismto their personal experience.
This unit is designed for a standard-level class but can easily be adapted for an
honors or AP class by increasing the number of core texts (both literary and
informational) and holding students accountable for completing their readings outside of
class.
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Because a number of students in the class have difficulties reading, decoding, or
synthesizing texts, the curriculum is designed for students to complete the majority of
reading in class so that they may benefit from teacher and peer support. A number of
research-based literacy strategies, such as Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) and
drawing visual storyboards for a narrative, are used to promote comprehension,
sequencing, and synthesis of these texts among students of multiple intelligences
(Bremer). Students are expected to work in groups throughout their reading,
brainstorming, editing, and reflecting so that students from diverse backgrounds and
learning styles may benefit from collaboration. The final project also caters to multiple
intelligences and ability levels. Because the task of writing an original quest narrative is

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For an honors or AP class, students would be held accountable for reading the excerpts
of Le Morte dArthur, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Canto I of Dantes Inferno,
and the Bower of Bliss scene of Edmund Spensers Faerie Queene outside of class and
preparing a list of questions for small-group discussions of these texts. Each of these texts
would be supplemented by an informational text that offers a different perspective of the
major themes. For example, students could explore the definition of archetype by
reading excerpts of Joseph Campbells The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Carl Jungs
Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, and another scientific article on the
importance of dreams to human experience.
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inherently creative and individual, no student is at a disadvantage for lacking prior
knowledge. Furthermore, no student could deem the task as too easy because there is
no limit to how much planning and revising can be done. In the end, each of the 33
students in the class benefits from the unique perspectives and insight that their peers
bring to the table.
Consideration of Group Differences
This unit is designed for a particular group of students at a traditional public high
school with over 2,000 students. The student body is predominantly white (65.5%), and
few students apply for free and reduced meals (only 25.14% designated as needy).
However, the standard-level English Language Arts classes tend to have a healthy
amount of economic and racial diversity. Over 93% of students at this high school
performed at or above grade level on their end-of-course testing, but the sub-populations
of black, Hispanic, and economically disadvantaged students have lower percentages of
students performing at or above grade level (84.1%, 82.3%, and 81.6 %, respectively).
This particular group of 12
th
graders has a wealth of diverse experiences to draw
from. Two students were born and raised in foreign countries (Cuba and Panama), and
several others are bilingual first-generation Americans. These 12
th
graders also have
diverse interests and future plans. Based on anecdotal information and student surveys, I
estimate that about a third of the students hope to attend a 4-year college, about a third
plan to attend the local 2-year community college, and about a third plan on working full-
time after graduation. The personal quest narrative assignment allows for students to
draw on these distinct outlooks and integrate them into their stories. For example, one
may create a hero who strives to attend college, whereas another may make a quest
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narrative in which a hero moves to live in a foreign country. The hope is that this creative
assignment sparks small-group and whole-class discussions that promote a mutual
appreciation of diverse experiences, perspectives and ideas. For students less inclined to
share their views orally, there are multiple opportunities to express themselves (through
visual art and writing, both in class and online).
Consideration of Individual Differences
The activities and assignments detailed in the lesson plans are designed to allow
students of diverse learning styles and multiple intelligences to engage with the content in
a variety of ways. Most reading tasks are accompanied by an activity that involves
viewing or creating visual representations of the narrative. Graphic organizers and
collaborative reading strategies are also in place to ensure that the instruction is
differentiated to meet a wide range of needs.
The class also contains three fictional students who either have individualized
education plans (IEPs) or receive ESL services. Each lesson of the unit includes
individualized accommodations or modifications for each student based on his needs.
Marcus has an IEP to help raise his reading and writing proficiency. He earned
80% accuracy for reading comprehension at a 9
th
grade level, but continues to struggle
with sequencing events and finding inferential meanings in a text. He also struggles with
the pre-writing and editing stages of writing, which causes his organization to suffer. For
this unit, Marcus is given extra time on the quiz and written assignments, during which
time he has the option of extra support from the teacher or the schools EC specialist. The
unit also includes a variety of activities aimed at developing his ability to sequence and
infer meanings from a text (e.g., making a visual storyboard for the major plot points and
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symbols in Le Morte dArthur). The small-group collaborationfor reading, pre-writing,
and editing activitiesallows him to rely on his peers as an added resource.
David is an English Language Learner (ELL) who is proficient at speaking and
listening, but struggles with reading and writing (3.1 and 3.6 WIDA proficiency levels,
respectively). Though he is a fully proficient speaker, he rarely if ever partakes in class
discussions because he is shy and lacks confidence speaking in front of peers. As such, he
would benefit greatly from the Collaborative Strategic Reading activities because it
would give him the chance to raise comprehension questions about the texts in an
informal small group setting. He would also benefit from the activities centered on
analyzing and creating visual representations of the plot and symbols of the given texts.
He is given extra time to complete his writing assignments and his quiz on Sir Gawain
and the Green Knight and the option for extra help outside of class from either the
teacher or the ESL specialist at the school.
Christophe has difficulties with reading comprehension, decoding, and writing.
Though he struggles with longer passages with more complex themes and vocabulary, he
does better with material that he can relate to through his own past experiences. For this
reason, the entire structure of the unitfrom the skits whose scenarios parallel plot points
in Sir Gawain to the final quest narrative projectmay help Christophe to engage
with the major texts and concepts. His writing suffers from poor pre-writing and editing
skills, so the small group activities for brainstorming, editing, and peer-review can
provide helpful models for useful strategies.


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ASSESSMENT PLAN
Overview of Assessments
In this unit, students are assessed for a variety of skills through a variety of
measures. Because the central skills targeted for this unit are not quantifiablesuch as
the 21
st
Century skills of Creativity and Innovation and Communication and
Collaborationthe majority of assessments are qualitative and largely holistic. The
group presentations for lessons 2 and 10, as well as the group skit activity of lesson 4, are
assessed based on rubrics, each of which has a category for Collaboration with Peers.
The majority of in-class formative assessments (e.g., Dream Cloud Worksheet, Plot
Structure Worksheet) are graded for accuracy and completeness, but largely assessed
based on students participation in class. Similarly, the during-reading activities are
designed at once to aid students comprehension and allow the teacher to assess each
individuals understanding informally. In lessons 1, 5, and 6, students synthesize a
difficult text by writing short 1-sentence summaries of the most important points. In
lesson 3, students take notes on important actions and symbols that they eventually use to
make a visual representation of the reading.
For writing, the teacher can assess both the students work (most of which is
collected or posted on their blog pages) and the students ability to provide feedback and
revisions on their peers work. Though many of these writing assignments are done in
class and largely informal, they all build up to the final project, which includes a) a quest
narrative and b) a 1-paged analysis of ones own narrative. As such, the majority of
writing activities are geared toward developing specific narrative writing techniques (e.g.,
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establishing point of view, characterization) or analytical skills (e.g., analyzing
symbolism, characters).
Assessment
Formative
As seen below, this unit has a wide variety of formative assessments, ranging
from informal group activities to a quiz on Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.
Lesson # 1 2 3 4
Formative
Assessments
-1-paragraph
analysis of
Arthurs Dream
-Dream Cloud
Worksheet
-Informal group
presentations
- Exit slip on
Essential
Question
-Analysis of
Characterization
-Annotation
Guide
-8-frame
Storyboard
-Bell-ringer
Free Write
-Group Skits
-Written
Reflection on
Essential
Question

5 6 7 8 9
-Summary and
Conflict notes
on Gawain
(continued in
next lesson)
-Written
prediction of
the climax and
resolution for
Sir Gawain
-Movie Pitch
outline of quest
narrative
(posted on blog
page for
homework)
-Summary and
Conflict notes
on Gawain
-Plot Structure
Worksheet
-1-paragraph
analysis (on
Plot Structure
Worksheet)

-Quiz on Sir
Gawain and the
Green Knight
-Warm-up
Analysis on
Plot Structure
-Defining
Vocabulary
Words (in-class
group activity)
-Identifying
symbols (in-
class individual
activity)
-Allegory Team
Interpretation
Activity (in
small groups)
-Analysis of
Manuscript
Illumination
-Illuminated
Manuscript for
Dantes Inferno

-Peer-feedback
and editing
(written with
Microsoft Word
track changes
and in-text
comments,
emailed to
teacher)
-Exit-slip
reflection on
editing process


These assessments may be divided into three general categories: assessments of
writing (narrative, analytical, and reflective), assessments of comprehension (through
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summarizing, drawing, and other activities adapted from Bridging English
2
), and
assessments of communication and collaboration (through informal teacher observations
and more formal rubrics). Of course, it would be impossible for a teacher to provide
substantial descriptive feedback on all of these assessments in time for it to be useful for
completing the final project. However, the activities are structured in such a way that
students receive immediate feedback from peer collaboration on many of the projects.
Moreover, the students have ample opportunities to raise questions and concerns to the
teacher.
Summative
The summative assessment for the unit is comprised of three components. Each
component assesses a different skill set (presentation skills, narrative writing, and
analytical writing), but all three fall under the single theme of personal quest narratives.
For the first assessment, students work with their quest writing group to prepare a 2-
part presentation. During part one, each student presents the quest for which she or he
provided peer feedback. During part two, all group members present on the experience of
working in a group to brainstorm, edit, and review their quest narratives. The second
component is the final draft of the quest narrative, which each student will publish on
Google Blogger alongside original manuscript illuminations. The manuscript
illuminations can be drawn illustrations, original photographs, or student-produced
videos, so long as they represent at least 3 major plot points and 3 symbols from the quest
narrative. The quest narrative must include a well-developed hero and quest (including
each stage of the Heros Journey), at least three symbols, and a deeper allegorical

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See Appendix C for the specific activities and insights from Bridging English that
inspired some of my lesson planning.
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meaning of what the quest represents. The final component of the summative assessment
is a 300-word self-analysis essay in which students analyze the allegorical significance
of their own quest, drawing on their own narrative for textual support for their claims.
This final component is designed to be integrated into the subsequent unit on conducting
analytical research. As such, the specific skills needed to organize an argumentative essay
are not taught in this unit because they are central to the following unit. All three
components are explained in greater detail in the instructions and rubric handout below
(which also includes details for formative assessments, such as the Movie Pitch and the
Rough Draft).















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Make A Quest! (304 points)
lor Lhls pro[ecL, you wlll wrlLe your own quesL narraLlve, revlse lL ln a peer-edlLlng group, and publlsh your
work on a blog. ?ou may recounL an acLual evenL ln your llfe, draw on currenL evenLs, or lmaglne a
hypoLheLlcal slLuaLlon, buL you musL follow Lhe Pero's !ourney" archeLypes ouLllned by !oseph Campbell:



8ecause all quesL narraLlves are dlfferenL, you do noL have Lo lnclude every sLage ouLllned by Campbell so
long as Lhe quesL as a whole has a deeper mora| s|gn|f|cance. lor example, when Slr Cawaln breaks hls
promlse Lo exchange glfLs wlLh hls hosL because he wanLs Lo keep hls glrdle for proLecLlon, he exhlblLs
weakness (dlshonesLy, dlshonor, ungraLefulness). Powever, when he follows Lhrough wlLh hls promlse
and apologlzes for hls mlsLake, he demonsLraLes greaL vlrLue (honesLy, honor, humlllLy). 1o make a quesL
wlLh a deeper meanlng, you should lnclude aL leasL Lhese bulleL polnLs:

- Status uo: A brlef porLralL of every day llfe" before Lhe quesL beglns
- Ca|| to Adventure: someLhlng (a call, a dream, an evenL) LhaL seLs Lhe hero on Lhe quesL
- Departure: leavlng Lhe Crdlnary World" and enLerlng Lhe Speclal World."
- 1r|a|s: challenges and LempLaLlons LhaL !"#"$% Lhe hero's characLer (sLrengLhs/shorLcomlngs,
vlrLues/vlces)
- Cr|s|s: Pero musL hlL a low-polnL before belng reborn."
- kesu|ts]1reasures: WhaL are Lhe consequences of compleLlng Lhls quesL? Are Lhere any rewards
LhaL represenL whaL Lhe hero has galned (morally, splrlLually)
- keso|ut|on]Atonement]keturn: noL all heroes reLurn home afLer Lhelr quesLs, buL Lhey all end
up somewhere. Clve deLalls Lo explaln how llfe wlll be for your hero afLer Lhe quesL.

1oday, each of you wlll make a blog accounL uslng Coogle 8logger (www.blogspoL.com), bralnsLorm wlLh
your asslgned peer-edlLlng group, Lhen posL your Movle lLch" for homework. 1hls blog wlll be walled-
ln," meanlng LhaL your blog wlll be lnvlslble Lo all excepL your classmaLes and me. lor Lhls pro[ecL, you wlll
compleLe:

1A): Mov|e |tch (22 po|nts): lmaglne LhaL you have Lo plLch your quesL narraLlve Lo a busy movle
producer. 1o sell your sLory, conclsely explaln:
- Who ls Lhe nero(|ne)?
- WhaL ls Lhe 'quest'?
- WhaL's Lhe 'mora|' of Lhe sLory (whaL does Lhe quesL represenL on a deeper level)?
- WhaL ls Lhe ord|nary wor|d? Modern-day uSA? Colonlal PalLl? WhaL's your seLLlng?
- WhaL ls Lhe spec|a| wor|d? An advenLure wlLhln a dream? A vlrLual plaLform?
- WhaL's Lhe 'Ca||' Lo advenLure? Could be a message, a dream, an evenL..
- Departure? &"'!" )*+ ,) -$).$. $)/0*!"1 2*3*4
- 1ra||s? WhaL klnds of challenges/LempLaLlons wlll LesL your hero(lne)?
- ne|p along Lhe way? Who/whaL wlll supporL your characLer along Lhe way?
- Cr|s|s? uoes your characLer go Lhrough any klnd of LransformaLlon (deaLh & reblrLh)?
- 1reasures]keso|ut|on]keturn? noL all heroes reLurn, buL all should reach some sorL of resoluLlon.
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18) eer-kesponses on Mov|e |tches (9 po|nts): lor "$56 of your group members, you musL posL a
peer-response" commenL, ln whlch you.
a) explaln whaL you llke mosL abouL hls/her Movle lLch
b) ask one follow-up quesLlon (elLher for clarlflcaLlon or Lo geL more deLalls abouL Lhe sLory)
c) suggesL one ldea for how Lhey can Lake Lhelr sLory furLher

2) kough Draft (40 po|nts): ?our rough drafL musL be posLed on your blog before class on Lhe day lL's due.
?our drafL should be aL leasL 400 words and should lnclude a Pero(lne), a clearly-deflned quesL, aL leasL
half of Lhe sLages of Lhe Pero's !ourney," and aL leasL Lwo symbols.

3A) eer-Ld|t|ng (16 po|nts): ln class, you wlll carefully read, edlL, and make suggesLlons for one of your
group member's rough drafL uslng MlcrosofL Word 1rack Changes and ln-LexL 8evlew CommenLs. AL Lhe
end of class, you wlll emall Lhese revlslons Lo your parLner and Lo me. ?our revlslons musL address:
1) loL: uslng ln-LexL 8evlew CommenLs, you musL ldenLlfy Lhe hero, Lhe ob[ecL of Lhe quesL (boLh
llLeral and symbollc), each sLage of Lhe Pero's !ourney," and aL leasL 3 symbols. As a flnal commenL, you
musL llsL whaL ploL elemenLs musL be added Lo Lhe drafL and make aL leasL Lhree suggesLlons on how Lo
lnLegraLe Lhem ln ways LhaL enhance Lhe bulld up Lo Lhe cllmax and Lhe progresslon Lowards Lhe
resoluLlon.
2) SLyle: uslng Lhe 1rack Changes" and Lhe ln-LexL CommenLs" feaLures, you musL suggesL
changes Lo lmprove Lhe sLyle and clarlLy of Lhe rough drafL, focuslng especlally on grammar (sub[ecL-verb
agreemenL, Lense conslsLency.), convenLlons (paragraph breaks, quoLaLlon marks for dlalogue.), and
LranslLlons (effecLlve LranslLlon words, clear flow of evenLs...). Make aL leasL 3 Lrack changes and posL aL
leasL 3 commenLs).

38) Comments (24 po|nts): Pere, you wlll publlsh a 1-paragraph blog commenL on "$56 of your CuesL
WrlLlng" group members' rough drafLs. ln Lhls commenL, you wlll ldenLlfy speclflc deLalls/aspecLs LhaL you
especlally llked abouL Lhe drafL and why. ralse your peers for whaL Lhey dld well!

3C) "uest Wr|t|ng" Group resentat|on (40 po|nts): AfLer compleLlng your pro[ecL, you and your
asslgned peer-edlLlng parLners wlll presenL as a group.

lor parL 1 of Lhe presenLaLlon, each of you wlll presenL your peer-feedback parLner's quesL narraLlve (noL
your own). 1o do so, you musL:
- uescrlbe Lhe seLLlng (ordlnary and speclal world) and Lhe hero (hls/her characLer LralLs, hls/her poslLlon
ln Lhe world)
- Summarlze Lhe Pero's CuesL (explaln Lhe goal of Lhe quesL, Lhe call Lo advenLure, Lhe crlsls, and Lhe
resoluLlon)
- 8eflecL on whaL you %"$!)"3 from Lhls group member's pro[ecL. ln your oplnlon, whaL ls Lhe moral of Lhls
quesL? WhaL deLalls/aspecLs of Lhe sLory were mosL lnLeresLlng? Why?

lor parL 2 of your group presenLaLlon, all of you wlll reflecL on whaL you learned from Lhe edlLlng process.
As a group, answer Lhe quesLlons:
-uld you en[oy Lhe group peer-edlLlng process? Why or why noL?
-WhaL klnd of feedback dld you flnd mosL helpful (suggesLlons for ldeas, grammar, sLyle, eLc.)?
-Pow dld Lhe peer-edlLlng process lnfluence Lhe way you wroLe your own narraLlve?

4A) I|na| uest Narrat|ve (80 po|nts) ($+ %"$.+ 700 words): 8y 1
sL
perlod of Lhe due daLe, you musL have
your orlglnal 700+-word quesL narraLlve posLed on your blog (Labeled as llnal CuesL narraLlve"), and
submlLLed Lo LurnlLln.com. See p. 1 for lnsLrucLlons and p. (4) for Lhe rubrlc on how your work wlll be
evaluaLed.

18
48) Manuscr|pt I||um|nat|ons of I|na| uest Narrat|ve (20 po|nts): ln Lhe splrlL of medleval lllumlnaLed
manuscrlpLs, you musL upload an orlglnal vlsual plece. 1hls plece can range from hand-drawn lllusLraLlons
(dlglLlzed and uploaded for your blog) Lo a homemade vldeo, so long as lL deplcLs $+ %"$.+ 3 key ploL polnLs
and $+ %"$.+ 3 symbols. AfLer posLlng your lllumlnaLlons wlLh your narraLlve (elLher ln Lhe marglns, aL Lhe
Lop, or aL Lhe boLLom of Lhe posL), you musL posL a 1-paragraph explanaLlon of how your vlsual
componenL represenLs 3+ key ploL polnLs and 3+ symbols.

S) Se|f-Ana|ys|s: AfLer posLlng Lhe flnal drafL of your CuesL narraLlve, you musL posL a 300-word analysls
of your own quesL. 1hls ls !"# a self-reflecLlon on Lhe wrlLlng process. lnsLead, you are wrlLlng an
argumenL LhaL answers Lhe quesLlon, WhaL does your quesL represenL on a deeper level?" ?our blog posL
should lnclude:
- An lnLroducLory paragraph endlng wlLh a clear Lhesls sLaLemenL (e.g., 8llly's quesL Lo change hls name
represenLs hls deslre Lo leave behlnd Lhe experlences of hls horrlflc chlldhood.").
-8ody paragraphs LhaL analyze speclflc passages/aspecLs of Lhe quesL LhaL supporL your Lhesls.
-A concludlng paragraph LhaL answers Lhe quesLlon: Pow does Lhe moral of your sLory relaLe Lo human
experlence?" or WhaL does Lhls deeper moral slgnlflcance Leach us abouL Lhe world we llve ln?"


eer-LdlLlng Croup resenLaLlon 8ubrlc:
SLudenL name: _________________________ Croup resenLaLlon: (_____/20) x2 = (____/40)
Croup members' names: ____________________, ______________________, ____________________


CA1LCC8? 4 3 2 1
Stays on 1op|c Addresses all (100-90)
of Lhe requlred
prompLs.
Addresses mosL (89-
60) of Lhe requlred
prompLs.
Addresses (39-
40) of Lhe
requlred prompLs.
Addresses less
Lhan 40 Lhe
requlred
prompLs.
Content Shows a full
undersLandlng of Lhe
Loplc.
Shows a good
undersLandlng of Lhe
Loplc.
Shows a good
undersLandlng of
parLs of Lhe Loplc.
uoes noL seem
Lo undersLand
Lhe Loplc very
well.
Speaks C|ear|y Speaks clearly and
dlsLlncLly all (100-93)
Lhe Llme, and
mlspronounces no
words.
Speaks clearly and
dlsLlncLly all (100-93)
Lhe Llme, buL
mlspronounces one
word.
Speaks clearly and
dlsLlncLly mosL (94-
83) of Lhe Llme.
Mlspronounces no
more Lhan one
word.
CfLen mumbles
or can noL be
undersLood C8
mlspronounces
more Lhan one
word.
reparedness SLudenL ls compleLely
prepared and has
obvlously rehearsed.
SLudenL seems preLLy
prepared buL mlghL
have needed a couple
of more rehearsals.
1he sLudenL ls
somewhaL
prepared, buL lL ls
clear LhaL rehearsal
was lacklng.
SLudenL does
noL seem aL all
prepared Lo
presenL.
Co||aborat|on
w|th eers
AlmosL always llsLens
Lo, shares wlLh, and
supporLs Lhe efforLs of
oLhers ln Lhe group.
1rles Lo keep people
worklng well LogeLher.
usually llsLens Lo,
shares wlLh, and
supporLs Lhe efforLs of
oLhers ln Lhe group.
uoes noL cause
\"waves\" ln Lhe
group.
CfLen llsLens Lo,
shares wlLh, and
supporLs Lhe
efforLs of oLhers ln
Lhe group buL
someLlmes ls noL a
good Leam
member.
8arely llsLens Lo,
shares wlLh, and
supporLs Lhe
efforLs of oLhers
ln Lhe group.
CfLen ls noL a
good Leam
member.
19
CuesL narraLlve llnal urafL - 8ubrlc
nA88A1lvL 3 4 3 2
CuesL
Cb[ecLlve
and
Meanlng
1he narraLlve clearly
deplcLs Lhe ob[ecLlve of
Lhe quesL and whaL lL
represenLs on a deeper
(moral/splrlLual) level.
1he narraLlve
somewhaL clearly
deplcLs Lhe ob[ecLlve
of Lhe quesL and whaL
lL represenLs on a
deeper
(moral/splrlLual) level.
1he narraLlve
somewhaL descrlbes
LhaL Lhere ls a quesL,
buL Lhe ob[ecLlve
and deeper
slgnlflcance are noL
clear.
1he narraLlve
does noL appear
Lo have a quesL.
Symbollsm 1he narraLlve and vlsual
componenL vlvldly
deplcL aL leasL 3
symbols LhaL clearly
add Lo Lhe deeper
meanlng of Lhe quesL.
1he narraLlve and
vlsual componenL
deplcL aL leasL 3
recognlzable symbols.
1he narraLlve and
vlsual componenL
presenL aL leasL 1
symbol.
no symbollsm
can be
ldenLlfled.
Crammar/
Mechanlcs
ConslsLenLly uses
sLandard wrlLlng
convenLlons ln
grammar, puncLuaLlon,
and usage.
Cenerally uses
sLandard wrlLlng
convenLlons ln spelllng,
and caplLallzaLlon.
Mlnlmally uses
sLandard wrlLlng
convenLlons ln
spelllng, and
caplLallzaLlon.
uoes noL use
sLandard
wrlLlng
convenLlons ln
spelllng, and
caplLallzaLlon.
lrom SLaLus
Cuo Lo Call
1he narraLlve vlvldly
deplcLs Lhe hero's
"SLaLus Cuo", "Call Lo
AcLlon", and reacLlon Lo
Lhe call.
1he narraLlve
somewhaL clearly
deplcLs Lhe hero's
sLaLus quo, call Lo
acLlon, and reacLlon Lo
Lhe call.
1he narraLlve ls
mlsslng key deLalls
abouL Lhe hero's
sLaLus quo, call Lo
acLlon and reacLlon
Lo Lhe call.
1he narraLlve
does noL even
descrlbe Lhe
hero's sLaLus
quo or call Lo
acLlon.
Approachlng
a Crlsls
1he narraLlve vlvldly
deplcLs Lhe hero's
approach Lowards Lhe
goal of Lhe quesL and
Lhe "Crlsls" LhaL ensues.
1he narraLlve
somewhaL clearly
deplcLs an approach
Lowards Lhe goal of Lhe
quesL and a "Crlsls"
1he narraLlve
somewhaL deplcLs a
flnal confllcL, buL Lhe
approach and/or
"Crlsls" of Lhe
characLer ln unclear.
1he narraLlve
has no
approach
Loward Lhe goal
of Lhe quesL,
and Lhe hero
has no "Crlsls."
1reasures/
8esulLs/
ALonemenL
1he narraLlve clearly
deplcLs Lhe "1reasures"
galned by compleLlng
Lhe quesL as well as Lhe
overall "8esulLs" of Lhe
quesL.
1he narraLlve
somewhaL clearly
descrlbes Lhe
"1reasures" galned by
compleLlng Lhe quesL
as well as Lhe overall
"8esulLs" of Lhe quesL.
1he narraLlve
somewhaL descrlbes
Lhe "1reasures" and
"8esulLs", buL lL ls
noL clear how Lhey
relaLe Lo Lhe quesL.
1he narraLlve
does noL
descrlbe any
"1reasures" or
"8esulLs" from
Lhe quesL.
8esoluLlon 1he narraLlve clearly
deplcLs Lhe
"8esoluLlon" of Lhe
quesL (boLh for Lhe
hero and Lhe world(s)
s/he lnhablLs)
1he narraLlve
somewhaL clearly
deplcLs Lhe
"8esoluLlon" Lo Lhe
quesL.
1he narraLlve brlngs
Lhe quesL Lo an end,
buL leaves many
quesLlons
unresolved.
1he narraLlve
ends abrupLly
wlLhouL
marklng Lhe end
of Lhe quesL.
CreaLlvlLy 1he pro[ecL conLalns
many creaLlve deLalls
and/or descrlpLlons
LhaL conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe
reader's en[oymenL.
1ruly lmaglnaLlve.
1he pro[ecL conLalns a
few creaLlve deLalls
and/or descrlpLlons
LhaL conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe
reader's en[oymenL.
1he pro[ecL conLalns
a few creaLlve deLalls
and/or descrlpLlons,
buL Lhey dlsLracL
from Lhe sLory.
1here ls llLLle
evldence of
creaLlvlLy or
lmaglnaLlon.
10 8 6 4
ManuscrlpL
lllumlnaLlons
Crlglnal lllusLraLlons are
deLalled, creaLlve and
deplcL 3+ ploL momenLs
and 3+ symbols
Crlglnal lllusLraLlons
are somewhaL deLalled
and deplcL 2 ploL
momenLs / 2 symbols
Crlglnal lllusLraLlons
relaLe Lo Lhe quesL
narraLlve, buL no
ldenLlflable symbols
Crlglnal
lllusLraLlons are
noL presenL C8
are noL orlglnal
llnal lllumlnaLed CuesL (____ / 30 ) *2 = (____ / 100)
Crade: ______ LeLLer LqulvalenL_____

2u

llnal Self-Analysls Lssay - 8ubrlc



























SLudenL name: _____________________
Self-Analysls Crade: (______/24) x2 = (_____/48)







