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FLT

- 2000

6 2 2 .3 2 ( 0 7 5 .8 )
33.361 73
43

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. - : The FLT Ltd.
2 000.-281.: .

ISBN >-85879-039-9

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622.32(075.8)
33.36173

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t T h e FLT Ltd . 2 0 0 0

ISBN 5-85879-039-9

B .C .. 2 0 0 0
. 2000



1992 .
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You fella even seen a drilling rig?


No, 1 haven't
OK. No problem, f guess if you wanna work you'll be able to pick
up pretty fast, A truck is going to the field in 20 minutes so you
gotta collect vour things and get ready, OK?
-OK.
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. Vlad. I want you to start working night shift at a drilling rig.


The bus is leaving in 15 minutes. -
, . - Is this all
the gear you got? You know you gotta be outside for the whole
night and its 42 below now? Well...
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Tell the guys to pick up the scraper on the catwalk and drop it in
the tool room.

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What is a catwalk?

Catwalk is a platform in front of the rig used for picking up and


laying down pipes.

A n d what is a scraper?

Scraper is a tool used to clean pipe walls in the well of oil wax build
up.

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Scraper - ;
Catwalk - .

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: Please tell the Driller that the crew should chain the blocks
to the derrick
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. - V-door.
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: Now please explain to the Driller what we are planning
to do. In order for us to have an opportunity to install catwalk either
in front of the rig or on the side we need to cut the floor on the side
to make it possible to install a V-door for the Drillers convenience."
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drill "
", "Nipple up the
wellhead - " "
. Hook up the compressor to
the wellhead" - "
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LESSON 1
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1. Are you by? -
2. C an you re a d me? - T ?
3. Come hack -
4. Come in -
5. Copy, do you copy -
6. Did you copy th a t? - ?
7. Get hold of smb. - -
8. Go ah e a d , go f o r ... -
9. Hold on, h a n g on - ,
10. O ver - ,
11. Roger - ,
12. R o g e r on th a t -
13. You a re bre a k in g up -
14. We a re c le a r -
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LO G ISTIC S - -
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W E L D E R S -
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M E C H A N IC S -
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D R I V E R S -

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M A I N T E N A N C E -
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C A T E R I N G - .
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D R IL L IN G - .
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C O M P LETIO N S - .

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PR O D U C TIO N - .

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P R O D U C T I O N -
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W E L L T E S T I N G -
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IN S T R U M E N T A T IO N - -
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M E C H A N IC S -

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E L E C T R I C I A N S -

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M A T ER IA LS - .
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CONSTRUCTION - .
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C A P IT A L P R O JE C T S -
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G E N E R A L C O N S T R U C T IO N -
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I N V I R O N M E N T - .

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SA FET Y - ,

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EXERCISES
1. LEARN TH E WORDS
1. Acid treatm ent, acid job -
2. Assistant Driller -
3. Capital Projects -
4. Casing -
5. Catering -
6. Completions -
7. Construction -
8. Crewchange -
9. Crosshift, back-to-back -
10. Derrickman -
11. Driller -
12. Drilling -
13. Drilling crew -
14. Electrical submersible pum p (ESP) - -
( )
15. Fabricate -
16. Fire Safety -
17. Fishing job -
18. Floorhand, roughneck -
19. Fluid level -
20. F o rem a n - ( )
21. Form ation pressure -
22. General Construction -
23. H , S -
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24. I n s tr u m e n ta tio n - -
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25. Invironment -
26. Joint venture -
27. Labourer -
28. Laundry room -
29. L o a d -
(^ 30. Logging - ,
31. Logistics - -
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32. M aintenance - ,
33. M aterials -
34. Oil c om pany -
35 Oil field -
36. Oil spill clean up - ,
, 37. P a c k e r -
38. Perforating job -
^39. P i l e -
'40. Pipeline -
41. Plumbing -
42. Pollution -
43. Production -
44. R a d i o -
45. R e l i e f -
46. Repair, fix -
47. Safety -
48. S e c u rity -
49. Service, maintain -
50. Sewage system -
51. Shift, hitch - ,
52. Site - ,
53. Test a well -
54. T o o l-p u s h e r- ( )
55. T u r n into production - ,

56. Vehicles -
57. W ater treatm ent station -
58. Welder -
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59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.

Welding s h o p -
Welding unit -
Well, h o l e -
W e llh e a d -
Wellhead pressure -
W orkover - ( )
TOOLS

1. Adjustable wrench, crescent wrench -


2. Axe -
3. Bar -
4. Bench -
5. Bolt -
6. Cat bar -
7. Chisel -
8. Drill -
9. D uct tape -
10. Easiers -
11. File -
12. Flash light -
13. G rin d e r -
14. H ack saw -
15. H a m m e r -
16. H a m m e r wrench -
17. H ay wire -
18. Ice scraper -
19. J a c k a ll-
20. K i t ,s e t -
21. Level - ,
22. Lock washer -
23. Nail -
24. N u t -
25. O pe n end wrench -
26. P i c k -
27. Pincers -
28. Pipe wrench -
29. Pliers -
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30.
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35.
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42.
43.
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47.
48.
49.

Power screw driver-


S a n d p a p e r -
Screwdriver (cross, flat) - (, )
Shovel -
Snipe -
Socket w re n c h -
Squeegy -
Stud -
m e a s u r e -
Teflon tape -
T h re a d e r -
Tool box -
Tool room -
T o rc h -
Twist b i t -
V i c e -
Vice grips -
W asher -
Wire brush -
W recking bar, claw bar - ,

2.

TRANSLATE INTO RUSSIAN

1. Before the crew change the crew collected tools: crescent, pipe
and ham m er wrenches.
2. Tool-pusher told a floor hand to put a snipe into the tool-room and
bring a socket wrench.
3. A n advisor usually reports to his superintend en t and deals with
site supervisors during his work.
4. Most of his working time a derrickman spends on the derrick and
that is one of the reasons why his work is considered to be dangerous.
5. Logistics supplies materials and equipment to other departments
and provides for welding, electrical, vehicles repair jobs and
catering.
6. In ord er not to pollute invironment they usually build a water
treatm ent station to clean up water from sewage system .
7. L ock washer is used in o rd e r not to let a nut get loose in case of
equipment vibration.
8 Teflon tape is usually put on threads for unions integrity.

9. T hreader is used to cut internal and outward threads on pipes and


tools.
10. Studs look like bolts without caps and can be used for bolting
up two flanges together with nuts on both ends.
3. TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH
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4. ANSW ER THE QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH
1. W hat main departm ents in a standard oil company do you
know?
2. W h at groups can be Logistics D e partm en t divided into and what
do they do?
3. W hat is Completions D epartm ent in charge of?
4. W hat is the structure of Production Departm ent?
5. Describe Materials Departm ent activities.

6. W h a t is the difference betw een Capital Projects and G eneral


Construction in Construction D epartment?
7. W hat is Invironment D e p a rtm e n t in charge of?
8. W hat positions does a drilling crew consist of?
9. W hat are an advisorsjesponsibilities??
10. W hose position is higher - a tool-pushers or a forem ans?
11. H ow do a supervisor and a tool-pusher share their responsibilities
at a drilling rig?
5. M A K E U P A SITUATION AND TALK TO YOUR FR IE N D
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You have just arrived for your first shift to an oil company. Talk to
th e m an in charge and find out what d ep artm en ts they have in
their company and what those departm ents do.

Talk to a new w orker in your company. H e wants to ask you who


is responsible for what. Explain different positions responsibilities.

You are a translator at a drilling rig. A visitor has come to the site
and wants to ask a few questions on w hat positions there are in a
drilling crew, what those people do and what tools they work with.
A nsw er his questions.

6. TEXT
6.1. LISTEN TO THE TEXT ON TH E TAPE
6.2. R EA D A N D T R A N S L A T E T H E T E X T
N E W W ORDS

' </i o ' n

1. B roke loose -
2. Coveralls -
3. F irst a id k it -
Pipe bender -
P ow er threader -
Scrap m eta l - ,
Steel toed boots -
Welding rod stubs -

SAFETY M EETING AT T H E W ELD IN G SHOP


All the welders and a safety man were present at the safety meeting.
T h e following items were discussed:
- T h ere had been an accident at the welding shop when using a
pipe-bender. T he pipe-bender broke loose and hit one welder causing
injury. A discussion took place at the meeting on how the incident
had happened and how to prevent any further occurance.
- Unauthorized personnel at the welding shop - welders and helpers
should watch for people who do n o t know all the e q u ip m e n t at the
shop and either assist them in their project or ask them to leave.
- C rane, pipe bender and power threader - anyone who does not
know how to use this equipment o r any other equipment at the shop,
will be shown how to work with it. Until such a time they will refrain
from using this equipment.
- Shop clean up - this is an ongoing job and the welders should
keep doing it on daily basis. All wrenches, nuts and bolts as well as
welding equipment including welding rod stubs and scrap metal should
be collected by the end of the work and put in proper place.
- Safety clothes - new coveralls and gloves will be supplied as the
old ones w ear out. Steel toed boots are required at all times. Safety
glasses must be worn at the shop at all times.
- First aid kits - it is necessary to make a request for a first aid kit at
the shop. All first aid kits in the welding trucks should be checked by
a medic.
W hen all the items w ere discussed the welders returned to their
routine operations.
6 3 . A NSW ER T H EQ U ESTIO N S
1.
2.
3.
4.

24

W ho was present at the welding shop?


W hat items were discussed at the safety meeting?
W hat accident did they discuss and how had it happened?
Why do you think unauthorized personnel at the shop should be
looked after?

5. W h a t should all the welders do when accomplishing their work


every day?
6. W ha t type of safety clothes do they use at the welding shop?
6.4. L IS T E N T O T H E T EX T AGAIN
6.5. R E T E L L T H E T E X T
7. M A K E U P A S T O R Y O N O I L J O I N T V E N T U R E S T R U C
T U R E AND P E R S O N N E L A ND R E T E L L IT
V)

LESSON 2


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EXERCISES
1. A N S W E R T H E Q U E S T IO N S IN RU SSIA N :
1. ?
2.
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3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. .
9. ?
10.
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11.
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2. LEARN THE W ORDS


1. Aquifer - ,
2. Bottom hole flowing pressure -
3. C arbon ate rocks -
4. Clastic rock -
5. C ru de oil -
6. Dolomites -
7. Flowing tubing pressure - H K T
8. H ydrocarbon gas -
9. H ydrocarbons - ( )
10. Hydrostatic pressure -
11. Layer - ,
12. Limestone -
13. Pay zone -
14. Permeability -
15. P o r e s -
16. Porosity -
17. Reservoir rock -
18. Rock -
19. Sandstone -
20. Sediments -
21. Shut-in a well -
22. Static tubing pressure - (
)
23.T r a p -
24.
Viscosity -
25. Wellbore -
3. TRANSLATE INTO RUSSIAN
1. O rganic residue carried by the w aters eventually settled to the
bottom of the ancient seas.
2. Rocks formed during one geological period were buried under new
layers of rock in a different geological period.
3. T h e m ov e m e n t of oil an d gas from its place of origin was both
vertical and lateral.

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4. Oil and gas exist in microscopic spaces (pores) between the grains
ofrock.
5. T h e p o re spaces m u s t be in te r c o n n e c te d w hich allow th e
hydrocarbons to move from one pore to the next.
6. T h e porosity of the rock, the pore size and the size of connecting
channels between pores are all related to permeability.
7. M ost w ater associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs is salt water.
8. Sandstone is m ade up of sand grains which are usually mixed with
particles of other material.
9. Limestones and dolomites are other types of rocks that commonly
contain oil and gas.
4. TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH
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5. CORRECT THE STATEMENTS
1. Oil and gas exist in large and small underground lakes.
2. Much of the oil began as the remains of gas.
3. Accumulation of organic matter depended upon quality of rocks.
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4. Th ou gh oil was heavier than w ater it used to rise as w ater pushed


it up.
5. All rocks are capable of being a reservoir rock.
6. Permeability refers to am o u n t of pores in the rock.
7. Lim estones a n d dolomites cannot contain oil as they are not
sedimentary rocks.
8. C rud e oil is called crude because it does not contain gas.
6. A N SW E R THE QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH
1. W hat is the origin of hydrocarbons?
2. W hat conditions did organic m atter accumulation depend upon?
3. Why did oil an d gas tend to rise through the ancient sea water?
4. W hat two types of sedimentary rocks do you know?
5. W hat is porosity?
6. W hat is permeability?
7. W hat is aquifer?
8. N am e reservoir rocks that you know.
9. W hat are hydrocarbons?
10. W hat states can hydrocarbons occur in?
11. W hat is the source of energy used to assist in pushing oil an d gas
out to the surface?
7. M A K E U P 5 Q UESTIO N S TO TH E TEXT A N D AN SW ER
THEM
8. LISTEN TO THE TEXT ON THE TAPE AND READ IT
N E W W O RD S
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

D ensity -
D r ill- ()
Flow rate -
H ydrocarbons -
H ydrostatic g radient -
O il -
S h u t-in a well -
Tubing - - ( )
Well -
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10. Well bottom -


11. W ellhead-
FLU ID FLOW
Fluids move from regions of high pressure to regions of low
pressure. W hen the well is drilled into a hydrocarbon reservoir and
open at the surface, th e area in the vicinity of the wellbore becom es
an area of low pressure. If the reservoir has sufficient permeability, oil
and gas flow from all directions into the wellbore. W h en fluids are
flowing into the well the pressure at the well bo tto m is called the
bottom hole flowing pressure. T he pressure at surface, when the well
is flowing, is called the wellhead or flowing tubing pressure. T h e
pressure at the surface w hen the well is shut -in and fluids are not
flowing through the tubing is called the shut-in or static tubing pressure.
T he pressure within a column of fluid increases with depth and is
greater at the bottom of the column than at the top. This principle can
be demonstrated by the change you feel on your ears when you dive to
the bottom of a swimming pool. The pressure is directly related to the
depth and the density of the fluid, and is called hydrostatic pressure.
For a given height of a column of fluid, the hydrostatic pressure of
liquids is m uch g reater than the hydrostatic pressure of gas. F o r
example, the change in pressure with depth (called th e hydrostatic
gradient) is about 1.0 Kpa/m in gas. In oil the gradient varies from 8.0
to 9 .0 K p a /m .
In order for fluids to flow up the wellbore, th e reservoir pressure
must be greater than the total of the hydrostatic and atm ospheric
pressure. T h e flow rate of oil or gas into the wellbore depends on the
permeability of the reservoir rock, the area of flow into the wellbore
and the viscosity of the fluid.
8.1. TRANSLATE TH E TEXT INTO RUSSIAN IN W R ITTEN
FORM
8.2. ANSW ER TH E QUESTIONS
1. W hat is the main principle of fluid movement?
2. W hat is the bottom hole flowing pressure?
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3. W hat is the wellhead pressure?


4. W h at is static pressure?
5. Is the pressure within a column of fluid greater at the bottom or at
the top of the column?
6. W h at is hydrostatic pressure?
7. H ow great should reservoir pressure be to allow fluid flow u p the
wellbore?
8. W hat does the flow rate of oil and gas depend on?
8 J . R E T E L L T H E T E X T U S IN G N E W W O R D S
9. M A K E U P A S T O R Y ON H Y D R O C A R B O N S O R I G I N AND
A C C U M U L A T IO N A N D R E T E L L IT

LESSON 3

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.N*2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Gin Pole
Crown Block
Derrick
Traveling Block
Swivel Ball
Swivel
Rolan. Hot>e, Safety Chain
Goose Neck
Stand Pipe
Roiar> Hose
l>rrick Leg
Moose Hole
Derrick Floor
Base Plale
Guard. Rolan Drive
Line. Fill-up





Fioni

17
18
19
20
21
>>
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

Steps
Substructure. Ramp
Demck Substructure
Ralhole
Hydraulic Brake
Surge Chamber
Substructure. Draw. Work*
Compound
Platform Engine
Guard. Pump Dri\e
Slush Pump
Mud Line Manifold
Mud Mixing Hopper
Water Supply Line
Suction Lme
Suction Tank
Mud Ckrn. Fixed

34
35
36
11

Mud Tank Connections


Air Chamber
Settling Pit
Mud Gin. Mo\ab!e

38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

Shaie Shaker
Engines. Drilling
Guard. DmeCham
Mud Return Ditch
I>au Works
Rotary Tabie
Girt
Kelly
Derrick Brace
Rotary Hook
Runaround
Line. Rotary
Mud Return Line
Casing Head
BUmnut Pre\enter
CrosbTee

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EXERCISES
1. A N SW ER TH E Q U ESTIO N S IN RUSSIAN
1. 3 ?
2.
?
3. .
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10. .
11. ?
12. ?

