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1.

Wells : Biomedical Ultrasonics. New York, Academic


Press, 1977, pp 120-123.

2.

1993 Acoustical Data for Diagnostic Ultrasound Equipment:


Laurel, MD, American Institute o f Ultrasound in Medicine,
1993.

3.

Duck FA: Output data from European studies. Ultrasound


Med Biol 15(Suppl l):6 1 -6 4 , 1989.

4.

Standard for real-time display o f thermal and mechanical


acoustic output indices on diagnostic ultrasound equipment.
Laurel, MD, American Institute o f Ultrasound in Medicine,
1991.

5.

Zagzebski JA: Essentials o f Ultrasound Physics. St. Louis,


CV Mosby, 1996.

6.

Shung KK: In vitro experimental results on ultrasonic scat


tering in biological tissues. In Shung KK, Thieme GA (Eds):
Ultrasonic Scattering in Biological Tissues. Boca Raton, FL,
CRC Press, 1993, pp 219-312.

7.

Desser T, Jaffrey B: Tissue harmonic imaging techniques:


Physical principles and clinical applications. Semin
Ultrasound CT MR 2 2 :1 -1 0 , 2001.

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1.

Wells PNT, Skedmore R: Doppler developments in the last


quinquennium. Ultrasound Med Biol 11:613-623, 1986.


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,
(16
200 /). J. Correas . [19]

/.

. 4.6. , -
(ICA) , , ICA (
). - .

1,5
Levovist
300 /
1,0 /.

,

400 /.
A. Spinazzi J. Llull [20]

SonoVue (,
)
:
(58 ),
(59),
(55), (78).

.


.


1 4
. SonoVue



.

(2,4 ).



().


(. 4.6) [21-23].
G. Furst . [23] 20

,
13 ,
.

70 92% ,

Levovist 83 92%
.

94 100% .


,
( 95% 92% ).
J. Ferrer . [22] 88

. Levovist
300 /
79 9


400 /.
3 .
7 85
,
.
D. Droste . [21] ,


,
.
Y. . [24]

.
Optison (
) (Amersham Health, Princeton, NJ)
20
0,5 1,0 (
8,7 ).

.

NASCET (North American Stenosis Carotid
Endarterectomy Trial). 10 ,
,
(0,988)
( < 0,001). 2
.


, ,
,
()

-
.



- (. . 4.2) [25].


[26, 27].
Y. . [28]
. ,


.


,
.


, .
.
Missouris . [29]

Levovist
10 300 / 21 .
,
, 25 14 ,
85 79%
94 88% .


(. . 4.3). . Melany . [30]

2
( 8 )
.

78
[31].

Levovist
300 /.

18% ,

1% .

61 87% 58 92%
. 63 64


. ,

, 14
.
12 (86% )

11 .

64% . ,


[32].


198
.
Levovist

/.
[33].


191 (84% )
.

64% .

.

,



(
52%
70% - , = 0,001;
- 66%
78% , = 0,001).

:
80 84% ( = 0,248),
81 86% (=0,665). ,

,

.
F. Frauscher . [34]
Levovist
29 -
( -
).
Levovist
65
96% ( ^ 0,16).
22 23
.

J. Blebea . [35]

Definity (Bristol Myers Squibb Medical
Imaging, Billerica, MA).
,
17 .
8 2% , 88% .

12 3.

2 ,
1 .
(Levovist 300 /)
,

2 (
300 /).



( 71 94% ).

2 3
,

.

- 35% .

-
38% . (
, ,
)

55% ,
- 81% .
79 84% .


,
.
P. Sidhu . [36]


parvus et tardus
.

,


. ,

,

,
.


,
.



,


(. 4.7).


(),


.

, .

-
[37].

Levovist
,
[3 8 -4 0 ].
R. McWilliams . [41] 53
.

,
( 2, . 30)

. P. Bendick . [42]
Optison.
1
, 5
,
1 .

.

6
, 8 .

8
( 1 2, . . 30). ,

2 ,
. . Nelms . [43]
Optison,
(
0,3 ).
,
, 1
. -

. 4.7. . -

()
(G r). -

()
.

( 2).


.



.




,
.


.



,

SonoVue [44].
,

,
(R = 0,82; < 0,001).



-
.



[45].


.

.


[46].


. ,

[47].
,
,
[48-50].
,
, ,

[27].


[47, 48].



[47].

,
.
, ,


.


.


-
(


)
.

1.