CATEGORY 4 - Above Standards 3 - Meets Standards
2 -
Approaching Standar
ds
1 -
Below Standards
Focus or
Thesis
Statement
The thesis statement
names the topic of the
essay and outlines the
main points to be
discussed.
The thesis statement
names the topic of the
essay.
The thesis statement
outlines some or all of
the main points to be
discussed but does not
name the topic.
The thesis statement
does not name the
topic AND does not
preview what will be
discussed.
Evidence
and
Examples
All of the evidence and
examples are specific,
relevant and explanations
are given that show how
each piece of evidence
supports the author\'s
position.
Most of the evidence
and examples are
specific, relevant and
explanations are given
that show how each
piece of evidence
supports the author\'s
position.
At least one of the
pieces of evidence and
examples is relevant
and has an explanation
that shows how that
piece of evidence
supports the author\'s
position.
Evidence and
examples are NOT
relevant AND/OR
are not explained.
Sentence
Structure
All sentences are well-
constructed with varied
structure.
Most sentences are well-
constructed and there is
some varied sentence
structure in the essay.
Most sentences are
well constructed, but
there is no variation is
structure.
Most sentences are
not well-constructed
or varied.
Grammar &
Spelling
Author makes no errors in
grammar or spelling that
distract the reader from
the content.
Author makes 1-2 errors
in grammar or spelling
that distract the reader
from the content.
Author makes 3-4
errors in grammar or
spelling that distract the
reader from the
content.
Author makes more
than 4 errors in
grammar or spelling
that distract the
reader from the
content.
Transitions A variety of thoughtful
transitions are used. They
clearly show how ideas
are connected
Transitions show how
ideas are connected, but
there is little variety
Some transitions work
well, but some
connections between
ideas are fuzzy.
The transitions
between ideas are
unclear OR
nonexistent.
Closing
paragraph
The conclusion is strong
and leaves the reader
solidly understanding the
writer\'s position. Effective
restatement of the
position statement begins
the closing paragraph.
The conclusion is
recognizable. The
author\'s position is
restated within the first
two sentences of the
closing paragraph.
The author\'s position
is restated within the
closing paragraph, but
not near the beginning.
There is no
conclusion - the
paper just ends.
21
Plan for Reporting Outcomes
Students will demonstrate that they have mastered the objectives for the unit by
applying their knowledge of archetypes, symbolism, and allegory to a variety of
assessments. Most of these assessments take the form of creative projects, but students
will also demonstrate their knowledge in written and oral communication of their ideas.
The final three-component project alone, if done adequately, would demonstrate a
mastery of the goals of the unit, but there are also a large number of formative
assessments in place to scaffold these end-goals for the students and to provide feedback
for the teacher. The in-class writing exercises, especially those that require students to
analyze a text and provide examples for support, are an excellent barometer of whether
the students have mastered the objectives of the lesson.
The most difficult objective to measureand perhaps the most importantis
collaboration and communication with other students. The unit is structured to promote
collaboration in various forms, ranging from informal think-pair-shares to peer editing
and feedback shared via email. The teacher can assess the more informal collaborative
activities holistically by circulating among students. For the peer editing and feedback,
the teacher instructs students to email their revisions not only to their partner but also to
the teacher. A major advantage of the blog platform is that it allows students to
communicate informally outside of class in an authentic setting while still allowing for
the teacher to track each students participation and engagement with peers. On a day-to-
day basis, the exit slip writing reflections and in-class work allow the teacher to assess
individual students understanding of concepts in order to make adjustments to upcoming
lessons.
22
OVERVIEW OF PEDAGOGICAL STRATEGIES
Instructional Goals
The baseline objective for the unit is that students apply their understanding of the
archetypes, symbolism, and allegory to the model of Campbells Heros Journey
through visual creations, narrative writing, analytical writing, and communication with
peers. Even more important than this objective, though, are the skills that students
develop in the various ways of meeting it. To produce an original quest narrative that
develops a hero, a quest, symbolism and allegory, students must learn to develop
characters, events and themes in the process. To write a 1-paged analysis of their own
quest narrative, students must learn to organize their claims, support them with textual
evidence, and arrive at an overall conclusion. The various opportunities for student
communication and collaboration encourage students to exercise other valuable 21
st

century skills, such as self-directed learning, global awareness, and creativity and
innovation. Thus, students will be provided many opportunities to answer different forms
of the essential question for the unit: what are the fundamental patterns of human
experience? In making creative projects and sharing them with their peers, students
show rather than tell what these patterns may be and why they are important.
21
st
Century Teaching Strategies
- Connection to other disciplines: The unit connects to psychology and
neurosciencemost saliently in the first lesson when students read a scientific
article on the importance of dreams in relation to medieval perspectives on the
subject.
2S
- Variety of methods and materials: This unit plan utilizes a wide variety of
methods, including whole-class, small-group, and partner discussions,
collaborative and individual reading activities, in-class and outside writing
assignments, and activities to create visual projects. Some of the materials used in
this unit include texts (both literary and informational), works of visual art, art
supplies, and technology (especially the blog platform).
- Integration of technology: Students will utilize technology to collaborate and
communicate with their Quest Writing group members throughout the unit. By
using Microsoft Word track changes and in-text comments, students take
advantage of tools frequently used in the workplace for giving receiving feedback
on projects. The Google Blogger platform enhances students ability to
communicate outside of class and share their work with peers.
- Engagement with problem solving, inquiry, and critical thinking: The unit
centers on the important question of what patterns are fundamental to human
experience. However, each lesson has an essential question that is specifically
geared toward the texts or activities of the day. Students will think critically about
these questions and express themselves in a variety of activitiesranging from
small-group to whole-class discussions, from individual written analysis to group
creative projects (such as the make your own illuminated manuscript activity of
lesson 8, in which students must visually represent the allegory of an excerpt of
Dantes Inferno). In addition, the creative writing and peer-editing assignments a
high level of critical thinking.
24
- Experiences in collaborative and team learning structures: The unit furnishes
students with a number of collaborative and team learning structures (in fact,
lessons 2 and 4-10 are heavily group-work oriented). For example, while reading
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight in class, students intermittently share notes
with their small group to resolve doubts about specific passages. In addition,
students work in Quest Writing groups of 3-4 students throughout the
brainstorming, editing, and feedback stages of writing their original quest
narratives.
- Opportunities for students to develop leadership and communication skills:
Students can develop leadership skills throughout the unit by fulfilling specific
functions within their group. For the presentations in lesson 2 and 4, the teacher
assigns specific roles to each student so as to model the ways in which a group
would communicate and collaborate to accomplish a shared task. In lessons 5 and
6, students rely on one another as a resource in comprehending and analyzing the
text Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. In lessons 7 through 10 students work
largely independently toward completing their individual quest narratives as well
as the group presentation. This scaffolding is designed to promote students to
grow in leadership and self-directed learning.








2S
LESSON PLANS

Name: Michael Martell


Subject/Grade Level: British Literature (Standard-level English 4 12
th
Grade)


!"#$% Quests and Heroes: Teaching Archetypes, Symbolism, and Allegory through
Narrative Writing in a 12
th
Grade ELA Classroom
Lesson Title: Dream Visions


!"#$%&'(#)%"

+,--%" ./,$/),0

Students will analyze the importance of dreams in relation to
personal experience, a scientific article on the subject, and
Arthurs dream vision from Le Morte dArthur.
1%(23 4#2"&2$&- 56%77%"
6%$, 8 96 :--,"#)23
4#2"&2$&-;

CCSS.ELA-Literacy:RL 11-12.1: Cite strong and
thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what
the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn
from the text, including determining where the text
leaves matters uncertain.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy:RL.5: Analyze how an authors
choices concerning how to structure specific parts of
a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a
story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic
resolution) contribute to its overall structure and
meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy:RI.1 = Cite strong and thorough
textual evidence to support analysis of what the text
says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the
text, including determining where the text leaves
matters uncertain.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy:RI7: Integrate and evaluate multiple
sources of information presented in different media
or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in
words in order to address a question or solve a
problem.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy:SL.1: Initiate and participate
effectively in a range of collaborative discussions
(one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse
partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues,
building on others ideas and expressing their own
clearly and persuasively.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy:W.1: Write arguments to support
claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts,
26
using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient
evidence.

<,2-'$,2=3, .=>,(#)/,
?2-,& %" 6%"#,"#
4#2"&2$&5-;

Students will engage in a variety of discussions (whole
class, one-on-one) centered on the essential question
of the lesson
Students will write a 1-paragraph analysis of Arthurs
dream vision (citing the text for support).
Stuuents will oiganize the iueas ieau fiom 2 uiveise texts
(a scientific aiticle anu a liteiaiy naiiative) onto a venn
uiagiam (analyzing ielationships between the two
peispectives)

:--,"#)23 @',-#)%"5-;

What iole uo uieams play in human expeiience.
A$)%$ B"%03,&C,

- General scientific knowledge
- Personal experience with dreams
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-#
6,"#'$G 4D)33-

Critical Thinking and Problem Solving: Students are required
to interpret diverse sources (a scientific article, the teachers
PowerPoint, a literary text), evaluate the information
presented in each, and synthesize all three to form their own
viewpoint.

Communication and Collaboration: Students express their
opinions orally (in pairs) and written (on the Dream Cloud
Worksheet).

21
st
Centuiy Stanuaius:
Builus unueistanuing acioss anu
among coie subjects as well as 21st centuiy
inteiuisciplinaiy themes

H--,--7,"#IH((%77%&2#)%"

1%$72#)/, H--,--7,"#
52##2(J -K,()L)( )"-#$'(#)%"-
2"&I%$ ,M27K3,-;

- Wiitten Analysis: Aftei ieauing Pp. 176-178,
stuuents will wiite a shoit analysis in iesponse to
this piompt: What uoes Aithuis uieam vision
iepiesent. Cite specific passages (in quotes) to
suppoit youi claims. You may also use the teims:
peisonification anu symbol.
- Bieam Clouu Woiksheet: Stuuents will oiganize
theii summaiies of 2 souices onto a venn uiagiam
anu answei questions below
4'772#)/, H--,--7,"#
52##2(J -K,()L)( )"-#$'(#)%"-
%$ ,M27K3,-;

Students write an original quest narrative (at least 700 words)
featuring a hero, an object or goal, and each of the stages of
the Heros Journey. In addition, the story must develop at
least 3 symbols and a deeper moral significance for the quest.

After peer-editing rough drafts in small groups, students post
their final drafts on their blog page. This post must include
manuscript illuminations: illustrations that depict at least 3
key plot points and at least 3 symbols.

27
This summative assessment will not be uue until aftei the
unit is finisheu. Thanks to the blog foium, stuuents can
view each otheis final piouucts even if they aie not
shaieu in class.
H((%77%&2#)%"-
5-K,()L)( #% #J)- 3,--%" 2"&
=2-,& %" -K,()L)( -#'&,"#-;

Marcus: The Post-it note summary activity will help
Marcus to synthesize the information from the scientific
article. The Venn diagram on the Dream Cloud Worksheet
will help him organize and synthesize the important
information.

Daniel: The video clip and images in the PowerPoint will aid
Daniels understanding of the essential question. The Post-
it notes and the Venn diagram will help him synthesize and
organize longer texts into short bullet points.

Chiistophe: The Post-it note summaiy activity will help
Chiistophe to unueistanu anu paiaphiase the moie
uifficult technical vocabulaiy. The viueo clip anu images
will help to engage with the mateiial in spite of his
uecouing uifficulties. The venn Biagiam on the Bieam
Clouu Woiksheet will help him oiganize his thoughts
befoie iesponuing to the wiitten piompts. The bell-iingei
will help him to engage with the mateiial by fiist
connecting it to peisonal expeiience.

+,--%" A32"

<2#,$)23-

Post-it notes; Tv Nonitoi (foi PoweiPoint anu viueo
clips); Scientific Ameiican Aiticle on Bieaming; Bieam
Clouu Woiksheet; viueo clip of cafe scene in Nolans
Inception
(http:www.youtube.comwatch.v=_bsu00vTA84)
?,33 N)"C,$IN,/),0 H(#)/)#G

- Warm-up writing prompt (displayed on monitor):
What is the most vivid dream youve ever had?
Describe what you remembered when you woke up.
- The teacher gives students 3 minutes to write.
O,#2)3,& H(#)/)#),- 2"&
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- Discussion of Dreams (15 min):

1. The teacher asks 2-3 students to share their responses
with class.

1. The teacher asks students follow-up questions: How
did you wake up? When did you realize it was a
dream? Show of hands for having a dream, but not
remembering what it was - 1 student share; dream
within dream?

2. The teacher plays the 2-minute video clip of the cafe
scene in Inception (meanwhile, the teacher passes out
copies of the Scientific American article)

1. The teacher asks: Is there a connection/separation
between dreams and reality? Dreams and
28
memories?

2. Teacher raises essential question for students to
respond to: What role do dreams play in human
experience?

- Reading of The ScienceDreaming (20 min)

1. Transition question: What can science tell us about
dreams?

1. Instructions for students: As you read, summarize the
most important points (in your notes).

2. After reading the first paragraph, the teacher draws a
timeline on the whiteboard, fills out the first
(general) date mentioned in the article, and asks
students to fill in the rest (by searching through the
first paragraph).

1. Students read the rest of the article aloud (the
teacher calls on individuals to read paragraphs).

3. After reading: The teacher shows students that there
is a Post-it note on the back of the article and
instructs them to take 1 minute to summarize 3 most
important points on it. The teacher models a 1
st
point
for the whole class.

- Middle Ages: Dream Vision PowerPoint (13 min)

-
Students take notes on the essential vocab word
(motif) and examples of the dream vision motif:
Caedmons hymn, Pearl, Dante, King Arthur and the
quest for the Holy Grail. The teacher emphasizes that
the dream vision can function as a warning, a
connection to the supernatural, and way to set a plot
in motion.
-
Think-pair-share:
1.
The teacher instructs: On the 2
nd
post-it,
write 3-4 most important features of dream vision
motif. What do all of these dream visions have in
common? (share with a partner)
-
Analyze image (5 min): students analyze a medieval
depiction of the Wheel of Fortune and respond (in their
notes) to the prompt: What does this Wheel symbolize?
Who are the people depicted?
-
Whole class discussion: share ideas (5 minutes)
1.
The teacher calls on students to share their ideas.
2.
The teacher gives Wheel of Fortune (TV show)
hint.
3.
Slides: teacher explains this symbol (the wheel) and
personification (Fortune) in terms of Middle Ages.
1.
Student take notes on vocabulary words.
2.
The teacher displays definitions on
PowerPoint: Motif A recurring feature of a
literary work that is related to a theme. Symbol
29
Something that represents something else.
Personification Giving humanlike qualities
to something non-human.
-
In-class reading of Dream Vision (Pp. 176-78) (10 min)
1.
Open to P. 176: read introductory paragraph
2.
Paragraph 1: point to image, remind them of danger
warning (adaptation to survive? Or divine
prophecy?)
3.
Draw small Character web (to give context for
Gawain and Mordred)
4.
Continue reading until Gawain vanishes. The teacher
reminds students of Dream within a Dream
(Inception clip).
Emphasize the uiffeient LAYERS of ieality. The teachei
asks stuuents: Bow uo these layeis inteiielate.

63%-'$,

- Analyzing Aithuis uieam vision (1u min):
o In 1 paiagiaph, stuuents answei the
question: What uoes Aithuis uieam
vision iepiesent. Cite specific passages
(in quotes) to suppoit youi claims. You
may also use the teims: peisonification
anu symbol.
o The teachei collects stuuents 1-paiagiaph
analyses at the enu of class
- Bomewoik: use post-its to make a Bieam venn
uiagiam.
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If the Bieam Clouu woiksheets anu 1-paiagiaph
analyses inuicate that stuuents faileu to giasp the concept
of the uieam motif, the teachei coulu ieintiouuce the
uieam motif alongsiue examples of othei common motifs.
The teachei coulu cieate a paitneismall gioup activity in
which stuuents woik togethei to finu the iecuiiing
pattein among S-4 specific examples fiom liteiatuie (foi
example, S stoiies in which a chaiactei has a uieam anu
takes action in iesponse to it). This appioach woulu allow
stuuents to iuentify foi themselves that the uieam as a
common pattein in liteiatuie (as opposeu to be being tolu
by the teachei that it is a pattein).
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Krn, Emil, and Daniel Marx. "Dream of the Magi by
GISLEBERTUS." Dream of the Magi by GISLEBERTUS.
Web Gallery of Art, n.d. Web. 07 May 2014.

Milner, Joseph O'Beirne, and Lucy Floyd Morcock Milner.
"Venn Diagramming" and Synergistic Texts Bridging
English. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill, 2008. 99-
101. Print.

Prentice Hall British Literature : Timeless Voices, Timeless
Themes. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. Print.

Su
Slade, Benjamin. "Beowulf on Steorarume [Beowulf in
Cyberspace]: Bede's Account of the Poet Caedmon &
Caedmon's Hymn." Beowulf on Steorarume [Beowulf in
Cyberspace]: Bede's Account of the Poet Caedmon &
Caedmon's Hymn. Benjamin Slade, n.d. Web. 07 May 2014.

Van Der Linden, Sander. "The Science Behind Dreaming."
Scientific American (2011): n. pag. Scientific American
Online. Scientific American, 26 June 2011. Web.

NOTE: Attach or insert any materials used in this lesson.

PowerPoint, Dream Cloud Worksheet, The Science of Dreaming


























S1
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New ieseaich sheus light on how anu why we iemembei uieams--anu what puipose
they aie likely to seive
Jul 26, 2011 |By Sander van der Linden

Foi centuiies people have ponueieu the meaning of uieams. Eaily civilizations
thought of uieams as a meuium between oui eaithly woilu anu that of the gous. In
fact, the uieeks anu Romans weie convinceu that uieams hau ceitain piophetic
poweis. While theie has always been a gieat inteiest in the inteipietation of human
uieams, it wasnt until the enu of the nineteenth centuiy that Sigmunu Fieuu anu
Cail }ung put foith some of the most wiuely-known mouein theoiies of uieaming.
Fieuus theoiy centeieu aiounu the notion of iepiesseu longing -- the iuea that
uieaming allows us to soit thiough uniesolveu, iepiesseu wishes. Cail }ung (who
stuuieu unuei Fieuu) also believeu that uieams hau psychological impoitance, but
pioposeu uiffeient theoiies about theii meaning.
Since then, technological auvancements have alloweu foi the uevelopment of othei
theoiies. 0ne piominent neuiobiological theoiy of uieaming is the activation-
synthesis hypothesis, which states that uieams uont actually mean anything: they
aie meiely electiical biain impulses that pull ianuom thoughts anu imageiy fiom
oui memoiies. Bumans, the theoiy goes, constiuct uieam stoiies aftei they wake up,
in a natuial attempt to make sense of it all. Yet, given the vast uocumentation of
iealistic aspects to human uieaming as well as inuiiect expeiimental eviuence that
othei mammals such as cats also uieam, evolutionaiy psychologists have theoiizeu
that uieaming ieally uoes seive a puipose. In paiticulai, the thieat simulation
theoiy suggests that uieaming shoulu be seen as an ancient biological uefense
mechanism that pioviueu an evolutionaiy auvantage because of its capacity to
iepeateuly simulate potential thieatening events enhancing the neuio-cognitive
mechanisms iequiieu foi efficient thieat peiception anu avoiuance.
So, ovei the yeais, numeious theoiies have been put foith in an attempt to
illuminate the mysteiy behinu human uieams, but, until iecently, stiong tangible
eviuence has iemaineu laigely elusive.
Yet, new ieseaich publisheu in the }ouinal of Neuioscience pioviues compelling
insights into the mechanisms that unueilie uieaming anu the stiong ielationship
oui uieams have with oui memoiies. Ciistina Naizano anu hei colleagues at the
0niveisity of Rome have succeeueu, foi the fiist time, in explaining how humans
iemembei theii uieams. The scientists pieuicteu the likelihoou of successful uieam
iecall baseu on a signatuie pattein of biain waves. In oiuei to uo this, the Italian
ieseaich team inviteu 6S stuuents to spenu two consecutive nights in theii ieseaich
laboiatoiy.
S2
Buiing the fiist night, the stuuents weie left to sleep, allowing them to get useu to
the sounu-pioofeu anu tempeiatuie-contiolleu iooms. Buiing the seconu night the
ieseaicheis measuieu the stuuents biain waves while they slept. 0ui biain
expeiiences foui types of electiical biain waves: uelta, theta, alpha, anu
beta. Each iepiesents a uiffeient speeu of oscillating electiical voltages anu
togethei they foim the electioencephalogiaphy (EEu). The Italian ieseaich team
useu this technology to measuie the paiticipants biain waves uuiing vaiious sleep-
stages. (Theie aie five stages of sleep; most uieaming anu oui most intense uieams
occui uuiing the REN stage.) The stuuents weie woken at vaiious times anu askeu
to fill out a uiaiy uetailing whethei oi not they uieamt, how often they uieamt anu
whethei they coulu iemembei the content of theii uieams.
While pievious stuuies have alieauy inuicateu that people aie moie likely to
iemembei theii uieams when woken uiiectly aftei REN sleep, the cuiient stuuy
explains why. Those paiticipants who exhibiteu moie low fiequency theta waves in
the fiontal lobes weie also moie likely to iemembei theii uieams.
This finuing is inteiesting because the incieaseu fiontal theta activity the
ieseaicheis obseiveu looks just like the successful encouing anu ietiieval of
autobiogiaphical memoiies seen while we aie awake. That is, it is the same
electiical oscillations in the fiontal coitex that make the iecollection of episouic
memoiies (e.g., things that happeneu to you) possible. Thus, these finuings suggest
that the neuiophysiological mechanisms that we employ while uieaming (anu
iecalling uieams) aie the same as when we constiuct anu ietiieve memoiies while
we aie awake.
In anothei iecent stuuy conuucteu by the same ieseaich team, the authois useu the
latest NRI techniques to investigate the ielation between uieaming anu the iole of
ueep-biain stiuctuies. In theii stuuy, the ieseaicheis founu that viviu, bizaiie anu
emotionally intense uieams (the uieams that people usually iemembei) aie linkeu
to paits of the amyguala anu hippocampus. While the amyguala plays a piimaiy iole
in the piocessing anu memoiy of emotional ieactions, the hippocampus has been
implicateu in impoitant memoiy functions, such as the consoliuation of infoimation
fiom shoit-teim to long-teim memoiy.
The pioposeu link between oui uieams anu emotions is also highlighteu in anothei
iecent stuuy publisheu by Natthew Walkei anu colleagues at the Sleep anu
Neuioimaging Lab at 0C Beikeley, who founu that a ieuuction in REN sleep (oi less
uieaming) influences oui ability to unueistanu complex emotions in uaily life an
essential featuie of human social functioning. Scientists have also iecently
iuentifieu wheie uieaming is likely to occui in the biain. A veiy iaie clinical
conuition known as Chaicot-Wilbianu Synuiome has been known to cause
SS
(among othei neuiological symptoms) loss of the ability to uieam. Bowevei, it was
not until a few yeais ago that a patient iepoiteu to have lost hei ability to uieam
while having viitually no othei peimanent neuiological symptoms. The patient
suffeieu a lesion in a pait of the biain known as the iight infeiioi lingual gyius
(locateu in the visual coitex). Thus, we know that uieams aie geneiateu in, oi
tiansmitteu thiough this paiticulai aiea of the biain, which is associateu with visual
piocessing, emotion anu visual memoiies.
Taken togethei, these iecent finuings tell an impoitant stoiy about the unueilying
mechanism anu possible puipose of uieaming.
Bieams seem to help us piocess emotions by encouing anu constiucting memoiies
of them. QJ2# 0, -,, 2"& ,MK,$),"(, )" %'$ &$,27- 7)CJ# "%# ",(,--2$)3G =,
$,23R ='# #J, ,7%#)%"- 2##2(J,& #% #J,-, ,MK,$),"(,- (,$#2)"3G 2$,S 0ui uieam
stoiies essentially tiy to stiip the emotion out of a ceitain expeiience by cieating a
memoiy of it. This way, the emotion itself is no longei active. This mechanism
fulfills an impoitant iole because when we uont piocess oui emotions, especially
negative ones, this incieases peisonal woiiy anu anxiety. In fact, seveie REN sleep-
uepiivation is incieasingly coiielateu to the uevelopment of mental uisoiueis. In
shoit, uieams help iegulate tiaffic on that fiagile biiuge which connects oui
expeiiences with oui emotions anu memoiies.
H?.TU UV: HTUV.N54;
42"&,$ /2" &,$ +)"&," is a uoctoial ieseaichei in social expeiimental psychology
at the Lonuon School of Economics anu Political Science. Bis ieseaich is conceineu
with the piocess of behavioial change anu funueu by the uiantham Reseaich
Institute on Climate Change anu the Enviionment.

















S4
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Lesson Title: Investigating Aithui: fiom spoken woiu to wiitten accounts.

Name: Nichael Naitell



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Stuuents will ieflect on how an oially spieau legenu
becomes a wiitten account, leain anu contextualize
Aithuiian Romance (anu key figuies) alongsiue Beowulf,
anu synthesize infoimation fiom vaiious texts to be
piesenteu infoimally in gioups of 4-S.
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CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.4: Piesent infoimation,
finuings, anu suppoiting eviuence, conveying a cleai anu
uistinct peispective, such that listeneis can follow the line
of ieasoning, alteinative oi opposing peispectives aie
auuiesseu, anu the oiganization, uevelopment, substance,
anu style aie appiopiiate to puipose, auuience, anu a
iange of foimal anu infoimal tasks.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1
Initiate anu paiticipate effectively in a iange of
collaboiative uiscussions (one-on-one, in gioups, anu
teachei-leu) with uiveise paitneis on giaues 11-12 topics,
texts, anu issues, builuing on otheis' iueas anu expiessing
theii own cleaily anu peisuasively.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1.B
Woik with peeis to piomote civil, uemociatic uiscussions
anu uecision-making, set cleai goals anu ueaulines, anu
establish inuiviuual ioles as neeueu.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.2.F
Pioviue a concluuing statement oi section that follows
fiom anu suppoits the infoimation oi explanation
piesenteu (e.g., aiticulating implications oi the
significance of the topic).
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- Stuuents collaboiate in small gioups to synthesize,
oiganize anu piesent infoimation fiom two oi
moie souices on a topic.
- 0n a wiitten exit slip, stuuent answei the essential
question on the implications of the tiansfoimation
fiom oial legenu to wiitten account, citing
examples piesenteu by othei gioups.
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What happens when an oial legenu becomes a wiitten
account.
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In the pievious unit, stuuents weie taught anu assesseu
on the uevelopment of the English Language, oial
tiauition, the heio cycle, anu Beowulf.
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Communication anu Collaboiation Stuuents woik
togethei in small gioups to synthesize infoimation fiom
two oi moie texts anu oiganize the ciucial points into a
piesentation.

Ciitical Thinking anu Pioblem Solving Stuuents
synthesize infoimation fiom two oi moie texts anu
oiganize them into a shoit gioup piesentation (meant to
teach theii peeis).

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- Infoimal gioup piesentations: Stuuents woik
togethei to synthesize, oiganize anu piesent
infoimation fiom 2 oi moie souices. Stuuents
piesentation skills aie assesseu baseu on a iubiic
(attacheu) anu the accuiacy of theii iesponses aie
assesseu by evaluating theii iesponses to theii
assigneu questions (wiitten uown anu tuineu in).
- Exit slip: stuuents answei the essential question
on a notecaiu then shaie theii iesponses in paiis.
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Students write an original quest narrative (at least 700 words)
featuring a hero, an object or goal, and each of the stages of
the Heros Journey. In addition, the story must develop at
least 3 symbols and a deeper moral significance for the quest.

After peer-editing rough drafts in small groups, students post
their final drafts on their blog page. This post must include
manuscript illuminations: illustrations that depict at least 3
key plot points and at least 3 symbols.

This summative assessment will not be uue until aftei the
unit is finisheu. Thanks to the blog foium, stuuents can
view each otheis final piouucts even if they aie not
shaieu in class.
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Naicus: The Chaiactei Web woiksheet auuiesses Naicus
neeu of giaphic oiganizeis. Woiking with peeis who aie
moie focuseu will help Naicus stay on task uuiing the
Aithuiian Investigation pioject.

Baviu: The teacheis multimeuia piesentation
(alteinating between PoweiPoint sliues anu shoit clips of
an euucational viueo) will aiu Bavius compiehension.
Woiking in small gioups will allow him to piactice
speaking in a lowei-stakes setting.

Chiistophe: The guiueu ieauing questions (foi his gioups
assigneu souices in the Aithuiian Investigation) will
help Chiistophe to ieau thiough the infoimation while
actively seaiching foi the impoitant infoimation. Woiking
S6
in a small gioup will help Chiistophe to gain a ueepei
unueistanuing of the texts thiough collaboiation.

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PoweiPoint; BvB: King Aithui : Bis Life anu Legenus (also
maue available on youtube
http:www.youtube.comwatch.v=cZLub_FNTNY);
sciatch papei; laige notecaius; small sheets of papei with
numbeis wiitten on them; chaiactei web; Rubiic anu
Instiuctions foi Aithuiian Investigation; Inuiviuual
Souices anu Roles foi each gioup
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-0pon enteiing the classioom, each stuuent takes a sheet
of papei anu a numbei fiom a bucket (1-8). The papei will
be useu foi the waim-up activity, anu the numbei will
ueteimine what gioup the stuuent will be in foi the
Aithuiian Investigation

Waim-up activity: embellishing otheis stoiies (S min)
Instiuctions to stuuents:
-Wiite uown a 1-sentences stoiy (keep it simple), then
pass it to the peison behinu you (if theie is no one behinu
you, pass it to the fiont.
-Now, embellish the stoiy you have been given (auu
uetails to make it seem moie fantasticattiactive) anu
pass it back again
-Auu uetails to this S
iu
stoiy. Then, give it back to the
peison who oiiginally wiote it.
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- Biscussion of activity (S min)
o The teachei asks foi 1-2 volunteeis to
ieau, tiace back to what the stoiy
oiiginally was
o The teachei asks: What happeneu theie.
anu ieminus them of the oial tiauition
telephone activity fiom the pievious unit.
The teachei asks what makes this game
uiffeient fiom the typical telephone.
- PoweiPointviueo: 0ial to Wiitten (S min)
o Teachei asks: who is the authoi of
Beowulf. (Stuuents shoulu know that
theie is no known single authoi). Baseu on
stuuent iesponses, teachei asks But if we
have it on papei, who wiote it uown.
o Stuuents iesponu to the essential question
(in notes): What happens when stoiies
fiom oial tiauition get wiitten uown.
What changes. What stays the same.
o Stuuents shaie iesponses foi essential
question.
- Intiouucing Aithui anu Legenu (PoweiPoint)
S7
(1u min)
o U$2"-)#)%" to Aithui: wiite eveiything
you know about Aithui
(2 min)
o Was King Aithui a man, oi is he just a
legenu. (Show of hanus who wiote man
anu who wiote legenu)
o Bis stoiy came fiom oial tiauition, but was
latei wiitten uown.
o Teachei uefinesX Legenu: a stoiy oi gioup
of stoiies tolu about a peison oi a place (as
if its histoiy)
! Teachei asks: Coulu Aithui be
both histoiy anu legenu.
o Watch fiist S minutes of viueo clip
(Aithui: Bis Life)
! Point out embellishment piocess
- PoweiPointviueo: Embellishing Aithui
(1S min)
o Fiom Celtic stoiies to Nonmouth
! Nonmouths auuience. Notive.
o The teachei plays the viueo clip on
Chietien chivaliy (S min) (Aithui: Bis
Life)
! Bave stuuents answei questions
uuiing clip (uisplayeu on
PoweiPoint sliues).
o Chitiens single heio auventuie mouel
o Chivaliy: teachei uefines geneially anu
gives specific chaiacteiistics
o Romance: teachei uefines geneial anu
gives chaiacteiistics
o Featuies of Quest
o Puipose = teach ieaueis viitues
- Tiansition: The teachei asks, Bow uoes liteiatuie
ieflect the values of the peoplecultuie of the
eia.
- Aithuiian Investigation (uioup investigation task)
(The teachei sets a classioom timei foi 2u
minutes.)
o Stuuents aie uiviueu into gioups of 4-S
baseu on the numbei they uiew at the
beginning of the class. Each gioup # will
ieseaich a uiffeient chaiacteitopic fiom
Aithuiian legenu (by ieauing anu answei
questions foi texts pioviueu) anu piepaie
an infoimal piesentation on the topic.
o Stuuents will woik in gioups of 4-S to
ieseaich anu compile an infoimal
piesentation on a topic
S8
o Each gioup will get a set of questions to
answei anu the instiuctions: The
piesentation must auuiess these
questions, but not in any paiticulai oiuei.
o Each membei will be assigneu a iole
(speak, wiite, ieau aiticle #1, ieau aiticle
#2, ieau aiticle #S)
Infoimal Piesentations (2 min each, 1 min foi Qs) (2S
min)
- 0n the scieen, the teachei uisplays the essential
questions that each gioup will be answeiing. All
othei stuuents aie instiucteu to take notes foi
answeis.
- Aftei piesentations: the teachei asks foi stuuent
iesponses on the effects of embellishment.
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Befoie piesentations aie uone, the teachei passes out
laige blank notecaius to all stuuents.
Exit slip: Answei Essential Q (1u minutes)
-Each stuuent inuiviuually answeis the essential question:
What happens when an oial legenu becomes a wiitten
account. What uoes this piocess imply about the
funuamental natuie of liteiatuie. Cite examples fiom
othei gioups piesentations to suppoit youi claims on
the fiont of a notecaiu (1u min)
BW: fill in chaiactei web using notes, textbook, anu the
Rochestei 0niveisity uatabase of Aithuiian Chaiacteis
(http:u.lib.iochestei.euuthemeCamelot%2uPioject).
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If stuuents fail to fill out the chaiactei web using notes,
textbook, anu the Rochestei 0niveisity uatabase
(http:u.lib.iochestei.euuthemeCamelot%2uPioject),
the teachei can point out specific chaiactei ielationships
uuiing the ieauing of Noite uAithui anu Sii uawain
anu the uieen Knight (instiucting stuuents to fill in theii
web little-by-little thioughout the unit).
N,L,$,"(,- 50)#J)" #J)-
3,--%";

Bailey, Chailene. "Naking the Niuule Ages Fun foi
Teacheis anu Stuuents." '()#"* $+, '#--., /*,0 12" 345
6,(7+,50 ("- 8$2-,"$0. Louisiana Enuowment foi the
Bumanities, 2uuu. Web. u7 Nay 2u14.