46

2. LEARN TH E W ORDS
1.
2.
3.
4.

B i t -
Blowout -
Boiler - ,
= b lo w ou t p re v e n te r - =

5. Bottom hole -
6. Casing shoe -
7. Catwalk -
8. C em ent job -
9. C onductor -
10. Core barrel -
11. Core bit -
12. Crown block -
13. Cut (take) core -
14. Cuttings -
15. Derrick -
16. D irectional drilling -
17. Directional survey -
18. D r a g s - ( )
19. Drill collar - ( )
20. Drill pipe -
21. Drilling m ud -
22. Drilling rig - ,
23. Elevator -
24. Exploration well -
25. Fishing job -
26. Free point tool -
27. G enerator -
28. G et stuck -
29. H o ist= drawworks -
30. Interm ediate casing -
31. Kelly - ( )
32. Kick off -
33. Liner -

47

34. Location - ,
35. M ake a connection -
36. M ake a trip - -
37. M onkey board -
38. M ud p u m p -
39. Oil (water, acid) b ath - (, )
40. Pipe spinner -
41. Pipe-racks -
42. Production casing -
43. Production well -
44. R eam -
45. R eciprocate the string -
46. Rig floor -
47. Roller-cutter bit -
48. R o ta ry bit -
49. R o ta ry table -
50. Shale-shaker -
51. Spud a well -
52. Stabilizer - ,
53. Steam up equipm ent -
54. Sticking - ,
55. Sum p - ,
56. Sumpless drilling -
57. Surface casing -
58. Surveys -
59.Travelling block -
60.
T rip for bit -
61. Twist off -
62. Well deviation -
3. TRANSLATE INTO RUSSIAN
1. Reciprocating can help to release botto m tool when stuck in the
wellbore.
2. C o nd uctor is the first p a rt of casing installed in a well.
3. Before spudding a well one should determine location for drilling
and move a drilling rig in.

48

4.
5.
6.
7.

Twist off can occur when pulling pipe string too tight during drags.
Travelling block suspends an elevator used for pulling pipe.
In case of a danger of a blowout they use B O P to shut-in a well.
Drill collar is much heavier than drill pipe so one can drill with it
more effectively.
8. Catwalk and pipe racks are spotted in front of a well and are used
for storing and picking up pipe.
9. Exploration well is drilled to locate oil formations.
10. Directional survey is a m ethod to check direction of drilling.
4. TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH

1.
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3.
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4.
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4 . Be i o u o i

49

5. CORRECT TH E STATEMENTS
1. Reciprocating is a m etho d to drill a well.
2. Cuttings in a well m ean cracks on wellbore walls.
3. Drilling mud is a waste material created by a drilling rig in summer
time.
4. T h e tool used to determine stuck point is called sticking.
5. Elevator is a device for lifting derrickm an to the m onkey board.
6. First part of casing installed in a well is called surface casing and
next part is conductor.
7. C em ent job is conducted only when quality of casing is poor.
8. Sumpless drilling means that a drilling crew personnel unfortunely
did not have a chance to m ake a sump.
6. ANSW ER THE QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH
1. W h a t 3 phases of work with a well do you know?
2. W hy do you think one can see many drilling rigs in the oilfield?
3. W h a t are the main parts of a drilling rig?
4. W hat drilling equipm ent used at a drilling rig site do you know?
5. W hat is the purpose of drilling mud?
6. W hat is directional survey?
7. W h a t 3 types of casing do you know?
8. W hat do they use a core bit for?
9. What are the methods to release pipe string when stuck in the hole?
10. W h a t is well deviation and what is the purpose of it?
11. H ow is the tool to determine a stuck point called?
7. M A K E UP 5 Q U ESTIO N S TO THE TEXT A N D A N SW E R
THEM
8. LISTEN TO TH E TEXT ON THE TAPE A N D R EA D IT
N E W W O RD S
1. B ending p o in t -
2. F orm ation -
3. P enetration rate -

50

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Space - ,
Stabilizer - ,
Sta n d - <, , )
S trin g -
W ashoverpipe -
STRAIGHT HOLE DRILLING

Frequ ently it is necessary to drill a straighter hole th a n was


originally planned when the job was started with a certain string of
drill collars. Also, it may happen that it is desired to put more weight
on the bit without increasing the deviation. T he best single proven way
to do either of these things with the same string of drill collars is to add
stabilizers. For deviation control a single stabilizer is sufficient if it is
properly located in the drill string. T h e p ro p e r location is the first
bend in the drill string above the bit. Since the bending point depends
on the hole size, drill size and weight on the bit, it may occur at different
points. To some extent the placem ent is also dep en dab le on the
formation characteristics.
It has been considered good practice in some cases to space
additional stabilizers about one stand apart through a portion or all of
the rest of the drill collar string. T h e additional stabilizers do not help
keep the hole straight. They do help in preventing wall sticking and
other problems associated with hole conditions.
W ith the use of stabilizers, it is im p o rta n t to rem e m be r that
stabilizers are usually the weakest point in the drill string and, therefore,
subject not only to wear but failure. Some of the more modern stabilizers
have been designed so that the wings do not create a serious hazard in
the hole. For example, some of these are m ade of drillable material
and some may be removed with washover pipe.
By reducing the weight on the bit, the bending characteristics of the
drill string are changed and the hole will tend to be more straight. One
of the oldest techniques for straightening a hole was to reduce the
weight on the bit and speed up the rotary table. In recent years it has
been found that this is not always the best procedure because reducing
the bit weight sacrifices considerable penetration rate.

4'

51

T h e straightening of a hole by reducing bit weight should be done


very gradually so that the hole will tend to return to vertical without
sharp bends and will therefore be much m ore safer for future drilling.
8.1. T R A N S L A T E T H E T E X T IN T O R U SSIA N IN W R I T T E N
FORM
8.2. A N S W E R T H E Q U E S T IO N S
1. What is the best way to put more weight on a bit without increasing
deviation?
2. W hat does the placement of a stabilizer depend on?
3. W hat are the purposes of a stabilizer?
4. Describe stabilizers disadvantages.
5. W hat was one of the oldest techniques to straighten the hole and
what is the disadvantage of this m ethod?
6. W hat is the proper m ethod to straighten a hole?
8.3. R E T E L L T H E T E X T U SIN G N E W W O R D S
9. M A K E U P A S T O R Y ON D R I L L I N G O P E R A T IO N S A ND
R E T E L L IT

LESSON 4

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54

X-mas Tree

Pressure Gauge

Bottom Ifele Tefl Adiptor

Blind FUnge *

t*jnt*rt AAiua

Studded Cross

UMCBMtANtWKKSlI

lWbinj Hanger 1Vpe CTQA-E

cf> m

Cating ! -

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EXERCISES
1. A N S W E R T H E QUESTIONS IN RUSSIAN
1. ?
2.
.
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?
9.
.
10.
?
11. ?
12. ?
13. ?
14.
?
2. LEARN TH E W ORDS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A d a p to r flange -
Annulus -
Blind flange -
Blowout preventer -
Bottom hole pressure -

61

6. B ottom hole tool -


7. Casing -
8. Casing bowl (head, spool) -
9. Casing hanger -
10. Casing vent -
11. Choke -
12. Christmas tree -
13. C o m pa n io n flange -
14. C o m pletion -
15. D epressure = bleed off -
16. Drift -
17. Drill bit -
18. Emergency shut down system -
19. Female th read -
20. Fitting -
21. Flange -
22. Flow -
23. Flow tee = studded cross -
24. Grease -
25. G uide -
26. Injection -
27. Integrity -
28. Intermediate casing -
29. Intermediate casing spool -
30. Kill a well -
31. Lockdown screws = screw legs -

32. Male thread -


33. Mandrel -
34. M aster valve -
35. Oilfield -
36. Outlet -
37. Pack off = to seal -
38. Packer -
39. Plug -
40. Pressure gauge -
41. Pressure test -
42. Primary seal -

62

43. Production -
44. Production casing -
45. Ring gasket -
46. Seat -
47. Secondary seal -
48. Separator -
49. Service rig -
50. Slips -
51. Stud -
52. Suspend - ,
53. top ad aptor -
54. Tubing - (- )
55. Tubing hanger = dognut -
56. ubing spool (head)-
57. Valve - , ,
58. Weld - ()
59. Wellbore -
60. Wellhead -
61. Wing valve -
3. TRANSLATE INTO RUSSIAN
1. Interm ediate casing spool is used along with interm ediate casing
hanger to suspend intermediate casing.
2. Tubing h e a d a d a p to r fla n g e is p la c e d in b e t w e e n w e llh e a d and
Christmas tree.

3. A fter the Christmas tree is installed it sh o u ld be pressure te sted in


o rd er to check it for leaks.
4. O n e should never forget to bleed off pressure when having
equipment pressure tested.
5. G enerally they install two m aster valves on Christmas tree but
only the u pp er one is usually used thus keeping the other one for
emergency.
6. A djustable choke is a very im p o rta n t part of Christmas tree as it
regulates oil flow and tubing pressure.
7. Dognut is attached to the wellhead by m eans of screwlegs.
8. Pressure gauges are normally installed on both tubing and casing
valves to control pressure.

63

4. TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH


1. .
2.
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3.
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4.
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6.
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5. FIND INCORRECT STATEMENTS AND C ORRECT THEM
1. T he main purpose of Christmas tree is to indicate where the well is
located especially when it is covered with snow.
2. Casing spool provides for internal configuration for casing hanger.
3. Ring gaskets are used to seal area between two flanges.
4. T ree top ada p to r is generally used for a choke installation which
shows tubing pressure.
5. M aster valve internal d iam eter must be equal to or bigger than
internal diameter of tubing being used.
6. Pressure test is not really important if primary and secondary seals
are installed.
7. Tubing hanger is used to suspend tubing string in the hole.

64

6. ANSW ER THE QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH


1. W hat is wellhead equipment used for?
2. Name the main external components of wellhead.
3. W hat is a casing bowl and what is it used for?
4. W hat do they use an intermediate casing spool for?
5. W hat is a tubing spool?
6. W hat are the main parts of Christmas tree?
7. W hat are the standard procedures to open and shut-in a well?
8. W hat is the purpose of ring gaskets?
9. Name the main internal com ponents of wellhead.
10. W h at is a casing hanger and what is it used for?
11. W hat is prim ary seal?
12. W hat is secondary seal?
13. W hat is the purpose of tubing hanger?
14. W h a t two types of tubing hangers do you know and what is the
difference between them?
7. M A K E UP 5 Q U ESTIO N S TO TH E TEXT AND AN SW ER
THEM
8. M AK E U P A SITUATION AN D TALK TO Y OUR F R IE N D
1. You are a n e w c o m e r to a wellsite. Looking at a Christmas tree you
think o f i t as " s o m e th in g sticking out o f the ground". Ask th e site
su pervisor w h at it is and what it c on sists of.
2. Tool-pusher explains a driller the difference between two types of
tubing hangers. T he green driller is full of questions.
3. Safety man came to a well site. He inspects newly installed Christmas
tree for leaks. H e is much interested in primary and secondary
seals. Also he wants to check if the driller knows safety procedures
to open and shut-in a well.
9. LISTEN TO THE TEXT ON TH E TAPE AND READ IT

65

N E W W ORDS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

B ypass - ,
C ontrol p o in t -
Emergency sh u t down system -
H eater - ,
Pressure - sensing device -
Safety ba ck up -
Tam per - ,
EM ERGENCY SHUT DOWN SYSTEMS

Emergency Shut Down (ESD) systems are control systems used to


safely shut down and isolate equipment at production facilities in the
event of abnormal condition occurs which could damage the equipment
or pose a hazard to operatio ns personnel or the public. All field
operations personnel should have a clear understanding of the function
and operation of the ESD systems for the facilities they operate. They
must know what control point activates the E SD and take action to
maintain conditions within the control limits. They must know how to
reset the ESD devices in the event of a shut down and the procedures
necessary to restart the equipment and re-arm the ESD system.
E SD systems can be as simple as a pressure-sensing device which
trips a valve on the flowline from a well closed in the event of a high or
low pressure in a pipeline or separator. It may also be as complicated
as one which m onitors various points in a production facility such as
vessel pressures, levels, temperatures and flows, and activates isolation
valves, stops pum ps or compressors, heaters and so on, if any of the
many points exceed the design conditions. ESD systems can be designed
only to shut down and isolate equipment, or activate valves that isolate
equipment and depressure it to flare. No matter what the ESD system
is designed to do. under no circumstances should any of the control
points of the system be bypassed or tam pered with.

66

If there are problems that must be corrected with the system, a


review of this process should be made to ensure the suggested changes
will not create hazards. Only then should the necessary changes be
implemented. Too often, personnel bypass parts of the ESD system in
an effort to overcome a perceived minor problem and forget about the
change. Then an occasion arises where the ESD system should function
but c annot and a catastrophic failure occurs resulting in loss of
production, damage to equipment, injury and loss of life.
E SD systems are designed to provide a final safety back up in case
som ething goes wrong and should not be m ade inoperative for any
reason.
9.1. CLOSE THE BOOK AND DESCRIBE WHAT YOU HAVE
HEARD AND READ IN WRITTEN FORM
9.2. R E T E L L T H E T E X T USING NEW W ORDS
10. GIVE DESCRIPTION OF WELLHEAD WITH CHRISTMAS
TREE USING THE DIAGRAM

LESSON 5


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EXERCISES
1. A N S W E R T H E QUESTIONS IN RUSSIAN
1.

?
2. ?
3. ?
4.
.
5.
.
6.
?
7. ?
8. ?
79

2. LEARN THE W ORDS


1. Adjust flow opening -
2. Ball valve -
3. Bearing -
4. Butterfly valve -
5. Cage with external sleeve -
6. Cage with internal plug -
7. Composition disc -
.S. F lo w -
9. Foreign m atter -
10. G a te valve -
11. Globe valve -
12. Installation - ,
13. Isolation valve -
14. - ,
15. Liner -
17. Lubrication - ,
IS. Maintain -
19. Multiple orifice valve -
20. Needle and seat -
21. Needle valve -
22. Plug disc -
23. Plug valve -
24. Pressure drop -
25. Seal - ,
26. Seat -
27. Service -
28. Standard disc -
29. T a p e r -
30. Two-flange valve -
31. Valve housing - valve body -
32. Valve stem -

3. TRANSLATE INTO RUSSIAN


1. G ate valves offer straight-way flow with very little pressure drop.
2. Tapered plugs have a tendency to jam in the tapered seat and cause
bad scoring if forced to turn which is why most plug valves are
lubricated.
3. Ball valve features a spherical-shaped plug with a bored passage
through it, squeezed between two resilient seats.
4. Com pared to the gate valve, the globe valve has a short stem travel,
relatively little wear and is easier to repair.
5. The diameter of the seat opening in the needle valve is reduced and
considerable m o vem en t of the stem is required to increase or
decrease the opening through the seat.
6. Butterfly valves are often lined with a resilient material so the
rotating disc seats tight when closed.
7. C hokes are specially-designed control devices used for presice
control of pressure and flow in different applications.
4. TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH
1. ,
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2.
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3. , ,

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4.
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5.
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6.
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7. ,
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l.tJHMUp be U'\CUi

81

5. ANSWER TH E QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH


1. W hy internal d ia m e te r o f th e Christmas tr ee m a s te r valve sh o u ld
b e no t less than internal d ia m e te r o f the tubing be in g used?

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

W hy is it necessary to lubricate valves on regular basis?


W hat are the main purposes of using valves?
W hat types of stop valves do you know?
W hat types of valves for flow adjusting do you know?
W hat is the purpose of using chokes?
W hat are the main parts of every valve?
W hat can using a stop valve as a flow adjusting valve result in?

6. M A K E UP 7 QU E STIO N S TO TH E TEXT AND A N SW ER

7. LISTEN TO TH E TEXT ON THE TAPE AN D R EA D IT


N E W W O RD S
1.
2.
3.
4.

B u ild up o f asphaltites -
Capacity - ,
C hart - ,
C h em ica l injection eq u ip m en t -

5. D raw down gauge - ,
6. Electric drive -
7. E m ulsion -
8. H ydrate - ,
9. Inject - ,
10. Injection nozzle - ,
11. Injection rate -
12. P iston -
13. P n eu m a tic -
14. P u m p stroke -
15. Storage ta n k -

82

CHEM ICAL INJECTION EQUIPM ENT


Various types of chemicals are injected into gas wells, flow lines
and other process equipm ent to prevent corrosion, break emulsions,
control built up of asphaltines and so on. T he operation of this
e quipm ent is a necessity of the job and knowing how an d when to
adjust injection rates is very important for economic operation of the
facility in control. T h e injection rate is normally specified by the
chemical supply company in conjunction with field tests to determine
its effectiveness. The field operator should monitor the injection rates,
making the necessary adjustments when required.
Most chemical injection equipm ent consists of a chemical storage
tank, a chemical pu m p and some m ethod of measuring the injection
rate. O n e item which is not always used but will effect the effective
distribution of the chemical injected is an injection nozzle. This device
is used to put the chemical into the gas stream in an atom ized state
that allows it to be evenly distributed throughout the system.
Chemical storage tank may be the drum the chemical is supplied
in or a tank specially designed for this purpose. Regardless of the type
of container used to store the chemical, it should provide for safe
storage of the ch em ical while providing for som e m e th o d of
m easu rem en t of the remaining fluid on a daily basis.
Chemical injection pumps are usually either pneumatic or electric
drive piston types. M ost rem ote locations utilize pneum atic drive
pu m p s for chemical injection as electricity is normally not available
at these locations. Depending upon the pum p used, the operator must
be familiar with the m anu factu rer's operating procedures used to
control the pum p capacity. Most pum p capacities are varied either by
adjusting the length of the pump stroke, the speed of the pump or both.
A m ore positive m ethod of determining injection rates is with the
use of draw down gauges or calibrated tubes. W ith the use of these
devices, the o p e ra to r would isolate the draw down gauge from the
chemical storage tank and measure the am ount of chemical pum ped
through the gauge in a specified am o u n t of time. H e would then be
able to calculate the am ou nt injected per hour, day an d so on and
check it against the required amount.

