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David Colorado
Ms. Williams
ENG 102
20 July 2014
Annotated Bibliography
"Factory Farming: Cruelty to Animals." PETA. PETA, n.d. Web. 20 July 2014.
The article by PETA wanted to highlight the animal cruelty that exists on factory farms.
The thousands of animals like chickens are crammed into cages with barren dirt. They
never see the sunlight or breathe fresh air when they are inside one of these sheds. They
never do natural bird things like build nest, raise families, or root soil. The only time they
step out of their shed is when they are transported to slaughterhouses by trucks. The food
corporations that do the cruel things to the animals want to maximize profit but minimize
costs. Some of the other animals that are affected by this method are cows, calves, pigs,
turkeys, ducks, and geese. When the animals are slaughtered they have their throats slit,
then are plunged into scalding hot water to remove all their hair.
Giroux, Henry A. "TruthOut Archive." America's Culture of Cruelty. Truthout, 24 Jan.
2011. Web. 21 July 2014.
In Henry Girouxs article he stated that the cruelty in Americas culture is spreading of
violence all throughout America and also how society fails to see other faults that lie
within the nation. He begins by outlining the cruelty that exists in looking down upon
groups within the society. Some of the people included into this are the homeless, elderly
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or young, and people of different races. He also mentions the cruelty of stereotyping
others and failing to improve things in society that are not up to standards like the
education system and the juvenile justice system. Although the main cruelty that Giroux
points out is that of racism. He mentions Muslims and blacks as examples of being
mistreated in society. Giroux also goes on to tell how the over use of violence in society
has been detrimental to everyone because they over value it.
Grossman, Dave. "The Increase in Violence in Society." The I ncrease in Violence in Society.
Academic Press, n.d. Web. 21 July 2014.
The article written by Dave Grossman summarizes the violent acts that have risen in the
US since 1957. By studies it showed that the aggravated assault rate had gone from 60
per 100,00to over 440 per 100,000, and the per capita murder rate doubled between 1957
and 1992. Grossman points out that these number could be much worse if it wasnt for
two major factors. First being the imprisonment of violent offenders and how prison
population has nearly quadrupled in size between 1975 and 1992. The second factor
being the improved medical technology because help keep the murder rate from going
extraordinarily high. Grossman does mention though that the increased violence hasnt
just happened in the US but worldwide. In Canada assaults have increased fivefold,
attempted murder increased sevenfold, and murders doubled.
Herrera-Lasso, Luis. "Violence and Insecurity in Mexico: Guidelines for a New Strategy on
Public Safety." Latin American Policy 4.2 (2013): 285+. Academic OneFile. Web. 20
July 2014.
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In the article by Luis Herrera-Lasso he described the reasons as to why Mexico is filled
with a lot of violence throughout the country with little security. He began by first
criticizing the Calderon administration for not building upon public security but rather the
war on drug trafficking. He mentioned that the security of the country was not solved by
politicians searching for a problem but rather just using police action in every situation.
There was a corruption that went about the administration and is why the plan against
violence was built from top down instead of down up. Now as it stands communities have
little to no power and the country suffers from high amounts of violence. The government
acts without taking into account the effects and consequences of the situations.
Kendzior, Sarah. "When Mainstream Media Is the Lunatic Fringe." Opinion. Aljazeera, 22
Jan. 2014. Web. 20 July 2014.
Sarah Kendzior highlighted the reasons as to why mainstream media is a part of the
cruelty in America. Kendzior used Emma Keller, a journalist for The Guardian, as one of
many examples of people using media as a way to belittle others. The article also cited
other means of belittling like cancer bashing, gay bashing, race bashing. She a points the
reason for the bashing toward certain groups of people as the empathy some people have
toward those who lack power in society. She goes on to explain the inequality that exists
between in the online universe. The idea that prestige marks as to what gets noticed and
what does not is one of the reasons as to why different things matter.
Levy, Barry S., and Victor W. Sidel. "Adverse health consequences of US Government
responses to the 2001 terrorist attacks." The Lancet 378.9794 (2011): 944+.