Caimichael, Ashley. "Aithuiian Legenu." 9"*.#0+ :
;472<,"$0 => !"#$. Winston Salem Foisyth County Public
Schools, n.u. Web. u7 Nay 2u14.

Cuiiin, Nathan. "King Aithui & The Knights of the Rounu
Table | Bistoiy, Legenu anu Eveiything in Between." ?#"*
/5$+25 @ 6+, ?"#*+$0 43 $+, A42"- 6(=., B C#0$45>D E,*,"-
("- 9F,5>$+#"* #" G,$H,,". Live Peison, 2uu1. Web. u7
Nay 2u14.

?#"* /5$+25% C#0 E#3, ("- E,*,"-0. A & E, 2uuS. BvB.
S9

"Legenu." 9"7>7.4I(,-#( G5#$(""#7(J 9"7>7.4I(,-#(
G5#$(""#7( K".#", /7(-,<#7 9-#$#4". Encyclopuia
Biitannica Inc., 2u14. Web. u7 Nay. 2u14.

0beimeiei, Anita. "Bi. 0beimeiei Poital Page." ;5J
K=,5<,#,5 L45$(. L(*,. 0niveisity of New Nexico, n.u.
Web. u7 Nay 2u14.

L5,"$#7, C(.. G5#$#0+ E#$,5($25, % 6#<,.,00 M4#7,0D 6#<,.,00
6+,<,0. 0ppei Sauule Rivei, N}: Pientice Ball, 2uuu. Piint.

6+, N(<,.4$ L54O,7$. The 0niveisity of Rochestei, n.u.
Web.

Woou, Nichael. "King Aithui, '0nce anu Futuie King'" GGN
P,H0. BBC, 17 Feb. 2u11. Web. u9 Nay 2u14.

N0TE: Attach oi inseit any mateiials useu in this lesson.

PoweiPoint; uocuments foi each gioups Aithuiian Investigation; Aithuiian Investigation
RubiicInstiuctions; uesciiption of inuiviuual ioles; Assigneu Questions foi each gioup;
Chaiactei Web
























4u



Character Web
Aftei viewing youi peeis' mini piesentations, use youi notes to fill in this web of
chaiactei ielations. If you cannot finu the answei in youi notes oi in the textbook,
seaich foi the answeis in the "Camelot Pioject" uatabase (0niveisity of Rochestei:
http:u.lib.iochestei.euucamelot-pioject). (Answei questions baseu on Naloiy's
account of the chaiactei ielations).






Reflection
Reflect on how Aithuiian legenu evolveu as vaiious authois auueu uetails ovei time.
Bow uoes this piocess of embellishment affect the ielationships among chaiacteis.







41

Arthurian Investigation: Mini Group Presentations (16 points)

In youi foluei you will finu youi gioup topic anu ioles (note-takei, ieauei, wiitei, oi
piesentation leauei). Beciue amongst youi gioup who will peifoim which iole.

Woik with youi gioup to ieau the text, answei the assigneu questions, anu piepaie
a 2-minute piesentation on the topic. In youi piesentation, you shoulu.

1) Intiouuce the topic
2) Biiectly answei the assigneu questions
S) Ask the iest of the class if they have any questions

Each of you has a specific iole, but you will be given a C$%'K C$2&, (incluuing
collaboiation). That means you must woik togethei anu help each othei. uoou luck!

CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Content Shows a full
understanding of
the topic.
Shows a good
understanding of
the topic.
Shows a good
understanding of
parts of the topic.
Does not seem to
understand the
topic very well.
Answer the
Questions
Students
accurately
answer almost all
of the assigned
questions.
Students
accurately
answer most of
the assigned
questions.
Students answer
a few of the
assigned
questions.
Students do not
accurately
answer the
assigned
questions.
Listens to Other
Presentations
Listens intently.
Does not make
distracting noises
or movements.
Listens intently
but has one
distracting noise
or movement.
Sometimes does
not appear to be
listening but is
not distracting.
Sometimes does
not appear to be
listening and has
distracting noises
or movements.
Collaboration
with Peers
Almost always
listens to, shares
with, and
supports the
efforts of others
in the group.
Tries to keep
people working
well together.
Usually listens to,
shares with, and
supports the
efforts of others
in the group.
Does not cause
\"waves\" in the
group.
Often listens to,
shares with, and
supports the
efforts of others
in the group but
sometimes is not
a good team
member.
Rarely listens to,
shares with, and
supports the
efforts of others
in the group.
Often is not a
good team
member.
Y$%'K <,7=,$-: Total Points (____ 16)
Piesentation Leauei: ________________________ uiaue: ____%
Reauei: ____________________________ Lettei Equivalent: _____
Note-takei:_________________________
Wiitei: ____________________________

42



H$#J'$)2" !"/,-#)C2#)%" Z N%3,- 2"& Y$%'K U%K)(-

Each stuuent will be given a sheet of papei uesciibing the gioup (coloi), topic, anu
iole that she has been assigneu. The gioups will have 1S minutes to ieau thiough
2-S uocuments on an assigneu topic, answei the assigneu questions, anu piepaie an
infoimal piesentation (teaching the iest of the class). The gioup ioles aie as follows:


N,2&,$: You aie the ieauei of youi gioup. Reau the uocument(s) out-louu to the
iest of youi gioup. Then, woik with youi team's "wiitei" to answei the assigneu
questions anu come up with a piesentation



9%#,P#2D,$: You aie in chaige of taking notes as the ieauei ieaus the uocuments.
Keep the assigneu questions in minu, but youi job is "4$ to wiite out the answeis.
Insteau, wiite uown any impoitant uetails that may auu to the claiity anu uepth of
youi piesentation.



Q$)#,$: You aie in chaige of wiiting the iesponses to the assigneu questions. Woik
with youi gioup to come up with cleai, uetaileu answeis that can be useu in the
piesentation.



A$,-,"#2#)%" +,2&,$: You aie in chaige of oiganizing the 2-minute piesentation.
All membeis can speak, but make suie you have a cleai plan so that theie is no
confusion. You aie also iesponsible foi keeping eveiyone on task.




The gioups aie as follows:
uioup 1: Aithui: Fiom Legenu to 'Bistoiy'
uioup 2: Aithui in Romances
uioup S: Neilin
uioup 4: Lancelot anu uuineveie
uioup S: Sii uawain
uioup 6: Noiuieu anu Noiguase
uioup 7: The Lauy of the Lake anu Excalibui
uioup 8: Epic vs. Romance
4S

Arthurian Investigation Group 1: Arthur From Legend to History
Woik togethei to ieau the text, take notes, anu answei the assigneu questions. Then,
piepaie a 2-minute piesentation to intiouuce youi assigneu topic to the class. Youi
piesentation shoulu answei the assigneu questions, but be suie to tieat the piesentation as
a chance to $,(7+ youi classmates (uon't just ielay infoimation).

:2(J C$%'K 7,7=,$ 0)33 =, $,-K%"-)=3, L%$ 2 -K,()L)( $%3, 5$%3,- 2##2(J,&;R ='# 233
7,7=,$- -J%'3& 0%$D #%C,#J,$ 2- 2 #,27S Y%%& 3'(D[

1) In what yeai uiu King Aithui fiist appeai in a text.

2) Who was the authoi.

S) Was the account moie of a legenu oi a histoiy.

4) What majoi event in Biitian spaikeu a floweiing in Celtic liteiatuie (give uate).
Why.

S) What wiitei gave the fiist full account of Aithui's life.

6) What is the name of the hugely influential book he wiote.

7) What souice uiu ueoffiey claim that he useu to finu infoimation about Aithui.

8) Accoiuing to the authoi, how uiu ueoffiey ueal with myth anu fact (legenu anu
'histoiy').







44
Arthurian Investigation Group 1: Arthur From Legend to History
First layer of the legend
3

The King Arthur that we know of today is a composite of
layers of different legends, written by different authors at
different times. He appears in his first incarnation in the
'History of the Britons', written in 830 and attributed to a
writer called Nennius.
Here Arthur appears as a heroic British general and a
Christian warrior, during the tumultuous late fifth century,
when Anglo-Saxon tribes were attacking Britain. In one of
the most pregnant passages in British history, Nennius says:
Then in those days Arthur fought against them with the
kings of the Britons, but he was commander [dux bellorum] in
those battles.
Nennius then gives a list of 12 battles fought by Arthur, a
list that belongs in an old tradition of battle-list poems in
Welsh poetry. Some of the names appear in other early
poems and annals, stretched over a wide period of time and
place, and the list represents the kind of eclectic plundering
that was the bards stock-in-trade.
So the 12 battles of Arthur are not history. One man could
not possibly have fought in all of them. The 12 battles are in
fact the first signs of a legend.
Historic Arthur
In the turmoil of the period following the Norman invasion in
1066, Celtic literature experienced a flowering. Much of it
concerned stories of the Welsh and the other Celtic Britons
in glorious triumph against their new masters. A shower of

S
Exceipt taken fiom Nichael Woou's aiticle, "'King A4ithui,' 0nce anu Futuie King
(BBC.co.uk)
4S
new histories also sprung forth, introducing the Normans to
the culture and the past of the Celts. All such stories need a
main protagonist, a hero to lead the troops, and this is
where Arthur fitted in.
Much of it concerned stories of the Welsh and the other
Celtic Britons in glorious triumph against their new masters.
Already known in Welsh poetry and in Nennius's history, he
was an obvious contender. And with that background it is
perhaps unsurprising that it was another Welsh writer who
propelled Arthur from being just a Celtic warrior to being a
mythical super-star.
The writer was Geoffrey of Monmouth, who spent his
working life in Oxford and here produced his momentous
work 'The History of the Kings of Britain'. Geoffrey claimed
the work was based on a secret lost Celtic manuscript that
only he was able to examine. But it's really a myth
masquerading as history, a fantastical tale of the history of
the British Isles, which concentrates its key pages on King
Arthur and his wondrous deeds.
In this work, for the first time, Arthur's whole life is told -
from his birth at Tintagel to his eventual betrayal and death.
Theres Guinevere and Merlin, theres the legendary sword
Caliburn (later known as Excalibur), and even the kings
final resting place at Avalon - though it's not yet identified
with Glastonbury.
At the time it was written Geoffreys book had a
tremendous influence, and over 200 manuscripts still remain
in existence. Its impact was as great in Europe as it was in
Britain. Geoffrey had an expert way of mixing myth with
fact, thus blurring reality - and this blend attracted a mass
audience, perhaps in the same way that works such as The
Da Vinci Code do today.
46
Arthurian Investigation Group 2: Arthur in Romances
Woik togethei to ieau the text, take notes, anu answei the assigneu questions. Then,
piepaie a 2-minute piesentation to intiouuce youi assigneu topic to the class. Youi
piesentation shoulu answei the assigneu questions, but be suie to tieat the piesentation as
a chance to $,(7+ youi classmates (uon't just ielay infoimation).

Each gioup membei will be iesponsible foi a specific iole (ioles attacheu), but 233 membeis
shoulu woik togethei as a team. uoou luck!

1) What key event biought the legenu of King Aithui to Fiance.

2) What political maiiiage encouiageu an inteimingling of Fiench anu English
liteiatuie.

S) Which Fiench wiitei of chivaliic iomances tuineu the Aithuiian Legenu into a
spiiitual quest. Bow uiu he uo so.

4) Accoiuing to the authoi, what uiu the uiail come to symbolize.

S) Which Aithuiian iomance was one of the fiist books to be piinteu in Englanu. When
was it publisheu.

6) Accoiuing to the aiticle, which Biitish monaichs accepteu Aithui as a histoiical anu
political figuie.

7) Why uo you think Beniy vIII painteu himself in the position of Aithui on a Rounu
Table.













47
Arthurian Investigation Group 2: Arthur in Romances

The Holy Grail
At the same time of Geoffrey of Monmouth, the stories of
Arthur began to bloom in the Celtic lands of northern France.
This French connection began soon after the Norman
Conquest, when Henry II of England married the vivacious
and beautiful Eleanor of Aquitaine. In their court the two
worlds of French and English literature intermingled, and
poets and troubadours transformed the Arthur legend from a
political fable to a tale of chivalric romance.
Perhaps the most important among the court writers was
Chrtien de Troyes, who worked for Eleanors daughter
Marie de Champagne. Chrtien is probably the greatest
medieval writer of Arthurian romances, and it was he who
turned the legend from courtly romance into spiritual quest.
The mysterious Holy Grail, one of the most captivating
motifs in all literature, first appears as part of the Arthurian
legend in Chrtien's unfinished poem 'Perceval, or the Story
of the Grail' (1181-90):
A girl came in, fair and comely and beautifully adorned, and
between her hands she held a grail. And when she carried
the grail in, the hall was suffused by a light so brilliant that
the candles lost their brightness as do the moon or stars
when the sun rises. After her came another girl bearing a
silver trencher. The grail was made of the finest pure gold,
and in it were set precious stones of many kinds, the richest
and most precious in the earth or the sea.
Chrtiens image of the grail, luminous and other-worldly,
became a mystical symbol of all human quests, of the
human yearning for something beyond, desirable and yet
unattainable. With that, the Arthur legend entered the true
realm of myth.
48

Arthur becomes political
By the time the Tudor king Henry VII came to the throne in
1485, chivalric tales of Arthur's knightly quests and of the
Knights of the Round Table, inspired by Chrtien de Troyes,
had roused British writers to pen their own versions, and
Arthur was a well-established British hero. Thomas Malory's
work the Death of Arthur, published in 1486, was one of the
first books to be printed in England.
It is a haunting vision of a knightly golden age swept away
by civil strife and the betrayal of its ideals. Malory identified
Winchester as Camelot, and it was there in the same year
that Henry VIIs eldest son was baptised as Prince Arthur,
to herald the new age.
In the meantime Geoffrey of Monmouth's tome had not been
forgotten, and Arthur was also seen as a political and
historical figure. Nowhere was this more true than in the
minds of 16th-century rulers of Britain, trying desperately to
prove their equal worth with their sometimes-ally
sometimes-foe Charles V, the great Holy Roman Emperor.
The young prince Arthur did not live to be crowned king and
usher in a true new Arthurian age, but in 1509 his younger
brother became Henry VIII and took in the message. He had
the Winchester Round Table of Edward III repainted, with
himself depicted at the top. Here he was shown as a latter-
day Arthur, a Christian emperor and head of a new British
empire, with claims once more to European glory, just as
Geoffrey of Monmouth and Thomas Malory had described.




49



Arthurian Investigation Group 3: Merlin

Woik togethei to ieau these uocuments, take notes, anu answei the assigneu questions.
Then, piepaie a 2-minute piesentation to intiouuce youi assigneu topic to the class. Youi
piesentation shoulu answei the assigneu questions, but be suie to tieat the piesentation as
a chance to $,(7+ youi classmates (uon't just ielay infoimation).

Each gioup membei will be iesponsible foi a specific iole (ioles attacheu), but 233 membeis
shoulu woik togethei as a team. uoou luck!

1) What makes the chaiactei Neilin uiffeient fiom the Aithui anu the othei knights.

2) Who fiist cieateu the chaiactei Neilin (then nameu 'Neilinus'). What 2 souices uiu
he combine to make this chaiactei.

S) What iole uiu Neilin play in 6+, C#0$45> 43 $+, ?#"*0 43 9"*.("-.

4) Bow uoes Sii Thomas Naloiy piesent Neilin in E, '45$, -Q/5$+25.

S) Bow was Neilin poitiayeu in the vulgate cycle.

6) What uoes the text tell us about Neilin's ielationship with the Lauy of the Lake (also
see the pictuie on the last page).
















Su

Arthurian Investigation Group 3: Merlin

Merlin the Magician
MERLIN, Arthur's adviser, prophet and magician, is basically the
creation of Geoffrey of Monmouth, who in his twelfth-century
History of the Kings of Britain combined the Welsh traditions
about a bard and prophet named Myrddin with the story that the
ninth-century chronicler Nennius tells about Ambrosius (that he
had no human father and that he prophesied the defeat of the
British by the Saxons).

Geoffrey gave his character the name Merlinus rather than
Merdinus (the normal Latinization of Myrddin) because the latter
might have suggested to his Anglo-Norman audience the vulgar
word "merde." In Geoffrey's book, Merlin assists Uther Pendragon
and is responsible for transporting the stones of Stonehenge from
Ireland, but he is not associated with Arthur. Geoffrey also wrote
a book of "Prophecies of Merlin" before his History. The
Prophecies were then incorporated into the History as its seventh
book. These led to a tradition that is manifested in other medieval
works, in eighteenth-century almanac writers who made
predictions under such names as Merlinus Anglicus, and in the
presentation of Merlin in later literature.

Merlin became very popular in the Middle Ages. He is central to a
major text of the thirteenth-century French Vulgate cycle, and he
figures in a number of other French and English romances. Sir
Thomas Malory, in the Le Morte d'Arthur presents him as the
adviser and guide to Arthur. In the modern period Merlin's
popularity has remained constant. He figures in works from the
Renaissance to the modern period. In The Idylls of the King,
Tennyson makes him the architect of Camelot. Mark Twain,
parodying Tennyson's Arthurian world, makes Merlin a villain, and
in one of the illustrations to the first edition of Twain's work
illustrator Dan Beard's Merlin has Tennyson's face. Numerous
novels, poems and plays center around Merlin. In American
literature and popular culture, Merlin is perhaps the most
frequently portrayed Arthurian character.

The Camelot Project, The University of Rochester





S1

Encyclopedia Britannica:

Merlin, enchanter and wise man in Arthurian legend and romance of the
Middle Ages, linked with personages in ancient Celtic mythology
(especially with Myrddin in Welsh tradition). He appeared in Arthurian
legend as an enigmatic figure, fluctuations and inconsistencies in his
character being often dictated by the requirements of a particular narrative or
by varying attitudes of suspicious regard toward magic and witchcraft. Thus,
treatments of Merlin reflect different stages in the development of Arthurian
romance itself.
Geoffrey of Monmouth, in Historia regum Britanniae (113538),
adapted a story, told by the Welsh antiquary Nennius (flourished c. 800), of
a boy, Ambrosius, who had given advice to the legendary British king
Vortigern. In Geoffreys account Merlin-Ambrosius figured as adviser to
Uther Pendragon (King Arthurs father) and afterward to Arthur himself. In
a later work, Vita Merlini, Geoffrey further developed the story of Merlin by
adapting a northern legend about a wild man of the woods, gifted with
powers of divination. Early in the 13th century, Robert de Borrons verse
romance Merlin added a Christian dimension to the character, making him
the prophet of the Holy Grail (whose legend had by then been linked with
Arthurian legend). The author of the first part of the Vulgate cycle made the
demonic side of Merlins character predominate, but in later branches of the
Vulgate cycle, Merlin again became the prophet of the Holy Grail, while his
role as Arthurs counselor was filled out; it was Merlin, for example, who
advised Uther to establish the knightly fellowship of the Round Table and
who suggested that Uthers true heir would be revealed by a test that
involved drawing a sword from a stone in which it was set. It also included a
story of the wizards infatuation with the Lady of the Lake, which eventually
brought about his death.










S2

Merlin falls victim to the spells of his own apprentice, Vivien, who
may have been the Lady of the Lake.






















SS
Arthurian Investigation Group 4: Guinevere and Lancelot
Queen Guinevere

Woik togethei to ieau these uocuments, take notes, anu answei the assigneu questions.
Then, piepaie a 2-minute piesentation to intiouuce youi assigneu topic to the class. Youi
piesentation shoulu answei the assigneu questions, but be suie to tieat the piesentation as
a chance to $,(7+ youi classmates (uon't just ielay infoimation).

Each gioup membei will be iesponsible foi a specific iole (ioles attacheu), but 233 membeis
shoulu woik togethei as a team. uoou luck!

1) Though uiffeient tiauitions have uiffeient accounts of wheie uuineveie came fiom,
they all agiee that she is the wife of King Aithui. What else uo all poitiayals of
uuineveie agiee upon.

2) Nany iomances tell of uuineveie's elicit ielationships with Sii Lancelot anu
Noiuieu, but hei iole in these ielationships vaiies fiom text to text. What aie the
two main steieotypical female ioles that uuineveie is cast as.

S) Which wiitei makes Lancelot uuineveie's lovei in his stoiy.

4) Accoiuing to 6(F4.( A#$4"-(, wheie uoes Lancelot giow up. Who iaises him.

S) What event leu to the uisbanument of the iounu table.

6) What is the stoiy of the "False uuineveie" of Fiench Romance.

7) Consiuei the legenu of Aithui's "Thiee Chief Queens", the "False uuineveie," anu
uuineveie's ielations with vaiious male chaiacteis. Bow woulu you say women aie
poitiayeu in Aithuiian iomance.





















S4

Arthurian Investigation Group 4: Guinevere and Lancelot
Queen Guinevere
vaiiously poitiayeu in liteiatuie, she is calleu the uaughtei of King Leouegiance
(Lleuuu-0gifan) of Cameliaiu by Naloiy, the uaughtei of King 0gifan uawi (the
uiant) of Castell y Cnwclas (Knucklas Castle) by Welsh Tiauition, the uaughtei of
King uailin
of Galore by Germanic tradition, the daughter of a Roman noble by Geoffrey of Monmouth and wife of King
Arthur by everyone.

In all cases, she is suipassingly beautiful anu uesiiable. She is eithei foiceu into oi
conceives anu engineeis an extia-maiital ielationship with Lancelot anu is
conuemneu, accoiuing to law. She eithei was a willing accomplice to Noiuieu's
tieacheiy against Aithui, as suggesteu in Wace anu Layamon, oi was foiceu into it
against hei will as stateu in }ohn Baiuyng's "Chionicle" (14S7). Eaily mentions of
uuineveie, in the 65#(-0 43 $+, R0.("- 43 G5#$(#", give tantalizing glimpses of hei
oiiginal ielationship with Noiuieu: he is shown foicing his way into Aithui's Couit,
uiagging the Queen fiom hei thione anu stiiking hei, but the ieasons why aie
unknown. The inciuent may have been ielateu to quaiiels between uuineveie anu
hei sistei, Noiuieu's wife, uwenhwyfach, which aie saiu to have been the eventual
cause of the Battle of Camlan.

uiialuus Cambiensis says the cioss claimeu uuineveie as Aithui's "seconu wife".
This appeais to echo the stoiy of the False uuineveie of Fiench Romance: an
iuentical half-sistei of the Queen fatheieu on the same night who peisuaueu Aithui
that she was his tiue wife. Foi two anu a half yeais, the King was sepaiateu fiom the
ieal uuineveie until the ueception was uncoveieu. Theie is also an ancient 65#(- 43
$+, R0.("- 43 G5#$(#" which iecoius Aithui's "Thiee Chief Queens": uwenhwyfai
uaughtei of Cywiyu, uwenhwyfai uaughtei of uwythyi ap uieiuiol anu uwenhwyfai
uaughtei of 0gifan uawi. This may fuithei inuicate the confusion ovei the lauy's
paientage as alieauy alluueu to. Alteinatively, the thiee uuineveies coulu show a
common Tiiple-uouuess motif at the ioot of many latei Celtic chaiacteis. Whatevei
uuineveie was oi was not, she has been a useful tool in the hanus of the iomanceis
thioughout the centuiies anu has gieatly enhanceu the legenus of King Aithui.












SS



Sir Lancelot Du Lac (Launcelot)
In Chitien ue Toyes's 95,7 (ca. 116S), Lancelot is saiu to be the thiiu best knight
aftei uawain anu Eiec, but in Chitien's E("7,.4$ (1179-118u), Lancelot becomes
the cential figuie anu the lovei of uuineveie who is willing to take any iisk oi to
suffei any inuignity in seivice of the queen. Accoiuing to both Chitien anu 0liich
von Zatzikhoven, that Lancelot was iaiseu by a faiiy. 0liich tells how this woman
who lives in an enchanteu iealm in the sea iaises Lancelot until he is fifteen, at
which point he asks to be alloweu to go into the woilu to eain honoi. In 0liich's
E("S,.,$, Lanzelet nevei becomes the queen's lovei; although he is a lovei of seveial
lauies, his tiue love is Yblis, whom he ultimately maiiies anu with whom he has a
uaughtei anu thiee sons.

In the fouiteenth-centuiy 6(F4.( A#$4"-(, Lancilotto is taken anu iaiseu by the Lauy
of the Lake when his mothei uostanza uies in chilubiith. The Lauy of the Lake
names him Lancilotto, which is saiu to mean "veiy wise anu skilleu knight of the
lance anu swoiu." In the thiiteenth-centuiy vulgate E("7,.4$, Lancelot is iaiseu by
the Lauy of the Lake when his fathei uies uue to the tieacheiy of Clauuas. It is fiom
this upbiinging that he is calleu "uu Lac" oi "of the Lake".

Nany souices tell us of the love shaieu towaiu each othei of Lancelot anu Queen
uuineveie. Theie may be some tiuth to this since Lancelot was a favoiite of the
Queen's, anu he iescueu hei fiom the stake on two uiffeient occasions. It was at one
of these iescues that Lancelot mistakenly killeu Sii uaieth, which leu to the
uisbanument of the Rounu Table. Aftei the Queen iepenteu to an abbey as a nun,
Lancelot liveu the iest of his life as a heimit in penitence.

Biu Lancelot oiiginate in Celtic mythology, uiu Chitien ue Toyes invent him in
116S, oi uiu he ieally live as a famous knight anu heio. We may nevei know... but
Launcelot will always live in oui imaginations as one of the gieatest knights in
histoiy.
S6















































Queen Guinevere (by William Morris)
S7
Arthurian Investigation Group 5: Sir Gawain

Woik togethei to ieau the text, take notes, anu answei the assigneu questions. Then,
piepaie a 2-minute piesentation to intiouuce youi assigneu topic to the class. Youi
piesentation shoulu answei the assigneu questions, but be suie to tieat the piesentation as
a chance to $,(7+ youi classmates (uon't just ielay infoimation).

Each gioup membei will be iesponsible foi a specific iole (ioles attacheu), but 233 membeis
shoulu woik togethei as a team. uoou luck!

1) Who is Sii uawain. What familial ielation of his makes him an impoitant knight in
most accounts.


2) What author first establishes that Gawain holds this important familial relation?


3) Why does the article describe Gawains character as inconsistent? Use
examples to support your answer.


4) How is Sir Gawain portrayed in the poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight?


5) How does Thomas Malory portray him in Le Morte dArthur?


6) Why does the author describe Gawain as the Arthurian everyman?