83

7.1. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS


1. W hy is it necessary to know how to o perate chemical injection
equipment?
2. W hat does the chemical injection equipment consist of?
3. W hat are the regulations for chemical storage tanks?
4. W hat two types of pum ps can be used for chemical injection?
5. W hat is the m ethod to determine injection rate?
7.2. CLOSE TH E BO O K AND D ESC R IBE WHAT YOU HAVE
HEA R D AND R EAD IN WRITTEN FORM
7.3. RETELL THE TEXT U SIN G N EW W ORDS
8. M A KE UP A STORY ON T H E VALVES A N D RETELL IT

LESSON 6




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95

EXERCISES
1. ANSW ER THE QUESTIONS IN RUSSIAN
1. ?
2. ?
3. ,
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4.
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5.
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6. ,
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7. ?
8.
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2.L E A R N THE W ORDS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
96

Acid j o b -
Air slips -
Alkalinity -
A nchor = deadm an - =
A nchor truck -
A u g e r -
Bails -
Blind ram s -
Blowout - ,

10. Blowout preventer (BOP) -


()
11. Boiler -
12. B oom er -
13. B O P drill -
14. stand -
15. Brakes system -
16. Break joints off -
17. Burner -
18. Catwalk -
19. Crown block - -
20. Degassed oil = dead oil - ,
21. D errick -
22. Double thread - -
23. Double wing - -
24. Draw works = hoist -
25. Drill line -
26. Drillers panel -
27. Elbow -
28. Electrical submersible p u m p (ESP) -
( )
29. Elevator -
30. Em ergency kill -
31. Em ergency shut-off -
32. E scape buggy -
33. Escape buggy line -
34. F is h in g jo b -
35. F i t t i n g - ,
36. Float switch -
37. F u nction test -

38. G auge the tank -


39. G e n e ra to r - light plant -
40. G ro u n d -
41. G rounding -
42. Guylines -
43. H a m m e r union = wing half - -
44. H eating elements -
97
7 . .

45. H o p p e r -
46. H o t oiler -
47. Hydraulic fluid (oil) - ()
48. Hydril -
49. Jackall = jack -
50. Kick - ,
51. Kill the well -
52. L atch on - , ( ..)
53. Level - ,
54. Load lines -
55. M ake joints up -
56. Manifold - -
57. Mix 12brine - 12
58. M onkey board -
59. M onkey board lines -
60. Nipple down wellhead -
61. Nipple up - ,
62. Pipe rams -
63. Pipe-racks -
64. Power tongs -
65. Pressure test -
66. Pull out of the hole ( P O O H ) -
67. P u m p truck - ()
68. Pup-joint - ,
69. Quick union line - - ()
70. Rig floor -
71. Rig move -
72. Rig out, rig down - ()
73. Rig tank -
74. Rig up - ()
75. Rig walk arou nd -
76. Riser -
77. Run in the hole (RIH) - ,
78. Sand line -
79. Scale -
80. Secondary drawworks -
81. Secure the well -
82. Service rig - ,
98

83. Shut-in the well -


84. Spot the rig -
85. Steam - nap
86. Steam hose -
87. Steam truck = steamer -
88. Steam up -
89. Swabbing - ,
90. T a n k -
91. T an k truck = oil tanker -
92.Tarps - ,
93.
T e e -
94. Travelling block -
95. Tripping pipe - - ( )
96. Tubing collar -
97. Tubing string -
98. Vacuum truck - -
99. V -d oor - ,
100.Weight indicator -
101.Workover -
3. TRANSLATE INTO RUSSIAN
1. Service rig is used for well completions and workovers and designed
for tripping pipe by means of travelling block with elevator attached
to drill line which is run from the main drawworks through crown
block on the derrick.
2. Blowout preventer is a device to quickly shut-in a well in order to
prevent a blowout when a kick occurs.
3. B O P consists of blind rams, pipe ram s and a hydril which are
closed by hydraulic fluid pressure from hoses c o n n e c te d to
hydraulic fluid bottles.
4. W hen pulling out of the hole with tubing, joints are usually broken
off by m eans of power tongs and laid down on catwalk to be rolled
over to pipe-racks for tem porary storage.
5. Escape buggy line is extended for installation of an escape buggy
which can be used by a derrickman for urgent evacuation in case of
a blowout.
6. After the B O P drill the driller went to the B O P stand to open the
B O P again.
99

7. Before an attem p t to nipple down wellhead the crew should kill


the well and ensure it is dead.
8. W h en making up a quick union line one can use pup-joints, elbows
and tees to bypass any equipm ent on the lines way.
9. Alkalinity can badly influence boiler by scale build up on the walls.
4. TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH
1.
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100

5. FIND INCORRECT STATEMENTS AND CORRECT TH EM


1. Drill line is the projected direction of the well being drilled.
2. Emergency kill is a method of getting rid of a disobedient roughneck.
3. Power tongs p urpose is to m ake up and break off tubing joints
when tripping pipe.
4. Load lines are used to adjust the derricks angle to the wellhead.
5. T o nipple up B O P means to install nipples on top of the B O P so
they can be used for pressure testing.
6. B O P drill is a m ethod of drilling through BOP.
6. AN SW ER THE QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH
1. W h at is a service rig used for?
2. W h a t equipm ent is normally used at a service rig?
3. Name the main components of the equipment used on a service rig
floor.
4. W h a t drawworks are used on a rig?
5. W hat is the purpose of an elevator?
6. W h a t cables or lines used o n a rig for different purposes do you
know?
7. W h a t is B O P and what is it used for?
8. W hat sets of B O P ram s do you know and w hat is the principle of
their work?
9. W h e n is it necessary to kill a well?
10. W ha t specific is there in hydril preventer design?
11. W h a t are the main purposes of a m ud pum p at a service rig?
12. W h a t operations can be performed with a rig tank?
13. W h a t is a boiler used for?
14. W hen do they use a generator?
7. M A K E U P A SITUATION A ND TALK TO YOUR F R IE N D
1. You are visiting a rig site for the first time. Ask the rig supervisor
some questions on what equipment they have at the location and
what it is used for.
2. Being a tool-pusher try to convince a bull-headed supervisor that
you are having some problems with the boiler and it can be down

101

any minute. In order to go on working you want a steam truck to


c om e for a back up.
3. Being a driller explain to a new crew m em ber what the equipment
on the rig floor is used for.
8. M AK E U P 7 Q U E ST IO N S TO TH E TEXT AND AN SW ER
THEM
9. LISTEN TO THE TEXT ON THE TAPE
N E W W ORDS
1. B rine -
2. B ubble p o in t p ressure - ,

3. E lectrica l subm ersible p u m p (E SP ) -
O U H )
4. In ta k e - ,
5. Subm ergence pressure -
6. Viscosity -
7. Water cut -
9.1. LISTEN THE TEXT AGAIN
9.2. A N S W E R T H E QUESTIONS
1. H o w can a m isa pp lie d p u m p influence th e fo rm a tio n and
production?
2. W ha t is a com m o n mistake when determ ining a well c h a ra c te
ristics?
3. W hat are the three major types of E SP applications?
4. H ow can gas influence pumps?
5. H o w is it possible to achive maximum system efficiency?
9.3. RETELL THE TEXT
9.4. R E A D T H E T E X T T O CHECK YOURSELF

102

ELECTRICAL SUBM ERSIBLE PU M PS


T h e design of a submersible pumping unit, under most conditions,
is not a difficult task, especially if reliable data are available. Although,
if the information, especially that pertaining to the wells capacity, is
poor, the design will usually be marginal. Bad data often result in a
misapplied p u m p and costly operation. A misapplied p u m p may
operate outside the recom m ended range, overload or underload the
m otor, or ruin the well at a rapid rate which may result in formation
damage. On the other extreme, the pump may not be large enough to
provide the desired production rate.
T oo often data from o th e r wells in the sam e field o r in a nearby
area are used, assuming that wells from the same producing horizon
will have similar characteristics. Unfortunely for the engineer sizing
the submersible installations, oil wells are much like fingerprints, that
is no two are quite alike.
T he actual selection procedure can vary sgnificantlv depending on
the well fluid properties. T h e three major types of ESP applications
are:
high water cut wells producing fresh water or brine;
wells with multi-phase flow;
wells producing highly viscous fluids.
T h e performance of a centrifugal pump is considerably effected by
the gas. As long as th e gas rem ains in solution, the p u m p behaves
norm ally as if pum ping a liquid of low density. However, the pum p
starts producing lower than the normal head as the gas-to-liquid ratio
(at pum ping conditions) increases beyond a certain critical value
(usually about 10-15%). It is mainly due to the separation of the
liquid and gas phases in the pum p stage and due to a slippage between
the two phases.
This phenomenon has not been well studied and there is no general
correlation describing the affect of free gas on pump performance. A
submersible pump is usually selected by assuming no slippage between
the two phases or by correcting stage perform ance based on actual
field test data and past experience.

103

Ideally, a well would be p ro d u c e d with a subm ergence pressure


above the bubble point pressure to keep any gases in solution at the
p u m p intake. This is typically n o t possible, so the gases must be
separated from other fluids prior to pum p intake to achieve maximum
system efficiency.
10. M A K E U P A STORY ON SE R V IC E R IG E Q U I P M E N T AND
R E T E L L IT

LESSON 7

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EXERCISES
1. A NSW ER THE QUESTIONS IN RUSSIAN
1. ?
2. ?
3.
?
4. ?
5. .
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?
9.
.
10. .
11. ?

116

2. LEARN THE W ORDS


1. Acid -
2. Acid stimulation (treatm ent, job) -
3. Acidizing packer = SA P tool -
4. B le n d -
5. Bullet perforation -
6. Bullhead acid job -
7. Cased hole com pletion -
8. Charges -
9. C h e m i c a ls -
10. Circulate out = to wash o ut - ( )
11. Collar -
12. C om e off - ( )
13. Compatibility -
14. Com pletion -
15. Correlation job -
16. Corrosion inhibitor -
17. Cum m ulative perforation -
18. Firing head -
19. Flow -
20. Goggles -
21. Leak - ,
22. Leakage -
23. Liner -
24. Logging - ,
25. Logging tool -
26. Mix acid -
27. Neutralize acid -
28. O pe n hole completion -
29. Packer -
30. Perforating bar -
31. Perforating guns -
32. Perforating job -
33. Perforations=perfs -
3 4 .Pickle - , "
35.
Pressure test -
36. P um p rate -
117

37. Punch - ,
38. Reservoir -
39. Rotation - ,
40. R ubber elements -
41. Safety clothes -
42. Safety glasses -
43. Safety training -
44. Sample -
45. Selective acid job -
46. Set off - ( )
47. Set the packer -
48. Slip down -
49. Slips -
50. Space out -
51. Squeeze acid into formation -
52. Stimulate formation -
53. String extension -
54. Technical water = tech water -
55. Test acid -
56. Unset the packer -
57. W aste disposal -
58. Well walls collapse -
59. Wet suit -
60. W orkover - ( )
3. TRANSLATE INTO RUSSIAN
1. Slips are located on a packers body and are used to set it in a well.
2. If pressure tested equipment doesnt hold pressure, the pressure is
bled off and connections are checked for leakages.
3. A fter the acid job all acid left in a hole should be circulated out
and neutralized with soda ash.
4. Packer is usually set by 3-4 rotations of tubing string to the right or
to the left.
5. W hen perforating bar hits firing head it sends a signal to charges to
set them off.
6. Liner is a narrow end of production casing used in deep wells for
cost efficiency reasons.

118

7. When testing acid blend samples of oil and acid are mixed to check
them for compatibility.
8. O p e n hole a n d cased hole com pletions are two m e th o d s of
completing a well.
9. If correlation job determ ines that botto m hole tool is above or
under perfs one has to space out.
4 . TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH
1. ,
.
2. - ,
.
3. -
.
4.
.
5. ,
.
6. .
7.
.
8. ,
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9.
.
10.
.
5. F IN D INCORRECT STATEMENTS AND CORRECT THEM
1. Acid job is a m e th o d to perforate a well.
2. Perforating job is used to stimulate formation.
3. In order to squeeze acid into formation the pum p used should be
powerful enough.
4. Selective acid job usually helps to initiate flow.

119

5.
6.
7.
8.

Corrosion inhibitor is used to neutralize acid.


Packer is a tool used to set off firing head.
W h en doing bullhead acid job they do not use a packer.
If acid and oil mix well, the acid blend is considered to be of good
quality.
9. Used acid is generally neutralized and hauled out to waste disposal
site.
6. ANSW ER T H E QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH
1.
2.
3.
4.

W hat is the standard procedure to unset or set a packer?


W hy is it necessary to test acid before use?
W hat is corrosion inhibitor used for?
W hat are the main differences between bullhead and selective acid
jobs?
5. H o w long can tubing string extension be at the depth of 3500
metres?
6. W hat are logging tools used for?
7. W hy bullet perforation is considered to be m ore dangerous than
cummulative perforation?
8. W hat is the standard procedure to set off a firing head?
9. W hen is a well considered to be technically alive?
10. W hat is the purpose of correlation job?
11. W hat are 3 main stages of selective acid job?
7. M A K E U P 8 Q U ESTIO N S TO THE TEXT A N D A NSW ER
THEM
8. M A K E UP A SITUATION A N D TALK TO YOUR FR IE N D
1. Safety m an talks to the rig supervisor on forthcoming acid job
safety procedures.
2. Rig supervisor talks to his tool-pusher explaining procedures of
forthcoming acid job.
3. T ool-pu sher talks to a packers specialist trying to find out how
SAP tool works.

120

4. You are a new co m er to a rig site where an acid job is being


performed. Ask the rig supervisor w ha ts going on.
9. LISTEN TO THE TEXT ON THE TAPE AND READ IT
N E W W ORDS
1. A rtific ia l lift -
2. D u a l co m p letio n -

3. M ultiple com pletion -



4. Single com pletion -
5. Tubingless com pletion -
MULTIPLE COM PLETIONS
W hen a well is drilled, it usually encounters only one prospective
hydrocarbon reservoir. T he well then would have a single com pletio n,1
likely with a tubing string. Occasionally, a well may encounter two or
m o re prospective h y d ro c a rb o n reservoirs w here the retu rn on
investment can be increased by producing the multiple zones at the
same time. H ow ever multiple zones must be produced separately as
this situation calls for multiple completions of the wellbore.
T h e most co m m o n multiple com pletion is the dual com pletion
with a single packer. T he two zones are isolated by a packer so that the
fluid from the lower zone flows up the tubing, and the fluid from the
upper zone flows up the annulus.
A second type of dual completion uses two parallel tubing strings
and two packers. This method of dual completion is more complicated,
and production problems are more-likely to occur.
TUBINGLESS COMPLETIONS
Occasionally, wells are completed without tubing. T he oil and gas
in these wells flow directly up the casing. This completion method has
the advantage of simplicity, since there's no complicated downhole
equipment to fail. However there are some disadvantages.

DISADVANTAGES OF TUBINGLESS COMPLETION


1. T h ere is no means for artificial lift if the well stops flowing.
2. Corrosion and casing failure is more likely.
3. Fluids cannot be circulated into the wellbore.
T h e se are serious disadvantages a nd so tubing is almost always
used to produce oil and gas from a well. Occasionaly, it is both practical
and economical to drill a small diam eter hole and use conventional
tubing as the casing. This is often called a tubingless completion.
Tubingless com pletions with pipe as 73 m m outside d ia m e te r still
provide for well control, well stimulation, sand control, workovers
and an artificial lift system.
9.1. CLOSE THE BOOK A N D D ESCR IBE WHAT YOU HAVE
H E A R D A N D READ IN WRITTEN FORM
9.2. RETELL TH E TEXT USING NEW W O R DS
10. M AKE U P A STORY ON COMPLETIONS AND RETELL IT

LESSON 8
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EXERCISES
1. A N S W E R T H E Q U E S T IO N S IN RUSSIAN
1. ?
2.
?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. 100
?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10. ?
11.
?