Goldberg , Liu JB, Forsberg F: Ultrasound contrast


agents: A review. Ultrasound Med Biol 20 :319 -33 3, 1994.

2.

Burns P, Powers JE, Fritzsch T: Harmonic imaging: A new


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3.

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4.

de Jong N, Bouakaz A, Frinking PJA, et al: Contrast-spec ific im aging methods. In Goldberg BB, Raichlen JS,
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Kono Y, Mattrey RF: Harmonic imaging with contrast


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6.

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7.

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8.

Forsberg F, Liu JB, Burns PN, et al: Artifacts in ultrasonic


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9.

Forsberg F, Shi W T: Physics o f contrast inicrobubbles. In


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Contrast Agents: Basic Principles and Clinical Applications.
2nd ed. London: Martin Dunitz, 2001, pp 15-24.

10.

Khan HG, Gailloud P, Bude RO, et al: The effect o f contrast


material on transcranial Doppler evaluation o f normal
middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity. Am J
Neuroradiol 21: 38 6-3 90, 2000.

11.

Needleman L, Forsberg F, Malguria NO, et al: US contrast


does not change canine renal Doppler pulsatility indices
Radiology 209(P): 461, 1998.



5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10. ,

11.
12.

-
: 700 .

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51 [1].


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[4].

,

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.
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)
,

(National Istitutes of Neurological Disorders and
Stroke - NINDS)
.

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15

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[9-11, 21].

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= (1 - d/n) 100%,
d ,
.
(N),
,

(Asymptomatic Carotid
Atherosclerois Study - ACAS) -

(North American
Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial NASCET).
[19].


,

- .
(),
,

(European Carotid Surgery Trial - ECST).

,
[10].
,

,

,
, N
. , 70% N- 84%
- 90% [20, 22,
23].
,
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<125

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.

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.



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.



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. 5.5.
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Dr. Z. Garami).

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).
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[82]
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).
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).
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).
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,

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,

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.

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, , ,
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3: , .
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B C A /C M A ).
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B C A /C M A (IC A /M C A ).
7 8: ( 7) ( 8) / .
9: ; / .
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. 5.7. (M CA) ( ).
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[131-143].

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,

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,

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. -


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:
1.

.
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,
,
.
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.
4.

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,

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,
,

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.



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).


,
Food and Drug Administration ()

.
3 15
[5].
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,
,
.
-

[5].

[145].



15
* ( )
4,5 , - 6 . -

,

() [146, 147].
,

,


[148, 149].
,

,
[150].




.

,
,
, , ,
.
,
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,
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.
, ,

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,
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,
[150].

,

,



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,

JICK
.

.

?
:
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, ()
, ' .

- . [155].

: (Trombolisis in
Mvocardial Infarction - TIMI) [156]. pe:
, : [156, 157],
-

z (.
. 5.7). - - : . >: (Thrombolysis in
Brain Ischemia - TIBI), :-:

= [155]. TIBI
' ,
'- : ,
: , - (. . 5.7).
7IBI
, :> [155]. (Thrombolysis in
>rebral Infarction- TICI)
[158].
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: : ,

,


.



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,
,
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.

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,
,
,

.


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(

)

[159].
,
, :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ,

;
5)
.


-

[160]:
-,
16
,
,
,
. -

. 5.8. ( ) ( )
( ).
NIHSS (N ational Institutes o f Health Stroke Scall); MFV - .

Food and
Drug Administration,
,


- NINDS-rt-PA.




[161-165].

,
.
,

[164-166],

[146, 147] (. 5.8). ,
,

,

,
.
in vivo in vitro
,

-


[167-171].
,
, :
1.
[167].
2.
[168].
3.
[169, 170].
4.
[171].

,

,

.

[172],
,
:
, 29 ;
1 .
17 ;
185 , 14
( < 0,01).
10-
-

' - 185 - i - 1 .
: . , , , ,
~ :--za [172]. ,

,
.
.
,
1-5
- THRUMBI
173]. -
,
(. Daffersthoffer,
).



,
.

[160, 166] : . CLOTBUST (Combined Lysis of
raubus in Brain ischemia using transcranial
.trasound and Systemic PA),
- : -.




: ^ ,
.
, ,

.
,
:: - : 2
19 -
, .

'
2
[174].

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- *;
, . :
, ,
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.



,


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.

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: I
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.

,
.

,

.
,
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: ( ,
), (
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), (
).
,

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.


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143



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.
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.

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.



.
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. -

144


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