S8
Arthurian Investigation Group 5: Sir Gawain
Sir Gawain
uawain, usually the son of King Lot of 0ikney anu Aithui's sistei Noigause, is one of the
most peivasive figuies of the Aithuiian tiauition. Be appeais in neaily all of the majoi
Aithuiian stoiies, meuieval anu mouein, anu plays a cential iole in many. Theie aie, in fact,
moie meuieval iomances uevoteu to uawain's exploits than to those of any othei of Aithui's
knights, incluuing Lancelot, Tiistan, anu ualahau. Even in iomances not specifically uevoteu
to his auventuies, uawain often plays a stiong suppoiting iole. In Chitien's L,57,F(., foi
example, moie than half of the naiiative focuses on uawain iathei than the title chaiactei,
anu in Naloiy, uawain figuies piominently thioughout, anu plays key suppoiting ioles in
both the uiail quest anu in the '45$, /5$+25. Bis uemeanoi anu peisonality vaiy a bit fiom
stoiy to stoiy, but even if uawain uoes not always iank as the best of Aithui's knights, he is
still one of the most impoitant.

uawain's impoitance in the Aithuiian woilu stems in pait fiom his familial ielationship to
Aithui, which is establisheu in ueoffiey of Nonmouth's C#0$45> 43 $+, ?#"*0 43 G5#$(#".
Though uawain may in fact appeai in eailiei Aithuiian taleshe is sometimes associateu
with uwalchmai, a figuie who appeais in N2.H7+ ("- K.H," anu some of the Welsh Tiiaus
it is in the C#0$45> that uawain is fiist piesenteu as the son of Loth of Lothian anu Aithui's
sistei Anna. Though the names of uawain's paients may change in latei woiks, this nephew-
uncle connection geneially iemains. As the eluest son of Aithui's sistei, uawain is the
neaiest male ielative of the king anu thus enjoys a paiticulaily close anu piivilegeu
ielationship with the usually chiluless Aithui. Be is not the piince, howevei, anu uoes not
beai piincely iesponsibility, which means that, though uawain is veiy much a pait of the
couitly innei ciicle, he is not bounu to the couit itself, anu can thus exeicise significant
fieeuom of action. In the C#0$45>, wheie Aithui is a veiy active anu maitial figuie, this
fieeuom of action is somewhat less appaient, but in latei iomances, wheie Aithui is moie
notably bounu to thione anu couit anu the naiiatives themselves focus moie on knight-
eiiantiy, uawain seems as comfoitable on a quest as in the couit. As Aithui's nephew, he
can be, without appaient contiauiction, both the counseloi anu waiiioi of the chionicle
tiauition anu the knight-eiiant of the iomances, anu it is this veiy elasticity of chaiactei
which seems to have maue uawain such an attiactive subject foi so many stoiytelleis.

With so many stoiytelleis iunning him thiough his paces, it shoulu come as no suipiise that
uawain is not the most consistent chaiacteiin iomances like 8#5 T(H(#" ("- $+, T5,,"
?"#*+$ anu 8#5 T(H(#" ("- $+, N(5. 43 N(5.#0.,, foi example, he is the embouiment of couitly
viitue, while in the U2,0$, -,. 0(#"$ *5((. he is spiiitually unfit to paiticipate in the uiail
Quest. In Naloiy, he is quite flaweu, even to the point of being thuggish. ueneially speaking,
howevei, uawain tenus to come off faiily well, paiticulaily in the inuepenuent oi non-
cyclical iomances which aie not attacheu to a laigei Aithuiian chionology. In such
S9
iomances, both in English anu in Fiench, uawain is often a "fixei" of soits, eithei iepaiiing
the uamage uone oi completing the quest flubbeu by anothei knight. A mouel of piowess
anu couitesy, uawain is able to succeeu wheie the othei (often, but not always, a booiish Sii
Kay) has faileu. E( <2., 0("0 35,#" anu the Caile of Cailisle iomances, foi example, featuie
uawain making up foi Kay's typical shoitcomings, though in the unusual '(5F,.0 43
A#*4<,5, uawain comes to the iescue of no less a knight than Lancelot himself.

In some chionicles anu cyclical iomances, howevei, wheie a gieatei naiiative scope offeis
ioom foi moie complex oi conflicteu iepiesentations, uawain is often a bit less absolute in
chaiactei. In these woiks, uawain tenus to exist not so much as a cential figuie in solitaiy
auventuie, but as one among many, a figuie whose qualities anu behaviois aie consistently
subject to uiiect compaiison with a iange of othei chivaliic figuies. In ueoffiey's C#0$45>, foi
example, uawain is an impiessive youthful waiiioi anu captain whose notable ueeus
stiiking off the heau of a Roman noble to avenge an insult anu facing Lucius in single
combataie ueciueuly maitial anu aie uesciibeu within the context of a seiies of battles in
which many nameu figuies paiticipate. In Naloiy, we get one of the uaikest, oi at least most
conflicteu, meuieval veisions of uawain. Influenceu in pait by the Fiench L540, 65#0$(",
Naloiy's uawain often behaves nobly but also, at times, is notably uiscouiteous, iefuses
iequests foi meicy, bieaks oaths, contiibutes to numeious unnecessaiy ueaths, anu is even
implicateu in a colu-blooueu muiuei unueitaken to avenge his fathei's ueath. All of these
vaiious iepiesentations, howevei, ueiive much of theii foice fiom the compaiative quality
of these naiiativesuawain's failuies aie illuminateu by the successes of otheis, his
ignoble behaviois highlighteu by the nobility of otheis, anu his activities juugeu in the
conveisations anu iesponses of otheis.

uawain may peihaps best be uesciibeu as the Aithuiian eveiyman, a chaiactei who often
functions on a veiy human scale, failing anu succeeuing, but leaining anu piogiessing as
well. It is this last that is peihaps most impoitant in any oveiall consiueiation of uawain as
chaiactei. Sometimes he is the best knight, anu sometimes not, but even as he fails he can
leain fiom his mistakes, anu sometimes becomes a bettei knight because of them.
0ltimately, it may be this unusual capacity foi chaiactei uevelopment, iooteu in but not
limiteu to his familial ielationship with Aithui, that has maue uawain such a piominent
figuie in the Aithuiian pantheon.
(The Camelot Pioject 0niveisity of Rochestei)








6u
Arthurian Investigation: Group 6: Mordred & Morgause

Woik togethei to ieau these uocuments, take notes, anu answei the assigneu questions.
Then, piepaie a 2-minute piesentation to intiouuce youi assigneu topic to the class. Youi
piesentation shoulu answei the assigneu questions, but be suie to tieat the piesentation as
a chance to $,(7+ youi classmates (uon't just ielay infoimation).

Each gioup membei will be iesponsible foi a specific iole (ioles attacheu), but 233 membeis
shoulu woik togethei as a team. uoou luck!

1) The fiist paiagiaph of "Noiuieu" gives, in chionological oiuei, a shoit summaiy of
Noiuieu's appeaiances in Aithuiian texts. Bow uoes Noiuieu's iole change ovei
time.



2) What uoes this change illustiate about how Aithuiian legenu has evolveu.




S) uive a biief summaiy of the incest motif as peitains to Noiuieu.



4) Accoiuing to Thomas Naloiy, What is Noiguase's ielation to King Aithui.




S) Bow was Noiuieu iegaiueu in the eailiest souices (Welsh).



6) Consiuei how Noiuieu evolveu as a chaiactei ovei time. What uoes it tell you about
the impoitance of embellishment in the uevelopment of Aithuiian legenu.















61
Arthurian Investigation Group 6: Mordred & Morgause

Mordred
in the Annales Cambriae we are told that Arthur and Medrawt (Mordred) perished
at Camlan, but we are not told they were on different sides. Geoffrey informs us
that Mordred was Arthur's nephew, the son of Arthur's sister Anna and her husband, Lot
of Lothian. The Dream of Rhonabwy makes him Arthur's foster-son as well as his nephew. Geoffrey asserts
that, when Arthur was away on his Roman campaign, Mordred seized Guinevere and the throne, thus
paving the way for their final battle. Ly Myreur des Historires claims Mordred survived the battle, only to be
defeated by Lancelot who executed Guinevere - doubtless because he thought she had willingly complied in
being seized - and incarcerated Mordred with her dead body which Mordred ate before dying of starvation.

The incest motif in the story of Mordred's birth appears only latterly. The earliest
occurence is in the Mort Artu. In Malory's version, Arthur slept with his half-sister
Morgause, not knowing they were related and, as a result, Mordred was born.
When Arthur discovered the whole truth, in an attempt to kill Mordred he had all
children born on the day of Mordred's birth set adrift. The ship carrying Mordred
was wrecked, but he survived and was fostered by Nabur.

As an adult, Mordred became one of Arthur's knights and was for a time a
companion of Lancelot. He took the part of the Orkney family against the family
of Pellinore, slaying Pellinore's son, Lamorak. When Arthur went to fight
Lancelot, Mordred was left as regent in his absence. He proclaimed that Arthur
was dead and then laid siege to Guinevere, so Arthur's return became
necessary.

In Wace, Mordred is not Arthur's son, but Guinevere (whom he seized and made
his queen) was his sister. In the Alliterative Morte Arthure, he and Guinevere had
a child. In Welsh tradition Mordred married Cywyllog, daughter of Caw, and they
had two sons. In the earliest Welsh sources he seems to have been regarded as
a hero rather than a villain.


Morgause
Although Morgause remains, even in many modern Arthurian texts, a relatively
minor character compared with women like Guinevere and Morgan le Fay, her
small role is a crucial one. According to Thomas Malory, she is one of the three
daughters of Igrayne and the Duke of Cornwall, half-sister to Arthur, and later,
the wife of King Lot of Orkney and the mother of Gawaine, Gaheris, Agravaine,
Gareth, and Mordred. Depending on the text, the same character has the name
Anna (Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regnum Brittaniae, Layamon's Brut) or
Belisent (Alliterative Morte Arthure, Tennyson's Idylls of the King). Because of
her minor role, she is frequently, as in John Boorman's film Excalibur, conflated
with her more infamous sister, Morgan le Fay. While she is usually eclipsed by
Morgan, Morgause is best-known for committing incest when she sleeps with
Arthur and conceives Mordred. In medieval texts, specifically the French Vulgate
cycle and the Prose Merlin, Arthur is attracted to a woman identified only as King
Lot's wife and deceives her into thinking he is her husband. It is only afterward
62
that Arthur realizes he has committed incest. Mordred is the product of this
union.


Mordred Fighting Arthur










































Arthur deals Mordred a mortal blow, but in return Mordred
gives Arthur a wound which proved to be fatal.
6S
Arthurian Investigation Group 7: The Lady of the Lake & Excalibur

Woik togethei to ieau these uocuments, take notes, anu answei the assigneu questions.
Then, piepaie a 2-minute piesentation to intiouuce youi assigneu topic to the class. Youi
piesentation shoulu answei the assigneu questions, but be suie to tieat the piesentation as
a chance to $,(7+ youi classmates (uon't just ielay infoimation).

Each gioup membei will be iesponsible foi a specific iole (ioles attacheu), but 233 membeis
shoulu woik togethei as a team. uoou luck!

1) What famous object uoes the Lake of the Lake give to Aithui.


2) In eaily folkloie, what type of being is the Lauy of the Lake.


S) In Aithuiian legenu, what othei names uoes the Lauy of the Lake have.


4) Accoiuing to Aithuiian legenu, what uoes vivien uo to Neilin.


S) Why uoes the authoi claim that vivien is an ambiguous chaiactei.




6) uive 2 examples of how vivien's chaiactei (especially hei ielation to Neilin) is
poitiayeu in uiffeient ways.





















64
Arthurian Investigation Group 7: The Lady of the Lake & Excalibur
The Lady of the Lake
This mysteiious female gave Aithui his swoiu, Excalibui. She stole
Lancelot when he was a chilu anu cuieu him when he went mau. She
may be a Celtic lake uivinity in oiigin, peihaps of the same kinu as the
uwaggeu Annwn - lake faiiies in mouein Welsh folkloie. In 0liich, the
faiiy who iaiseu Lancelot is the mothei of Nabuz. As Nabuz is piobably
iuentical with the Celtic gou Nabon, it woulu seem that the faiiy must be
Noigan Le Fay who was, eailiei, Nabon's mothei. Nationa. A lauy of the
lake, peihaps a uiffeient one, was killeu by Balin.

M#F#," may veiy well have been the Lauy of the Lake in the Aithuiian
Legenus anu stoiies. vivien, sometimes calleu Nineve, Nimue, Niniane,
etc., is best known as the woman who sealeu Neilin in a cave oi a tiee.
Bespite foieseeing his fate, Neilin was unable to pievent being
captivateu anu captuieu by the woman Richaiu Wilbui has calleu "a
cieatuie to bewitch a soiceiei." vivien is an ambiguous chaiactei. In
Naloiy, foi example, even though Nyneve, who is one of the Lauies of
the Lake, uepiives Aithui of Neilin's seivice, she iescues him twice,
fiist by saving him fiom Accolon who has been given Excalibui by
Noigan le Fay to use against Aithui, anu then by pieventing him fiom
uonning the uestiuctive cloak sent to him by Noigan. She also uses hei
enchantments to punish Ettaiue foi hei mistieatment of Pelleas. In the
enu she anu Pelleas "loveue togeuyis uuiyng theii lyfe" (loveu togethei
uuiing theii life).

The chaiactei is ambiguous even in hei eailiest appeaiances. In the
Fiench vulgate 90$4#5, -, ',5.#", she loves the enchantei anu seals him
in a beautiful towei, magically constiucteu, so that she can keep him
always foi heiself. She visits him iegulaily anu giants hei love to him. In
the continuation to the vulgate Neilin, known as the 82#$, -2 ',5.#", the
ielationship is veiy uiffeient. When Neilin shows hei a tomb of two
loveis, magically sealeu, she enchants him anu has him cast into the
tomb on top of the two loveis, wheieupon she ieseals the tomb anu
Neilin uies a slow ueath. Tennyson tuins vivien into the epitome of evil.
Though boiiowing much fiom Tennyson, Euwin Ailington Robinson, in
the poem, ',5.#", makes Neilin's "captivity" voluntaiy, anu his vivian is
less of an enchantiess than an inteiesting woman whom Neilin tiuly
loves.

6S

Excalibur vs. The Sword in the Stone
The Swoiu in the Stone, sometimes a swoiu in an anvil, is uiawn by Aithui as pioof
of his biithiight anu of his nobility. It is both a test anu a miiaculous sign of his
ioyalty. The swoiu uiawn fiom the stone is uiffeient fiom the one given to Aithui
by the Lauy of the Lake. The lattei is always iefeiieu to as Excalibui; the foimei is
calleu by that name only once, when Aithui uiaws the swoiu at a ciucial moment in
the fiist battle to test his soveieignty (vinavei I, 19): "thenne he uiewe his sweiu
Excalibui, but it was so bieyght in his enemyes eyen that it gaf light lyke thiity
toichys."

The Camelot Project, The University of Rochester


The Lady of the Lake


































Vivien, the probable Lady of the
Lake enchanted Merlin and
imprisoned him forever.
66
Arthurian Investigation Group 8 - Old English Epic vs. Medieval Romance
Woik togethei to ieau these uocuments, take notes, anu answei the assigneu questions.
Then, piepaie a 2-minute piesentation to intiouuce youi assigneu topic to the class. Youi
piesentation shoulu answei the assigneu questions, but be suie to tieat the piesentation as
a chance to $,(7+ youi classmates (uon't just ielay infoimation).

Each gioup membei will be iesponsible foi a specific iole (ioles attacheu), but 233 membeis
shoulu woik togethei as a team. uoou luck!

1) What is an epic.




2) What aie the most impoitant featuies of an epic.




S) What is a meuieval iomance.




4) What aie the most impoitant featuies of a meuieval iomance.




S) What featuies associateu with epics can also be seen in meuieval iomances.





6) In what ways uo meuieval iomances uiffei fiom the piototypical epic of oial
tiauition (e.g., Beowulf).





7) Besciibe at least one impoitant theme typical to meuieval iomance that is absent
fiom the piototypical epic of oial tiauition.






67
Arthurian Investigation Group 8 - Old English Epic vs. Medieval Romance
Epic (Encyclopedia Britannica)
An epic may deal with such various subjects as myths, heroic legends, histories,
edifying religious tales, animal stories, or philosophical or moral theories.
Epic poetry has been and continues to be used by peoples all over the world to
transmit their traditions from one generation to another, without the aid of writing.
These traditions frequently consist of legendary narratives about the glorious
deeds of their national heroes. Thus, scholars have often identified epic with a
certain kind of heroic oral poetry, which comes into existence in so-called heroic
ages. Such ages have been experienced by many nations, usually at a stage of
development in which they have had to struggle for a national identity. This effort,
combined with such other conditions as an adequate material culture and a
sufficiently productive economy, tend to produce a society dominated by a
powerful and warlike nobility, constantly occupied with martial activities, whose
individual members seek, above all, everlasting fame for themselves and for their
lineages.
Uses of the epic
The main function of poetry in heroic-age society appears to be to stir the spirit of
the warriors to heroic actions by praising their exploits and those of their
illustrious ancestors, by assuring a long and glorious recollection of their fame,
and by supplying them with models of ideal heroic behaviour. One of the
favourite pastimes of the nobility in heroic ages in different times and places has
been to gather in banquet halls to hear heroic songs, in praise of famous deeds
sung by professional singers as well as by the warriors themselves. Heroic songs
also were often sung before a battle, and such recitations had tremendous effect
on the morale of the combatants. Among the Fulani (Fulbe) people in the Sudan,
for instance, whose epic poetry has been recorded, a nobleman customarily set
out in quest of adventures accompanied by a singer (mabo), who also served as
his shield bearer. The singer was thus the witness of the heroic deeds of his lord,
which he celebrated in an epic poem called baudi.



68
Medieval Romance
(Goucher College)X Neuieval iomances aie naiiative fictions iepiesenting the
auventuies anu values of the aiistociacy. Romances may be wiitten in piose, in
which case they tenu to iesemble "histoiies," with moie pietense to being tiuthful
about the past, oi they may be wiitten in stanzaic of non-stanzaic veise, in which
case the naiiatois iaiely make moie than peifunctoiy effoits to simulate
histoiicity. Chaiacteis neaily always aie, oi aie ievealeu to be, knights, lauies,
kings, queens, anu othei assoiteu nobles. Plots often involve conflicts between
feuual allegiances, puisuit of quests (by males) anu enuuiance of oiueals (by
females), anu the piogiess oi failuie of love ielationships, often auulteious oi
among unmaiiieu membeis of the couit. Romances typically stiess the
piotagonists' chaiactei uevelopment ovei any minoi chaiacteis, anu neaily all seem
like "type chaiacteis" to mouein ieaueis useu to full psychological iealism. Naivels,
especially the supeinatuial, ioutinely occui in iomance plots, wheieas they aie
vieweu with skepticism in histoiies, though they also aie positively necessaiy to
saint's lives, a naiiative foim which iesembles both histoiies anu
iomance. "Romance" is not a synonym foi social behaviois leauing to sexual
behavioi oi maiiiage (a Nou.E. appiopiiation of one aspect of the
genie). "Romantic" is a teim almost nevei useu in Neuieval. Romance is an
ancestoi of the novel.
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69
Dr. Anita Obermeier , The University of New Mexico
From OE Epic to ME Romance
.: :K)( <: N%72"(,
1) Epic (according to Aristotle) places the emphasis on character
and its development in a series of fairly restricted adventures.
Romance, howevei, places moie
emphasis on the auventuies
themselves.
2) Thus epics voice the aspirations of large groups of people, races,
nations. They depict a single figure fighting against a force
threatening to destroy that whole nation. People see the epic hero as
a projection of their whole race.
Romance, on the othei hanu, sees
the heio in a much moie
iestiicteu setting, conceineu only
with a single gioup, family, oi class,
such as the Knights of the Rounu
Table.
3) Epics concentrate on natural and single themes.
Romance centers on a series of
sensational episodes.
4) Epics tend to humanize characters.
Romances are concerned with
characters who are fantastic creations.
5) Epics are concerned with the development of
character.
In iomance you have the "iomance
conuition." What is of inteiest in the
iomance is how the heio will
confiont a paiticulai tiial.
Pieuecessois of the Biluungsioman.
6) Heroes always have a good reason for fighting in epics (save the
people).
In iomance, they fight foi the sake of
the auventuie itself oi to gain
a lauy's love.
7) Epic is totally masculine world.
Increasing importance of women.
Actual change in social circumstances.
8) In general, epic values are Germanic. Romance values aie aiistociatic.
9) Settings in epic are related to reality. Settings in iomance aie exotic.
10) Governed by the heroic code (comitatus).
Governed by the chivalric code
(humility, service, obedience to God
and/or women).
11) Epics usually end in tragedy.
Idealized view of "self- realization."
Therefore, romances tend to end
happily, because if the hero comes to
realize who he is, then everything in
his romance world is put into order.
12) In a very general way, epics are realistic.
Romances aie saciamental (ielateu
to the saint's legenu).
13) Common subject of the epic is the situation.
Common subject of the iomance is
the quest.






7u
+,--%" W `

0#112( !'34#5 Reauing '45$, -Q/5$+25 foi chaiacteiization anu symbolism


!"#$%&'(#)%"

+,--%" ./,$/),0

Stuuents will ieau '45$, -Q/5$+25 (pp. 178-184) in class
while taking notes on the chaiacteiization anu symbolism.
1%(23 4#2"&2$&- 56%77%"
6%$, 8 96 :--,"#)23
4#2"&2$&-;

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1 - Cite stiong anu
thoiough textual eviuence to suppoit analysis of what the
text says explicitly as well as infeiences uiawn fiom the
text, incluuing ueteimining wheie the text leaves matteis
unceitain.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.S - Analyze the impact of
the authoi's choices iegaiuing how to uevelop anu ielate
elements of a stoiy oi uiama (e.g., wheie a stoiy is set,
how the action is oiueieu, how the chaiacteis aie
intiouuceu anu uevelopeu).
<,2-'$,2=3, .=>,(#)/,
?2-,& %" 6%"#,"#
4#2"&2$&5-;

- Stuuents will wiite a 1-paiagiaph analyze Aithui's
chaiactei baseu on Nalloiy's account of his uieam,
citing specific examples fiom the text foi suppoit.
- As they ieau, stuuents will wiite uown all
impoitant actions anu symbols, inteipiet theii
significance in the text, anu cite the page numbei
(on the annotation guiue, to be tuineu in)
- Stuuents will piouuce oiiginal illustiations that
iepiesent a synthesizeu summaiy of the
impoitant actions anu symbols in the stoiy (using
theii annotations foi suppoit).
:--,"#)23 @',-#)%"5-;

Bow aie chaiacteis uevelopeu in meuieval iomances.
A$)%$ B"%03,&C,

Notes on stuuent piesentations fiom pievious class (each
on a cential chaiactei oi theme in the text), knowleuge of
Beowulf, Bieam vision motif
+)"D #% EF
-#
6,"#'$G 4D)33-

Cieativity anu Innovation - Befoie the beginning of the
next class, stuuents will cieate oiiginal illustiations of the
impoitant actions anu symbols of the ieauing.

H--,--7,"#IH((%77%&2#)%"

1%$72#)/, H--,--7,"#
52##2(J -K,()L)( )"-#$'(#)%"-
2"&I%$ ,M27K3,-;

- Analysis of Aithui's uieam (bell-iingei) anu how
Nalloiy uevelops each chaiactei (wiitten on the
same sheet to be tuineu in at the enu of the
lesson). Foi both wiiting assessments, stuuents
aie instiucteu to suppoit theii claims by citing
specific woius, phiases, anu uetails fiom the text.
- Annotation guiue (tuineu in at the beginning of
the next lesson): this assessment shows each
71
stuuent's to iuentify specific plot uetails anu
inteipiet theii significance.
- 8-fiame Stoiyboaiu (uue next class): stuuents use
theii annotations on actions anu symbols to plan
anu execute a visual iepiesentation of the stoiy
that synthesizes the plot uetails into a sequenceu
stoiyboaiu (like a comic stiip).
4'772#)/, H--,--7,"#
52##2(J -K,()L)( )"-#$'(#)%"-
%$ ,M27K3,-;

Students write an original quest narrative (at least 700 words)
featuring a hero, an object or goal, and each of the stages of
the Heros Journey. In addition, the story must develop at
least 3 symbols and a deeper moral significance for the quest.

After peer-editing rough drafts in small groups, students post
their final drafts on their blog page. This post must include
manuscript illuminations: illustrations that depict at least 3
key plot points and at least 3 symbols.

This summative assessment will not be uue until aftei the
unit is finisheu. Thanks to the blog foium, stuuents can
view each otheis' final piouucts even if they aie not
shaieu in class.
H((%77%&2#)%"-
5-K,()L)( #% #J)- 3,--%" 2"&
=2-,& %" -K,()L)( -#'&,"#-;

Naicus - The "Annotation uuiue" woiksheet will help
Naicus to sequence the naiiative of the ieauing anu
oiganize his thoughts giaphically. The Stoiyboaiu
assignment (baseu on his annotations) will allow him to
synthesize anu ietain the sequence of events in the stoiy.

Baviu - The unabiiugeu auuio iecoiuing of the text
(playeu as stuuents ieau along) will aiu Baviu's
compiehension of the text. The paintings of key moments
in the plot (uisplayeu when stuuents ieau the
coiiesponuing moment in the plot) will help him to
visualize the impoitant plot points. The stoiyboaiu
assignment will help him to synthesize the plot sequence,
the chaiacteis, anu the symbols thiough visual anu
kinesthetic stimulation.

Chiistophe - uiven his uecouing uifficulties, the
unabiiugeu auuio iecoiuings of the text will gieatly help
Chiistophe compiehenu the infoimation he ieaus. The
annotation guiue activity will ensuie that he ietains the
impoitant uetails. The stoiyboaiu assignment will allow
him to synthesize his annotations into a visually
accessible piouuct.






72
+,--%" A32"

<2#,$)23-

Pientice Ball Textbook (pp. 178-184) with auuio CB;
PoweiPoint; oveiheau monitoi; Annotation uuiue
woiksheet; blank papei anu coloieu pencils foi making
the 'stoiyboaiu';
?,33 N)"C,$IN,/),0 H(#)/)#G

- Waim-up chaiactei analysis:
o Stuuents inuepenuently ie-ieau the
account of Aithui's uieam (p. 178) anu
wiite a 1-paiagiaph analysis of Aithui's
chaiactei iesponuing to this piompt:
"What uoes Aithui's uieam vision ieveal
about his cuiient thoughts anu emotions.
Quote specific woiusphiases to suppoit
youi claims." (1u min)
O,#2)3,& H(#)/)#),- 2"&
A$%(,&'$,- 50)#J #$2"-)#)%"-
2"& #)7, 233%(2#)%"-;

- Whole class uiscussion of Aithui's chaiactei (1u
min)
o Teachei calls on 2-S inuiviuuals to shaie
theii iesponses (incluuing textual
suppoit)
o Teachei gioups stuuents' iesponses into
geneial categoiies on the boaiu (e.g.,
scaieu, uistiesseu, exciteu), anu compiles a
list of woius anu phiases that stuuents
citeu to suppoit theii claims.
o Teachei uiaws attention to how few
woius uiiectly uesciibe Aithui's thoughts
anu emotions
o Tiansition: teachei poses the question:
how uoes the authoi let us know what
Aithui's feeling.
- Fiaming Essential Question (using PPT)
(1u min)
o Teachei poses essential question: how aie
chaiacteis uevelopeu.
o Stuuents volunteei iueas of how the
chaiacteis in a) Beowulf (taught in the
pievious unit) b) this passage of Aithui
anu c) mouein novels (such as Baiiy
Pottei) uevelop chaiacteis uiffeiently
o Emphasis on uialogue, naiiation, anu point
of view: 1
st
peison, S
iu
peison limiteu, S
iu

peison omniscient
- Backgiounu anu chaiactei uevelopment foi '45$,
-Q/5$+25 (S min)
o Teachei pioviues context foi the chaiactei
uevelopment in meuieval iomances, anu
the backgiounu foi '45$, -Q/5$+25J
- '45$, -Q/5$+25 Annotation uuiue explaineu anu
moueleu (2 min)
7S
o 0sing the example pioviueu on the sheet,
stuuents fill in what they think the wheel
on p. 176 symbolizes.
- Stuuents Reauing '45$, -Q/5$+25 (p. 178-18u)
(1u min)
o Teachei selects stuuents to ieau
(paiagiaph by paiagiaph) stopping to
highlight the auuei (snake) anu Aithui's
uecision to attack Noiuieu (in spite of
waining)
o Stuuents uiaw (in the maigins) a small
caitoon uepicting Aithui's attack of
Noiuieu.
- Think-paii-shaie: on Aithui's chaiactei
(S min)
o In paiis, stuuents consiuei the question
"what uoes Aithui's uecision to act show
about his peisonality."(2 min)
o Teachei calls on gioups to shaie theii
iueas foi the whole class to consiuei anu
iesponu to. (S min)
- Stuuents ieau along to auuio iecoiuing (p. 181-
184) (1S min)
o Befoie Beuiveie's tiial, teachei ieminus
stuuents that "thiee" was an impoitant
numbei foi symbolism uuiing the Niuule
Ages.
o Teachei uisplays aitwoik (in PoweiPoint)
uepicting 2 moments in the ieauing
- Aftei Reauing Analysis of Nalloiy's
chaiacteiization (1u minutes)
o Aftei finishing the text, stuuents aie
instiucteu to wiite the names of all the
chaiacteis in the text below theii 1-
paiagiaph analysis of Aithui's uieam.
Then, besiue each name, stuuents analyze
how the authoi uevelops this chaiactei
(citing specific uevelopments in the plot
anu symbolism).
o Aftei 1u minutes, stuuents aie instiucteu
to tuin in theii sheet of papei (with
analyses of Aithui's uieam anu how
Nalloiy uevelops each chaiactei.