12.
?
13. ,
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14. , ,
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2. LEARN THE W ORDS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Air pack -
Break out - ,
Capacity - ,
C hoke down -
Coalescing device -
Coalescing plate -
Color cut -

8. Condensate -
9. Control valve -
10. -
11. Deflector plate -
12. Demister pad -
13. Divert -
14. D rain -
15. D roplet -
16. Fine mist -
17. Flags -
18. Flare line -
19. Float -
20. Flow line - ,
21. Flow rate -
22. Flow the well -
23. Fluid level -
24. Flush out - ,
25. G as bubbles -
26. G as pocket -
27. Gauge the tank -
28. Gravity -

29. H,S m onitor (detector) -


30. H ydrate -
31. Initiate flow -
32. Inlet -
33. Internals -
34. Lubricator -
35. Mandrel -
36. No-go -
37. Oil emulsion -
38. Outlet -
39. Overflow -
40. Plug - ()
41. Pressure controller -
42. Pressure relief device - ,

43. Pressure vessel -
44. P-tank -
45. Recover -
46. Residence time -
47. Rubber sealing -
48. Sandline -
49. Separator -
50. Settle out -
51. Sinker bar -
52. Solids -
53. Spin out oil -
54. Storage tank -
55. Straightening vane -
56. Surge of gas - ,
57. Surge tank -
58. Swab - .
59. Swabbing - ()
60. Swabbing e quipm ent - ( )

61.S w ab bine tre e - ()


62. Tag - ,
63.Take pressure readings -
64.Test the well -

65. Three-phase -
66. Two-phase -
67. Vapour disengaging space -
68. V apour section -
69. Wash out -
70. W ater cut -
71. Wax -
72. W ra p -
3. TRANSLATE INTO RUSSIAN
STARTUP
1. If the vessel is empty, close a block valve in each liquid outlet line
from the vessel to prevent possible leakage through a control valve
in the liquid line.
2. If the vessel has a pressure controller, it should be set at about 75%
of the normal control pressure, and slowly brought up to a normal
pressure after the vessel is in service.
3. If the vessel has low level shut down devices, they must be deactivated
or liquid must be added to the vessel to a point above the low level
devices.
4. C heck the flowlines out of the vessel to ensure that each stream
leaving the vessel flows in the proper direction.
5. Slowly open the inlet stream to the vessel.
6. W hen the liquid level reaches the range of level controllers, place
level controllers in service and open the block valves th a t were
closed in step 1.
7. Adjust level and pressure controllers to stabilize their operations.
4. TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH
1.
.
2. .
3. .
4. ,
.
5. 5 3 .
134

6.
.
7. - ,
.
8.
- .
9.
.
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,
.
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- .
5. F IND INCORRECT STATEMENTS AND CORRECT THEM
1. Swabbing is conducted before an acid job to stimulate formation
and thus increase acid penetration.
2. Swabbing cup is put on the no-go and run in the hole to later pull
out some volume of fluid and eventually bring fluid level close to
the surface.
3. L ubricator is used to lubricate swabbing equipm ent mechanisms
with grease containing in it.
4. S eparator is a device to separate wells from each o ther when they
flow.
5. W hen fluid enters a separator, the incoming gas is burnt inside the
separator in order not to pollute outside areas.
6. Every m an gauging oil tanks should w ear an air pack and have a
personal H 2S detector.
6. A N SW ER TH E QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

W h a t is swabbing?
W hy should tech water left in the well be removed by swabbing?
W hat swabbing equipment d o you know?
W h a t is the purpose of a lubricator?
W h a t is a gas pocket?
Why is it dangerous to continue swabbing when fluid level is about
100 metres from the surface?
135

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

W h at readings should be taken when testing a well?


W h at do they use separators for?
W h at 3 shapes of separators do you know?
W hat are two-phase and three-phase separators?
Which 2 factors are essential for separation?
W hy oil and gas coming out of the s eparato r should be clean of
each other?
13. W h at types of control should be m aintained when op erating
separators?
14. W hen can a well being tested be considered stable?

7. M A K E U P 7 Q UESTIO N S TO THE TEXT A N D A N SW ER


THEM
8. M A K E U P A SITUATION A N D TALK TO Y OUR F R IE N D
1. You are a new com er to the wellsite where they test the well. As
long as you are not perm itted in ask the rig supervisor what they
are doing and why it is dangerous.
2. Being a roughneck ask a driller abo ut swabbing and swabbing
equipment.
3. Experienced driller insists on using a separator during well testing.
G reen tool-pusher doesn't understand why and wants to ask some
questions.
9. LISTEN TO THE TEXT ON THE TAPE
N E W W ORDS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

C entrifugal device -
C oalescing device -
D eflector p la te -
Interna ls -
M ist p a d -
Vapour disengaging space -

7. Vapour section -
8. Vortex breaker -

136

9.1. LISTEN TO TH E TEXT AGAIN


9.2. A NSW ER THE QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

W hat are the internal devices in separators used for?


H ow can coalescing devices affect separators diameter?
Why some coalescing devices should not be installed in separators?
W hat are vortex breakers used for?
W hy is it essential to use deflector plates in all separators?

9.3. R E T E L L T H E T E X T
9.4. R EA D TH E TEXT TO CHEC K YOU RSELF
SELECTION OF SEPARATOR INTERNALS
Internal devices are used in separators to speed up the separation
process and reduce the size and cost of the separator. Proper selection
of internal devices can reduce the cost of a sep arato r by as m uch as
50%. Similarly, improper selection of internals can reduce the capacity
of the separator by as much as 50% .
Most internal devices are installed in the vapour section to remove
liquid droplets from the gas. T he diameter will increase approximately
20% if there is no mist pad or another coalescing device in the vapour
section. T he diameter can be reduced approximately 10% by installing
coalescing plates or other devices in addition to a mist pad.
Selection of internal devices will d e p e n d upon the composition
and quality of the flow entering the separator. Coalescing devices
should not be installed if there is a likelihood they will become plugged
with wax, sand or corrosive products. A stainless steel mist pad can be
installed in a corrosive gas flow without danger of becoming plugged
with corrosion products.
Centrifugal devices are highly effective in removing mist from the
gas as long as the gas flow is high enough to maintain proper velocity
in the centrifugal element. Liquid entering the separator in slugs can
adversely affect the benefits of the centrifugal device. These devices
are most-effective when the inlet flow is mainly gas flowing at a fairly
constant rate.

137

Each liquid outlet should always have vortex breakers installed.


W ith o u t these devices, a funneling effect may occur when liquid is
withdrawn, and gas will flow out of the funnel with liquid.
A n inlet deflector plate is another internal device that can be used
in all separators. This device causes the liquid entering the separator
to change direction (normally to the side o r down) and prevents it
from flowing out to the middle of the vessel and thereby reducing the
effectiveness of the vapour disengaging space.
10. M AK E U P A STORY ON WELL SWABBING AND TESTING
A N D RETELL IT

LESSON 9
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144

.

.

EXERSISES
1. A N SW ER TH E QUESTIONS IN RUSSIAN
1.
?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10.
?
2. LEARN THE W ORDS
1. 8-round thread -
2. A ir slips -
3. Back off -
4. Blowout - ,
5. B ottom hole assembly = B H A -
6. Collar -
7. Crossover = changeover -
8. D o p e -
9. Drags -
10. Drift - ,
11. Drill collar - ( )
12. Drill o u t -
13. Drill pipe -
14. Elevator -
15. Fishing job -
16. Fishing tool -
145
10

Be.io.u-.

17. G rapple -
18. IF thread -
19. Impression block -
20. Inside diam eter = ID -
21. Jagged piece -
22. Joint -
23. Junk basket -
24. difference -
2 5 .Kill the well =
26.
Lay joints down -
27. Metal flakes -
28. Mill -
29. O utw ard diameter = O D -
30. Overshot -
31. Pick joints up -
32. Power tongs -
33. Protector -
34. Pull out of hole = P O O H -
35. Pull tight -
36. Pulling and running operations -
37. Pup-joint -
38. Re-entry guide -
39. Regular thread - ,
40. Retrieve -
41. Ripped thread - ,
42. R ubber stripper -
43. Run in hole = R IH -
44. Spear -
45. Stabbing valve -
46. Stand - ,
47. String -
4 8 .Sub -
49. S w edge-
50. Swivel -
51. Tally -
52. -
53. T a p e r mill -
54. Tapered spear -
5 5 .T h re a d -
56.
T o p of the fish = T O F - ,
146

57. Tripping pipe - - ( )


58. Tubing - (- )
59. Tubing depth = T D -
60. W ashover mill -
61. W ashover pipe -
3. TRANSLATE INTO RUSSIAN
1. W h en tripping pipe they use pow er tongs for breaking off and
making up joints.
2. W hen workers unlatch elevator tubing does not drop into the hole
as it is held in air slips.
3. W h e n running in hole they m u st always use d o pe to ensure tool
joints integrity and to prevent any damage to joints threads.
4. During a fishing job it is better to use drill pipe to ensure there is no
string twist off when pulling tight in the hole.
5. To determine the exact depth of tubing run in the hole one should
not only tally stands but take into consideration KB difference.
6. As long as the marks on the impression block showed torn metal
on T O F they had to work a mill on the T O F before running an
overshot in.
7. M etal cuttings prod uced by a mill are usually caught in a junk
basket and retrieved to surface when the junk basket is full.
8. As long as one joint had a ripped thread the crew had to lay it down
and pick up another joint to replace the damaged one.
4. TRAN SLATE INTO ENGLISH
1 ,

.
2.
.
3. -
,
.
4. - ,

, ,

.
10

147

5. -
,
.
6. , ,

.
7.

.
8.

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9.

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.
10.
.
5. AN SW ER THE QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

W hat is the difference between a stand and a joint?


Describe tubing.
Describe drill pipe.
Describe drill collar.
W h at types of threads do you know?
W hat is used to connect different diameter pipes when making up
aBHA?
7. W ha t is the purpose of a fishing job?
8. Describe how an impression block works.
9. H o w does a junk basket work?
10. W ha t is an overshot used for?
11. W h a t is a spear used for?
6. M A K E UP A SITUATION A N D TALK TO YO UR F R IEN D
1. You are a new roughneck at the rig. The crew is going to trip pipe.
Talk to the driller and ask him questions on the procedures of the
operation.
148

2. Service rig crew is fishing ESP cable. A new supervisor insists on


giving weight to the tubing string on the cable and press the cable
before retrieving it. Being a tool-pusher try to convince him you
need to do it carefully in o rd e r not to dam age the cable and the
spear.
3. A n impression block showed that tubing had broken in the middle
of a joint and pieces of torn metal are bent inside the joint. Being a
driller discuss with the tool-pusher what fishing tools you should
use in such situation.
7. LISTEN T O T H E T E X T O N T H E T A P E
7.1.

READ A N D TRANSLATE THE TEXT


N E W W ORDS

1. B arrel - ,
2. C a s t- ( )
3. C atcher -
4. D eterioration - ,
5. F inger shoes -
6. J u n k -
7. M a g n et insert -
8. M ill shoes -
9. R o c k bit cones - ,
10. Top sub -
ITCO TYPE J U N K BASKETS
Junk basket is an uncom plicated yet dependable fishing tool for
retrieving all kinds of loose junk. Its simplicity of design, construction,
op eration and m aintenance is such that any drilling crew can use it
successfully. With double catchers and magnet inserts junk basket is a
piece of valuable equipm ent on a drilling rig.
Junk basket is used to retrieve all sorts of junk that may accumulate
at the bottom of a well and which may impede drilling progress. This
junk may be such objects as rock bit cones, bearings, broken slips, bits
of wire line, various hand tools, milling cuttings and so on. It may also
be used to take a core sample, drill a full gauge hole or to ream the
hole.
149

irco
KWrCM JUftK &ASKCT
0*SS tJ IH fH A M tU SHOfc

22. 1 T C O type ju n k basket.

Ju n k basket - IT C O type consists basically of a barrel, a top sub.


an upper catcher, a lower catcher, and a type mill shoe. This type
shoe is faced with conventional hard m etal on the cutting surfaces.
Accessories include magnet inserts, mill shoes and finger shoes. The

150

two catchers employ rivet-free construction, easily redressed on


location. C atch er fingers are cast from strong, long wearing bronze.
T h e fingers in the upper catcher extend only half way to the centre, its
function being to break the core when an upward strain is taken on the
string. T he lower catcher has alternately long and short fingers which
extend almost to the centre, forming a close fitting basket which will
retain the core or small pieces of junk. Both catchers are free to revolve
within the shoe, eliminating finger breakage.
Ju n k basket - IT C O type is furnished with a stan dard type
mill shoe. This is a mill type shoe with side wings and is ideal when
used in softer formations. W hen junk is lying loose on the botto m of
the well or when junk is too large to pass through the catchers, a finger
shoe may be installed on the bottom of the barrel in place of the mill
shoe. W hen the junk basket engages the fish, combined rotating and
lowering cause the long fingers to close in beneath the fish and retain
in the barrel. Finger replacements are easy and inexpensive to replace
on the shoe body.
M agn et inserts are available to convert the junk basket into an
effective fishing magnet. T h e magnet insert is machined to fit into the
recess normally occupied by the two catchers. T h e m agnet insert is
used especially w hen in hard-to-drill form ations and to thoroughly
clean the hole prior to diamond drilling.
Ju n k basket - IT C O type is a relatively simple tool to maintain.
A fter use, the junk basket should be completely disassembled and
cleaned. A n y small parts, such as springs and fingers, that may be
dam aged should be inspected and replaced as may be required. Junk
basket should be reassembled as it is assembled and each internal part
greased.
T h r e a d e d connections should be dried and do ped as they are
assembled. A fter com plete assembly, the entire outside of the junk
ba sk e t sh o u ld be p a in te d o r th o ro u g h ly gre a se d , to p re v e n t
deterioration.
7.2. A N S W E R T H E Q U E S T IO N S
1 W h a t is a junk basket used for?
2. W h a t can be collected with a junk basket in a well?
3. W hat does the IT C O type junk basket consist of?

151

4. W h a t two shoes are used with the IT C O type junk basket and
what is the purpose of them ?
5. W hat are the m agnet inserts used for?
6. W h a t are the main procedures to maintain the I T C O type junk
basket?
7.3. L IS T E N T O T H E T E X T A G A IN
7.4. R E T E L L T H E T E X T U SIN G N E W W O R D S
8. M A K E U P A ST O R Y O N F I S H I N G J O B A N D R E T E L L IT

LESSON 10



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EXERCISES
1. A N S W E R T H E Q U E S T IO N S IN R USSIAN
1.
?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10.
?
11.
?
12. ?

162

2. L E A R N T H E W O R D S
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Block valve - ,
Bypass valve -
Cathodic protection -
Coal tar -
Coating - ,
Corrosion inhibitor -
Dewax -
Dewaxing unit, dewaxer -

9. En am el -
10. Flow line = gathering - , ,

11. Flow rate - ,
12. Gas line -
13. G et stuck -
14. H o t oil, pum p hot oil -
15. H o t oiler - ( )
16. H y drate formation -
17. Integrity -
18. Internal (external) corrosion - ( )
19. Liquid build up -
20. Liquid line -
21. Liquid trap -
22. M aintenance - ,
23. M ulti-phase line -
24. Pig -
25. Pig launcher -
26. Pig receiver -
27. Pig trap -
28. Pigging skid - ,
29. Pipeline -
30. Pipeline gathering system -
31. Plant inlet pressure -
32. Pressure dro p -
33. Processing facilities -
34. P um ping station - -

11*

1 63

35. Raw fluid -


36. Refine -
37. Retrieve a wax-knife -
38. Scraper -
39. Transmission line -
40. Wax -
41. Wax-knife -
3. T R A N S L A T E IN T O RU SSIA N
P R O C E D U R E S F O R R E C E IV IN G A P IG
1. T h e blowdown valve and end closure must be closed before the pig
arrives. Open the bypass valve and then open pig trap valve. This is
normally done before the pig is launched.
2. O nce the pig is in the trap, open the valve on the main flow tee. If
the pig does not enter the trap, slowly close the valve on the main
flow tee upstream of the pig receiver until the pig is forced into the
trap.
3. Close pig trap valve an d bypass valve.
4. O pe n the blowdown valve to vent pressure from the receiver. The
receiver may contain liquids and it may be necessary to drain
these into a container before the trap is depressured.
5. Open end closure and remove a pig.
6. Close end closure.
7. O p e n bypass valve slightly to purge air from barrel.
8. Close blowdown valve and slowly bring receiver up to line pressure.
9. Close bypass valve. T h e bypass valve and trap valve may be
opened at this time to be ready for the next pig.
4. T R A N S L A T E IN T O E N G L IS H
1.
, ,
.
2.
, .

164

3.
.
4. , ,
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5.
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7. ,
.
5. F IN D IN C O R R E C T STA TEM EN TS A ND C O R R E C T T H E M
1. Pipelines may be classified as liquid lines, gas lines, multi-phase
lines and w ater lines.
2. M ulti-phase flow lines are designed to handle fluids which may
contain both liquid and gas.
3. If scraper is not available, one can use a wax-knife to clean casing
of wax, but handle it carefully in order to prevent any damage to it.
4. Cathodic protection is used to protect pipeline from wax build up.
5. H o t oiler is a person specially trained to stand high tem peratures
of the oil being produced.
6. Pigs are used only in the pipelines with thick pipe walls otherwise
the noise they make when grunting inside would negatively affect
oilfield personnel.
7. H ot oiling and running scrapers are two methods of well dewaxing.
6. A N S W E R T H E Q U E S T IO N S IN E N G L IS H
1
2.
3.
4.
5
6-

W hat is the purpose of pipelines in oil industry?


H o w can pipelines be classified?
W hat is specific in multi-phase lines design?
H ow can pipelines be protected from internal corrosion?
W hat is cathodic protection and how does it work?
W hat is dewaxing?

7. W hat types of dewaxing do you know?


8. Describe hot oiling operation.
9. W hat types of scraping tools do you know?
10. W hat is the inconvenience when using a wax-knife?
11. W hat is the difference between wax-knives and scrapers?
12. W hat purposes are pipeline pigs used for?
7. M A K E U P A SITU A T IO N A ND T A L K T O Y O U R F R I E N D
1. Being a foreman answer a labourers questions on methods of pipe
dewaxing.
2. Talk to the site supervisor and find out how he is going to launch a
pig and why.
3. Talk to the pipeline construction crew foreman and convince him
that water pipelines can not be used for oil and gas and why.
8. M A K E U P 5 Q U E S T I O N S T O T H E T E X T AND A N S W E R
THEM
9. L IS T E N T O T H E T E X T ON T H E T A P E
N E W W O RD S
1. B low dow n valve - ,

2. B ypass valve -
3. E n d closure - ,
4. Flow tee -
5. Pig -
6. Pig launch er -
7. Pig receiver -
8. Pig trap -
9. P igging bars -
10. Purge - ,
11. R educer - ,
12. Sw eet gas system -
9.1.