Academic OneFile. Web. 20 July 2014.
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Barry S. Levy wrote his article in response to the Iraq wars and the negative effect it has
casted since the fallout of 9/11. Levy first gave some background information as to how,
why, and when the Iraq war started. He mentioned than in a 3 year span the war had
claimed 1568 US military lives and 8832 civilian lives. Levy mention that 31, 922 US
personal have had injuries and thousands more suffer from several disorders. Also, since
the year 2009 the expected live rate dipped to an all-time low of 48 years in Iraq. He
expanded on the damage done environmentally and health wise. Building have been
bombed, civilians killed, water polluted, villages leveled, contamination, and regression
of agriculture. To add on too, migration in Iraq has exceeded 6 million as a result of the
war. The war in Iraq has had a really negative impact on both Iraq and the U.S.
Marche, Stephen. The Glittering Skull: Celebrity Culture as World Religion. Queens
Quarterly 117.1 (2010): 9+. Academic OneFile. Web. 9 July 2014.
In the critical essay that was written by Stephen Marche, he analyzed the celebrity culture
that is revered by so many people nowadays. He first began by giving several historical
events that were used to support his statement that celebrities have always been looked up
to by the public. He then went on to describe Lord Byron and Walt Whitmans
experiences with fame and the cruelty that comes with being in the spotlight at all times.
Marche also expanded on his idea of celebrities being role models by drawing
conclusions from columns in magazines like US Weekly and Stars. Marche then rounded
out rounded out his idea by concluding with mundane reality that celebrities arent cared
for on a personal level but instead the personae that they are perceived to be like.
Mushnick, Phil. "Violent Culture Spawns Youth Violence." New York Post.
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Wordpress.com, 8 Dec. 2013. Web. 20 July 2014.
In the outcome of the Newton Shootings, Phil Mushnick voiced his argument that the
massacres are the outcomes of the entertainment industry and how they influence the
youth of the society. With the violence being a part of TV, cinema, and video games he
draws the conclusion that to a point they do have a negative influence on the youth. He
does not believe in the idea that parents are more at fault for the rise in violence seen in
America than the sources by which the media comes from. Mushnick advises for a
change in some sort of fashion that will benefit the society instead of the pitiful attempts
the government has made to cease the negative influences that have sprouted from media
and affected our children.
Ono, Kent A. "Critical/Cultural Approaches to Communication." Approaches to the Study
of Communication (2008): n. pag. Gale Cengage Learning. Web. 24 July 2014.
In the chapter written by Kent Ono, he informed the reader on what exactly critical
cultural communication is and how it is significant. Ono first began by giving a brief
history of critical cultural communication and moving onto explaining how critical
cultural communication tends to relate to the relationships of power and knowledge,
global and local communities, and cultural dominance and resistance. Critical cultural
communication is significant because it answers questions that cannot be answered in a
given discipline and when it does give an answer it usually is relevant to the study. The
chapter then transitioned into talking about how the terms critical and cultural are
interconnected. Ono defines them as critical often conjures up for people critical theory
and a Marxist intellectual tradition while cultural bring to mind cultural studies. He
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ends his chapter on critical cultural communication concluding with a gesture toward it
future and the role its going to play
Rompf, David. In the Brotherhood of Guns. Harvard Review 38 (2010): 90+. Academic
OneFile. Web. 9 July 2014.
In Rompfs essay he described a personal story of him shooting a gun for the first time
and the gun culture that he joined. Rompf in his encounterment he mentioned that
shooting a gun was like finally being a citizen. He went into detail of how many guns and
bullets were bought and the importance it held to many Americans. He mentioned how
guns are seen as a piece of art and also expanded on the importance of the second
amendment to the gun society. When Rompf described himself shooting his first gun he
mentioned how he was in a trance and the empowerment that he felt while he had a gun
in his hands. He realized as to why people are so interested in guns and understands why
guns have a big following in the United States.
Schell, Jonathan. "Cruel America." The Nation. N.p., 28 Sept. 2011. Web. 20 July 2014.