63%-'$,

- Naking a stoiyboaiu (1u min)
o The teachei explains how to make a 12-
fiame stoiyboaiu on blank sheets of papei
o The teachei mouels the piocess by foluing
a blank sheet anu showing his 1
st
fiame
o Stuuents spenu the iest of class time using
74
theii annotations to make a stoiyboaiu. If
not finisheu, stuuents complete the
assignment foi homewoik
H3#,$"2#, 4#$2#,C),- L%$ N,P
#,2(J)"C <2#,$)23

To ie-teach the concept of chaiacteiization, I coulu
elaboiate moie on the fiamewoik of types of
chaiacteiization: uiiect vs. inuiiect. I coulu piesent the
uefinitions using PoweiPoint: (uiiect chaiacteiization =
TELLINu what the chaiacteis peisonality is like vs.
inuiiect chaiacteiization = SB0WINu what the
chaiacteis peisonality is like thiough STEAL (speech,
thoughts, effect on othei chaiacteis, actions, anu looks).
Then, I coulu have an infoimal quiz of what is consiueieu
uiiect vs. inuiiect by showing seveial movie clips (some
uiiect, some inuiiect). Next, I coulu have the stuuents
uiffeientiate among the vaiious ways of chaiacteiizing
inuiiectly (thiough speech, actions, etc.)
N,L,$,"(,- 50)#J)" #J)-
3,--%";

Ambuyat, ulauys. "The uieat English Wiiteis." 6+, T5,($
9"*.#0+ V5#$,50. Sliueshaie, 19 }uly 2u1S. Web. u7 Nay
2u14.

"Le Noite Baithui." 9"7>7.4I(,-#( G5#$(""#7(J
9"7>7.4I(,-#( G5#$(""#7( K".#", /7(-,<#7 9-#$#4".
Encyclopuia Biitannica Inc., 2u14. Web. u7 Nay. 2u14.

L5,"$#7, C(.. G5#$#0+ E#$,5($25, % 6#<,.,00 M4#7,0D 6#<,.,00
6+,<,0. 0ppei Sauule Rivei, N}: Pientice Ball, 2uuu. Piint.

"Romance." 9"7>7.4I(,-#( G5#$(""#7(J 9"7>7.4I(,-#(
G5#$(""#7( K".#", /7(-,<#7 9-#$#4". Encyclopuia
Biitannica Inc., 2u14. Web. u7 Nay. 2u14.

N0TE: Attach oi inseit any mateiials useu in this lesson.

PPT; Annotation guiue & Stoiyboaiu Instiuctions;
















7S
0# 62,3# *7,3"8,X H""%#2#)%" Y')&,

Insteau of annotating youi textbook, fill in this chait as you ieau E, '45$, -/5$+25
(pp. 176-184). Analyze the text foi impoitant symbols anu chaiacteis actions. Then,
explain what each iepiesents on a moial level.

Chaiactei Action Page viituevice Repiesenteu
Aithui Follows the uieam
uawains auvice
p.178 Faith in uou (uivine piophecies)
anu fellow knight (uawain)
Symbol Impoitance to the Plot Page Symbolizes
Wheel Senus Aithui to his ueath
in his uieam
p.176

V%7,0%$DX 4#%$G=%2$& L%$ 0# 62,3# *7,3"8,

0sing a blank sheet of computei papei, make an 8-fiame stoiyboaiu of the '45$,
-/5$+25 exceipt (pp. 176-184). Biaw pictuies to iepiesent the impoitant actions
(at least 6) anu symbols (at least S) in the naiiative (use youi Annotation uuiue foi
suppoit).
PK69% W42 H#.. PK6 =, *5(-,- =(0,- 4" (5$#0$#7 <,5#$J W42 H#.. =, *5(-,- =(0,- 4"
+4H 7.,(5.> >42 5,I5,0,"$ ),> (7$#4"0 ("- 0><=4.0J





76
+,--%" A32" W a

+,--%" U)#3,X H(#)"C .'# @',-# 4#2C,-

Name: Nichael Naitell


Introduction

Lesson Overview

Biawing on pievious knowleuge (fiom 0nit 1 on
Beowulf), stuuents will analyze the featuies anu stages of
the Quest aichetype. They then act out scenaiios
paialleling key points in Sii uawains text, thus
inteinalizing the plot thiough visualtactile leaining anu
connections to peisonal expeiience.
Focal Standards
(Common Core & NC
Essential Standards)

CCSS.ELA-Literacy RL 5: Analyze how an authors choices
concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g.,
the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to
provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its
overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic
impact.

CCSS.ELA-Liteiacy SL 1: Initiate anu paiticipate effectively
in a iange of collaboiative uiscussions (one-on-one, in
gioups, anu teachei-leu) with uiveise paitneis on giaues
11-12 topics, texts, anu issues, builuing on otheis iueas
anu expiessing theii own cleaily anu peisuasively.
Measureable Objective
Based on Content
Standard(s)

Stuuents will uefine the stages of the heios jouiney anu
(in a small gioup) act out a scenaiio that mouels a key
stage in Sii uawains jouiney. Stuuents will then connect
each skit to a majoi plot point in the Sii uawain text.
Essential Question(s)

Bow is the Beio Cycle a ieflection of oui uay-to-uay
lives.
Prior Knowledge

Knowleuge of the uefinition of "aichetype" as well as the
basic outline of }oseph Campbell's "Beio's }ouiney,
intiouuceu in ielation to Beowulf in the pievious 0nit.
Knowleuge of Aithuiian Legenu & the holy giail quest
(taught in lesson 2)
Link to 21
st
Century
Skills

Communication anu Collaboiation stuuents woik
togethei in small gioups to piepaie anu peifoim a shoit
skit. 0ne membei of the gioup must explain intiouuce anu
concluue the peifoimance (explaining how theii woik
connects to a stage of The Beios }ouiney)

Cieativity anu Innovation Stuuents collaboiate to make
oiiginal skits baseu on a piompt. Stuuents aie encouiageu
to think cieatively, use piopsmateiials, anu to put an
oiiginal spin on the piompt, so long as they can explain its
connection to a stage of the Beios }ouiney.
77

Assessment/Accommodation

Formative Assessment
(attach specific
instructions and/or
examples)

- Bell-iingei Fiee Wiite: Stuuents ieflect on, wiite
uown, anu uiscuss the funuamental patteins of
human expeiience uiawing on peisonal
expeiiences.
- In small gioups, stuuents plan, peifoim, anu
piesent oiiginal skits, each of which exemplifies a
stage of the Beios }ouiney anu iuns paiallel to
the plot of Sii uawain.
- Final wiiting ieflection: stuuents wiite on how the
Beios }ouiney ieflects oui eveiyuay lives,
citing at least one example fiom othei gioups
skits.
Summative Assessment
(attach specific
instructions or
examples)

Students write an original quest narrative (at least 700 words)
featuring a hero, an object or goal, and each of the stages of
the Heros Journey. In addition, the story must develop at
least 3 symbols and a deeper moral significance for the quest.

After peer-editing rough drafts in small groups, students post
their final drafts on their blog page. This post must include
manuscript illuminations: illustrations that depict at least 3
key plot points and at least 3 symbols.

This summative assessment will not be uue until aftei the
unit is finisheu. Thanks to the blog foium, stuuents can
view each otheis final piouucts even if they aie not
shaieu in class.
Accommodations
(specific to this lesson
and based on specific
students)

Naicus: The final activity, in which stuuents iuentify the
Beios }ouiney foi uawain, woulu help Naicus with the
sequence of the stoiy (to be ieau in the following lesson).

Baviu: The activity in which stuuents act out a skit that
exemplifies a stage of the Beios }ouiney will help Baviu
engage with the concept visually anu kinesthetically. The
concise summaiy of Sii uawain anu the uieen Knight
will help Baviu to compiehenu the poem, which has a
uifficult syntax anu foim.

Chiistophe: The skits, each of which paiallels a moment in
the plot of Sii uawain, woulu seive as an engaging
entiyway into the uifficult text (to be staiteu in the
following lesson). The concise summaiy of the plot of Sii
uawain woulu be a goou iesouice foi Chiistophe as he
ieaus the poem.



78
Lesson Plan

Materials

0veiheau Nonitoi; PoweiPoint; Instiuctions anu iubiic
foi gioup skit activity; uioup piompts
Bell Ringer/Review
Activity

- Fiee Wiiting Waim-up (S min): The teachei
uisplays on PoweiPoint scieen:
"Answei the question in youi notes:

What patteins of life (situations, thoughts, emotions) uo
all humans expeiience. uive specific examples anu
explain why we all expeiience them. (S min)"
Detailed Activities and
Procedures (with
transitions and time
allocations)

- Whole class uiscussion (S min)
o The teachei asks stuuents to shaie theii
iesponses.
o The teachei wiites vaiious examples on
the boaiu anu asks stuuents to come up
with categoiies to oiganize them
(situations, thoughts, expeiiences).
o The teachei asks, "Bo any of these fit with
the "Beio Cycle". (Bisplay 2 veisions of it).
- Tiansition to Aichetype (liteiaiy uefinition, Plato
to }ung, then "Quest" aichetype) (8 min)
o The teachei asks stuuents to iecall
"aichetype" (taught in pievious unit).
o Aichetype = oiiginal pattein
o In liteiatuie: a iecuiiing image, chaiactei,
oi pattein of ciicumstances that is thought
to be univeisal (Essential vocab).
o The teachei illustiates the connection to
Bible, Plato (iueal foims), anu }ung
(uieams, as uiscusseu in Lesson 1).
o The teachei gives examples of aichetypal
chaiacteis anu calls on stuuents to guess
what aichetype they fit (e.g., youa as
mentoi).
o Quest aichetype: the teachei explains that
Campbell's "Beio's }ouiney" is a fuithei
elaboiation of the quest aichetype.
- Wiiting waim-up (foi gioup activity) (S min)
o The teachei assigns stuuents numbeis (1-
7) anu bieak into 7 gioups. Each numbei
coiiesponus to a stage in the "Beio's
}ouiney."
o Stuuents aie instiucteu "Foi youi assigneu
stage, think of a mouein-uay scenaiio that
fits the aichetype (e.g., "Bepaituie" fiom
known to unknown iealm)."
o The teachei uisplays the "Beio's }ouiney"
giaphic foi suppoit.
79
- uioup Skit piepaiation: (2u min)
o Tiansition: the teachei explains the
puipose of the assignment.
o The teachei connects aichetypes to
situations
o The teachei gives instiuctions (iubiic) foi
the in-class acting assignment. Ask if they
have questions.
o The teachei ciiculates to lenu suppoit
when neeueu anu assess which gioups aie
on task.
o The teachei asks gioups if they'll be able
to act out the scene with the space given.
- uioup Peifoimances & Piesentations (1S-2u
minutes)
o Befoie piesentations, the teachei instiucts
stuuents to take notes on eveiy othei
gioup's skit, answeiing the question: "Bow
uoes this skit connect to the "Beio's
}ouiney".
o NC of the gioup intiouuces the chaiacteis
anu scenaiio
o The whole gioup acts out theii skit.
o NC concluues how theii peifoimance
connects to a stage of the "Beio's }ouiney"
- Sequencing piesentations (4 min)
Aftei finishing notes on all othei piesentations, stuuents
make a "Beio's }ouiney" ciicle anu put the gioups' skits in
oiuei on it (so that each skit is placeu at a stage of the
jouiney.
Closure

Final Wiiting Reflection: (1u min)

At the bottom of theii notes on othei gioups
piesentations, stuuents answei the Essential Question:
Bow uoes the Beios }ouiney ieflect oui uay-to-uay
lives. Cite at least 1 example fiom anothei gioups skit
anu at least one example fiom peisonal expeiience. (S
min)
Alternate Strategies for
Re-teaching Material

To ie-teach the stages of the Beios }ouiney, the teachei
coulu cieate a gioup infoimal quiz in which
paiisgioups of stuuents iuentify stages of the Beios
}ouiney in clips of well-known movies.
References (within this
lesson)

"Aichetype." 9"7>7.4I(,-#( G5#$(""#7(J 9"7>7.4I(,-#(
G5#$(""#7( K".#", /7(-,<#7 9-#$#4". Encyclopuia
Biitannica Inc., 2u14. Web. u7 Nay. 2u14.

"Collective unconscious." 9"7>7.4I(,-#( G5#$(""#7(J
9"7>7.4I(,-#( G5#$(""#7( K".#", /7(-,<#7 9-#$#4".
Encyclopuia Biitannica Inc., 2u14. Web. u7 Nay. 2u14.

8u

Biennan, Kiisten. "Stai Wais 0iigins - }oseph Campbell
anu the Beio's }ouiney." 8$(5 V(50 K5#*#"0 X Y40,I+
N(<I=,.. ("- $+, C,54Z0 Y425",>. }itteibug Fantasia, n.u.
Web. u7 Nay 2u14.

Cohen, S. Naic. "Allegoiy of the Cave." /..,*45> 43 $+, N(F,.
Washington 0niveisity in St. Louis, 2uu6. Web. u4 Nay
2u14.

Nilnei, }oseph 0'Beiine, anu Lucy Floyu Noicock Nilnei.
"Stoiy Biama" anu Enactment. G5#-*#"* 9"*.#0+. 4th eu.
0ppei Sauule Rivei, N}: Neiiill, 2uu8. 99-1u1. Piint.

Nuszkiewicz, }o. "Sii uawain anu the uieen Knight:
Slaying Stuuent Resistance." 6+, K"7, ("- 12$25,
N.(00544< v.2 (Fall 2uu7): n. pag. Web.

L5,"$#7, C(.. G5#$#0+ E#$,5($25,% 6#<,.,00 M4#7,0D 6#<,.,00
6+,<,0. 0ppei Sauule Rivei, N}: Pientice Ball, 2uuu. Piint.

Sellois, Alyssa. "}anuaiy 2u11 Aichives." C(55#04" C#*+
87+44.. Baiiison Bigh School, 1 }an. 2u11. Web. u7 Nay
2u14.

NOTE: Attach or insert any materials used in this lesson.


N0TE: Attach oi inseit any mateiials useu in this lesson. uawain Skit Instiuctions & Rubiic;
Group Prompts & Roles; PPT;


















81
Gawain Skit: Instructions and Rubric
Work with your group to act out a scenario. Each scenario represents a stage in the Hero
Cycle, but you have complete creative freedom so long as you address the prompt. As a
group, be sure to:

a) Plan a specific part for each group member (can be a major character, a minor
character, or even a naiiatoi. Be cieative!)
b) Tuin in:
a. UJ, K$,7)-,X ciicumstances suiiounuing the scenaiio (back stoiy),
iolechaiactei foi each gioup membei
b. UJ, -,##)"C 8 -,#: time anu place (in the fiction) along with
entiancesexits anu the actois positions (on the set)
c. UJ, -($)K#: incluue uialogue anu actions foi each gioup membei
u. UJ, )"#$%I(%"(3'-)%": 1 shoit paiagiaph intiouucing the scenaiio to
the auuience anu 1 paiagiaph (conclusion) explaining how it connects
to the assigneu aichetype).
c) Keep it appiopiiate foi the auuience
u) Act out the scenaiio (must be moie than 1 minute, less than S)

The in-class scenaiios will be giaueu by this iubiic:
CA1LCC8? 4 3 2 1
ConnecLs Lo
asslgned
ArcheLype
lully connecLs
scenarlo Lo asslgned
archeLype
ConnecLs Lo Lhe
asslgned archeLype,
buL does noL explaln
connecLlon.
SomewhaL connecLs
scenarlo Lo Lhe
asslgned scenarlo.
uoes noL relaLe Lo Lhe
asslgned archeLype.
Croup
arLlclpaLlon
All members of
group sLay on Lask,
prepare and acL ouL
scenarlo.
MosL members of
group prepare and
acL ouL scenarlo.
Some members of
group prepare and
acL ouL scenarlo, buL
many members are
off Lask.
Croup members do
noL dedlcaLe aLLenLlon
Lo Lhe asslgnmenL.
WrlLLen work All wrlLLen
componenLs are
Lhoroughly
compleLed
All componenLs are
compleLed, buL noL
done Lhoroughly
MosL wrlLLen
componenLs are
compleLed
Some of Lhe asslgned
wrlLLen componenLs
are compleLed.
LlsLens Lo
CLher
resenLaLlons
LlsLens lnLenLly.
uoes noL make
dlsLracLlng nolses or
movemenLs.
LlsLens lnLenLly buL
has one dlsLracLlng
nolse or movemenL.
SomeLlmes does
noL appear Lo be
llsLenlng buL ls noL
dlsLracLlng.
SomeLlmes does noL
appear Lo be llsLenlng
and has dlsLracLlng
nolses or movemenLs.
reparedness SLudenL ls
compleLely
prepared and has
obvlously
rehearsed.
SLudenL seems preLLy
prepared buL mlghL
have needed a couple
more rehearsals.
1he sLudenL ls
somewhaL
prepared, buL lL ls
clear LhaL rehearsal
was lacklng.
SLudenL does noL
seem aL all prepared
Lo presenL.

Y$%'K <,7=,$ 927,-IN%3,-X
N.C. : _____________________________ Total Points (_____ 2u)
Sciipt Wiitei: ___________________________ uiaue: ________%
Set Nanagei: ______________________________ Lettei Equivalent: ________
Naiiatoi: _________________________________
82
Sii uawain Skit uR00P PR0NPTS & R0LES:

Y$%'K F 4(,"2$)%: /0 ( *542ID I5,I(5, $4 (7$ 42$ $+#0 07,"(5#4J 9(7+ 43 >42 <20$
74<I.,$, 4", 43 $+, (00#*",- 54.,0D =2$ >42 <20$ (.. $(), I(5$ #" $+, (7$#"*J 6+42*+ "4$
,F,5>4", ",,-0 $4 0I,()D ,F,5>4", 0+42.- +(F, (" (00#*",- 54.,J

The "CALL" to auventuie: You aie enjoying a paity when suuuenly a giant buily
stiangei baiges in anu asks to speak with the "leauei". You think he wants to fight,
but he ieally wants to piopose a challenge..


Y$%'K E 4(,"2$)%: /0 ( *542ID I5,I(5, $4 (7$ 42$ $+#0 07,"(5#4J 9(7+ 43 >42 <20$
74<I.,$, 4", 43 $+, (00#*",- 54.,0D =2$ >42 <20$ (.. $(), I(5$ #" $+, (7$#"*J 6+42*+ "4$
,F,5>4", ",,-0 $4 0I,()D ,F,5>4", 0+42.- +(F, (" (00#*",- 54.,J

BEPART0RE: A membei of youi gioup is packing foi a jouiney to a place wheie no
one else has been befoie. The iest of you aie helping himhei pack, but you aie also
tiying to wain himhei about the uangeis.


Y$%'K ` 4(,"2$)%: /0 ( *542ID I5,I(5, $4 (7$ 42$ $+#0 07,"(5#4J 9(7+ 43 >42 <20$
74<I.,$, 4", 43 $+, (00#*",- 54.,0D =2$ >42 <20$ (.. $(), I(5$ #" $+, (7$#"*J 6+42*+ "4$
,F,5>4", ",,-0 $4 0I,()D ,F,5>4", 0+42.- +(F, (" (00#*",- 54.,J

BELP along the way: you aie looking foi a gieen man who lives in a gieen house
(you have no othei infoimation about who he is oi wheie he may be). Ask the otheis
(othei actois in youi gioup) foi help.


Y$%'K a 4(,"2$)%: /0 ( *542ID I5,I(5, $4 (7$ 42$ $+#0 07,"(5#4J 9(7+ 43 >42 <20$
74<I.,$, 4", 43 $+, (00#*",- 54.,0D =2$ >42 <20$ (.. $(), I(5$ #" $+, (7$#"*J 6+42*+ "4$
,F,5>4", ",,-0 $4 0I,()D ,F,5>4", 0+42.- +(F, (" (00#*",- 54.,J

TRAILSTENPTATI0NS: Someone who you aie veiy attiacteu to uses hishei chaim
to get you to uo something that you know is wiong.


Y$%'K b 4(,"2$)%: /0 ( *542ID I5,I(5, $4 (7$ 42$ $+#0 07,"(5#4J 9(7+ 43 >42 <20$
74<I.,$, 4", 43 $+, (00#*",- 54.,0D =2$ >42 <20$ (.. $(), I(5$ #" $+, (7$#"*J 6+42*+ "4$
,F,5>4", ",,-0 $4 0I,()D ,F,5>4", 0+42.- +(F, (" (00#*",- 54.,J

CRISIS: A while back, you maue a piomise to uo something. You ieally uon't want to
uo it, but you'ie going to because you uon't want to bieak youi piomise.


8S
Y$%'K c 4(,"2$)%: /0 ( *542ID I5,I(5, $4 (7$ 42$ $+#0 07,"(5#4J 9(7+ 43 >42 <20$
74<I.,$, 4", 43 $+, (00#*",- 54.,0D =2$ >42 <20$ (.. $(), I(5$ #" $+, (7$#"*J 6+42*+ "4$
,F,5>4", ",,-0 $4 0I,()D ,F,5>4", 0+42.- +(F, (" (00#*",- 54.,J

AT0NENENT: You have to aumit that you weie wiong in fiont of a laige gioup of
peeis.


Y$%'K d 4(,"2$)%: /0 ( *542ID I5,I(5, $4 (7$ 42$ $+#0 07,"(5#4J 9(7+ 43 >42 <20$
74<I.,$, 4", 43 $+, (00#*",- 54.,0D =2$ >42 <20$ (.. $(), I(5$ #" $+, (7$#"*J 6+42*+ "4$
,F,5>4", ",,-0 $4 0I,()D ,F,5>4", 0+42.- +(F, (" (00#*",- 54.,J

RET0RN: You aie a close-knit gioup sitting at a uinnei table, but one of youi
membeis is absent. You all think she has uieu, but then she appeais. You can't
believe youi eyes. oi the stoiy of hishei incieuible jouiney.































84
N.+:4X 4)$ Y202)" 4D)#

<6: You aie in chaige of wiiting anu piesenting the )"#$%&'(#)%" anu (%"(3'-)%"S
Foi the intio, give youi auuience the necessaiy backgiounu to unueistanu the
scenaiio. In the conclusion, explain how youi scenaiio connects to youi assigneu
aichetype.

4($)K# Q$)#,$: You aie in chaige of wiiting the sciipt foi youi skit. Incluue "27,-
of chaiacteisgioup membeis, &)23%C',, anu 2(#)%"-. Be suie to woik
collaboiatively with all membeis of youi gioup.


4,# <2"2C,$: You aie in chaige of wiiting the uesciiption of the -,##)"C (time anu
place) anu the stage uiiection. Then, you must ueciue how youi gioup will iepiesent
the scenaiio. Think about the spacing of the ioom foi entiances, exits anu the
positions in which the actois will stanu.

92$$2#%$: You aie in chaige of wiiting the K$,7)-,, oi the ciicumstances
suiiounuing the scenaiio you will act out (a back-stoiy). Be suie to incluue the each
C$%'K 7,7=,$e- "27, anu a uesciiption of hishei $%3,I(J2$2(#,$.




























8S
+,--%" A32" W b

Lesson Title: Intiouucing uawains Quest

!"#$%&'(#)%"

+,--%" ./,$/),0

Aftei explaining the iequiiements foi the final quest
naiiative pioject, the teachei intiouuces a smallei
Novie Pitch assignment meant to encouiage stuuents to
outline theii naiiative. The teachei then mouels the
assignment by giving small gioups the task of pioposing a
piemise foi a Quest Naiiative. Latei, stuuents ieau the
fiist exceipt of Sii uawain anu the uieen Knight while
summaiizing the impoitant plot uevelopments.
1%(23 4#2"&2$&- 56%77%"
6%$, 8 96 :--,"#)23
4#2"&2$&-;

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1
Initiate anu paiticipate effectively in a iange of
collaboiative uiscussions (one-on-one, in gioups, anu
teachei-leu) with uiveise paitneis on giaues 11-12 topics,
texts, anu issues, builuing on otheis' iueas anu expiessing
theii own cleaily anu peisuasively.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.S
Analyze the impact of the authoi's choices iegaiuing how
to uevelop anu ielate elements of a stoiy oi uiama (e.g.,
wheie a stoiy is set, how the action is oiueieu, how the
chaiacteis aie intiouuceu anu uevelopeu).
<,2-'$,2=3, .=>,(#)/,
?2-,& %" 6%"#,"#
4#2"&2$&5-;

- Stuuents collaboiate in small gioups to piouuce a
piemise foi an oiiginal quest naiiative.
- While ieauing Sii uawain anu the uieen Knight,
stuuents wiite a 1-sentence summaiy, list line
numbeis they uont unueistanu, anu highlight
instances of conflict.
- Stuuents wiite a pieuiction of what conflicts
uawain will face as he continues along his
auventuie.
:--,"#)23 @',-#)%"5-;

Bow uoes conflict help to uevelop a plot.
A$)%$ B"%03,&C,

- Befoie the stait of this unit, each stuuent hau
alieauy cieateu an account with uoogle Bloggei,
uesigneu a peisonal blog page, anu leaineu how to
post, comment anu ieau othei stuuents pages.
- Stages of the Beios }ouiney, Common
aichetypes, chaiacteis, anu conventions of
Aithuiian iomances,
+)"D #% EF
-#
6,"#'$G 4D)33-

Communication anu Collaboiation In small gioups,
stuuents biainstoim iueas foi an oiiginal quest naiiative.
While ieauing Sii uawain anu the uieen Knight
stuuents woik inteimittently to evaluate the accuiacy of
theii own summaiies by confeiiing with gioup membeis.

86
Cieativity anu Innovation Foi homewoik, each stuuent
wiites anu posts a Novie Pitch (outline) foi an oiiginal
quest naiiative.

H--,--7,"#IH((%77%&2#)%"

1%$72#)/, H--,--7,"#
52##2(J -K,()L)( )"-#$'(#)%"-
2"&I%$ ,M27K3,-;

- While ieauing Sii uawain anu the uieen Knight,
stuuents, wiite a 1-sentence summaiy aftei each
stanza, take note of passages that they uont
unueistanu, anu highlight all instances of conflict.
- Aftei ieauing the fiist half of the Sii uawain
exceipt, stuuents pieuict what conflicts will aiise
in uawains Beios }ouiney suppoiting theii
claims with ieasons giounueu in examples fiom
the text.
- Foi homewoik, stuuents wiite a Novie Pitch foi
theii quest naiiative in which they concisely
explain the heioheioine, the quest objective, the
oiuinaiy anu special woilus, each stage of the
Beios }ouiney, anu iueas foi symbols (to be
posteu on theii blogs).
4'772#)/, H--,--7,"#
52##2(J -K,()L)( )"-#$'(#)%"-
%$ ,M27K3,-;

Students write an original quest narrative (at least 700 words)
featuring a hero, an object or goal, and each of the stages of
the Heros Journey. In addition, the story must develop at
least 3 symbols and a deeper moral significance for the quest.

After peer-editing rough drafts in small groups, students post
their final drafts on their blog page. This post must include
manuscript illuminations: illustrations that depict at least 3
key plot points and at least 3 symbols.

This summative assessment will not be uue until aftei the
unit is finisheu. Thanks to the blog foium, stuuents can
view each otheis final piouucts even if they aie not
shaieu in class.
H((%77%&2#)%"-
5-K,()L)( #% #J)- 3,--%" 2"&
=2-,& %" -K,()L)( -#'&,"#-;

Naicus The uuiing ieauing summaiizing activity,
auapteu fiom Biemei et al.s Collaboiative Stiategic
Reauing (CSR), woulu gieatly help Naicus to sequence the
impoitant uevelopments in the plot.

Baviu The auuio iecoiuing of the text woulu aiu gieatly
Bavius compiehension of the poem, which has a uifficult
foim anu an aichaic syntax. The summaiizing activity
woulu encouiage him to synthesize the most impoitant
infoimation. The small gioup compiehension check
activity (auapteu fiom the Click oi Clunk of CSR) woulu
allow Baviu to seek help fiom his peeis.

Chiistophe The auuio iecoiuing of the text woulu help
Chiistophe to uecoue the uifficult poem. The summaiizing
87
activity woulu help him to ietain anu synthesize the most
impoitant uetails of the plot. The small gioup
compiehension checks woulu allow him to iaise questions
to his peeis.




+,--%" A32"

<2#,$)23-

Pientice Ball Liteiatuie: The Biitish Tiauition textbooks
anu CB; instiuctions anu iubiic foi Quest Naiiative
summative assessment, Novie Pitch assignment
instiuctions
?,33 N)"C,$IN,/),0 H(#)/)#G

-Teachei aiianges uesks into tables of S-4 with stuuents
nametags on them. Each table will be a peei-euiting
gioup foi the quest naiiative pioject. As such, stuuents
will stay in this aiiangement foi the iest of the unit.
These gioups, uiffeient fiom the gioups of the pievious
lesson, aie chosen to accommouate inuiviuual neeus anu
encouiage inteiaction anu euiting among stuuents of
vaiying wiiting abilities.