166

L IST E N T H E T E X T AGAIN

9.2. A N S W E R T H E QU ESTIO N S
1. W hy is it always necessary to ensure that a pig receiver is set up to
receive a pig before launching a pig?
2. W hen inserting a pig into a launcher how far can one push it?
3. W hy is it always necessary to stand to the side when opening the
end closure?
9.3. R E T E L L T H E T E X T
9.4. R E A D T H E T E X T T O C H E C K Y O U R S E L F
P R O C E D U R E S F O R L A U N C H IN G
A P I G IN A GAS F L O W L IN E
1. E nsure the pig receiver at the o th e r e nd of the line is set up to
receive the pig. Depending upon the length of the line being pigged
and the fluid velocity in the line, there is always a chance the pig
will reach the receiver before the operator can get there to set it up.
T he receiver should be set up with the main pig trap (receiver) and
bypass valve open, and the blowdown line valve closed.
Prior to opening these valves, the pig trap end closure should be
checked that it is closed securely. If the main flow tee upstream of
the pig trap main block valve is not equipped with pigging bars, the
block valve on this line should be closed and the flow routed through
this pig trap. This will prevent the pig from entering the flow tee
and getting stuck in the plant inlet lines.
2. Ensure the pig trap and bypass valve on the pig launcher are closed
an d the main flow line valve on the tee dow nstream of the pig
la un c he r is open. M ake the necessary adjustm ents if th e valves
positions are not as described above.
3. O pen the blowdown valve to depressure the launcher. Some sour
facilities may have a line from the pig trap to flare for depressuring
the trap and a second line from a sweet gas system to purge the trap
before it is opened. If this is the case, follow your c o m p a n y s
recom m ended procedures to ready the trap for launching the pig.
4. O p e n the end closure and insert the pig until the front of the pig
reaches the reducer. Depending upon the type of pig and design of
167

the pig launcher, you may require some type of ro d or stick to


push the pig into the trap until it reaches the reducer section.
Always stand to the side of the pig trap when opening the end
closure. This ensures you do not get hit by the pig cap should there
be pressure in the pig barrel which was not detected before
attempting to open the closure.
5. Close the end closure.
6. O p e n the bypass valve slightly to purge the air from the trap.
7. Close the blowdown valve, slowly bring the launcher up to line
pressure.
8. O pen the pig trap valve.
9. If the launcher is equipped with a pig signal device, m onitor it to
determine if the pig leaves the trap. If it didn't or you do not have
any indication that it left the trap, slowly close in on the main flow
line valve on the tee downstream of the pig trap. This will force the
fluid to flow through the bypass valve and push the pig out of the
trap.
10. After you are sure the pig has left the trap, the trap isolation and
bypass valve can be closed, the main flow line valve can be opened,
and the pig trap may be depressured.
10. M A K E U P A ST O R Y O N P I P E L I N E S A ND R E T E L L IT

LESSON 11


.
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,

.

,
,
,
,
.

.
,
,
, ,
,
H^S.
H2S?
( H ,S ) ,
, .
169

H,S - ,
.

.
H ,S
, .
H ,S .
, H ,S
,
. ,
H,S.
H,S
.
,
( ), ,
,
.
H :S ,
.
H ,S :
-

H,S;

.
H2S?

H ,S
.
. ,
,
, ,
,
' H ,S ,
.
170

H 2S
.
,
, .
H 2S
.

,
.
H 2S SO,. ,
, ,
. SO ,
,
3-5 ()
. ,
SO , ,
H,S.

H,S .
H,S:
-

.
H,S

'

, ;

;
'

- ;
;
171

, SO ,,
;

,

;


;
,
,
- ,
;

,
;
.

0.13

4.60

10.0

27.0

100

, ,

2-5

200-300

500-700

0.5-1

700-1000

10002000

,
.

1 = 1,42 /.3
1 ?
1 1 .
1 11.5 .
172

H , S

H,S.
H ,S
1 , ,
100-150 , ,
.

H,S
H ,S
:
-

,
( )
H,S.
.
H,S.

-
. H,S,
,
(
).

. H ,S
,
.
,
.
.

'

H ,S.
,

. ,
, ,
H ,S .
173

H , S

H,S


. :
-

;
;

;

.

H,S

.


.
. ,
,
.
.

, H,S ,

.
H,S . -

. ,

.

174



1.
(. 25).

.

30

.
,
.


,
2.
(. 26 ).
,

,
,

.

,

.


,
.

.
,


,

175

,
, .

,
.
, HS,
.



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,
.

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.

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,
.
.
,
.
-

.

,
.

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.
,

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.

176

H , S

H,S
. ,
( ) H 2S, .

H 2S, , , H,S
.
,
, , ,
.
H 2S
:
-

- ;

-
;

- (
);

-
.

,
24 H ,S ,
H 2S. H ,S
, , ,
H,S.

H 2S

7 .

1
( 3-
), .
177

2. .
3. ,
.
4. ,
.
5.
.
6. , ,
.., .
.
7. H ,S
.
.
8. ,
H,S
,
.

1. ,

:
-

,
;

, ;

2. , , ,
.
3.

-

178

.

.
4.
.
5.
H,S.
6. H 2S


. .
7. , ,
, .
H 2S
,
, .
8. H 2S ,
.
9.
.
10. .
11. .

.
12.
H,S.

.
13. H 2S
. H 2S
SO,, , H,S.

.
14.
.

12*

179

H , S

1.
2. .
3. . ,
.
4. , .
5. .

EXERCISES
1. L E A R N T H E W O R D S
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Air bottle -
A ir hose -
A ir pack -
A m p u le -
Artificial respiration -
B O P drill -
Buddy system -

8. Carbon M onoxide ( ) -
9. Coated strips -
10. D uration -
11. E lectronic p ortable d e te c to r -

12. Electronic sensor -


13. First aid -
14. First aid kit -
15. Frequency -
16. G as detector tubes -
17. Hydrogen Cyanide (H C N ) -
18. Hydrogen Sulphide (H,S) - ,
19. Individual Susceptibility -
20. Intensity -

180

21. Lead acetate -


22. N atural gas - ,
23. Personal m onitor - ,
24. Personnel drills -
25. Safety m an -
26. Safety meeting -
27. Safety trailer -
28. Self-Contained Breathing A p p a ra tu s (SCB A ) -

29. Sour gas -
30. Sulfur Dioxide (SO :) -
31. Supplied A ir-B reathing A p p a ra tu s (S A B A ) -

32. Take a sample -
33. Wind sock - ,
2. T R A N SL A T E IN T O R U SSIA N
1. Portable monitors are designed to be placed between the worker
and the source of H ,S or in a confined space.
2. W h e th e r it is a personal, portable or fixed m onitor, the basic
com ponents of the unit include a pow'er source, a sensor, a display
and an alarm.
3. The piston-type unit is a vacuum pum p operated by the action of a
piston.
4. Supplied Air Breathing Apparatus (SABA) systems have a remote
source of breathing air that can supply air to several workers.
5. W hen workers wearing breathing apparatus are required to work
inside vessels or tanks there must always be an attendant or helper
who will have rescue equipm ent available and ready for use.
6. Periodic drills will be held in the work area allowing you to become
proficient in the use of the breathing equipment.
7. H 2S is found in natural oil and gas, sewers and cesspools (stagnant
water) such as found in swamps and is produced in a variety of
industrial and biological processes.

181

8. W hen there is a potential H 2S hazard, the employee shall use the


provided respiratory protection in accordance with instructions
and training received.
3. T R A N S L A T E IN T O E N G L IS H
1.

.
2. ,
,
,
.
3. ,
,
, ,
,
H 2S,

.
4. ,
,
,
.
5.
,

.
6.
H 2S , , H,S

.

182

4. H 2S T E S T
1. Six properties of H 2S are:
Physical state (usual)

Colour

O dour

Vapour Density

Flammability

Solubility

2. The 8-hour occupational exposure limit for H 3S is_______ ppm.


3. T w o kinds of breathingapparatus approved forusingin H 2S areas
are:

4. W h en using breathing apparatus, it is im portant to rem em b er to


breathe

5. Before testing an atm osphere for H,S you must

183

6. T he first priority in rescuing a victim from an H 2S atm osphere is


to protect

7. Before attem pting putting rescue breathing apparatus on an H,S


victim, you must move the victim to a
area.
8. T h e physiological effects of H ,S are dependent upon 4 factors:

5. D E S C R I B E W H I C H M I S T A K E S W E R E M A D E BY
P E R S O N N E L IN T H E F O L L O W I N G SIT U A T IO N S
1) A CID T R E A T M E N T
O n a rem ote location, an acid p u m p e r arrives on location to
perform an acid wash an d squeeze. T h e well is known to have a
concentratio n of 20 000 ppm H,S. T h e re is a service rig on location
with a five m an crew, an air trailer with a safety operator, one customer
representative, one tank truck ope ra to r, an d a three m an acidizing
crew. T he pum per is spotted upwind of the wellhead, 25 metres from
the rig tank. A kelly hose is run from the rig pum p to the pum per unit.
T h e p u m p e r unit is rigged into a manifold to allow the pum ping of
fluid to either the tu bing or casing.
The safety operator has a portable H,S monitor on site with sensors
located at the rig tank and wellhead. T here are SCBA units located at

184

the safe area. T h e day before the alarms had sounded at the rig tank
w hen the well was being circulated. T he safety operator checks over
the rig with a personal monitor before the safety meeting and finds no
H 2S. H e feels there is no need to supply the p u m p e r operato r with a
SA B A and air hose.
D uring the safety meeting, the dangers of H,S are discussed and
em ergency procedures are reviewed. T h e pu m p e r and rig pum p
operators ready their units to transfer fluid from the rig tank. The rest
of the personnel m eet at the rig shack for coffee.
The rig pum p operator starts to pump fluid from the rig tank to the
pumper. The pumper operator looks in the tank to check the level and
collapses on the far side of the truck. The rig pum p o perator does not
see the operator fall and continues to pump. The supervisor comes out
of the dog house and sees his o p e r a to r down and runs tow ard the
pum per. T h e supervisor goes down as he reaches the unit. T h e rig
pum p operator sees the supervisor go down and stops pumping. The
portable monitor at the wellhead then goes off.
Describe the mistakes made.

185

2) W E L L S E R V IC E
A rig crew an d air trailer attendant arrive at a location at the same
time to start the day. T he air trailer a ttendant unlocks the trailer and
proceeds to stretch out the air lines. T he rig crew goes into the doghouse
to change their clothes.
O ne man, however, decides to check the shut-in tubing and casing
pressure before changing his clothes. Once he records the pressure, he
decides to bleed off pressure to an open tank. The return and kill lines
had been drained the night before and not reconnected. T he build-up

186

pressure is released to the atm osphere. A pproxim ately 2000 ppm of


H 2S is released into the atm osphere. It migrates dow nw ind directly
into the path of the air trailer attendant. H e is instantly overcome and
collapses near the end of the catwalk.
A second crew m an sees the air trailer a tte n d a n t slump to the
ground. H e rushes over to assist an d is also knocked down. T h e first
crew mem ber realizes what is happening and shuts the wellhead valve.
Describe th e mistakes made.
3) D R I L L I N G R IG

187

A rig crew was pulling a wet test. T h e crew m em b e rs were all


masked up. A safety supervisor, also masked up, was testing the floor
area with a detector tube device. Several wet stands were pulled, and
no H,S had been detected. The safety supervisor suggested the crew
take off their masks, as they were tiring quickly. T h e situation was
discussed with the rig m an ager and the wellsite representative. All
agreed the crew should take off their masks. T h e safety supervisor
would remain masked up and would continue testing.
T h e crew w ent back o n to the floor w ithout masks. A stand was
pulled and the tool joint broken. The mudcan was put on, and the crew
left the floor. The driller picked up on the stand and the mud drained.The
safety supervisor opened the mudcan and tested. No H,S was detected.
The crew were called back on the floor to hoist another stand. As they
were about to hook on the elevators, a small m ud burp was observed.
T he safety supervisor told the crew to leave the floor, and he began to
test.
Three of the crew members were going into the doghouse when the
first one went down. Two more went down on top of him. T he well was
im mediately shut in. The three crew m em bers were revived shortly
afterwords and taken to hospital. The safetv supervisor detected 32%
H,S.
Describe the mistakes made.
6. M A K E U P A S IT U A T IO N A N D TALK T O Y O U R F R I E N D
I.

Being a safety m an at the rig site explain to the driller why it is


dangerous to open valves on the wellhead.

2. As a safety man convince the rig site workers that H,S is dangerous
even in small concentrations.
3. You see a derrickman leaving a dog house where he has had lunch
with the crew. H e has a personal monitor, an air pack on a nd is
going to gauge the tank. Though everything is all right, he is making
a mistake. Try to talk to him and explain his mistake.
7. L IST E N T O T H E T E X T ON T H E TA PE

N E W W ORDS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

B lin d - , ,
Production facilities -
R efine petroleum -
Scale - ,
Sew age -
S o u r spills - , HJS
W astewater trea tm en t fa cilities -

7.1. L IS T E N T H E T E X T AGAIN
7.2. A N S W E R T H E Q U E S T IO N S
1 .What is the origin of H,S?
2.Where is H 2S encountered?
3.
W hat are the properties of H,S?
4.W h ere can you find H,S in oil a n d gas industry?
5.
W hy are the confined spaces especially dangerous?
6.W hat are the main procedures to ensure your safety at an H,S site?
7.3. R E A D T H E T E X T T O C H E C K Y O U R S E L F
H 2S
H ydrogen sulphide, or H^S, is a naturally occuring gas found in a
variety of geological form ations. It is also form ed by the natural
decom position o f organic m aterial in the absence of oxygen. It is
encountered in a variety of industrial processes, including sewage and
w astew ater tre a tm e n t facilities and the production and refining of
petroleum , pulp an d paper, metals, sulphur c o m po un ds and heavy
water. H ,S may be referred to as sour gas, acid gas, stink d a m p or
sulphuretted hydrogen.
H 2S gas is colourless, heavier-than-air and extremely toxic. In small
concentratio ns it has a rotten egg smell and causes eye and throat
irritation. H ,S can d e a d e n y o u r sense of smell and, a t higher
concentrations, causes death. F o r these reasons, training in how to
protect yourself is cruicial in any industry where H ,S might be

189

encountered. You will learn more about the toxic effects of H,S later,
but first take a look at the following fatality incidents which occurred
in the petroleum industry. All of these incidents could have been
prevented!
- A fter loading his tank truck with sour p ro duced water, a truck
driver climbed on to the tru c k ta n k to gauge his load. His body was
found the next morning on top of the tank near the open hatch.
- A boilermaker foreman was exposed to hydrogen sulphide while
removing a blind on top of a vessel. After the exposure, he fell 12 m to
his death.
- A rig worker collapsed while operating a blow-out preventer valve.
T he forem an brought breathing a p p a ra tu s to rescue him, but was
overcome. A third worker came to their rescue and was also overcome.
T he crew finally removed them from the area. T he third worker was
revived, but the first worker and the foreman both died.
T hese incidents are not here to scare you, but to point out the
dangers associated with H,S. You can control these hazards through
receiving adequate training, following safe work procedures and using
breathing apparatus.
You can expect to find H 2S anywhere in oil and gas industry. This
m eans you can find H,S in:
- wellheads;
-piping systems;
- vessels;
- pipelines;
- tanks;
- production facilities;
-p its and low spots;
- confined or enclosed spaces;
- shacks o r buildings;
- s o u r spills.
You must be cautious when dealing with any confined space. When
you e n te r a confined space, th e re is always the possibility that H,S
may be present. T h e two main things to watch out for are scale and
liquids. If you agitate liquids in a tank, they may release any H ,S they
contain. T h e removal of scale by steam, chemicals or grinding may
also cause the release of any H,S in the scale.

190

H 2S m ay be dissolved in liquids an d then be released if agitated,


depressurized or heated. This means that gas in the liquids is released
when they are circulated, pumped, flowed or swabbed into tanks. That
is another reason why you would expect to find H,S at the top of open
tanks, gauge hatches an d vent lines.
If you are near an oil and gas facility, check the wind direction by
looking at the windsocks, weather vanes, tape, trees and so on. If H,S is
present, it will move downwind. Staying upwind of the facility in the
event of a leak should help keep you out of danger.
H ,S is heavier than air. T h is m eans th e gas may collect in lowlying areas or be trap p e d by buildings, natural barriers or o th e r
confined spaces. In the event of a leak, go to high ground upwind from
the source of H,S. If downwind, head in a direction that takes you
crosswind.
7.5. R E T E L L T H E T E X T
8. M A K E U P A S T O R Y ON H ,S AN D R E T E L L IT

LESSON 12

,

,
.
, ,
.
,
,
.
,

() ,
.
.
.
H L E NOTE
: M r. A. R oberts
Krom: S. VNite rs
D ale: I (.01.98.
cc: A. Anderson
B. T ito 1
Ref: M a ie ria b request.