In the online Article written by Jonathan Schell, he outlined several examples as to why
America has continually been traveling down toward a path of cruelty. The first few
examples he cites in his article is the applause for execution of prisoners at the GOP
debate, the approval of torture, and the barbaric prison conditions. Schell believes the
nation is in a barbaric state where injustice overrules justice in a majority of the situations
because of popular opinion throughout the country. He then references the obstruction of
aid to storm victims and children in need. Schell questions where the values of
Americans lye in todays society.
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Schuman, H., C. Steeh, L. Bobo, and M. Krysan. 1997. Racial Attitudes in America: Trends
and I nterpretations, Revised Edition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
The authors wrote the summary in order to update the data gathered about racism in
America from the last time they took the data in 1997. It was discovered that over the
years since 1997 white support has not changed. It was also noted that in the time passed,
whites were using less racism, and were more acknowledging the discrimination that
blacks faced. Since 1997 the racial attitudes of blacks has not changed and in a sense
white finally caught up with their attitudes. Even though black support has not changed
much there has been a racial gap in society. Although the biggest change was that since
that last results blacks are more likely now to take interviews from a white person.
The Thom Hartmann Show. "Cruel Politics: How Republicans Are Literally Shutting
Down Hospitals." Alternet. Independent Media Institute, 18 Feb. 2014. Web. 21 July
The Thom Hartmann Show wrote the article in order to reveal some of the cruel politics
that exist. They began by first explaining how a Georgia hospital had to shut down their
doors and the struggles they were facing months prior. They reason for such hospitals
closing was because of the Republicans refusal to take Medicaid money that goes to
hospitals to pay for uninsured people. The problem with the situation is that there is a law
that requires hospitals to accept patients in emergency rooms regardless if they can pay or
not. So it puts the hospital in a tough situation if the area is struggling with money. With
Nathan Deal and other Peach State Republicans deciding to side with the people who
helped them get into office instead of funding hospitals with the Medicaid funds, as many
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as 15 other Georgia hospitals could close down. The sad part is that its not just
happening in Georgia it is also happening in other states like Tennessee where as many as
61 rural hospitals must either take major cuts or close down for good.
Yan, Holly, Jomana Karadsheh, Jim Sciutto, Arwa Damon, Hamdi Alkhshali, Barbara
Starr, and Polo Sandoval. "How Did This Happen? Iraq, Syria, Gaza and Libya All
in Flames." CNN. Cable News Network, 16 July 2014. Web. 20 July 2014.
The article by Holly Yan gives a brief summary of the conflicts in Iraq, Syria, Gaza, and
Libya, and why they are important to the U.S. In Syria the civil war between the Syrian
government and Sunnis are ever-lasting and are described as an unwinnable war for
either side because future conflict would be imminent. In Iraq the ISIS has attempted to
take over land in Iraq and threatened to take over Baghdad. Both Syria and Iraq matter
because they are seen as a threat to the U.S. Libya is a free-for-all because their
government is weak and the militias are very strong. The conflict in Libya could lead to a
widespread conflict beyond just Libya. The war between Gaza and Israel have been
incessant as Gaza seems unrelenting to negotiate peace between the two countries. Israel
are a close ally of the U.S. and with the funding, Israel has saved thousands of civilians
from attack.
Yates, Clinton. "Newtown Shootings: Unraveling the Culture of Violence (Posted 2012-12-
17 22:39:29)." The Washington Post Dec 17 2012. ProQuest. Web. 21 July 2014 .
On the article written by Clinton Yates, he expressed his concern with the growing
number of violent acts and the role that guns play into it. Yates starts out by stating that
with the increased number of gun violence in America the saying Guns dont kill
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people, people kill people holds little to no value. He believes that the Second
Amendment is outdated and should be refined to fit the needs that the country is faced
with by banning assault rifles to stop the horrible massacres. To go along with that Yates
also advocates for educating the public on the dangerousness of guns in hope that it will
inspire others to take action in providing a safer place for the nation to live in. The author
also states that with the flooding of more guns in America and the more lenient gun laws
are the reasons for the rise of gun violence. Yates ends his argument by saying that greed
is the ultimate reason for gun violence.

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