-Stuuents iesponu to piompt: Recall the stage of the
Beios }ouiney that was assigneu foi youi gioup skit.
Wiite an iuea foi this stage baseu on these thiee woius:
monkey, skysciapei, foiget. (S-S sentences) (S
min)

O,#2)3,& H(#)/)#),- 2"&
A$%(,&'$,- 50)#J #$2"-)#)%"-
2"& #)7, 233%(2#)%"-;

- Final Quest Naiiative Pioject explaineu (1u min)
o The teachei hanus out instiuctions anu
iubiic foi the Nake a Quest pioject
o The teachei explains the puipose of anu
iequiiements foi the pioject (see PPT
anu Nake a Quest Instiuctions anu
Rubiic)
- Novie Pitch Assignment anu Activity (1S min)
o The teachei explains assignment (using
PPT sliues anu hanuout)
o In-class gioup activity: woik togethei to
make half of a sample movie pitch. (See
piompt on PoweiPoint)
o (The teachei sets timei foi S minutes,
wiites each categoiy foi the movie pitch
on the boaiu, then ciiculates to pioviue
suppoit while gioups collaboiate.)
o Teachei asks foi a gioup to volunteei
theii iuea foi a heio anu wiites it on the
boaiu. Be then calls on a uiffeient gioup
to fill in each othei categoiy (mouifying
88
uetails to make the plot coheient). (S
min)
o Next, the teachei asks ,(7+ stuuent to
wiite uown an iuea foi the heios Call to
Auventuie baseu on the piemise wiitten
on the boaiu. (S-S sentences) (S min)
o The teachei instiucts each stuuent make
a post on theii blog calleu gioup
biainstoim foi this iesponse. The
puipose is to let each stuuent test to see if
theii blog woiks.
o The teachei calls on a few stuuents to
shaie to uemonstiate the wiue iange of
iueas.
o Tiansition: Teachei asks, what uo all of
these iueas have in common. (among
othei things, 74"3.#7$)
- PPT sliues on Conflict in plot stiuctuie (S min)
o Essential vocabulaiy: conflict: stiuggle
between two oi moie opposing foices.
Teachei says KEY element foi
ueveloping plot. Without conflict, the
stoiy has no uiiection anu isnt
inteiesting.
o Plot of uawain: (An oveiview of the
Beios }ouiney stages foi uawain
uisplayeu on the oveiheau monitoi.)
o Biiven by conflict (inteinal & exteinal)
o Follows Beios }ouiney
o Tiansition: each gioup skit paiallels a
moment in the uawain plot
- Reauing Sii uawain anu the uieen Knight (p.
162-166) (1S min)
o Teachei instiucts stuuents to take out a
sheet of loose-leaf, wiite Sii uawain
Summaiy on the top.
o Instiuctions foi uuiing ieauing
summaiies: Aftei each stanza. 1) make
note of lines that you uiu not unueistanu
2) wiite a 1-sentence summaiy of how
the plot uevelops (chaiactei inteiactions)
S) highlight all conflict in youi summaiy
o Teachei plays auuio CB of text while
stuuents ieau along.
o At the enu of each stanza, the teachei
stops the iecoiuing anu instiucts
stuuents to biiefly (1 minute) note the
uifficult passages, summaiize how the
conflict uevelops, anu highlight any
conflict.
89
o Aftei passages with impoitant conflicts,
the teachei gives the stuuents an
auuitional 2 minutes to ask peeis foi help
on uifficult passages, compaie
summaiies, anu iuentify moments of
conflict.
- uioup uiscussion of Call to auventuie (S min)
o Aftei summaiizing conflict in p. 16S, each
small table is instiucteu to uiscuss what
the Call to Auventuie is in the text.
o Teachei calls on 2-S tables to shaie theii
opinions anu encouiages class to come to
a consensus
- Reauing uawain anu Summaiizing Conflict (pp.
166-69) (1S min)
o Stuuents anu teachei follow same
pioceuuie as uetaileu above.
63%-'$,

- 1-paiagiaph fiee-iesponse: (1u min)
o Teachei instiuctions stuuents to wiite 1-
paiagiaph iesponse to this piompt at the
bottom of theii conflict notes: Consiuei
how the conflict has uevelopeu so fai.
What conflicts uo you think uawain will
face as the stoiy piogiesses. Nake a
pieuiction of what uawains ciisis will be
anu how he aiiives at it. Will it be an
inteinal oi exteinal conflict. Suppoit
youi pieuiction with examples fiom the
text you have alieauy ieau.
o Teachei collects sheet with summaiies
anu pieuiction.
H3#,$"2#, 4#$2#,C),- L%$ N,P
#,2(J)"C <2#,$)23

To ie-teach the sequence of events in this exceipt of Sii
uawain anu the uieen Knight, the teachei coulu ask
stuuents to make a 4-fiame stoiyboaiu that captuies the
most impoitant uevelopments in the plot.

To ie-teach the impoitance of conflict in plot
uevelopment, the teachei coulu give stuuents a seiies of
quotes taken fiom Sii uawain anu Le Noite uAithui
alongsiue a wiiting piompt. The piompt woulu ask
stuuents to iuentify the conflict anu analyze its
impoitance to the plot as a whole.
N,L,$,"(,- 50)#J)" #J)-
3,--%";

Biemei, Chiistine B., Shaion vaughn, Ann T. Clappei, anu
Ae-Bwa Kim. "Collaboiative Stiategic Reauing (CSR):
Impioving Seconuaiy Stuuents Reauing Compiehension
Skills." A,0,(57+ $4 L5(7$#7, G5#,30 1.2 (2uu2): n. pag.
V,=0#$, 43 $+, P($#4"(. N,"$,5 4" 8,74"-(5> 9-27($#4"
("- 65(-#$#4". National Centei on Seconuaiy Euucation
anu Tiauition. Web.

9u
Loientzen, Chau. "Sii uawain anu the uieen Knight Stuuy
uuiue." 9"*.#0+ RM C4"450. Winston-Salem Foisyth County
School Bistiict, n.u. Web. u7 Nay 2u14.

Nilnei, }oseph 0'Beiine, anu Lucy Floyu Noicock Nilnei.
""Tiio Tales" (Chaptei 4)." G5#-*#"* 9"*.#0+. 4th eu.
0ppei Sauule Rivei, N}: Neiiill, 2uu8. 99-1u1. Piint.

L5,"$#7, C(.. G5#$#0+ E#$,5($25, % 6#<,.,00 M4#7,0D 6#<,.,00
6+,<,0. 0ppei Sauule Rivei, N}: Pientice Ball, 2uuu.
Piint.

9.U:X H##2(J %$ )"-,$# 2"G 72#,$)23- '-,& )" #J)- 3,--%"S

99!: ;-<-'( %8..-,= >6,? 02,#(3@#(A /'B#( 32 6-,&81A +-B'*A -(* C",'132D"#E:



























91
Summary: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight part 1




One day a strange knight
arrives in Arthurs court.










He offers a Game:
A Head
for none rise.
A Head



Are you not MEN! ! ! ??? Is this not the home of the l egendary
Arthur and his knights???


ASHAMED & ENRAGED

Arthur s t e p s

FORWARD.
92


May this melee mine!
fi nal l y speaks the CHI VALROUS GAWAI N, who always
shows:
Faith
Courage
Justice
Mercy
Generosity
Nobility
Hope
After taking the blow of the AX, the Green Knight s t um b l
e
s and rides o
f f.


In 12 MONTHS ARRIVE!
the green knight warns.
and the brave
knight
does.
__________________________

Of the blows:
- Gawains shoulders did
shrink at first.
- No harm done... just a
scratch!
9S

It was all HI S plan. The temptation. The test. The game. The girdle.

But why?
Well, the Green Knight = God? Deliver me my destiny
Devil? The devil himself The fiend
Judge? it seems your word holds good!
Just a Giant Green Knight?







































94
0#112( 94-( FG5 ;-<-'(1 C,'1'15 ,#-*'(/ H2, C4'.-I '( - J8#13 K2.-(&#


!"#$%&'(#)%"

+,--%" ./,$/),0

Stuuents analyze the iole of the climax in ueveloping a
plot. They uiscuss the climax in theii favoiite films,
analyze how the tiauitional plot uiagiam matches up
with Campbells Beios }ouiney, then finish ieauing Sii
uawain anu the uieen Knight inteimittently shaiing
theii summaiies anu uiscussing impoitant stages of the
plot (such as the climax). Aftei ieauing, stuuents wiite a
1-paiagiaph analysis of how the climax contiibutes to the
chaiacteiization of uawain. To concluue, each quest
wiiting gioup shaies iueas foi the climax of theii quest
naiiatives.
1%(23 4#2"&2$&- 56%77%"
6%$, 8 96 :--,"#)23
4#2"&2$&-;

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1
Cite stiong anu thoiough textual eviuence to suppoit
analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as
infeiences uiawn fiom the text, incluuing ueteimining
wheie the text leaves matteis unceitain.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.S
Analyze the impact of the authoi's choices iegaiuing how
to uevelop anu ielate elements of a stoiy oi uiama (e.g.,
wheie a stoiy is set, how the action is oiueieu, how the
chaiacteis aie intiouuceu anu uevelopeu).
<,2-'$,2=3, .=>,(#)/,
?2-,& %" 6%"#,"#
4#2"&2$&5-;

- Stuuents summaiize each stanza of Sii uawain
anu the uieen Knight, stopping inteimittently to
uiscuss uifficult passages anu moments when the
conflict is uevelopeu (continueu fiom pievious
lesson).
- Stuuents wiite a 1-paiagiaph analysis of how the
climax contiibutes to the chaiacteiization of
uawain.
- Stuuents oially shaie iueas foi ueveloping theii
iespective climaxes, then (foi homewoik) shaie
wiitten feeuback by commenting on each otheis
blog posts.
:--,"#)23 @',-#)%"5-;

What iole uoes the climax play in the uevelopment of a
plot. Bow uoes the climax contiibute to the authois
chaiacteiization of uawain.
A$)%$ B"%03,&C,

- The stages of }oseph Campbells The Beios
}ouiney (taught in the pievious unit anu in the
pievious 2 lessons)
- Tiauitional (Aiistotelian) teims foi plot stiuctuie
(Exposition, Rising Action, Climax, Falling Action,
Benouement) (taught at the beginning of the yeai)
+)"D #% EF
-#
6,"#'$G 4D)33-

Ciitical Thinking anu Pioblem Solving Stuuents think
ciitically in analyzing the impact of the climax in
9S
ueveloping the plot.
Communication anu Collaboiation Stuuents
inteimittently communicate in small gioups to check theii
unueistanuing of key uetails in the plot. They also uiscuss
the essential question of the lesson.

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1%$72#)/, H--,--7,"#
52##2(J -K,()L)( )"-#$'(#)%"-
2"&I%$ ,M27K3,-;

- Summaiy anu Conflict notes on Sii uawain anu
the uieen Knight: continueu fiom the pievious
lesson anu collecteu at the enu of the lesson.
Assesses a) stuuents compiehension of the text,
incluuing specific passages that they faileu to
unueistanu b) stuuents ability to summaiize a
poetic text c) stuuents ability to paiaphiase anu
inteipiet that which the text leaves implieu
(assesseu in the wiite an inteinal monologue
piompt) anu u) the stuuents ability to
communicate with peeis to gain a ueepei
unueistanu of a text
- Plot Stiuctuie Woiksheet (collecteu at the enu
of the peiiou) assesses a) stuuents ability to
iuentify key moments in the plot b) stuuents
unueistanuing of how the Beios }ouiney stages
fall on the Aiistotelian plot uiagiam
- 1-paiagiaph analysis (on the Plot Stiuctuie
Woiksheet) assesses: a) stuuents ability to
analyze the impact of the authois choices foi
ueveloping the climax on the chaiacteiization b)
stuuents ability to make analytical claims anu
suppoit them with examples fiom the text anu c)
stuuents ability to oiganize theii analysis into a
well-foimeu paiagiaph.
4'772#)/, H--,--7,"#
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%$ ,M27K3,-;

Students write an original quest narrative (at least 700 words)
featuring a hero, an object or goal, and each of the stages of
the Heros Journey. In addition, the story must develop at
least 3 symbols and a deeper moral significance for the quest.

After peer-editing rough drafts in small groups, students post
their final drafts on their blog page. This post must include
manuscript illuminations: illustrations that depict at least 3
key plot points and at least 3 symbols.

This summative assessment will not be uue until aftei the
unit is finisheu. Thanks to the blog foium, stuuents can
view each otheis final piouucts even if they aie not
shaieu in class.
H((%77%&2#)%"-
5-K,()L)( #% #J)- 3,--%" 2"&
=2-,& %" -K,()L)( -#'&,"#-;
Naicus: The uuiing ieauing stiategies, auapteu fiom
Biemei et al.s Collaboiative Stiategic Reauing (CSR),
woulu gieatly help Naicus to sequence the impoitant
96
uevelopments in the plot. The Plot Stiuctuie Woiksheet
woulu also aiu Naicus as he sequences the plot
uevelopment.

Baviu: The small gioup compiehension check
uiscussions woulu gieatly aiu Bavius compiehension as
woulu the summaiizing anu plot uiagiamming activities.
The visual aiu (the photo of uawain enteiing the cave)
woulu also benefit Baviu.

Chiistophe: The summaiizing, plot uiagiamming, anu
gioup uiscussion activities woulu gieatly aiu Chiistophe
as he stiuggles with uecouing Sii uawain anu the uieen
Knight. The connection to peisonal expeiience (foi the
bell iingei anu closuie of the lesson) woulu also ueepen
his unueistanuing of plot stiuctuie anu plot uevelopment.

+,--%" A32"

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Papei (useu foi the uawain Summaiy notes); Plot
Stiuctuie Woiksheet; PoweiPoint Piesentation;
0veiheau monitoi; whiteblackboaiu
?,33 N)"C,$IN,/),0 H(#)/)#G

- Writing prompt: Think of the climax of your
favorite movie. How does it contribute to the
movie? What specific techniques does the
director use to make the film more interesting?
(5 min)
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- Small gioup uiscussion (1u min)
o Students share answers with their quest
writing group
o As a table, write down the 3 most
common techniques
o Each table shares with group as a group.
o Teacher poses the Essential Question:
What role does the climax play?
- Transition to Gawain: The teacher says: we will
be reading the climax of Sir Gawain & the
Green Knight. Pay attention to the strategies
that the author uses before during and after it.
and hands back the students summary notes on
Part 1 along with the Plot structure worksheet
- Slides on Plot Structure (5 min)
o The teacher explains that the climax is
both 1) the point of highest tension and 2)
the major turning point in the story (for
the hero)
97
o Teacher draws parallel between the
Heros Journey circle and more general
plot diagram (exposition, rising action,
climax).
o Students are instructed to fill in Gawains
Heros Journey as far as they can
(using their notes for support); then,
transfer those events onto the traditional
plot structure.
o Transition: The teacher instructs students
to open their textbooks up to p. 169 and
says as we approach the climax / crisis,
pay attention to the build up of tension.
- Reading Sir Gawain Part II (40 min)
o The teacher instructs the students to read
the italicized paragraph on p. 169 (which
summarizes a large portion of the original
Sir Gawain text) (5 min)
o After they read, the teacher instructs On
your Plot structure worksheet, fill in
more stages of the Heros Journey and
the plot diagram.
o Reading lines 259-352 (15 min)
! Teacher tells students: Make a
mental picture of everything you
read to make it like a movie and
displays a depiction of p. 171
(Gawains approach towards the
underground chapel)
! Teacher instructs students to
continue their Summary notes: a)
write down lines that you dont
understand b) write a 1-sentence
summary and c) highlight any
conflict.
! After reading to line 308, each
small group shares their notes and
works together to explain difficult
passages. Then, students are
instructed to paraphrase Gawains
words into a text message
(summary of his emotions) on
their summary notes.
! After reading line 352, students
are given time to discuss their
notes and resolve doubts. Then,
98
they are instructed to write an
internal monologue of what
Gawain may be thinking at that
moment.
o Reading lines 353-end (20 min)
! Students are instructed to take a
moment to fill in their 2 plot
diagrams.
! Then the teacher asks, what do
you predict the Gawains crisis
(the climax) will be? and calls on
a few students to share. Some
may say, when Gawain gets his
head cut off, to which the teacher
could respond, then how will
Gawain complete the Heros
Journey?
! After reading and summarizing up
to 421, the teacher instructs
students to share notes with their
small groups and discuss the
question what is the climax of
the story? as they fill out their
plot diagrams.
o After Reading writing prompt (on Plot
Structure worksheet) (15 min)
! Students write a 1-paragraph
essay on the conflict in the plot,
citing their notes on the text for
support (10 min)
! Students share responses with
their small groups, citing specific
examples from the text. (5 min)
o Whole class discussion of climax and
characterization (5 min)
! The teacher makes a conflict T-
chart with the categories
internal and external
! The teacher calls on small groups
to share responses, compiling 2
columns of examples (line
numbers) based on student
responses.
! The teacher poses the question:
can the conflict be both internal
and external? Why or why not?
99
63%-'$,

- Small group work: Explain your movie pitch to
your group. (10 min)
o Guiding questions:
o What is the climax (crisis/ death and
rebirth) of your quest?
o How will you build up to it?
o How will you resolve the story after the
climax?
- Homework: Peer-Feedback: Post a comment on
each of your group members pitches. Write 3+
ideas to help develop the climax of his or her
story. Focus on trials and rising action.
H3#,$"2#, 4#$2#,C),- L%$ N,P
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To ie-teach plot stiuctuie, the teachei coulu give a
synopsis of a well-known plot (fiom a Bisney movie, foi
example) anu ask stuuents to label each pait of the plot
uiagiam (exposition, iising action, climax) with
appiopiiate moments in the well-known plot.
N,L,$,"(,- 50)#J)" #J)-
3,--%";

Biemei, Chiistine B., Shaion vaughn, Ann T. Clappei, anu
Ae-Bwa Kim. "Collaboiative Stiategic Reauing (CSR):
Impioving Seconuaiy Stuuents Reauing Compiehension
Skills." A,0,(57+ $4 L5(7$#7, G5#,30 1.2 (2uu2): n. pag.
V,=0#$, 43 $+, P($#4"(. N,"$,5 4" 8,74"-(5> 9-27($#4" ("-
65(-#$#4". National Centei on Seconuaiy Euucation anu
Tiauition. Web.

Nilnei, }oseph 0'Beiine, anu Lucy Floyu Noicock Nilnei.
""Fiee Wiiting" (Chaptei S)." G5#-*#"* 9"*.#0+. 4th eu.
0ppei Sauule Rivei, N}: Neiiill, 2uu8. 12S. Piint.

L5,"$#7, C(.. G5#$#0+ E#$,5($25, % 6#<,.,00 M4#7,0D 6#<,.,00
6+,<,0. 0ppei Sauule Rivei, N}: Pientice Ball, 2uuu. Piint.

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PPT, Gawain Plot Structure Worksheet













1uu
%', ;-<-'( -(* 3"# ;,##( L('/"35 7(-4=@'(/ 9423 %3,8&38,#

N,(233X Wiite in the key plot point foi each stage along uawain's jouiney (incluue
page # of when the stage appeais in the text). Then, tiansfei these same events onto
the tiauitional "plot uiagiam."








H- G%' $,2& %": Continue to fill in key events on both uiagiams.
Aftei Reauing:
In youi opinion, what viituesvices uoes uawain uisplay by facing his "Ciisis"
("ueath" anu "iebiith"). Suppoit youi answei with examples fiom the text.



What ieasons uoes the uieen Knight give uawain foi feigning twice befoie finally
bieaking skin. If you weie uawain, woulu you be satisfieu with those ieasons.




Bow uoes the climax contiibute to the authoi's chaiacteiization of uawain.



Is the plot uiiven by inteinal conflict, exteinal conflict, oi both. Wiite a 1-paiagiaph
analysis citing specific passages to suppoit youi aigument.





1u1
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Stuuents take a 2u-minute quiz on Sii uawain anu the
uieen Knight, take notes on the key teims foi the unit,
anu piactice naiiative wiiting fiom 1
st
peison anu S
iu

peison point of view. Foi homewoik, they ieau anu
comment on theii quest wiiting gioup membeis fiee
wiiting posts, analyzing the uiffeiences in how 1
st
anu S
iu

peison point of view chaiacteiizes the heio of the stoiy.
1%(23 4#2"&2$&- 56%77%"
6%$, 8 96 :--,"#)23
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CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.S
Analyze the impact of the authoi's choices iegaiuing how
to uevelop anu ielate elements of a stoiy oi uiama (e.g.,
wheie a stoiy is set, how the action is oiueieu, how the
chaiacteis aie intiouuceu anu uevelopeu).
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.3.A
Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem,
situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one
or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or
characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or
events.
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4#2"&2$&5-;

- Stuuents analyze how inteinal anu exteinal
conflict impact the uevelopment of plot, citing
specific examples foi suppoit (question #24 on
quiz)
- Stuuents answei questions uesigneu to assess
theii unueistanuing of plot uetails fiom Sii
uawain anu the uieen Knight anu theii ability to
inteipiet theii significance.
- Stuuents uefine key teims fiom eailiei in the unit
anu take notes on chaiacteiization anu point of
view.
- Stuuents complete two 1u-minute fiee wiiting
exeicises to uevelop the movement fiom Status
Quo to the Call to Auventuie foi theii
naiiative: one fiom a 1
st
peison point of view, one
fiom a S
iu
peison point of view.
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Bow uo you connect with an aichetypal
chaiacteisituation. Bow uoes point of view affect the
way you iuentify with chaiacteis in a stoiy.
A$)%$ B"%03,&C,

- Knowleuge of motif, aichetype, chaiacteiization,
anu climax (uefinitions anu how they aie applieu)
- Knowleuge of }oseph Campbells The Beios
}ouiney
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Communication anu Collaboiation Stuuents
communicate, both in peison anu via blog comments, to
shaie peispectives on the effectiveness of theii naiiative
wiiting techniques.
1u2

Cieativity anu Innovation In two fiee wiiting
activities, stuuents uevelop a stage of theii quest naiiative
(fiist in 1
st
peison, then in S
iu
).

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1%$72#)/, H--,--7,"#
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- Quiz on Sii uawain anu the uieen Knight:
Stuuents answei 2u multiple-choice questions
uesigneu to assess stuuents compiehension of
the text. Next, they answei 4 shoit answei
questions uesigneu to test stuuents ability to
infei implicit meanings, foim peisonal
inteipietations, anu (foi question # 24) analyze
the plot stiuctuie anu conflict while citing the text
foi suppoit.
- Waim-up analysis on plot stiuctuie: stuuents
wiite S-S sentences analyzing the similaiities anu
uiffeiences between theii own quest anu that of
uawain, iefeiencing specific stages of the Beios
}ouiney.
- Befining vocabulaiy woius (fiist inuiviuually, then
in a gioup): This S-minute exeicise allows the
teachei to infoimally assess each inuiviuual
stuuents ability to uefine the key vocabulaiy
teims fiom the unit. This infoimation coulu
infoim the teachei about which concepts neeu to
be ie-taught.
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52##2(J -K,()L)( )"-#$'(#)%"-
%$ ,M27K3,-;

Students write an original quest narrative (at least 700 words)
featuring a hero, an object or goal, and each of the stages of
the Heros Journey. In addition, the story must develop at
least 3 symbols and a deeper moral significance for the quest.

After peer-editing rough drafts in small groups, students post
their final drafts on their blog page. This post must include
manuscript illuminations: illustrations that depict at least 3
key plot points and at least 3 symbols.

This summative assessment will not be uue until aftei the
unit is finisheu. Thanks to the blog foium, stuuents can
view each otheis final piouucts even if they aie not
shaieu in class.
H((%77%&2#)%"-
5-K,()L)( #% #J)- 3,--%" 2"&
=2-,& %" -K,()L)( -#'&,"#-;

Naicus: The homewoik assignment, to wiite a 1-
paiagiaph analysis of how uiffeient naiiative techniques
uevelop the same heio, will help Naicus to unueistanu
how naiiative techniques contiibute to chaiacteiization.

Baviu: The small gioup activity of collaboiating to uefine
the ieview teims fiom the unit will ieinfoice Bavius
unueistanuing of the majoi concepts coveieu in the unit.
1uS

Chiistophe: The wiiting waim up allows Chiistophe to
connect the plot of uawain to his peisonal quest naiiative.
The pie-wiiting activities (in 1
st
anu S
iu
peison) will help
Chiistophe to oiganize his naiiative at a latei time.

+,--%" A32"

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Libiaiy (meuia centei with tables anu inuiviuual
computeis foi stuuents); PoweiPoint Piesentation
Chaiacteiization anu Point of view; oveiheau monitoi;
uawain Plot Stiuctuie woiksheet (giaueu anu ietuineu
to stuuents at the beginning of lesson); loose-leaf papei;
pencils
?,33 N)"C,$IN,/),0 H(#)/)#G

Stuuents meet in the meuia lab, which has small tables, an
oveiheau monitoi, anu computeis foi each stuuent.
Befoie the lesson, the teachei places stuuents nametags
on the computeis so that all membeis of the quest
wiiting gioup aie sitting in close pioximity.

- Quiz on Sii uawain anu the uieen Knight (2u
min)
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- Chaiactei compaiison wiiting waim-up (S min)
- While stuuents aie finishing the quiz, the teachei
passes back theii uawain Plot Stiuctuie
Woiksheet anu uisplays the instiuctions:
o When you finish the quiz take youi
notes anu youi uawain Plot Stiuctuie
Woiksheet to the computei with youi
nametag on it, log in anu open youi blog
page, anu computei youi heios quest to
that of uawain.
o In youi notes, analyze the
similaiitiesuiffeiences between youi
heios quest anu that of uawain. Refei to
specific stages of the Beios }ouiney (S-
S sentences).
- Small uioup Biscussion (S min)
o The teachei instiucts each quest wiiting
gioup to uiscuss how theii heio quest
compaies to that of uawain.
o The stuuents aie encouiageu
- Whole Class Biscussion: (S min)
o The teachei calls on 2-S stuuents (each
fiom a uiffeient gioup) to synthesize how
theii iespective quests compaie to that of
uawain.
o Teachei emphasizes: No quest is exactly
alike, but all follow a similai pattein.
o Tiansition to vocabulaiy ieview: The
1u4
teachei asks: Which vocab woiu uoes this
ieminu you of. (Answei: aichetype)
- Biief Review of Key Teims (1u min)
o Below theii wiiting waim-up iesponse,
stuuents attempt to wiite the uefinitions
of aichetype, motif, conflict, climax, anu
chaiacteiization without confeiiing with
theii peeis (4 min)
! Neanwhile, the teachei ciiculates
to assess inuiviuual stuuents
unueistanuing of the teims.
o Aftei S minutes, the teachei instiucts
stuuents to collaboiate with theii quest
wiiting gioups to finu the coiiect
answeis. (S min)
o Teachei calls on inuiviuuals to uefine the
teims, anu then ieveals the answei with
PoweiPoint animation.
- Sliues on Chaiacteiization (S min)
o 0n the same sheet, stuuents take notes on
uiiect vs. inuiiect
o Tiansition to STEAL methous of
chaiacteiization: The teachei asks: What
techniques uoes the authoi use to
chaiacteiize uawain. Aftei stuuent
iesponses, the teachei ieveals STEAL
o STEAL methous: foi each (Speech,
thought,) the teachei asks the class as a
whole to volunteei an example (fiom the
Sii uawain, '45$, -/5$+25, oi any
othei textfilm).
o Tiansition: Bow uo you connect with an
aichetypal chaiacteisituation.
- Point of view (S minutes)
- Essential vocab: Point of view: the vantage point
oi peispective fiom which a stoiy is tolu. (1
st

peison, S
iu
limiteu, S
iu
omniscient)
- Teachei iaises the Essential Question: Bow uoes
point of view affect the way you iuentify with
chaiacteis in a stoiy.
-Fiee Wiiting Activity: 1
st
anu S
iu
Point of view (2u min)
Wiiting piompt:
1
st
peison Fiee Wiite: Put youiself in the position of youi
heioheioine. Imagine the movement fiom status quo to
call to auventuie. What uo you see. What happens.
Besciibe the scene fiom that chaiacteis peispective (1
st

peison). (1u min)

63%-'$,

S
iu
Peison Fiee Wiite:
The teachei instiucts the stuuents: Now, Wiite the scene
1uS
fiom a S
iu
peison peispective (give moie uesciiptive
uetails about the heio). (1u min)

Bomewoik:
Comment on each gioup membeis Fiee Wiiting
Wiite 1 paiagiaph analyzing the uiffeiences in how
the 1
st
peison anu S
iu
peison naiiation uevelops the heio
(thiough actions, thiough uesciiptions).
Concluue with a shoit evaluation of what appioach
woiks bettei foi the wiitei.
H3#,$"2#, 4#$2#,C),- L%$ N,P
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- To ie-teach point of view, the teachei coulu uesign a quiz
game in which stuuents iuentify the naiiative point of
view foi seveial passages. To make the quiz uiuactic,
stuuents woulu highlight specific woius that inuicate the
point of view foi the naiiation. When the teachei goes
ovei the answeis, the stuuents coulu cleaily note the
uiffeiences in subject anu veib tense.
N,L,$,"(,- 50)#J)" #J)-
3,--%";

"Chaiacteiization." A,(- V5#$, 6+#"). National Council of
Teacheis of English, 2uu4. Web.

"Essential Liteiaiy Teims." 9"*.#0+ ;,I(5$<,"$Z0 8#$,.
Baveiling Bigh School, n.u. Web. u7 Nay 2u14.

Nilnei, }oseph 0'Beiine, anu Lucy Floyu Noicock Nilnei.
Collaboiative Authois." G5#-*#"* 9"*.#0+. 4th eu. 0ppei
Sauule Rivei, N}: Neiiill, 2uu8. 99-1u1. Piint.