: '-> A. P o 6 e p ic \
: C . V oicpca
i : H .08.98.
: .
.
K ac: .

D e ar M r. R oberts.

- P o o cp ic.

C o n cern in g y our request of<)5 01


w e a re looking
into the m a tte r M aterials v.dI be d e ln c re d to you as
soon as a p p ro v ed by the m anagem ent.

ic.'ibiio Batuci w o r 05.0! 9 .



!

Besi regards.
S W aiers

" .

192

V o ie p t


.
,
.

F IR E S A F E T Y

M E E T IN G

04 1998 .

JANUARY 04, 1998.


A T TEN D EES :
S. R oberls
A Ivanov
Petrov
I Jackson
M Sm ith

:
1C

.
.
1

hem s discussed

1. F ire safety re gulations at dll sites. E verybody m ust


strictly follow lhe rules.
Responsible - Fire m an

1 .
.
-
.

2 Procedures in case o f a fire. A pproved new


procedures

2.

3. F ire extinguishing procedures.

? .

4 First aid during a fire T raining should be given lo all


personnel

4.

R esponsible D e p artm en ts S uperintendents.

: .


. ,

,
,
,
.
,
, .

193
13

WORKPLAN

E nsure n g an d equipm ent a re ngged up in ac cordance


w ith a p p ro p ria te com pany, re g u la to r) a n d safety
requirem ents



, !
! .

1. R ig-in hot oiler an d h o t oil lubing.

1. .

2 M ove in service rig Pull lest gu>hne an c h o rs a n d rig


up

2. .
.

3 A ccept the well from P ro d u ctio n D e p artm en t.


C o m p le te well h a n d o v e r certificate.

3. )
/ .

4. R ig up to sw ab well.

5 S w ab well to ihe rig tank

5 )

6. Flow well to the n g tank. M ak e sure well is flowing

6 .

w ith sufficient w ell-head pressure R eport well ilo u in g


co n d itio n s D ivert p ro d u c tio n dow n ihe line, notify
P ro d u ctio n technologists.


, )
,

N O T E : W hen th e well h flowing run u ax -k n iv e s to


below 1000 m 2 \im es p er day.

:

I .

7. T ra n s fe r th e well back to P ro d u ctio n D e p artm en t.


R ig o u t service rig

7 .
.

D A IL Y D R IL L IN G R E P O R T
WELL
N U M BTR
CURRENT
DEPTH
PREVIOUS
DEPTH
PROGRESS
H O L E SIZE

4243

DATE

3 6 2
6

DAVSOI
DRILLING
MASTER

\ S I N G SIZE

:.9

CASING
D

03 ] 9
54
1

245
2587

HOl'RS

START

END

R A T I O N S SI M M \ R Y

0
1
]
0

Oil
6 30

6 30
00
9 00
9 30

C R E W C H A N G E . INSPE CT BOP
POOH
R E C O V i R C O R E SM
REPAIR ROTARY CHAIN
RIH
DRILL A N D C L T CORE
CIRC ULA TE HOLE
POOH W/CORE

C T PV

194

30
30
00
.HI

5 )
111 0 0
1 on
4 00

R 00
9 00
40
1 5 <XJ
1 00
2 (HI

15 0 0
1 00
2 00
6 00

DA11.Y COMPLETIONS REPORT

W ELL N A M E

O B JE C T IV E

ntnh
F O R M A T IO N

PBTD

2354
A C ID JO B
CKO
X
3717 m K B

PF.RFS

351 5-3606 mKB


C SG SIZE

244.5 mm

3
SET AT
HA

2431 m K B

L IN E R S IZ E

T O P AT
H A
TB G S IZ E

L A N D E D AT
.HA
P A C K E R S E T AT

DATE

R ET O R T D A Y

R E C O V E R E D F L U ID - 84 5 V i
W A I E R - 13 0 3
T O TA L F L U ID - 3 3
W A T E R 15 1 3
P U M P O U T T O P S -7 5 3
FLOW ' R E PO R T S EN C L O S E D
P U M P D O W N CSCi 26M 3 0 F O I L
O P E N CV
P U M P D O W N TB G 1 0 M 3 O F O IL
UNSET SA PTO O L
PO O H W '/PACKER O N 73 M M T B G - 200JTS .
F IL L IN G 1. EV ER Y 400 M . V=0 5 3
S L IP A N D C U T D R IL L LIN E

O P E R A T IO N S fa6:00 POOH W /P A C K ER

3860 m K B
73 m m
1965 m K B

10.01.98.

OPERATIONS SUMMARY
FLO W ' W EL L T O R IG T A N K VIA D E G A SS E R

)77 .8 m m



84.5 3
- 13.0 3
- 109.3 3
- 15.1 3
75 3

26 ?

10 3

73 200
400 V =0 5 3

6 00

EXERCISES
1. L E A R N T H E A B R E V IA T IO N S
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

13*

B H A - bottom hole assembly


B O P - blowout preventer
CBL - cem ent bond logging
csg.- casing
C V -c irc u la tin g valve
E S P -e le c tric al submersible pum p
N D - n ip p l e down

195

8. N U - nipple up
9. PLT - production logging tool
10. P O O H - pull out of hole
11. P T - pressure test
12. R IH - run in hole
13. R O - rig out
14. R U - rig up
15. SAP tool - selective acidizing packer
16. SICP - shut in casing pressure
17. SITP - shut in tubing pressure
18. S lW - s h u t in well
19. tbg.-tubing
20. T O F - t o p offish
21. w/h - wellhead
22. W O - wait on
2. TRANSLATE INTO ENG LISH
DAILY COMPLETIONS REPORT

W ELL NAM E

O B JE C T IV E

F O R M A T IO N

PBTD
.
PERFS

C S G S17E
P A 3 M .
SET AT
.

2654
A C ID JO B
CKO
X
3717 m K
3515-3606 m K B
244.5 mm
2431 m K B

o p e r a t io n s s u m m a ry

O P E R A T IO N S '6 00

196

L IN E R SIZE
P A 3 M .
TOP AT

T B G SIZE
HK T
L A N D E D AT
.
P A C K E R S E T AT
.
DATE

R E PO R T DAY

177.8 m m
3*60 m KB
73 mm
1965 m K B

03 01 98.
IX


06.IX) 801 70
1 5 00 - 11 5 \
5000 .
1 12 1 1:
03 00 2654
3442
(7500 ) 20
5()
2654 3442.
(7000 )
43 1
(>6 00 < 73
6 00

DAILY COMPLETIONS REPORT

W ELL NAM E

O B JE C T IV E

F O R M A T IO N

PBTD
.
PERFS

CSC, S IZ E

SET A T
.

2354
R f-P L A C F ESP

X
3717 mK
5) 5-3606 ,
244 5 m m
2431 m KB

O P E R A T IO N S S U M M A R Y



L IN E R S IZ E
. A
T O P AT

T B G S IZ E
H KT
LANDEDAT
.
P A C K E R SET A T
.
DATE

REPO RT DAY

177.X m m
3860 m K B
73 m m
1965 m K B

05.01 9X
1


06(H) ]
08:00 2354
, .. Pi = 1100
. = 1 50 . = 830
.
12'00 10 10 1
)
15.5 .
. V= 16.0 '. = 1000-1500 .
15:()
. = 64 '. = ) . P k = b .i k v v m
1:00 1 1 . )
21.0 0 )

22.( .
73 . 06:00 15
1

O P E R A T I O N S 'a 6 IK)

00

3. T R A N S L A T E IN T O R U SSIA N
N E W W O RD S
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

B a n d -
C heck valve -
C om bination valve -
H ea d m odule -
Ju n ctio n b o x -
K n o ck o u t valve -
E S P IN STA LLA TIO N P R O C E D U R E
While running ESP. drift and tally the tubing.

1. Check the compatibility of the surface electrical equipm ent with


the parameters of the ESP.
197

2. Install the check valve into the head module of the pum p and then
install the knock out valve onto the check valve or install a
combination valve. T he knock out valve may be installed one joint
higher than the check valve.
3. Band ESP cable to tubing joints (above a n d below each tubing
collar) so that there is a distance of 250 mm from the collars.
4. Pressure test the tubing to 7000 Kpa while running in th e hole.
5. T h e pum p should be run in at the speed not higher than 0.25 m/s.
6. Cable insulation resistance should be measured every 300 m.
7. Set the pump at the depth which is in accordance with the well plan
and ensure that there is enough cable left on surface to hook up to
the junction box.
8. Make all the necessary connections at the surface. Check for proper
rotation of the pu m p and m ake sure tha t the p u m p is producing
with the proper pumping rate.
9. Adjust underload/overload protection. T u rn the well over to the
production operato r for start up and placement into production.
Start up operations should be carried out in accordance with the
manual.
10. T h e actual depth at which the p u m p is installed, the time of
installation, the static fluid level in the well and the readings of the
gauges should all be indicated in the daily report.
4. M A K E UP A FILE NOTE TO TH E M A N A G ER OF THE
D EPA R TM E N T YOU W O RK IN

1. TRANSLATE INTO R U SSIA N


1. D epending upon operations in drilling, they use core bits, rollercutters or rotary bits.
2. Tool-pusher told the floor hand to put a snipe into the tool room
and bring a crescent wrench.
3. W hen R IH they use singles from pipe racks or stands from the
derrick.
4. T h e re are different types of threads: regular and IF, 8-round and
10-round.
5. Before spudding a well you should ensure all safety precautions
were taken.
6. Sumpless drilling is a type of drilling when used drilling m ud can
be applied again.
7. W hen circulating a well a junk basket is used to collect cuttings
after work with a mill.
8. W hen tripping pipe joints must be tallied and drifted to avoid wax
build up.
9. Acid blend is always tested for compatibility with oil before use.
10. You can determine depth of fluid level when swabbing if you count
drawworks drum wraps.
11. T here were some tubing collar marks on the impression block.
12. A fter th e BO P drill the driller went to the BO P stand to open the
B O P again.
13. Scraper is used to clean casing of wax and wax-knife is used to
clean tubing of wax.
14. In case of em ergency a derrick m an can use escape buggy line to
escape.
15. Drawworks transmission malfunction caused emergency shut off.
16. W hen tripping pipe power tongs is one of the main pieces of
equipment to look after.
17. Surge tank pressure gauge reading was a little higher than normal
so they had to choke down.

199

18. W ashover mill is usually installed on the end of a washover pipe


and is used to cut off metal around pipe.
19. D uring w o rk o v er th e y ta k e C hristm as tre e o ff an d in stall B O P to
p rev en t a b lo w o u t.

20. Catwalk is usually spotted in front of a well and is used when picking
up or laying down joints.
2. TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH
1. .
2. -
.
3. - ,
.
4.
.
5. ,
,
.
6.
,

.
7. ,
.
8.
.
9. ,
.
10. , .
11. -
.
12.
.
13.
.
.

200

14. -
.
15. ,
.
16.
.
17.
.
18. ,
.
19.
.
20.
.
21.
.
3. A N SW E R TH E Q U ESTIO N S
1. W hat main departm ents in a standard oil company do you know?
2. H ow do a supervisor and a tool-pusher share their responsibilities
a t a drilling rig?
3. W ha t two types of sedimentary rocks do you know?
4. W hat is porosity and what is permeability?
5. W hat drilling equipm ent used at a drilling rig do you know?
6. W hat are the methods to release pipe string when stuck in the hole?
7. W hat are the m ain parts o f a C hristm as tree?
8. W h a t are the main external com ponents of a wellhead?
9. W hat are the main internal c om ponents of a wellhead?
10. W h a t are the main purposes of using valves?
11. W hat is a service rig used for?
12. W h at cables or lines used on a service rig do you know?
13. W hat are the main purposes of a mud pu m p at a service rig?
14. What are the main differences between selective anf bullhead acid
jobs?
15. W hy bullet perforation is considered to be m ore dangerous than
cummulative perforation?
16. W hat is swabbing?

201

17. W hat swabbing equipm ent do you know?


18. Which factors are essential for the process of oil and gas separation?
19. W hat is the difference between a stand and a joint?
20. W hat types of pipe do you know?
21. W hat fishing tools do you know?
22. H ow can pipelines be classified?
23. W hat types of dewaxing do you know?
24. H ow can pipelines be protected from corrosion?
25. W hat is the difference between wax-knives and scrapers?
4. FIN D IN C O RRECT STATEMENTS AND CO RRECT THEM
1. T h e y usually do a pickle prior to an acid job.
2. If during pressure test a line does not hold pressure, it is entirely
reassembled.
3. H ot oiling is a m ethod to dewax a well.
4. If we wide open a choke on a well it will be producing m ore oil for
m any years ahead.
5. To determine watercut one should spin oil out.
6. Swabbing cup is m ade of heavy-duty metal and never wears out.
7. J u n k basket is used to collect hand tools in the end of a working
day.
8. When drilling they first run surface casing, then intermediate casing
and then production casing with liner.
9. Drill pipe is not so heavy as tubing so it can be used only for
routine operations.
10. W hen squeezing acid into formation the p u m p used should be
powerful enough.
11. Bottom hole assembly is a combination of different tools run into
the hole.
12. A stuck point is located by the tool called acidizing packer.
13. W hen flowing a well you should monitor winds direction to prevent
gas poisoning.
14. Surge tank is used to separate gas and oil.
15. H 2S is dangerous only in high concentrations.

202

5. FIN D CORRECT ANSW ER


1. Supervisor is a:
- m an a g e rs assistant;
- foreman in Production D epartm ent;
- engineer on site.
2. Completions D e p artm e n t is in charge of:
- maintaining pipelines;
-drilling;
- perforating jobs;
-ro ad s construction.
3. H y dro carbon s origin is:
- remains of ancient plants and animals;
- ancient underground waters;
- result of chemical reaction of H,S and
air.
4. Drilling m ud is used for:
- cleaning equipment after use;
- cooling down the bit;
- washing out cuttings;
-mixing acid blend.
5. Wellhead provides for:
- access to casing and tubing;
- increase of formation pressure;
- launching a pipeline pig.
6. Valves are used to:
- control hydrostatic pressure;
- control and stop fluid flow;
- control H,S concentration.
7. Service rig is:
- bigger than a drilling rig;
- smaller than a drilling rig;
- not different from a drilling rig.
203

8. BO P is used for:
- shutting in a well in case of a kick;
- oil and gas separation;
- installation of tubing and casing
valves.
9. T h e purpose of acid job is:
- to retrieve tools stuck in the hole;
- to stimulate formation;
- to prepare the well for perforating
job.
10. T h e purpose of swabbing is to:
- increase oil production:
- inject water in the well;
- recover water and initiate flow.
11. Separator is a device:
- installed on the well bottom;
- used for oil and gas separation;
- separating two wells.
12. T h e purpose of fishing job is to:
- get rid of wax in the well;
- catch some fish in underground waters;
- retrieve pipe and tools fallen to the
well bottom.
13. Pigs in pipelines are launched to:
- clean the pipeline of wax;
- check the pipeline integrity;
- push H,S out of the pipeline;
- h a v e fu n .

14. H ,S c a n be found:
- everywhere;

- in oil wells natural gas:


- o n l y in sp ecia lly d esign e d tanks.

204

15.

W hen you see a m an down in H ,S area you must:


- run to help him;
- put on an air pack and then rescue him;
- run out of the area and quit working
for the company.

6. LISTEN TO TH E TEXT ON TH E TAPE A ND TRANSLATE


IT ORALLY INTO ENGLISH SENTENCE BY SENTENCE
7. TOPICS. CHECK YOURSELF.
1. Oil C om pany structure and personnel.
2. H ydrocarbons origin.
3. Well drilling.
4. Wellhead equipment.
5. Valves.
6. Service rig equipment.
7. Well completion.
8. Well swabbing and testing.
9 . T ripping pipe. Fishingjob.
10.
11. Safety.

Pipelines.

LESSON 1
.4.
1. Logistics, Drilling, C ompletions, Production, Materials, Safety,
Invironment, Security, Construction.
2. Maintenance, Welders, Mechanics, Catering, Drivers.
3. Perforatin g jobs, acid stim ulation, fishing jobs, well testing,
swabbing, workover.
4. Production, Well testing, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Electricians.
5. Purchasing of materials and equipment,warehouses and pipeyards,
materials storage and distribution.
6. Capital Projects - long terms construction of buildings, plants and
facilities. General Construction - short terms construction of roads,
pipelines and small projects.
7. Invironment protection from pollution, oil spills clean up.
8. Driller, assistant driller, derrickman, roughneck.
9. K eep operative communication with the superintendent and site
supervisors, help solving arising problems at sites.
10. Equal. Different departments.
11. Supervisor is responsible for technological operations, tool-pusher
is responsible for equipm ent and personnel.
.6.
1. Welders and a safety man.
2. Accident with a pipe-bender, unauthorized personnel at the shop,
usage of equipment, shop clean up, safety clothes, first aid kits.
3. T h e pipe-bender broke loose and hit one welder causing injury.
4. People who do not know how to use equipment can injure themselves
and others.
5. Clean up all metal scrap and garbage.
6. Coveralls, steel toed boots, safety glasses, gloves, hard hats.
206

LESSON 2
EX.1.
.
.
.
.
.