9.U:X H##2(J %$ )"-,$# 2"G 72#,$)23- '-,& )" #J)- 3,--%"S

PoweiPoint Piesentation; uawain Quiz


















1u6
Quiz on Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

1. Why does the Green Knight come seeking King Arthur?
a. to give him a present
b. to fight him
c. to challenge him
2. What is the challenge that he offers them?
a. you chop my head off and Ill chop your head off later
b. you eat my soup and Ill eat your soup later
c. fight me in hand to hand combat
3. Why does the Green Knight mock them?
a. because no one accepts the challenge
b. because he wants to make them mad
c. because he is a mean person
4. Who accepts the challenge first?
a. Arthur
b. Gawain
c. Guinevere
5. What reason does Gawain give for being the better candidate?
a. he is the strongest and will do the King honor
b. he is the weakest and the challenge is beneath that of the king
c. he is not scared
6. How is Gawain related to King Arthur?
a. son
b. uncle
c. nephew
7. What happens when Gawain swings the ax at the Green Knights neck?
a. the knight is saved by a goddess
b. the knight lifts his arm to protect himself and his arm is chopped off
c. the knights head rolls off and sits on the floor
8. How does the Green Knight leave?
a. he runs away while the members of the court, who have turned into an angry
mob, chase him.
b. he doesnt
c. he picks his head up off the floor and carries it to his horse, mounts, and rides
away
9. What is Gawain supposed to do in 12 months?
a. duel Arthur for Guineveres hand
b. bury the Green Knight at the Green Chapel
c. allow the Green Knight to take a swing at his own head
10. What do Gawain and Arthur do after the Green Knight rides away?
a. try to clear the air and then party on
b. lock all the doors and make everyone vow not to let the Green Knight in again
c. put the Green Knight in the dungeon so he can never hurt anyone again.
11. What is Gawain supposed to do in 12 months?
a. duel Arthur for Guineveres hand
b. bury the Green Knight at the Green Chapel
c. allow the Green Knight to take a swing at his own head

12. Where does Gawain stop on Christmas Eve?
a. The Green Chapel b. a wondrous castle c. Sir Arthurs
personal residence

1u7
13. What deal does Gawain and the lord of the castle make?
a. To trade places on New Years day, so the lord will fight the Green Knight
b. To exchange gifts the next morning
c. To exchange whatever the receive during the next three days

14. Why does Gawain keep the Green Girdle?
a. because it was supposed to protect him
b. because it was pretty
c. because the Green Knight made him promise to bring it to him

15.Where is Gawain supposed to meet the Green Knight?
a. The Green Castle b. The Green Chapel c. The Green Meadow

16. What happens the first time the Green Knight swings the ax at Gawains
neck?
a. Gawain flinches, and the Green Knight mocks him
b. Gawain cries, and the Green Knight mocks him
c. Gawain begs for mercy, and the Green Knight mocks him

17. What happens the second time the Green Knight swings the ax at
Gawains neck?
a. Gawains head rolls off
b. Gawain cries again
c. The knight withdraws at the last second and mocks Gawain

18. What happens the third time the Green Knight swings the ax at
Gawains neck?
a. Gawain is dead, so he doesnt swing it a third time
b. the ax only nicks Gawain, who swiftly rises to his feet to defend himself
c. Gawain passes out

18. Why is Gawain ashamed?
a. because he dishonored himself by sleeping with the lords wife
b. because he dishonored himself by going back on his word
c. because he dishonored himself by crying

19. Who does the Green Knight reveal himself to be?
a. the lord of the castle b. the devil c. King Arthur

20. At the end Gawain is
a. proud b. humbled c. enraged





1u8
Short Answer:

21. In your opinion, what virtues/vices does Gawain represent in his quest?
Why? Support your answer with examples from the text.






22. In your opinion, what virtues/vices does Gawain display by facing his
Crisis (death and rebirth)? Support your answer with examples from
the text.







23. What reasons does the Green Knight give Gawain for feigning twice
before finally breaking skin? If you were Gawain, would you be satisfied
with those reasons?










24. Is the plot driven by internal conflict, external conflict, or both? Cite
examples from the text to support your argument.












1u9
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Intiouuction

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Stuuents inteipiet the meanings of symbols in a seiies of
images, uiscuss the essential question of how a single
textimage can have seveial meanings, anu take notes on
common meuieval symbols. Then, the teachei intiouuces
the concept of allegoiy (its uefinition anu examples) anu
ielates it to the essential question. In small gioups,
stuuents come to a consensus about the allegoiy of Platos
Allegoiy of the Cave, Aesops The Two Tiavelleis anu
the Beai, anu a shoit exceipt fiom Canto I of Bantes
R"3,5"4. To concluue, each gioup uiaws oiiginal
illuminations (maiginal illustiations) foi theii exceipt of
the Infeino anu infoimally piesent theii woik
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CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1
Cite stiong anu thoiough textual eviuence to suppoit
analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as
infeiences uiawn fiom the text, incluuing ueteimining
wheie the text leaves matteis unceitain.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.4
Beteimine the meaning of woius anu phiases as they aie
useu in the text, incluuing figuiative anu connotative
meanings; analyze the impact of specific woiu choices on
meaning anu tone, incluuing woius with multiple
meanings oi language that is paiticulaily fiesh, engaging,
oi beautiful. (Incluue Shakespeaie as well as othei
authois.)
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1
Initiate anu paiticipate effectively in a iange of
collaboiative uiscussions (one-on-one, in gioups, anu
teachei-leu) with uiveise paitneis on giaues 11-12 topics,
texts, anu issues, builuing on otheis' iueas anu expiessing
theii own cleaily anu peisuasively.
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- In small gioups, stuuents analyze the significance
of a seiies of symbols.
- In small gioups, stuuents inteipiet the allegoiical
anu liteial meaning of shoit exceipts of Canto I of
Bantes R"3,5"4, Aesops The Two Nen anu the
Beai, Platos The Allegoiy of the Cave (stuuents
aie askeu to iecall the geneial plot fiom lesson 4),
anu uiottos painting of St. Fiancis of Assisi
maiiying poveit.
- In small gioups, stuuents piouuce oiiginal
manusciipt illuminations foi an assigneu
exceipt of Canto I of Bantes R"3,5"4 anu explain
how theii illustiations iepiesent the allegoiy of
the text.
11u
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Bow can a single text oi image have moie than one
meaning.
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- ueneial knowleuge of symbolism (its uefinition anu
examples taught in lessons 1 anu S)
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Communication anu Collaboiation Stuuents woik in
small gioups to analyze the symbolism anu allegoiy in a
vaiiety of texts anu images. They also piouuce oiiginal
illustiations that iepiesent the allegoiical meaning of an
exceipt of the R"3,5"4.

Cieativity anu Innovation Stuuents woik in small gioups
to cieate oiiginal illustiations that iepiesent the
allegoiical meaning of a paiticulai passage of Bantes
R"3,5"4.

Ciitical Thinking anu Pioblem Solving Stuuents analyze
seveial paintings anu texts to inteipiet symbolism anu
allegoiical meaning.

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- Iuentifying symbols: As an infoimal assessment,
stuuents wiite uown any symbols that they can
iuentify in a seiies of images. Foi each symbol,
they must iuentify the tangible icon anu the
intangible quality that is iepiesenteu.
- Allegoiy team inteipietation activity: In small
gioups, stuuents aiticulate the liteial meaning anu
allegoiical meaning of vaiious textsimages.
- Analysis of a manusciipt illumination foi Canto I:
Stuuents wiite a S-S sentence analysis of the
appaient symbols in a blown-up image of an
illuminateu manusciipt (R"3,5"4 Canto I).
- Illuminateu Nanusciipt foi Bantes Infeino: In
small gioups, stuuents make S+ illustiations in the
maigins of the R"3,5"4 exceipt that in some way
connect to the allegoiical meaning of theii
assigneu poition of the exceipt. 0n the back, each
gioup explains what they inteipieteu the allegoiy
to be, how they chose to iepiesent it visually, anu
why.
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Students write an original quest narrative (at least 700 words)
featuring a hero, an object or goal, and each of the stages of
the Heros Journey. In addition, the story must develop at
least 3 symbols and a deeper moral significance for the quest.

After peer-editing rough drafts in small groups, students post
their final drafts on their blog page. This post must include
manuscript illuminations: illustrations that depict at least 3
key plot points and at least 3 symbols.
111

This summative assessment will not be uue until aftei the
unit is finisheu. Thanks to the blog foium, stuuents can
view each otheis final piouucts even if they aie not
shaieu in class.
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Naicus: As stuuents ieau the exceipt fiom Bantes
R"3,5"4, the teachei pioviues a simple paiaphiase of the
text in seveial PoweiPoint sliues, each of which incluues
an image to aiu with compiehension. This piesentation
stiategy will help Naicus with his uifficulties sequencing
events.

Baviu: The numeious activities centeieu on inteipieting
an image will help Baviu to unueistanu the concept anu
examples of symbolism anu allegoiy thiough a visual
meuium, which ciicumvents his uifficulties with English.
0nce he has piacticeu iuentifying symbolism anu allegoiy
in images, he will have highei confiuence anu gieatei
facility with a textual example.

Chiistophe: The activities in which stuuents analyze
images will help Chiistophe to piactice iuentifying
examples of symbolism anu allegoiy visually befoie facing
the challenge of uecouing a text (the exceipts fiom
Bantes R"3,5"4). The final gioup activity in which
stuuents make theii own illustiations that iepiesent the
allegoiy will allow Chiistophe to ueepen his
unueistanuing of the text thiough a cieative, visually-
stimulating pioject.


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PoweiPoint Piesentation Bigging Beepei; Banuout of shoit
exceipts foi Bantes R"3,5"4 (Nanuelbaum tianslation) to be
given to each gioup; Banuout of all gioups R"3,5"4 exceipts
compileu; coloieu pencilsmaikeisciayons; Aesops Fable
The Two Nen anu the Beai (with inteinet link to the auuio
file);
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Besks aie aiiangeu into small tables of S oi 4. Stuuents aie
sitting with theii quest wiiting gioups.

- Wiiting Response to Swastika (S min)
o The teachei uisplays an image of a Binuu
Swastika alongsiue the piompt: What uoes
this icon mean to you. What
emotionsthoughts uoes it stii up in you.
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- Whole class uiscussion of Swastika (S min)
o The teachei calls on inuiviuuals to shaie theii
112
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iesponses to the icon anu oiganizes stuuent
iesponses into categoiies on the whiteboaiu
(e.g., angei feai Nazis, peace, etc.)
o Tiansition: The teachei asks stuuents Bow
can a single icon mean moie than one thing.
o The teachei biiefly explains the histoiy of the
Swastika symbol (its uiffeient associations ovei
time)
- Whole Class Biscussion of Essential Question (S min)
o The teachei poses the essential question: Bow
can a single text have moie than one meaning.
o The teachei uiges stuuents to leau the
uiscussion, but (if neeueu) pushes stuuents to
elaboiate moie.
o If neeu be, the teachei asks: how uo these
uiffeient meanings come into being.
- Symbolism team inteipietation activity (S min)
o The teachei ieviews vocab: symbol: has a
meaning beyonu the liteial.
o The teachei instiuctions each gioup to wiite
theii names on a single sheet (to be collecteu).
As stuuents aie shown images, they must
iuentify as many symbols as they can. Foi each
symbol, they must inuicate the tangible icon
anu the intangible quality that it iepiesents,
suppoiting theii claims with uetails fiom the
image.
o S paintings shown: aftei each small gioup
uiscussion, the teachei calls on seveial gioups
to shaie theii iueas.
- Nini-lectuie on meuieval symbols (S min)
o Stuuents aie instiucteu to take notes on these
common meuieval symbols: unicoin (shown in
final painting), symbolic numbeis, pentangle
(featuieu in Sii uawain anu the uieen
Knight)
o Tiansition: Teachei elaboiates the numeious
meanings of the pentangle in ielation to
uawain: shows that 1 symbol often has NANY
meanings (anu it is the peiceivei who cieates
the meaning).
- Allegoiy team inteipietation activity: (1S
min)
o Teachei intiouuces the essential vocab (foi
stuuents notes) allegoiy: naiiative with a
uouble meaning: a liteial (suiface meaning, anu
a symbolic (ueepei) meaning.
o Biffeience between symbol anu allegoiy: an
allegoiy is a NARRATIvE. It uses symbols again
anu again in a consistent way as the stoiy
11S
uevelops. Bowevei, the ueepei meaning is
nevei explicitly stateu.
o Activity instiuctions: Stuuents aie instiucteu to
woik with theii small gioups to agiee on a
wiitten iesponse foi each image. Bowevei, this
time they aie inteipieting allegoiies. Not just
symbols. Foi EACB: wiite the LITERAL anu the
ALLEu0RICAL meaning of the stoiy.
o The teachei shows Allegoiy of the Cave photo
(ieview fiom lesson 4).
! The teachei calls on 1-2 gioups to shaie
theii explanation. The class comes to a
consensus.
o Teachei shows painting: St. Fiancis weus
Poveity (possible answei: liteial meaning = St.
Fiancis maiiies a woman nameu Poveity.
Allegoiical meaning = St. Fiancis takes a vow to
live in poveity foi his whole life.)
! The teachei calls on 1-2 gioups to
shaie. Class comes to a consensus.
o Stuuents ieau Aesops fable The Two Nen anu
the Beai (while teachei plays the auuio
iecoiuing). Stuuents aie instiucteu to wiite
what the moial of the stoiy is.
o The teachei asks S-4 gioups to shaie theii
moials anu wiites them on the boaiu. Then, he
ieveals the moial that the stoiy gives.
o Tiansition: The teachei poses the question:
Can theie be moie than one valiu answei. Is it
okay foi us to uisagiee about what the moial of
the stoiy is.
- Inuiviuual wiiting S-S-sentence analysis of an image:
(S min)
o A blown-up illuminateu manusciipt illustiation
uepicting Canto I of Bantes R"3,5"4 is shown
on the scieen.
o The stuuents iesponu to piompt: What uo you
think this image iepiesent. Wiite 2-S
sentences citing specific figuiesimages.
- Small gioup uiscussion (S min)
o The teachei instiucts stuuents to shaie theii
iueas with theii small gioup
o While small gioups shaie, the teachei
ciiculates encouiaging stuuents to suppoit
theii inteipietations with specific featuies
fiom the image.
o Tiansition: the teachei ieveals the context of
the image: fiom an illuminateu manusciipt of
Bantes R"3,5"4 (the veiy beginning)
o Neanwhile, the teachei hanus out copies of the
114
oiiginal text (Nanuelbaum tianslation) that
goes with the illustiation (fiist half of Canto I).
Each gioup ieceives copies with a uiffeient
poition of the poem highlighteu.
- Reauing Bantes R"3,5"4 (1u min)
o Sliue on Illuminateu manusciipts: illustiateu
book uuiing the miuule ages.
o 0ne stuuent fiom each gioup is chosen to ieau
theii highlighteu passage. At 4 points uuiing
the ieauing, the teachei stops to show an image
anu a summaiy of the text ieau (see
PoweiPoint).
- Small uioup Analysis of Allegoiy (1u min)
o Each small gioup iesponus to piompts A anu B
anu wiites theii answeis on the back of the
R"3,5"4 hanuout.
a) Iuentify impoitant figuies anu actions in highlighteu
passage
b) What coulu this passage iepiesent on a ueepei level.
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- Illuminate youi Nanusciipt activity (1u min)
c) With youi gioup, make S+ illustiations that iepiesent
the allegoiical meaning of youi passage. 0se -#33,5,"$
figuiesimages than what Bante uses. Biaw them in the
maigins of the poem (in the style of meuieval illuminateu
manusciipts)
u) 0n the back, explain what youi gioup inteipieteu the
allegoiy to be, how you chose to iepiesent it visually, anu why.
o The teachei announces that the stuuents will
be iequiieu to make oiiginal illuminations foi
theii final quest naiiative, except that they
must be publisheu in an electionic foimat
(scanneu, uploaueu, uesigneu, etc.).
o Pioceuuie: Buiing this activity, the teachei
ciiculates to assess inuiviuual stuuents
unueistanuing anu the gioup uynamics.
o At the enu of class, the teachei collects the
illuminateu manusciipt foi each gioup.
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To ie-teach the concept of allegoiy, the teachei coulu wiite a
shoit tale (S sentences) anu ask stuuents to inteipiet the
liteial anu allegoiical meaning of the text. This exeicise woulu
allow stuuents to compaie vaiious stuuent-piouuceu
inteipietations, thus illustiating that theie is no single iight
answei foi iuentifying the allegoiy.

0nce stuuents have finisheu theii quests, stuuents coulu
inteipiet the allegoiy of each otheis naiiatives.
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Alighieii, Bante, Baiiy Nosei, anu Allen Nanuelbaum. R"3,5"4%
/ M,50, 65("0.($#4" H#$+ R"$54-27$#4" => /..," '("-,.=(2<.
Camp Bill, PA: Quality Papeiback Book Club, 198u. Piint.

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"The Beai anu the Two Tiaveleis - ueneial Fable Collection."
T,",5(. 1(=., N4..,7$#4". AesopFables.com, n.u. Web. u7 Nay
2u14.

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Biitish Libiaiy, Siena. ;#*#$#0,- '("2075#I$0. The Biitish
Libiaiy. Web.

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PowerPoint; Mandelbaums Inferno translation



































116



From Canto I of Dantes Inferno (Allen Mandelbaum
translation)

(Group 1)
When I had journeyed half of our life's way,
I found myself within a shadowed forest,
for I had lost the path that does not stray.

Ah, it is hard to speak of what it was,
that savage forest, dense and difficult,
which even in recall renews my fear:

so bitter-death is hardly more severe!
But to retell the good discovered there,
I'll also tell the other things I saw.


(Group 2)
I cannot clearly say how I had entered
the wood; I was so full of sleep just at
the point where I abandoned the true path.

But when I'd reached the bottom of a hill-
it rose along the boundary of the valley
that had harassed my heart with so much fear-


(Group 3)
I looked on high and saw its shoulders clothed
already by the rays of that same planet
which serves to lead men straight along all roads.

At this my fear was somewhat quieted;
for through the night of sorrow I had spent,
the lake within my heart felt terror present.


(Group 4)
And just as he who, with exhausted breath,
having escaped from sea to shore, turns back
to watch the dangerous waters he has quit,

117
so did my spirit, still a fugitive,
turn back to look intently at the pass
that never has let any man survive.

(Group 5)
I let my tired body rest awhile.
Moving again, I tried the lonely slope-
my firm foot always was the one below.

And almost where the hillside starts to rise-
look there!-a leopard, very quick and lithe,
a leopard covered with a spotted hide.

He did not disappear from sight, but stayed;
indeed, he so impeded my ascent
that I had often to turn back again.


(Group 6)
The time was the beginning of the morning;
the sun was rising now in fellowship
with the same stars that had escorted it

when Divine Love first moved those things of beauty;
so that the hour and the gentle season
gave me good cause for hopefulness on seeing


(Group 7)
that beast before me with his speckled skin;
but hope was hardly able to prevent
the fear I felt when I beheld a lion.

His head held high and ravenous with hunger-
even the air around him seemed to shudder-
this lion seemed to make his way against me.


(Group 8)
And then a she-wolf showed herself; she seemed
to carry every craving in her leanness;
she had already brought despair to many.

The very sight of her so weighted me
with fearfulness that I abandoned hope
118
of ever climbing up that mountain slope.


(Group 9)
Even as he who glories while he gains
will, when the time has come to tally loss,
lament with every thought and turn despondent,

so was I when I faced that restless beast
which, even as she stalked me, step by step
had thrust me back to where the sun is speechless.






































119
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Intiouuction

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Stuuents woik in paitneis to ieview, euit, anu comment
on each otheis iough uiafts of the quest naiiative using
uoogle Bloggei anu Niciosoft Woiu comments anu tiack
changes.
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CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.6
0se technology, incluuing the Inteinet, to piouuce,
publish, anu upuate inuiviuual oi shaieu wiiting piouucts
in iesponse to ongoing feeuback, incluuing new
aiguments oi infoimation.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.3
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or
events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and
well-structured event sequences.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.3.C
Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they
build on one another to create a coherent whole and build
toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of
mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
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- Stuuents euit a paitneis iough uiaft foi style anu
claiity using Niciosoft Woiu tiack changes anu in-
text comments.
- Stuuents wiite in-text comments to iuentify the
sequence of stages of the Beios }ouiney in the
plot as well as symbols anu the quest objective.
- In a final in-text comment on theii paitneis iough
uiaft, stuuents wiite at least thiee suggestions on
how to impiove the builu up to the climax anu the
piogiession towaius the iesolution.
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Bow can we impiove oui own wiiting anu thinking by
ievising the woik of otheis.
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- Knowleuge of uoogle Bloggei (how to log into
theii accounts, post mateiial, anu comment on
othei stuuents posts)
- Familiaiity with Niciosoft Woiu (incluuing how to
Post in-text Comments anu tiack changes)
- ueneial knowleuge of how to coiiect foi English
mechanics anu conventions, incluuing subject-
veib agieement, tense consistency, punctuation
(comma vs. peiiou vs. semicolon vs. colon),
capitalization, speech quotations, paiagiaph
bieaks, anu syntax (Bowevei, the stuuents
masteiy of these skills vaiies gieatly.)
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Communication anu Collaboiation Stuuents woik in
paiis to pioviue feeuback, both wiitten anu oial, on the
iough uiaft. At the enu of the lesson, stuuents woik
togethei to piepaie foi a gioup piesentation.
12u

Ciitical Thinking anu Pioblem Solving Stuuents aie
encouiageu to piopose specific euits to impiove the
claiity, style, anu content of a paitneis uiaft. The piocess
of euiting is inheiently ciitical, anu often piesents
pioblems to be solveu.

Cieativity anu Innovation Stuuents aie encouiageu to
suggest cieative iueas to fuithei uevelop the plot of theii
paitneis uiaft (specifically focusing on the builu up to the
climax anu the piogiession towaius a final iesolution).

ulobal Awaieness: Stuuents leain fiom anu woik
collaboiatively with theii peeis in the piocess of peei-
ievision anu peei-feeuback. Stuuents also shaie iueas
about the uiveise peispectives anu expeiiences ieflecteu
in theii peisonal naiiatives.

Initiative anu Self-Biiection The lesson iequiies
stuuents to woik inuepenuently on peei ievisions both in
anu outsiue of class.

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- Peei-feeuback on Plot: Each stuuent iuentifies the
heio, each stage of the Beios }ouiney, the quest
objective anu its allegoiical significance, anu as
many symbols as can be founu in a paitneis
iough uiaft. As a final in-text comment, each
stuuent makes at least thiee suggestions on how
to enhance the builu-up to the climax anu the
piogiession towaius a final iesolution anu (if
necessaiy) integiate the missing elements of the
Beios }ouiney.
- Peei-euiting foi style anu content: each stuuent
euits a paitneis iough uiaft foi style anu content,
focusing specifically on giammai, punctuation,
anu tiansitions.
- Exit slip ieflection on euiting piocess: At the enu
of the lesson, each stuuent wiites a shoit
ieflection on what they have leaineu fiom the
peei-ievision piocess.
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Students write an original quest narrative (at least 700 words)
featuring a hero, an object or goal, and each of the stages of
the Heros Journey. In addition, the story must develop at
least 3 symbols and a deeper moral significance for the quest.

After peer-editing rough drafts in small groups, students post
their final drafts on their blog page. This post must include
manuscript illuminations: illustrations that depict at least 3
121
key plot points and at least 3 symbols.

This summative assessment will not be uue until aftei the
unit is finisheu. Thanks to the blog foium, stuuents can
view each otheis final piouucts even if they aie not
shaieu in class.
H((%77%&2#)%"-
5-K,()L)( #% #J)- 3,--%" 2"&
=2-,& %" -K,()L)( -#'&,"#-;

Naicus The tiack-changes anu in-text comment
technology woulu help Naicus to oiganize his thoughts as
he makes ievisions. Noie geneially, the peei-ievision
piocess will help him to isolate specific aspects of his
wiiting that neeu impiovement.

Baviu The peei-euiting anu peei feeuback activities will
help Baviu, who woulu gieatly benefit fiom specific
uesciiptive feeuback fiom a native speakei.

Chiistophe The peei-feeuback anu peei-euiting
activities will help mouel goou euiting techniques foi
Chiistophe, who stiuggles with the pie-wiiting anu
euiting stages of his wiiting.


+,--%" A32"

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The lesson takes place in the libiaiy, which has computeis
foi the stuuents, a computei foi the teachei, anu a
monitoi to uisplay the teacheis PoweiPoint. Befoie class,
the teachei places stuuents nametags at computei uesks
so that each stuuent is sitting next to his oi hei Peei-
Feeuback paitnei, anu each Quest Wiiting gioup is in
close pioximity.
Computeis with Niciosoft Woiu anu inteinet access;
oveiheau monitoi; PoweiPoint piesentation;
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- Waim-up Activity Elevatoi talks (8 minutes)
o Inuiviuual wiiting (2 min): Stuuents aie
instiucteu: In youi notes, explain the
objective of youi heios quest (what is
youi heio tiying to accomplish.). In
auuition, explain the ueepei, allegoiical
meaning foi this liteial objective.
o Elevatoi talk #1 (2.S min): Stuuents aie
instiucteu to stanu up anu silently
ciiculate aiounu the ioom until the
teachei calls stop. Then, they aie
instiucteu to shake hanus with a peison
who is not in theii Quest Wiiting gioup.
In these paiis, stuuents explain the
objectives of theii iespective quests (anu
theii allegoiical significance) in 2 minutes
time.
122
o Elevatoi talk #2 (2.S min): Stuuents aie
instiucteu to ciiculate again, to stop, anu
shake hanus with a uiffeient peison, who
will be theii new paitnei. This time,
stuuent must explain the objective of $+,#5
I5,F#420 I(5$",50 quest (in 2 minutes)
o Tiansition (1 min): The teachei instiucts
stuuents to ietuin to theii seats (to the
computei with theii nametag on it) anu
asks, Bow many of you weie able to
iemembei the uetails of youi 1
st
paitneis
stoiy. stuuents shaie iesponses with the
whole class.
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- Puipose anu 0bjectives of Peei-Revision (S min)
o The teachei explains the take-away point
of waim-up: the wiitei makes the stoiy,
but the ieauei may unueistanu it
uiffeiently than how the wiitei intenueu.
Thats why its impoitant to consiuei the
meaning that anothei peison takes away
fiom youi stoiy.
o 0bjectives of the lesson: 1) pioviue
constiuctive feeuback foi youi peeis 2)
leain fiom youi peei so that you can make
impiovements to youi uiaft
o The teachei explains the agenua foi the
lesson: Paitnei peei-feeuback on plot;
Paitnei peei-euiting Peei feeuback foi
style anu claiity; Blog Comments (on each
membei of youi Quest Wiiting gioup);
anu Piepaiing foi Piesentations.
o The teachei asks stuuents if they have any
questions.
o Tiansition: The teachei explains: The
name wiitten in pencil on youi nametag
will be youi peei-feeuback paitnei. Right
now, go to this peisons blog anu open his
oi hei iough uiaft.
- Peei-feeuback on plot (2u min):
o Stuuents aie instiucteu to open a blank
Niciosoft Woiu uocument, copy theii
paitneis iough uiaft fiom theii blog post,
anu then paste the uiaft onto the blank
Woiu uocument. The teachei explains the
thiee steps in inciements:
o Step 1 (1u min): As you ieau thiough youi
paitneis uiaft ciitically, wiite in-text
comments to iuentify a) the heio, b) each
stage of the Beios }ouiney, c) as many
symbols as you can finu, anu u) the
12S
objective of the quest anu its allegoiical
significance. Foi each in-text comment,
wiite a 1-S sentences explaining youi
choice (e.g. The Call to Auventuie is when
Sallys fathei gets kiunappeu because it
foices hei to take action)
o Step 2 (S min): When you finish step 1,
post a final comment at the bottom of the
uocument in which you a) list all the plot
elements that neeu to be auueu to youi
paitneis quest anu b) at least thiee
suggestions on how to enhance the builu
up to the climax anu the piogiession
towaius the iesolution anu (if the quest is
missing iequiieu elements) how to
integiate them into the plot.
o Step S (S min): Talk to youi paitnei about
youi thiee suggestions on how to enhance
theii builu up, climax, anu iesolution.
o Thioughout the thiee steps, the teachei
ciiculates to lenu suppoit, claiify uoubts,
anu gauge stuuents level of paiticipation.
- Peei-Euiting foi Style anu Claiity (2u min)
o The teachei explains that stuuents will use
both tiack changes anu in-text comments
to pioviue suggestions to impiove the
style, claiity, anu oiganization of the same
paitneis uiaft. Stuuents aie instiucteu to
euit foi
o uiammai: Euit youi paitneis uiaft so that
the naiiative follows consistent iules foi
giammai. Watch out foi subject-veib
agieement, tense consistency, anu
incoiiect spelling, aiticles, anu pionouns.
If a chaiacteinaiiatoi uoes not follow the
conventions of Stanuaiu Ameiican English
(like Buck Finn), then make suie that the
uialect is useu consistently.
o Punctuation: Euit youi paitneis uiaft to
make suie that punctuation is useu
consistently anu cleaily. Nake suie that
commas, colons, semi-colons, anu peiious
aie useu appiopiiately anu coiiectly. Also
make suie that all uialogue is intiouuceu
with a comma oi colon anu put in uouble
quotes (e.g., }im saiu, I uont know about
that, Buck.).
o Tiansitions: Euit anu comment on youi
paitneis uiaft with an eye to impiove the
claiity anu flow of the stoiy. Suggest
124
tiansition woius when appiopiiate. If you
see a jump in the logic oi sequence of
events, make a comment explaining youi
confusion. Suggest uiffeient paiagiaph
bieaks if you feel it is necessaiy.
o Buiing the peei-euiting stage, the teachei
ciiculates to lenu suppoit anu assess
stuuents paiticipation anu quality of
feeuback.
o Aftei 18 minutes, stuuents aie instiucteu
to email the Woiu uocument to 2
iecipients: the authoi of the uiaft anu the
teachei.
- Blog Comments (1S min)
o The teachei instiucts stuuents to post a 1-
paiagiaph blog comment on theii
paitneis iough uiaft with the piompt:
Iuentify specific uetailsaspects that you
especially likeu about the uiaft anu why.
Piaise youi peeis foi what they uiu well!
(1u min)
o Stuuents aie instiucteu to ieau the
comments on theii blogs, anu then uiscuss
them with theii paitnei. (S min)
o Tiansition: The teachei explains that the
homewoik foi this evening is to ieau all
othei gioup membeis uiafts anu post a 1-
paiagiaph comment foi each auuiessing
the same piompt.
- Explaining Quest Wiiting uioup Piesentations
(S min)
o The teachei instiucts stuuents to take out
the Instiuctions anu Rubiic foi the Nake
a Quest pioject, anu then explains the
Quest Wiiting uioup Piesentation.
o The teachei says: Foi pait 1 of the
piesentation, you will intiouuce youi
peei-feeuback paitneis quest. Foi pait
2, all membeis will ieflect on the
expeiience of woiking as a gioup foi
biainstoiming, feeuback, anu ievisions.
o The teachei uiiects stuuents attention to
the iubiic on the Nake a Quest hanuout
anu asks stuuents if they have any
questions.
o The teachei explains that they will be
given the next 1u minutes to piepaie pait
1 of theii piesentation, anu that they can
piepaie pait 2 at the beginning of the next
lesson (iight befoie piesenting).
12S
- Piepaiing pait 1 of uioup Piesentations (1u min)
o Stuuents aie instiucteu to wiite an outline
foi piesenting theii paitneis quest foi
pait 1 of the piesentation, consulting
himhei when neeueu.
o The teachei ciiculates to lenu suppoit,
iesolve uoubts, anu answei questions
iegaiuing the piesentation guiuelines.
63%-'$,

Stuuents inuiviuually answei essential question (S min):
What have you leaineu fiom the piocess of ievising youi
paitneis quest naiiative. wiiting it on a notecaiu to be
tuineu in at the enu of class.