.
7. , .
8. , , .
9. .
10,, , .
11 . .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

EX.5.
1. Oil and gas exist underground in microscopic pores.
2. M uch of the oil began as the remains of ancient plants and animals.
3. A ccu m u lation of organic m a tte r d e p en d e d upon durability of
geological periods.
4. As oil was lighter than water it tended to rise.
5. N ot all rocks are capable of being a reservoir rock.
6. Permeability refers to how easy oil can travel through pores.
7. Limestones and dolomites contain oil, they are sedimentary rocks.
8. A s a rule crude oil contains gas.
EX.8.2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Fluids move from regions of high pressure to regions of low pressure.


Pressure at the well bottom.
Pressure at surface.
Pressure at surface when the well is shut-in.
Bottom.
Pressure within fluid column.
207

7. Reservoir pressure should be greater than fluid column hydrostatic


pressure.
8. Permeability of the reservoir rock, area of flow into the wellbore,
fluid viscosity.

LESSON 3
EX.5.
1. Reciprocating is a m ethod to break the tool stuck in the hole free.
2. Cuttings in a well m ean pieces of the rock being drilled out.
3. Drilling m ud is specially prepared fluid which is pum ped into the
hole w hen drilling, to cool down th e bit, wash out cuttings and
create extra pressure on the bit.
4. T h e tool used to determ ine stuck point is called free point tool.
5. Elevator is a device to pull pipe out of the hole.
6. First part of casing is called conductor and second - surface casing.
7. C em ent job is conducted every time they run casing into the hole.
8. Sumpless drilling means that drilling m ud recovered from a well is
not drained into a sump, but is cleaned up and used again.
EX.6.
1. Exploration, Development, Completion.
2. To drill a few wells at the same time and not to have long distance
rig moves.
3. Foundation or platform with drawworks, rig floor with rotary table,
derrick with monkey boards, crownblock,travelling block, elevator.
4. Shale-shakers, mud pump, generator, boiler, BOP, etc.
5. To cool down a bit, wash out cuttings, increase drilling progress
and create hydrostatic pressure thus preventing a blowout.
6. A m ethod to check direction of drilling during well deviation.
7. C onductor, surface casing, production casing.
8. To cut core.
9. Reciprocating, fluid (oil, water, acid) bath.

208

10. At a certain m om ent they start to drill with inclination to reach the
planned target (formation).
11. Free point tool.
EX.8.2.
1. A d d stabilizers.
2. First bend in the drill string above the bit, formation characteristics.
3. Put m o re weight on the bit, prevent wall sticking and o th e r hole
conditions problems.
4. T h e y wear out and sometimes malfunction, fail.
5. Reduce the weight on the bit and speed up the rotary table.
6. Very gradually reduce the bit weight.

LESSON 4
EX.1.
1. ,
,
,
.
2. , ,
, .
3. ,
.
4.
,

() .
5.

.
6. , , , , , .
7. : , , .
: .
8.
.

14

, \

209

9. , ,
, .
10.
.
11
.
12. ,
.
13.
.
14. -1 , - ,
.
.5.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Christmas tree provides for valves to connect a well to a pipeline.


Correct.
Correct.
Choke can not show pressure. Tree top adaptor is used for pressure
gauge installation.
5. Correct.
6. Every time after installation of primary and secondary seals they
must be pressure tested.
7. Correct.

LESSON 5
EX.5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

To ensure any tool run into a hole will go through.


To prolong valves life and for integrity.
To stop fluid flow, to control fluid flow by adjusting flow opening.
G a te valves, ball valves, plug valves.
Needle valves, chokes, globe valves, butterfly valves.
To adjust and control fluid flow.
Housing, stem, wheel, seat, disc.
T h e valves will be dam aged by erosion and w ill not close all the
way down.

21 0

.7.1.
1. T h e operation of this equipment is a necessity of the job and is very
im portant for economic operation of the facilities.
2. Chemical storage tank, a chemical p u m p and some m e th o d of
measuring the injection rate.
3. Regardless of the type of container used to store the chemical, it
should provide for safe storage.
4. Pneum atic or electric drive piston types.
5. U se of draw down gauges or calibrated tubes.

LESSON 6
EX.5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Drill line is a wirerope used for pulling pipe out of a hole.


E mergency kill is the rig m otor shut off in case of emergency.
Correct.
Correct.
T o nipple up BOP means to install B O P on a wellhead.
B O P drill is a training for personnel on how to act in case of a
blowout.

EX.6.
1. Well completions and workover.
2. Service rig, B OP, m ud pum p, storage tanks, boiler, generator,
additional equipment for different operations.
3. Drillers panel, weight indicator, power tongs, air slips.
4. Main drawworks, secondary drawworks, 2 auxiliary hoists.
5. Latch on tubing to pull out of the hole.
6. Guylines, m onkey board lines, load lines, escape buggy line, drill
line, sandline, catline.
7. Blowout preventer is a device for shutting-in a well in case of a kick
or a blowout.
8. Blind rams, pipe rams and a hydril are closed by the pressure of
hydraulic fluid from the bottles hoses.

14

211

9. Before any works on a well if the well is flowing.


10. M ade of heavy-duty rubber, petals close to the centre regardless of
tubing presence or absence in the hole.
11. Kill a well, well circulation, squeeze acid into formation, transfer
fluids from one tank to another.
12. D e te rm in e volum e of fluid, store a few fluids at the sam e time,
mix C aCl, blend, visual control of incoming fluid, oil degassing,
quick union line m ake up.
13. T o generate steam and steam up e q u ip m e n t as well as heat up
shacks.
14. O n distant locations with no power lines available and in case they
need 380 V voltage.
EX.9.2.
1. A misapplied pump may operate outside the recommended range,
overload or un derload the m o to r or ruin the well at a rapid rate
which may result in formation damage.
2. Assuming that wells from the same producing horizon will have
similar characteristics.
3. High w ater cut wells producing fresh w ater or brine, wells with
multi-phase flow, wells producing highly viscous fluids.
4. T h e pum p starts producing lower than normal head as the gas-toliquid ratio increases beyond a certain critical value.
5. Gases must be separated from the other fluids prior to the pump
intake.

LESSON 7
EX.1.
1. , .
2. .
3. ,
.
4.
.

212

5. ,
.
.
6. .
.
, ,
.
7.
.
8. .
9.
, ,
.
10. , , .
11.
.
.5.
1. Acid job is a m ethod to stimulate formation.
2. Perforating job is performed to m ake holes in casing to let oil come
into the wellbore.
3. Correct.
4. Correct.
5. Corrosion inhibitor is used to prevent acid affect on tubing.
6. Packer is a tool used to separate one wellbore section from another.
7. Correct.
8. G o o d acid blend should never mix with oil.
9. Correct.
EX.6.
1. R otate tubing string to the left or to the right.
2. Acid is tested for compatibility with oil. If acid and oil do not mix
the blend is considered to be of good quality.
3. Corrosion inhibitor is used to protect tubing from acid affect.
4. Selective acid job allowsto treat all perforations with acidby means
of using a packer and not to waste acid.
5. U p to 1.5 metres.
213

6. Determine formation depth, correlation, tool depth, etc.


7. Charges can com e off all of a sudden as a result from occasional
radio signal.
8. D ro p a perforating bar into tubing.
9. If all the charges cam e off and there are holes in casing.
10. T o com pare perfs d e p th with the to o ls depth and space out if
necessary.
11. Preparation, acid squeezing, accomplishing stage.

LESSON 8
EX.5.
1. Swabbing is c o nd ucted after the acid job to recover w ater and
initiate flow.
2. Correct.
3. Lubricator is a pipe used to keep a sinker bar with a cup in it and
prevent fluid from splashing to the rig floor.
4. Separator is used to separate oil from gas and water.
5. W hen gas is separated from oil in the separator, it goes to the
flareline and is burnt in a pit.
6. Correct.
EX.6.
1. A m ethod to get rid of water in a well and initiate oil flow.
2. W ater column hydrostatic pressure is higher than form ation
pressure so the well can not flow.
3. Sinker bar, m andrel, no-go, cup, swabbing valve, lubricator,
swabbing tree.
4. To protect a sinker bar with a cup and prevent fluid from flowing
to the rig floor.
5. A portion of gas coming out of a well.
6. Danger of a blowout.
7. Tubing and casing pressures, separator pressure.
8. T o separate oil from gas and water.
9. Horizontal, vertical, spherical.

214

10. Two-phase: separate oil from gas. T hree phase: separate oil from
gas and water.
11. Separated fluids must not dissolve, one fluid must be lighter than
the other.
12. For safety reasons, to have occurate m easurem ents of oil and gas
produced.
13. Pressure control, level control.
14. A fter 6 hours of stable flowrate with low percentage watercut.
EX.9.2.
1. Speed up the separation process and reduce the size and cost of the
separator.
2. Proper selection of internal devices reduces the cost of the separator
by as much as 509c.
3. In case if there is a likelihood they will become plugged with wax
or sand.
4. To prevent funneling effect when gas flows out with fluid.
5. It prevents fluid from flowing out to the middle of the vessel and
reducing the effectiveness of the vapour disengaging space.

LESSON 9
E X .l.
1. ,
.
2. , , .
3. .
4. , , .
5.
.
6. ,
.
7. .
8. ,
..

215

9. , , , ,
, , .
10. .
.5.
1. A stand is m ade up of two joints.
2. Tubing is a relatively light pipe used for routine operations with
not very strong tool-joints.
3. Drill pipe is heavier than tubing with stronger tool-joints and is
used for fishing jobs and drilling.
4. Drill collar is a heavy pipe used for drilling to put additional weight
on a bit.
5. Regular thread, IF thread.
6. Crossovers.
7. T o retrieve pipe, cable and tools fallen in the well.
8. U n d e r tubing string weight a fish in the hole leaves marks on an
impression block.
9. Junk busket collects cuttings and metal flakes when a well is being
washed out.
10. Overshot is used to catch fish in its grapple and retrieve it.
11. Spear is used to retrieve ESP cable.
EX.7.2.
1. To collect junk and cuttings from the bottom of the hole.
2. Rock bit cones, bearings, broken slips, bits of wireline, hand tools,
milling cuttings, etc.
3. A barrel, a top sub, an u p p e r catcher, a lower catcher and a mill
shoe.
4. Mill shoe - cut and collect metal flakes, finger shoe - collect bigger
objects.
5. To collect metal flakes.
6. Disassemble, clean, inspect all the parts, grease, reassemble.
Paint entire outside of junk basket to prevent deterioration.

216

LESSON 10
EX.5.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Correct.
Correct.
Wax-knife can be used only in tubing as it has small diameter.
C athodic protection is used to maintain steel quality by sending
current to it.
5. H o t oiler is a machine used for heating up oil and pum ping it into
the well to melt wax.
6. Pigs are scrapers used for cleaning pipelines of wax and fluid.
7. Correct.
EX.6.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

T o transport fluids from wells to processing facilities.


Liquid lines, gas lines, w ater lines and multi-phase lines.
These lines are equipped with pig launchers and pig receivers.
Anti-corrosion coating, corrosion inhibitor.
C athodic protection is used to m aintain steel quality by sending
current to it.
6. Getting rid of wax on the walls of pipe by means of scrapers or hot
oiling.
7. H o t oiling, launching a pig, running a scraper or a wax-knife.
8. Oil is heated up in a hot oiler and pum ped into a well to melt wax
on tubing walls.
9. A scraper and a wax-knife.
10. A wax-knife can get stuck in wax and its wireline can be broken.
11. A wax-knife is used for tubing and a scraper is used for casing.
12. T o dewax pipelines.
EX.9.2.
1. A pig can reach the receiver before the op erator can get there.
2. Until it reaches the reducer section.
3. To ensure you do not get hit by a pig cap should there be pressure in
a pig barrel.

217

LESSON 11
EX.4.
1. Gas, colourless, rotten eggs, heavier than air, flammable, soluble
in fluids.
2. 7.
3. SABA, SCBA.
4. Not deep.
5. Put on an air pack.
6. Yourself.
7. Fresh air.
8. Durability, frequency, intensity, individual susceptibility.
EX.5.

1.
-

If there is a potential danger everybody should wear a breathing


apparatus.
W hen you see a m an down you should first put on a breathing
apparatus, then rescue him.
W hen stirred H,S begins to come out of fluid.

2.
-

Always use a buddy system when working in possible H ;S area.


Always wear a breathing apparatus if there is a possible danger
of H :S.
Before rescuing anybodv put on an air pack.

3.
-

If there is a potential danger everybody should wear a breathing


apparatus.
Safety man should m ake his H ;S test closer to the source and
in other places too.
W hen stirred H ,S begins to come out of fluid.

EX.7.2.
1. Organic material bacteria.
2. Oil and gas wells, gas processing plants, chemical factories, sewage
system, industrial labarotories, underground mines, etc.

3. Dangerous, toxic, colourless, heavier than air, burns with blue flame
producing SO,, odour of rotten eggs, highly corrosive, flammable,
explosive, soluble.
4. Oil wells, production facilities, pipelines, tanks, low areas, etc.
5. H,S can stay in cofined spaces for a long time and affect a person
when released.
6. Notice warning signs, alarm systems, check wind direction, find
people working on site, slowly enter the site.


EX.4.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Correct.
Th ey check for leaks and fix them.
Correct.
T h e well will die soon as there will be not enough pressure in the
well.
5. Correct.
6. Swabbing cup is m ade of rubber and wears out pretty quickly.
7. Junk basket is used to collect cuttings on the bottom of the well.
8. Correct.
9. Drill pipe is heavier than tubing and is used for drilling and fishing
jobs.
10. Correct.
11. Correct.
12. A stuck point is located by a free point tool.
13. Correct.
14. Correct.
15. H ,S is dangerous even in small concentrations.
EX.5.
1.-3
2.-3
3.-1
4 . - 2,3
5.-1

6.-2
7.-2
8.-1
9.-2
10.-3

11 . - 2
12.-3
13.-1
14.-2
15.-2
219


Emergency jobs
,
:
,
.
( )
Hot oiler
,
. 120-130 ,

.

Corrosion inhibitor
, ,
, .

Anticorrosive coating
,

.

-
Studded cross
,

.
220


B oom er

.
,
.

Drill pipe
,
.
.

Driller

.
.

Drilling rig
, .
, , ,

.

Prefabs, tarps
,
.

-
Vacuum-truck
,

.
221


Swivel
(,
) .
. .

.

Derrickman
, .
.
.

Re-entry guide
,
, ,
,
,
.

Residence time
, ,
. .

Secondary seal



.

Secondary drawworks
, .
.
.

22 2


Blow out
.
,
, .

Staightening vane
,
.

Spot the rig


.


Gas detector
H,S,
,
.
H 2S.

Gas pocket
, .
,

.

Generator
.

380V.

223


Hydraulic fluid
,
.

.

Hydraulic ram
,

.

Hydrate
, , ..


.

Hydrostatic pressure
.
, -
.

Blind rams
, .
, .

Kill the weil

,
.

Aquifer
, .

224


H ot oiling
(
). ,
.

Stand
( , ).
,
.

T wo-phase separator
,
.

Flowrate
(, . )
(, , ).


Oil degassing
.
,
, .

Gas detector
.
H 2S,
, ,
H,S.

225
15 >


Firing head
, ,
.
. , ,
, ,
.
( - )
Pump station
, ,

.

Bit
.
,
. .
, ,
..

Butterfly valve
,

. 350-900 .


Christmas tree
,

. .

226



Fluid (oil, acid, water) bath
,
, ,
,
.

3

Well bottom
, , .
,
,
.
.

Completions
,
,


.

Oil spill
, ,
..

A nnulus

. , ,
-.

15*

227


Safety clothes
, , , ,
,
,
..


Needle valve

. , .
.

Inhibitor


.

Weight indicator
, ,
,
.

Directional survey
,
.
.

228



Pig receiver
. ,
, ,
.

Pig launcher
,
,
. ,
.

Coalescing plate
,
.

Carbonate rocks
(, ),
.
.

Logging
,
,
. ,
, . .

Cathodic protection

.
.

229


Kelly
, .
16

.

Core bit
, , ,
()
.

Core barrel
.

.
.
(- )
Instrumentation
,

.

Acid job (treatment, stimulation)


.

Bullhead acid job
, ,
.
,
.

230

-
Ph - alkalinity balance
,
,
.
.

Casing hanger
,

.

Casing hanger slips
,
.
.
.

Slips
,
.

E lbow
.

.

Box cutter
.

, .

Casing bowl (spool, head)
,

231

,
, ,
.

Bottom hole assembly


, .

( ,
..).

Compressor
.
, ,
.

Demister pad
,
.

Surface casing
,
,
, .

Coordinator
.
. .

Crown
,
-, .


Washover mill
,
. ,
, ,
,
.

Correlation

, .
,
,
.

Boiler

, ,
.

Well deviation


.

Crown block
,

.
( )
Workover
, ,
, , .
.

233


Cummulative perforation
,
,
.
,
.


Drawworks, hoist
,
, ,
,
. .
- ( )
( ).

Fishing job
,
.

, .

Spear

. ,
.

Lubricator
, .
,
. ,

.

234


-
Manifold

.

Pressure gauge
.

Tool-pusher, foreman

. .

Manager
.
()
Dead (degassed) oil
, .

Methanol
.
.


.
(cutters)
.

235


Multi-phase pipeline
.
, . ,

.
( - )
Logistics
,
, , ,
, .

Tubing collar
,
, .

Tubing hanger
,
.
:
,
.


Fluid injection


.

C onductor
,

.