B0NEW0RK:
- Reau anu comment on ALL gioup membeis
quests.
- Caiefully ieau youi peei-feeuback anu make
necessaiy ievisions (fiist to giammaistyle, then
plotcontent).
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To bettei mouel peei-ievision stiategies, the teachei
coulu uisplay scieenshots of stuuent peei-feeuback (tiack
changes anu in-text comments). The teachei coulu show S
anonymous examples: one that is exemplaiy, one that is
pooily uone, anu one that is miuule-of-the-ioau. Stuuents
coulu woik togethei in paitneis oi small gioups to iank
which feeuback is most helpful anu why.
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3,--%";

Kawahata, Cinuy. "Running Beau: Peei Euiting thiough
Technology in K-12 Classiooms." Thesis. Califoinia State
0niveisity, Saciamento, 2u12. Web.

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126
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Intiouuction

+,--%" ./,$/),0

Each Quest Wiiting uioup piesents theii quests (each
gioup membei piesenting theii Peei-Feeuback
paitneis quest) anu the oveiall expeiience of woiking in
a gioup foi biainstoiming, feeuback, anu ievisions.
Buiing the piesentations, each stuuent fills out an
infoimal evaluation of all othei gioups piesentations.
1%(23 4#2"&2$&- 56%77%"
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CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.4
Present information, findings, and supporting evidence,
conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners
can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing
perspectives are addressed, and the organization,
development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose,
audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.3
Analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to
develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a
story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are
introduced and developed).
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-Each stuuent piesents a paitneis quest naiiative to the
whole class, explaining the setting, the heios
chaiacteiistics, the quest objective, anu the key plot
points.
-As a gioup, stuuents piesent on what they leaineu
thioughout the gioup ievision piocess.
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What can we as wiiteis leain fiom oui ieaueis.
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-The stuuents have been exposeu to eveiything taught in
the pievious lessons foi this unit.
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Communication anu Collaboiation Stuuents woik
togethei to piesent on theii expeiience of collaboiating
thioughout the unit.

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-uioup Piesentation: Foi pait 1 of the piesentation, each
stuuent is chaigeu with the task of piesenting the quest
naiiative of his oi hei Peei-Feeuback paitnei,
explaining the heios chaiacteiistics, the setting, the quest
objective anu the key plot points. Foi pait 2 of the
piesentation, each gioup of stuuents must ieflect on what
they leaineu thioughout the peei-ievision piocess.
-Peei-Evaluations of othei uioup Piesentations: Buiing
the gioup piesentations, each stuuent wiites notes,
questions, anu an oveiall assessment of each othei
gioups piesentation.
127
-1-paiagiaph Reflection on othei Authois Choices:
stuuents wiite a 1-paiagiaph ieflection on the most
inteiesting choices maue by theii classmates in
ueveloping the plot anu chaiacteis of theii quest
naiiatives.
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Students write an original quest narrative (at least 700 words)
featuring a hero, an object or goal, and each of the stages of
the Heros Journey. In addition, the story must develop at
least 3 symbols and a deeper moral significance for the quest.

After peer-editing rough drafts in small groups, students post
their final drafts on their blog page. This post must include
manuscript illuminations: illustrations that depict at least 3
key plot points and at least 3 symbols.

This summative assessment will not be uue until aftei the
unit is finisheu. Thanks to the blog foium, stuuents can
view each otheis final piouucts even if they aie not
shaieu in class.
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Naicus The labeleu boxes in the peei-evaluation foim
will help Naicus to oiganize his thoughts befoie
tiansfeiiing them to papei.

Baviu The 1u minutes of piepaiation befoie the gioup
piesentations will allow Baviu to consult his peeis on the
pionunciation anu emphasis of ceitain woius in his
poition of the piesentation.

Chiistophe The gioup piesentationswhich incluue
summaiies of inuiviuual stuuents quest naiiatives as
well as gioup ieflections on the euiting piocesswill
ieinfoice Chiistophes unueistanuing of the quest
aichetype because he benefits fiom lessons that allow him
to connect the mateiial to his peisonal expeiiences.

+,--%" A32"

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Peei-Evaluation Foims foi uioup Piesentations;
PoweiPoint Piesentation entitleu Quest Wiiting uioup
Piesentations; Nake a Quest Instiuctions anu Rubiic
(hanueu out in lesson S); oveiheau monitoi; Besk cameia
whose feeu can be uisplayeu on the oveiheau monitoi
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- Waim-up wiiting piompt (S minutes)
o The teachei uisplays on a monitoi: Think
of all the peei-feeuback youve ieceiveu so
fai. Wiite uown the S most helpful
suggestions youve been given anu how
you plan to use them as you continue with
youi naiiative.
o Buiing this waim-up, the teachei
128
ciiculates to assess which stuuents can
cite specific suggestions fiom memoiy.
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- Small-gioup anu whole-class uiscussions of
piompt (1u min)
o Each Quest Wiiting gioup uiscusses the
specific suggestions that they founu most
helpful anu how they plan to use them as
they continue woiking on the pioject.
o Whole class: The teachei calls on 2-S
stuuents to shaie specific examples of
feeuback, why it has been helpful, anu how
they plan to use it as they move foiwaiu.
o Tiansition: the teachei says: By now, you
all shoulu have ieau anu commenteu on
each of youi Quest Wiiting gioup
membeis iough uiafts.
- Piepaiing foi Pait 2 of the uioup Piesentation:
(1u min)
o The teachei instiuctions each gioup:
Wiite an outline foi Pait 2 of youi
piesentation. Nake suie that all question
on the piompt aie auuiesseu anu that each
gioup membei speaks. Then, piactice
pacing, ueliveiy, anu bouy language foi the
piesentation.
o The teachei ieminus stuuents to check the
iubiic to make suie that they aie meeting
all iequiiements.
o As gioups piepaie foi theii piesentations,
the teachei ciiculates to lenu suppoit,
answei questions, anu assess whethei
stuuents aie collaboiating to oiganize
theii piesentation.
o Aftei 9 minutes, the teachei passes out the
peei-evaluation sheets.
- Instiuctions foi Peei-Evaluations (S min)
o The teachei explains that each stuuent
must evaluate all othei gioups using this
peei-evaluation sheet.
o To mouel feeuback, the teachei fills out
each column foi a sample gioup
(uisplaying the comments on the oveiheau
monitoi).
- Quest Wiiting uioup Piesentations. (Su min)
o Each gioup piesents (both pait 1 anu pait
2 of theii piesentations).
o Aftei each piesentation, the teachei gives
stuuents a minute to fill out theii peei-
evaluation sheet.
63%-'$, Reflection on othei quest naiiatives (1u minutes):
129
Review youi piesentation notes on othei stuuents quest
naiiatives. 0f these quest naiiatives piesenteu, which
authois choices aie most inteiesting to you. Bow uo
these choices affect the uevelopment of plot. Incluue
examples fiom at least S uiffeient stoiies in youi 1-
paiagiaph ieflection.
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To ie-teach piesentation skills, the teachei coulu highlight
specific aspects of piesenting (e.g., bouy postuie, eye
contact, pacing, etc.) anu mouel goou anu bau examples
foi each. To fuithei heighten stuuents sensitivity to these
aspects of a piesentation, the teachei coulu cieate an in-
class gioup exeicise in which each table takes notes on
positive anu negative aspects of S piesentations (taken
fiom a goveinment website oi even youtube.com).
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"Assessing Leaining: Peei anu Self Assessment." L,,5 ("-
8,.3 /00,00<,"$. The National Capital Language Resouice
Centei, n.u. Web. u9 Nay 2u14.

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PowerPoint; Peer-Evaluation Sheet,



























1Su
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Piesentation #____ uioup membeis: ________________________ , _________________________
_________________________ , _________________________
Notes
Questions
0veiall
Assessment





Piesentation #____ uioup membeis: ________________________ , _________________________
_________________________ , _________________________
Notes
Questions
0veiall
Assessment

1S1




Piesentation #____ uioup membeis: ________________________ , _________________________
_________________________ , _________________________
Notes
Questions
0veiall
Assessment





Piesentation #____ uioup membeis: ________________________ , _________________________
_________________________ , _________________________
Notes
Questions
0veiall
Assessment

1S2

Piesentation #____ uioup membeis: ________________________ , _________________________
_________________________ , _________________________
Notes
Questions
0veiall
Assessment




Piesentation #____ uioup membeis: ________________________ , _________________________
_________________________ , _________________________
Notes
Questions
0veiall
Assessment





1SS
Piesentation #____ uioup membeis: ________________________ , _________________________
_________________________ , _________________________
Notes
Questions
0veiall
Assessment




























1S4
N:1:N:96:4

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Bailey, Charlene. "Naking the Niuule Ages Fun foi Teacheis anu Stuuents." '()#"* $+,
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Bumanities, 2uuu. Web. u7 Nay 2u14.

Biemei, Chiistine B., Shaion vaughn, Ann T. Clappei, anu Ae-Bwa Kim. "Collaboiative
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"The Beai anu the Two Tiaveleis - ueneial Fable Collection." T,",5(. 1(=., N4..,7$#4".
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1SS

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Nuszkiewicz, }o. "Sii uawain anu the uieen Knight: Slaying Stuuent Resistance." 6+, K"7,
("- 12$25, N.(00544< v.2 (Fall 2uu7): n. pag. Web.

0beimeiei, Anita. "Bi. 0beimeiei Poital Page." ;5J K=,5<,#,5 L45$(. L(*,. 0niveisity of New
Nexico, n.u. Web. u7 Nay 2u14.

L5,"$#7, C(.. G5#$#0+ E#$,5($25,% 6#<,.,00 M4#7,0D 6#<,.,00 6+,<,0. 0ppei Sauule Rivei, N}:
Pientice Ball, 2uuu. Piint.

"Romance." 9"7>7.4I(,-#( G5#$(""#7(J 9"7>7.4I(,-#( G5#$(""#7( K".#", /7(-,<#7 9-#$#4".
Encyclopuia Biitannica Inc., 2u14. Web. u7 Nay. 2u14.

Sellois, Alyssa. "}anuaiy 2u11 Aichives." C(55#04" C#*+ 87+44.. Baiiison Bigh School, 1 }an.
2u11. Web. u7 Nay 2u14.

Slade, Benjamin. "Beowulf on Steorarume [Beowulf in Cyberspace]: Bede's Account of the Poet
Caedmon & Caedmon's Hymn." Beowulf on Steorarume [Beowulf in Cyberspace]:
Bede's Account of the Poet Caedmon & Caedmon's Hymn. Benjamin Slade, n.d. Web. 07
May 2014.

van Bei Linuen, Sanuei. "The Science Behinu Bieaming." 87#,"$#3#7 /<,5#7(" (2u11): n. pag.
87#,"$#3#7 /<,5#7(" K".#",. Scientific Ameiican, 26 }une 2u11. Web.

Woou, Nichael. "King Aithui, '0nce anu Futuie King'" GGN P,H0. BBC, 17 Feb. 2u11. Web. u9
Nay 2u14.

1S6
APPENDIX A: ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
The Power of Myth: a 6-part PBS documentary featuring Joseph Campbell, the
author of The Hero with a Thousand Faces
What Makes a Hero?: a Ted-Ed Video explaining the Heros Journey
(http://ed.ted.com/lessons/what-makes-a-hero-matthew-winkler)
The Heros Quest: In this essay on Tolkien, W. H. Auden proposes his own
model for the Heros Quest, which varies slightly from that of Joseph
Campbell. I chose to use Campbells The Heros Journey because it is by far
the most widely used, but there are many variants of the same general structure.
o Auden, W. H. "The Hero's Quest." Tolkien and the Critics: Essays on J.R.R.
Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. By Neil David Isaacs and Rose A. Zimbardo.
Notre Dame: U of Notre Dame, 1968. N. pag. Print.
Jung, C. G. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. New York:
Pantheon, 1959. Print.










1S7
APPENDIX B BRIDGING ENGLISH RESOURCES/ACTIVITES
Archetypal (p. 167): Here, Milner and Milner provide a concise and accurate
overview of Archetypal criticism, from its roots in Platonic thought to its place in Jungian
theory.
Collaborative Authors (pp. 131-133): I adapted several of the strategies and insights
of this section to my activities for reading Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. I have
students write an internal monologue of Gawains thoughts approaching the climax. I
also have students act out moments that parallel the text, but use this activity before we
begin reading the text, as opposed to after, so that students are familiar with the general
plot structure beforehand.
Synergistic Texts (p. 130): I adapted this strategy for lesson 1, in which students are
instructed to write the three most important points from a scientific article and a
PowerPoint presentation on the importance of dreams. As in Bridging English, the
students use a Venn diagram to organize how these two perspectives interrelate.
Venn Diagramming (pp. 148-9): The insights on how Venn Diagramming can be
used to encourage analysis and synthesis were helpful for my planning of lesson 1.
Trio Tales (pp. 99-101) The group brainstorm activity of lesson 5 draws its inspiration
from Trio Tales, but is quite different. Instead of providing multiple options for
characters, settings, and resolutions, the teacher merely writes 3 seemingly unrelated
words and instructs each small group to brainstorm a character, a setting, and a premise
for a quest.
Personal Triggers (p. 128): Throughout the unit, students are prompted to reflect on
personal experiences before engaging with a text (see, for example, the bell-ringers of
lessons 1, 4, and 6).
1S8
Free Writing (p. 123): Several free writing prompts are interspersed throughout the
unit so that students can formulate their thoughts on paper informally before engaging in
partner, small-group, or whole-class discussion (see, for example, the bell-ringer of
lesson 6).
Students Write (pp. 157-158): The structure of my unit as a whole is organized
around the premise that after students have written their own stories, they are positioned
to consider what they did and, in turn, to more consciously understand the choices
authors make as well (p 157-158)
Enactment (pp. 248-249): The concept of having students enact a text before
analyzing it formally is central to my activities in Lesson 4.
Story Drama (p. 254): The insights of this section, especially students need of
visualizing the action in a story, are highly relevant to my approaches to teaching both
major texts in this unit. After reading Le Morte dArthur, students make a visual
storyboard of key actions and symbols. Before beginning Sir Gawain and the Green
Knight, students act out original skits that parallel major plot points in the story.










1S9
APPENDIX C ORIGINAL PLANNING SHEET
Backward Mapping Unit Plan
94-(('(/ %"##3

0nit Title: Neuieval Quests
Subject Aiea Content: Biitish Liteiatuie - emphasis on the meuieval iomance tiauition.
uiaue Level: English 4

Final Piouuct













Bow will you know if stuuents have cieateu a quality piouuct. In othei woius, "what" will
you assess anu how.





















St udent s wi l l creat e a narrat i ve fol l owi ng medi eval romance conve St udent s wi l l creat e a narrat i ve fol l owi ng medi eval romance convent i ons nt i ons
(i ncl udi ng at l east 3 sust ai ned symbol s) al ong wi t h a 1 (i ncl udi ng at l east 3 sust ai ned symbol s) al ong wi t h a 1- - paged anal ysi s of i t s paged anal ysi s of i t s
symbol i sm. The narrat i ve shoul d i ncl ude a vi sual component and a pl ot i n symbol i sm. The narrat i ve shoul d i ncl ude a vi sual component and a pl ot i n
keepi ng wi t h t he medi eval quest convent i ons. keepi ng wi t h t he medi eval quest convent i ons.
The final summative assessment shoulu incluue: 1) a 2-pageu naiiative with a well-uevelopeu
plot (exposition, conflict, iising action, climax, uenouement) with a "heio" (piotagonist
chaiacteiizeu with paiticulai viituesvices), a "quest" (a challengeconflicttest that biings out
the heioes qualities), anu a system of symbols (at least thiee) that come togethei to foim an
allegoiical meaning foi the text. 2) a visual component piesenteu alongsiue the naiiative. This
coulu be an illuminateu manusciipt (uigitally oi by hanu) oi a posteiPoweiPointviueo
supplement (othei iueas must be appioveu by the teachei). These illustiations shoulu
iepiesent the symbols of the stuuent's allegoiy. anu S) a 1-pageu analysis of the naiiative's
allegoiy. The analysis must incluue a) a thesis statement pioposing a cential allegoiical
meaning foi the "quest" (aigue foi a specific inteipietation of what the quest symbolizes) b) a
ieauing of at least S symbols in the text (explain how they suppoit youi inteipietation of the
allegoiy).

The illustiateu naiiative anu the analysis will be evaluateu sepaiately, but the scoies will be
auueu togethei to ueteimine the stuuent's final giaue. By ieauing the stuuents' naiiatives anu
analyses, I will be able to ueteimine 1) the stuuents' masteiy of the naiiative wiiting moue 2)
the stuuents' unueistanuing of the meuieval "quest" naiiative conventions anu S) the stuuents'
unueistanuing of allegoiy (sustaineu symbolism).
14u
What seiies of lessonsactivities will you neeu to covei in oiuei to suppoit stuuents'
piogiess.

















Instructional Unit Plan






























For st udent s t o gai n t he ski l l s t o compl et e t hi s proj ect , t hey must fi rst gai n a deep underst andi ng of For st udent s t o gai n t he ski l l s t o compl et e t hi s proj ect , t hey must fi rst gai n a deep underst andi ng of
medi eval t ext s (bot h medi eval t ext s (bot h t he l i t eral and i nferent i al meani ng). The t wo cent ral t ext s wi l l be 1) excerpt s t he l i t eral and i nferent i al meani ng). The t wo cent ral t ext s wi l l be 1) excerpt s
from Si r Gawai n and t he Green Kni ght and t he Mort e dArt hur (bot h i ncl uded i n modern Engl i sh from Si r Gawai n and t he Green Kni ght and t he Mort e dArt hur (bot h i ncl uded i n modern Engl i sh
i n t he Prent i ce Hal l t ext book). Before begi nni ng t hese t wo t ext s, t he st udent i n t he Prent i ce Hal l t ext book). Before begi nni ng t hese t wo t ext s, t he st udent s must fi rst 1) s must fi rst 1)
demonst rat e knowl edge of Art huri an Legend (hi st ory, charact ers, l egends) Thi s can be accompl i shed demonst rat e knowl edge of Art huri an Legend (hi st ory, charact ers, l egends) Thi s can be accompl i shed
by format i ve assessment s (wri t i ng warm by format i ve assessment s (wri t i ng warm- - ups/ cl osers, organi zat i onal chart s, qui zzes) admi ni st ered ups/ cl osers, organi zat i onal chart s, qui zzes) admi ni st ered
aft er l ect ures and duri ng act i vi t i es. In bet w aft er l ect ures and duri ng act i vi t i es. In bet ween readi ng sessi ons, st udent s must demonst rat e een readi ng sessi ons, st udent s must demonst rat e
underst andi ng of romance quest convent i ons (dream vi si on, quest / chal l enge, moral symbol i sm, underst andi ng of romance quest convent i ons (dream vi si on, quest / chal l enge, moral symbol i sm,
i mport ance of set t i ng) i n format i ve assessment s (warm i mport ance of set t i ng) i n format i ve assessment s (warm- - ups/ cl osers, organi zat i onal chart s, i n ups/ cl osers, organi zat i onal chart s, i n- - cl ass cl ass
group act i vi t i es) group act i vi t i es) . .

St udent s must al so demonst rat e t he abi l i t y t o wri t e a narrat i ve (W 3, W4, and W5), anal yze a l i t erary St udent s must al so demonst rat e t he abi l i t y t o wri t e a narrat i ve (W 3, W4, and W5), anal yze a l i t erary
t ext (RL 1, RL4, RI1, RI4, RI9, SL1), wri t e a 5 paragraph essay organi zi ng t hi s anal ysi s (RL 5, RI 5, t ext (RL 1, RL4, RI1, RI4, RI9, SL1), wri t e a 5 paragraph essay organi zi ng t hi s anal ysi s (RL 5, RI 5,
SL6). Lucki l y, t he st udent s have al ready submi t t e SL6). Lucki l y, t he st udent s have al ready submi t t e d a narrat i ve wri t i ng pi ece at t he begi nni ng of t he d a narrat i ve wri t i ng pi ece at t he begi nni ng of t he
semest er and recei ved descri pt i ve feedback. They wi l l have al so fi ni shed a research paper, compl et e semest er and recei ved descri pt i ve feedback. They wi l l have al so fi ni shed a research paper, compl et e
wi t h a t hesi s st at ement and support i ng evi dence. Thi s uni t wi l l bui l d on t hese t wo ski l l wi t h a t hesi s st at ement and support i ng evi dence. Thi s uni t wi l l bui l d on t hese t wo ski l l - - set s and appl y set s and appl y
t hem t o l i t erary anal ysi s. Therefore, mai n ski l l t hat must be model ed for t he st udent s i s l i t erary t hem t o l i t erary anal ysi s. Therefore, mai n ski l l t hat must be model ed for t he st udent s i s l i t erary
anal ysi s. As such, near t he begi nni ng of t he uni t t he t eacher wi l l present 2 anal ysi s. As such, near t he begi nni ng of t he uni t t he t eacher wi l l present 2- - 3 exampl e st udent anal yses 3 exampl e st udent anal yses
of l i t erary t ext s. Then, st udent s wi l l spl i t i nt o sma of l i t erary t ext s. Then, st udent s wi l l spl i t i nt o sma l l groups t o provi de descri pt i ve feedback for t hese l l groups t o provi de descri pt i ve feedback for t hese
t hree sampl e st udent s (poi nt i ng out t he st rong and weak poi nt s). The next l esson, t he st udent s wi l l t hree sampl e st udent s (poi nt i ng out t he st rong and weak poi nt s). The next l esson, t he st udent s wi l l
compl et e an i n compl et e an i n- - cl ass anal ysi s of an excerpt (from Si r Gawai n). In t hi s anal ysi s, t hey wi l l i dent i fy t he cl ass anal ysi s of an excerpt (from Si r Gawai n). In t hi s anal ysi s, t hey wi l l i dent i fy t he
l i t eral and symbol i c meani ng and support t hei r cl ai ms wi t h t ext ual evi dence. The next day, st udent s l i t eral and symbol i c meani ng and support t hei r cl ai ms wi t h t ext ual evi dence. The next day, st udent s
wi l l exchange anal yses and engage i n peer edi t i ng, hi ghl i ght i ng t he a) ID of l i t eral meani ng i n 1 col or wi l l exchange anal yses and engage i n peer edi t i ng, hi ghl i ght i ng t he a) ID of l i t eral meani ng i n 1 col or
b) t he symbol i c i n anot her and c) t he t ext ual evi den b) t he symbol i c i n anot her and c) t he t ext ual evi dence i n anot her. st udent s wi l l t hen poi nt out ce i n anot her. st udent s wi l l t hen poi nt out
st rengt hs and short comi ngs of t he anal ysi s. st rengt hs and short comi ngs of t he anal ysi s.

To encourage creat i vi t y and brai nst ormi ng for t he fi nal proj ect , st udent s wi l l compl et e a t el ephone To encourage creat i vi t y and brai nst ormi ng for t he fi nal proj ect , st udent s wi l l compl et e a t el ephone
composi t i on act i vi t y. The st udent s wi l l be gi ven a prompt for a n composi t i on act i vi t y. The st udent s wi l l be gi ven a prompt for a narrat i ve begi nni ng t hat i s arrat i ve begi nni ng t hat i s
commensurat e wi t h t he romance quest convent i ons. Each st udent wi l l have 5 mi nut es t o wri t e a commensurat e wi t h t he romance quest convent i ons. Each st udent wi l l have 5 mi nut es t o wri t e a
paragraph. Then, st udent s wi l l pass t hei r unfi ni shed quest t o t he person behi nd t hem (repeat 4 more paragraph. Then, st udent s wi l l pass t hei r unfi ni shed quest t o t he person behi nd t hem (repeat 4 more
t i mes). By t he end, each group of t i mes). By t he end, each group of 5 st udent s wi l l have a 5 co 5 st udent s wi l l have a 5 co- - aut hored 5 aut hored 5- - paragraph quest s. Then, each paragraph quest s. Then, each
st udent wi l l have 5 mi nut es t o i l l ust rat e t hei r manuscri pt (i n t he st yl e of an i l l umi nat ed manuscri pt , st udent wi l l have 5 mi nut es t o i l l ust rat e t hei r manuscri pt (i n t he st yl e of an i l l umi nat ed manuscri pt ,
whi ch wi l l be i nt roduced at t he begi nni ng of t he cl ass). Then, for 5 mi nut es each gro whi ch wi l l be i nt roduced at t he begi nni ng of t he cl ass). Then, for 5 mi nut es each gro up wi l l share t he up wi l l share t he
common t hemes and symbol s used i n t hei r respect i ve st ori es. Then, for t he l ast 10 mi nut es, each common t hemes and symbol s used i n t hei r respect i ve st ori es. Then, for t he l ast 10 mi nut es, each
group wi l l t ake t urns shari ng (i nformal present at i ons). group wi l l t ake t urns shari ng (i nformal present at i ons).

Lat er format i ve assessment : have each st udent creat e a st oryboard for t hei r quest . Lat er format i ve assessment : have each st udent creat e a st oryboard for t hei r quest . Each st udent Each st udent
must i ncl ude 1 frame for each of Audens 6 el ement s of a quest . Thi s cl ass can move from group work must i ncl ude 1 frame for each of Audens 6 el ement s of a quest . Thi s cl ass can move from group work
(pl anni ng 6 el ement s), t o i ndi vi dual (worki ng on st ory board) t o group (shari ng, refl ect i ng, peer (pl anni ng 6 el ement s), t o i ndi vi dual (worki ng on st ory board) t o group (shari ng, refl ect i ng, peer - -
edi t i ng). edi t i ng).



141
APPENDIX D INDIVIDUAL LEARNER PROFILES
- Naicus: IEP
o ieauing compiehension: Naicus eaineu 8u% accuiacy in
ieauing compiehension on a 9th giaue level. Be continues to have
tiouble sequencing events when they have not sequenceu them in the
text. Be also stiuggles to finu the infeiential meaning of a text. uiaphic
oiganizeis aie helpful. Be also stiuggles to stay focuseu on the task at
hanu anu often misses notes
o wiiting: Naicus has impioveu his wiiting. Bowevei, he
continues to stiuggle with the pie-wiiting anu euiting stages of
wiiting. Focuseu uesciiptive feeuback on his uiafts is helpful.
o accommouations: extenueu time (Time anu a half foi
classioom, uistiict, state, ACT testing), testing in sepaiate setting, ieau
alouu upon iequest, computei ieau alouu when available.
o mouifications: Abbieviateu assignments when seveial uays
aie misseu fiom school baseu on meuical issues.
- Baniel: LEP
o Language: Spanish; English pioficiency: Reauing - S.1, Wiiting
- S.6;
o accommouations: extenueu time (time anu a half foi
classioom, uistiict, state, ACT testing); use of uictionaiy anu
tianslatoi, ESL seivices
o mouifications: none
- Chiistophe:
o Reauing Becouing: Baseu on the Biigance, past testing, anu
woik samples, Chiistophe is able to ieau many simplei mateiials
wiitten on giaue level. Be uoes neeu extia time to mastei long lists of
moie complex vocabulaiy. Bis functional skills aie age appiopiiate.
Be is able to leain many teims by using memoiy techniques. Bis
ieauing skills uo hinuei him to a uegiee because of his pooi uecouing
skills anu these weaknesses may hinuei him at the post seconuaiy
level.
o Reauing Compiehension: Chiis is able to ieau shoit simple
ieauing passages on giaue level. Be continues to have moie pioblems
with longei passages with highei level vocabulaiy oi technical teims.
Bis functional ieauing skills aie age appiopiiate. Bis weaknesses in
the aiea of ieauing compiehension with moie complex ieauing
142
mateiial uoes hinuei his classioom peifoimance anu may hinuei him
at the post seconuaiy level. Chiis continues to uo best with mateiial
that he can ielate to thiough his own past expeiiences.
i. Annual uoal: Chiistophe will ieau longei ieauing passages in
his novel anu liteiatuie books, given assistance as neeueu, anu
he will answei highei level compiehension questions with
8S% accuiacy
ii. shoit-teim goals: Chiistophe will pieuict logical outcome oi
uiaw conclusions thiough familiai expeiiences, fiom given
facts oi infeiences, anu fiom cause-anu-effect ielationships
with 8S% accuiacy.
iii. Chiistophe will answei liteial, evaluative, anu infeiential
questions at 1uth giaue level with 8S% accuiacy
o Wiiting: Chiistophe has impioveu in the aiea of wiiting,
howevei, baseu on wiiting samples anu piogiess iepoits fiom his
coie classes he continues to uisplay weaknesses in the aiea of euiting.
Bis spelling skills aie still weak anu he neeus to use spell check to euit
his woik. Be also is still weak in his piewiiting techniques causing his
wiiting to lack goou oiganization. Chiistophe's functional skills aie
age appiopiiate. Bis weak euiting skills uo have a negative impact on
his classioom wiiting peifoimance anu may hinuei him at the post
seconuaiy level.
o accommouations: Extenueu time, Testing in Sepaiate Room,
Reau alouu, Stuuent Naiks in Book, Teacheiclass notes.