236


Making a connection

.

Pump-truck
.
, .
.

Blowout
,
,
.

Oil-truck, tank-truck, tanker
, .
( - )
Tubing
, ( ,
, ).
,
.


Water cut
.

Clastic rocks
,
(, ). .

237


Check valve
,
.

Casing
, ,
.
.
,
. , ,
.

Rubber stripper

,
, .

Washover pipe
.

- , ..

Overshot
.
.
, ,
.

X-mas tree top adaptor
,
.

238


Pressure test
,
.
, .

Sedimentary rocks
,
.
.

Open hole
.
, .
.

D eflector plate
. ,
, (
) ,

.


Packer

.

.
, . ..

1. Pup-joint
0,5 4,0 .

239

2. Snipe
, ,
.
( )
(B lowout preventer)

(). ,
.

Crossover, changeover, sub, swedge
,
, .

Slip and cut
(7,6
) - .
.

Primary seal

.
.

Perforator, perforating gun
,
. :
( ) (
).

Perforations, perfs
,
.

240


Perforating job

,
.

Impression block
.
.
,
.

Formation
.

Formation pressure
.

Fluid density
.
, /3.

M onkey board
,
-
.

' ir slips
,
.
.

16

241
io v c o h


Space out


.

Rig
,
.

V -do or
,
.
.

Assistant driller
.

.

Natural gas
, .
.

.

Porosity
.
,
.

Pores
.

242


Set the packer


.
( )
Steam truck, steamer

.
.

Preventer

. ,
.

Pickle

.

Stabbing valve
,

.

Catwalk
,
, .
.

Flow

.


Sticking
.

Free point tool
,
.
.

Plug valve
,
. , .

Pay zone
, ,
.

Intermediate casing spool
,
,
.

, .

Well circulation

.
.
, ,
.

Permeability
,
.

244


Protector
,
.

Pickle


.
( )
Hydril
,
.
,
.

Bullet perforation
,

.
,
.

Driller's panel
,
, ,
,
, .

stand
,

.

245


Production facility
,
, ,

.


Rig floor

,
: , ..

difference

.
,
.
.

Guyline
,
, .
,
.

Reciprocating

, , .

246

Sealing
( ),
.

Swabbing
.

.
.

.

Stand
, , .
,
.

Separator, P-tank, surge tank
.
, .

.

Oil separation
.

247


Service rig
,
.
, ,
, .
.
H 2S, sour gas
, ,
.
. , ,
, , .

Bails
.
.
,
.

Power tongs
.
,
.
.
( )
Selective acid job
.
. .

, .

.

Wax-knife
,
.

248

, ,

. .

Scraper
,
.
, , .
.

Pig

.
.
.
-
Quick union
, .
.

. ,
.

Unset the packer

.

Escape buggy line
,

.
( - )
Tripping pipe, pulling and running operations

.
.

249


Master valve

.
.

.

Formation stimulation

, ,
.

Bleed off, depressure


(, ,
).

Supervisor
,
.

Superintendent
,
. .

Crude oil
, , .
.

250



Travelling block
,
, .

Drill line
,
- .
.

Swabbing tree
,
.

Swabbing valve
,
.

.

Sandline
,
.
.

Swabbing cup
, ,
.
.
,

.

251


Swabbing (secondary) drawworks
,
.
.

Test acid


. .

Test the well



.

Technical water
,
, .

.

Intermediate casing
, .
.
.

Three-phase separator
,
.

252


Load line

,
.
.

Tubing head
,
.

.

Pipe rams
,
, .
,
.

( )
Drill collar
, .

.

Hydrocarbons
( ).

Chicksan
- , 3-4
, ,

II

253

.

.

Ring gasket
,
.

Fluid level
, .
- . ,
, ,
.

Flowrate
( , ,
) (. , ).

()
Wellhead
,
. ,
,
.
,
, .

Flange
,
..
.

254


Flow
,

Mill



.


Liner
, .

.


Cement job

.

.

Well circulation
.
, ..

255

-
.
- ,
.


Drift
,
.
-
. ^ .

Drift
.
.
,
.

Globe valve
.

.

Ball valve
,
. .

200 .

Roller-cutter bit
,
.

25 6

,
.


Gate valve
,

.

Cuttings
.
,
.

Junk basket
,
.

, .

Tapered spear
,
. .
.

C h ok e
,
.
, ,
.

A dvisor
,
.

257
17

,
.

E levator
,
.
,
. .


Personal m onitor
.
. H 2S,
, ,
H 2S.


Production casing

.
,
, ,
.

(- )
ESP (E lectrical subm ersible pump)
, ,
, .
.
.

258

A n ch or
3 , ,

.

A nchor truck
,
. .

17'

A cid
Acid jo b
Acid stim ulation
Acid treatm ent
A cid izin g packer
A daptor flange
Adjust flow opening
A djustable wrench
A ir bottle
A ir hose
Air pack
A ir slips
A lk alinity
A m pule
A n ch or
A nchor truck
A nnulus
A q u ifer
A rtificial lift
A rtificial resp iration
A ssistan t driller
A uger
Axe




,


,

Back off
B ack to back
Bag
B ails
Ball valve
B ar
B a rrel
B ea rin g

260

, ,


,

,
Blowdown valve

,
B low out
Blow out preventer (B O P )
( )
,
B o ile r

B olt

B o o m er

B O P drill


B O P stand

B ottom hole
B ottom hole

assem bly (BH A )
B ottom hole flow ing

p ressu re

B ottom hole tool

B rakes system
( )
B reak loose

Break join ts o ff
, ( )
Break out

B rin e
,
B ubble point pressure


Buddy system


Build up o f asphaltites

B u llet perforation

Bullhead acid job

B u rn er

B utterfly valve
,
By-pass

B ypass valve

B ench
B ending point
B it
B leed o ff
B len d
B lind
B lind flange
Blind ram s
B lock valve

261


Cage with external sleeve
Cage with internal plug
C apacity
C apital projects
C arbon M onoxide
C arbonate rocks
C ased hole com pletion
C asing
C asing bowl
C asing hanger
C asing head
C asing shoe
C asing spool
C asing vent
Cast
Cat bar
C atch er
C atering
C ath odic p rotection
Catwalk
C em ent job
C entrifugal device
C h an geover
C harges
Chart
C hem ical injection
eq u ip m ent
C h em icals
C h isel
C h ok e
C hoke down
C hristm as tree
C irculate out
C lastic rock
Claw bar
Coal tar
C o a lescin g device
C oalescing plate
C oated strips

262




( )

,



C oating
C ollar
C olor cut
Come off
C om panion flange
C om p atib ility
C om p letion s
C om position disc
C ond ensate
C on d u ctor
C onstruction
C ontrol point
C ontrol valve
C opy
C ore barrel
Core bit
C orrelation job
C o rro sio n
(internal, external)
C orrosio n in h ib itor
C overalls
C rescent wrench
C rew change
C rossh ift
C ro sso v er
Crown block
C rude oil
C um m ulative perforation
C up
Cut (take) core
Cuttings

,



( )









,



(, )



,






D
D ead oil
D eadm an
D eflecto r plate
D egassed oil
D em ister pad

263

D en sity
D e p ressu re
D e r r ic k
D errick m an

D e terio ra tio n
D ewax
Dewaxing unit (dew axer)
D irectio n a l d rillin g
D irection al survey
D iv ert
D ognut
D o lo m ites
D ope
D ou b le thread
D ou b le w ing
D rags

,








-
-

D rain
Draw down gauge
D raw w orks
D rift
D r ill
D rill bit
D rill co lla r
D rill lin e
D rill out
D r ill pipe
D r ille r
D rillers panel
D r illin g
D r illin g crew
D rillin g mud
D r illin g rig
D r o p let
D ual com pletion
D uct tape
D u ration

264

(
)

,

,
,

( )


, ,


,





E a siers
E lb ow
E lectric d rive
E lectrical su b m ersible
pum p (E SP )
E lectron ic p ortab le
d etecto r
E lectro n ic sen sor
E levator
E m ergency kill
E m ergency shut down
system
E m ergency sh u t-off
E m u lsion
E nam el
E nd closu re
E scape buggy
E scape buggy line
E xp loration w ell




( )

F
F ab ricate
F em ale thread
F ile
F ine m ist
F in ger shoe
F ire Safety
F iring head
F irst aid
F irst aid kit
F ishing jo b
F ish in g tool
F ittin g
F ix









,
,

265

Flags
F lange
F lare line
Flash light
F loat
Float switch
F lo o rh an d
Flow
Flow line
Flow rate
Flow tee
Flow the well
Flow ing tubing pressure
F low lin e
F low rate
Fluid level
Flush out
Foreign m atter
F orem an
F orm ation
F orm ation pressure
Free point tool

Frequency
Function test



,
, ,

,
,



,


,

( , )




G
Gas bubbles
Gas detector tubes
Gas line
G as pocket
G ate valve
G a th erin g
G auge the tank
G en eral C onstru ction
G en era to r

266

G et hold o f smb.
G et stuck
G lobe valve
G oggles
G rap p le
G ravity
G rease
G rin d er
G rou n d
G rou n d in g
G u id e
G uylines

- (, )

H 2S
H 2S m onitor (detector)
H ack saw
H am m er
H am m er union
H am m er wrench
Hay wire
H eater
H eating elem ent
H itch
H oist
H ole
H o p p er
H ot oil (pump hot oil)
H ot oiler
H ydrate
H ydrate form ation
H ydraulic fluid (oil)
H ydrocarbon gas
H yd rocarb on s
H ydrogen Sulphide
H ydrostatic gradient
H ydrostatic pressure



( )
,

( )

( )
,

267

Ice scraper

IF thread
Im p ression block

Individual su sceptib ility


In itiate flow
In ject

In jection
In jection nozzle

Injection rate
Inlet

,
,

Inside diam eter (ID )


In stallation
In stru m entation

Intake
Integrity
Intensity

Interm ediate casing


Interm ediate casing spool
In ternals

In viron m en t
Isolation valve

-
( )

J
J ack al!

Jagged piece
J o in t

J o in t venture
Junk

Junk basket

268


difference
K elly
K ick
K ick o ff
K ill a well
K it


( )
,


( )

L
L ab ou rer
Latch on
Laundry room
Lay joints down
L ayer
Lead A cetate
Leak
L eakage
L evel
Light plant
L im estone
L iner
Liquid build up
Liquid line
Liquid trap
Load
Load lines
L ocation
Lock w asher
L ockdow n screws
L ogging


, ( . .)


,

, ,


1.
2.



,

,

269

Logging tool

L ogistics

-
( )

L u b rication

L u b rica tor

M
M agnet insert
M aintain
M ainten an ce
M ak e a connection
M ake a trip
M ake up join ts
M ale thread
M an drel
M an ifold
M aster valve
M aterials
M etal flakes

1. ;
2.

-



-

M ill shoe

M ist pad
M ix acid

M ix CaCI2 brine

12

M ill

M onkey board
M onkey board lines

Mpa

M ud pump

( )

M u lti-ph ase line

M u ltip le com pletion

M ultiple orifice valve

270

N
N a il
N atural gas
N eedle and seat
N eed le valve
N eu tralize acid
N ipp le down w ellhead
N ipple up B O P
N o -g o
N ut

,




,

O il
O il (water, acid) bath
O il com pany
O il em ulsion
O il field
O il spill clean up
Oil tanker
O pen end wrench
O pen hole com pletion
O utlet
Outward d iam eter (O D )
O v erflo w
O versh ot

(, )



,






P-tank
P ack off
P ack er
Pay zone
P enetration rate

271

P erforating bar
P erforating guns
P erforatin g job
P erforations (perfs)
P erm eability
P erson al m onitor
P erson n el d rills
Phase
P ick
P ick jo in ts up
P ic k le
Pig
P ig launcher
P ig receiver
P ig trap
Pigging bars
Pigging skid
P ile
P in cers
P ip e bender
P ip e racks
P ipe rams
P ipe spinner
P ip e wrench
P ip elin e
P ip eline gathering system
P iston
P lan t inlet pressure
P liers
Plug
Plug disc
P lug valve
P lum bing
P neum atic
P o llu tio n
P o res
P o rosity
Pow er screw driver

272






,




,

,





,





, ()



,

Power tongs
P ressu re co n tro ller
P ressu re drop
P ressure gauge
P ressure relief device
Pressure test
P ressure vessel
P ressu re-sen sin g device
Prim ary seal
P rocessin g facilities
P rod u ction
P roduction casing
P rod u ction facilities
P rodu ction well
P r o tecto r
Pull out o f the hole
(P O O H )
Pull tight
Pulling and running
o p era tio n s
Pump rate
Pump stroke
Pum p truck
Pum ping station
Punch
P u p-joint
P urge





,






,





,

(
)
- ( )



-
,
,
, ()

Q
Q uick union line


( )

273
18

R
R adio
Raw fluid
R e-entry guide
Ream
R eco v er
R ed u cer
R efin e
R egular thread
R e lie f
R ep air
R e serv o ir
R eservoir rock
R esidence tim e
R etrieve
R etrieve a w ax-knife
R ig flo o r
R ig move
Rig out (down)
R ig tank
R ig up
R ig walk around
R ing gasket
R ipped thread
R iser
R ock
R ock bit cones
R o g er
R oller-cutter bit
R otary bit
R otary table
R otation
R ou gh neck
R ound
R ubber elem ents
Rubber sealing

274


,
( )
,









( )

( )


,


,
, ( )



,

,

R ubber strip per


Run in the hole (R IH )

S
Safety
Safety back-up
Safety clothes
Safety glasses
Safety man
Safety m eeting
Safety trailer
Safety training
S am ple
Sand line
Sand paper
S and stone
SAP tool (Selective
A cid izing P acker)
Scale
Scrap m etal
Scraper
Screw legs
Screwdriver (cross, flat)
Seal
Seat
Secondary drawworks
Secondary seal
Secure the well
Security
Sedim ents
Selective acid job
Self-C ontained B reathin g
A pparatus (SC BA)
Separator
Service

(, )
, , ,

275

Service rig
Set
Set o ff
Set the packer
Settle out
Sew age
Sewage system
Shale-shak er
Shift
S h ovel
Shut-in a well
S in gle com pletion
Sin k er bar
S ite
Slip down
S lip s
S n ip e
Sock et wrench
S o lid s
Sour gas
Sour spills
Space
Space out
S p ear
Spin out oil
Spot the rig
Spud a well
Squeegy
Squeeze acid into
form ation
Stabbing valve
Stand
Standard disc
Static tubing pressure
Steam
Steam hose
Steam truck
Steel toed boots
S tick ing

276

,


()

( )



,





, H,S
,








(, ,
)


( )
,

( )

,

Stim ulate form ation


Storage tank
Straightening vane
String
String extension
Stud
Studded cross
Sub
S u bm ergen ce pressu re
Sulfur D ioxide
Sum p
Sum pless d rillin g
Supplied A ir B reath in g
A pparatus (SA BA)
Surface casing
Surge o f gas
Surge tank
Surveys
Suspend
Swab
Sw abbing
Sw abbing equipm ent
Sw abbing tree
Sw edge
Sweet gas system
Sw ivel

,
, ,
()
( )

()

Tag
Take a sam ple
T ake pressure readings
T ally
T am per
Tank
Tank truck
Tap
T ape m easure
T aper
I

,



,


277

T aper mill
Tapered spear
Tarps
T echnical w ater
(tech water)
T ee
T eflon tape
T est a well
T est acid
T hread
T h rea d er
T ool box
T ool room
T o o l-p u sh er
Top o f the fish (TO F)
Top sub
T orch
T ransm ission line
Trap
T ravelling block
Tree top adaptor
Trip for bit
T ripping pipe
T ubing
T ubing collar
T ubing depth (TD)
Tubing hanger
Tubing head
Tubing spool
Tubing string
T u b in gless com pletion
Turn into production
Twist bit
Twist off
T w o-flange valve




( , )
,





-

- ( )
- ( )







,

Unset the packer

278

V
V -d oor
Vacuum truck
Valve
Valve body (housing)
Valve stem
Vapour disengaging space
V apour section
V eh icles
V ice
V ice grips
V iscosity
Vortex breaker

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W
Wash out
W asher
W ashover mill
W ashover pipe
W aste disposal
W astewater treatm ent
facilities
W ater cut
W ater treatm ent station
Wax
W ax-knife
W eight indicator
Weld
W elder
W elding rod stubs
W elding shop
W elding unit
W ell
W ell bottom
W ell deviation
Well w alls collapse

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279

W ellb ore
W ellhead
W ellhead pressure
W et suit
W ind sock
W ing half
W ing valve
W ire brush
W o rk over
Wrap
W recking bar


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L ESSO N 1. .
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L ESSO N 2. ............. 26
L ESSO N 3. ..............36
L ESSO N 4. ................................................. 53
LESSO N 5. ............................................................................................. 68
L ESSO N 6. . 85
LESSO N 7. ............................................................. 105
LESSO N 8. . ................123
LESSO N 9. - . ............ 139
LESSO N 10. .............................................................................. 153
LESSO N 11. ...............................................................169
LESSO N 12. ...............................................................................192
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- .......................................................................................260

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The FLT Ltd


163020, , . , 21 - 95.
010201 20 1997 .
20.03.2000. 84x108'/?;. .
Tham es . . . . . 15,12. 1000 . 743
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163002, , ., 32, . 65-37-65