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EGA VGA-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------115
16- X EGA VGA----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------116
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KFLMFC?F: 7% G-HN-G-H#8----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------448
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256- X VGA---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------124
&& -------------------------------------------------------------------------------125
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2

a ontmnncrne 3 (n rom uncne na ncex ocnonntx rnnax 3) npnnxr pacrpont cnoco
nsopaxennx rpa]nuecxo nn]opmannn - nsopaxenne npecranneno npxmoyrontno marpnne rouex
(nnxcenon), n xaxt nnxcen nmeer cno nner, ntnpaemt ns saannoro naopa nneron - nannrpt. nx
peannsannn +roro noxoa xomntmrep coepxnr n cnoem cocrane nneoaanrep, xoropt, c ono
cropont, xpannr n cnoe namxrn (ee npnnxro nastnart nneonamxrtm) nsopaxenne (npn +rom na xaxt
nnxcen nsopaxennx ornonrcx ]nxcnponannoe xonnuecrno nr namxrn), a c pyro - oecneunnaer
perynxpnoe (oxono 50 pas n cexyny) oropaxenne nneonamxrn na +xpane monnropa. asmep nannrpt
onpeenxercx oemom nneonamxrn, ornonmo no onn nnxcen, n sanncnr or rnna nneoaanrepa.
nx 3 rnna IBM PC/AT n PS/2 cymecrnyer necxontxo pasnnuntx rnnon nneoaanrepon,
pasnnuammnxcx xax cnonmn nosmoxnocrxmn, rax n annaparntm ycrpocrnom n npnnnnnamn paort c
nnmn. cnonntmn nneoaanrepamn nx +rnx mamnn xnnxmrcx CGA, EGA, VGA n Hercules. ymecrnyer
raxxe ontmoe xonnuecrno aanrepon, conmecrnmtx c EGA/VGA, no npeocrannxmmnx no cpannennm c
nnmn px ononnnrentntx nosmoxnocre.
paxrnuecxn xaxt nneoaanrep noepxnnaer necxontxo pexnmon paort, ornnuammnxcx pyr or
pyra pasmepamn marpnnt nnxcenon (paspemennem) n pasmepom nannrpt (xonnuecrnom nneron, xoropte
moxno ononpemenno oropasnrt na +xpane). auacrym axe pasnte pexnmt onoro aanrepa nmemr
pasnym oprannsannm nneonamxrn n cnocot paort c ne.
naxo ontmnncrno aanrepon crponrcx no npnnnnny conmecrnmocrn c npetymnmn. ax, aanrep
EGA noepxnnaer nce pexnmt aanrepa CGA.
o+romy nporpamma, paccunrannax na paory c aanrepom CGA, yer paorart n c aanrepom EGA, axe
ne sameuax +roro. pn +rom aanrep EGA noepxnnaer, xoneuno, eme px cnonx cocrnenntx pexnmon.
nanornuno aanrep VGA noepxnnaer nce pexnmt aanrepa EGA.
axrnuecxn nmax rpa]nuecxax onepannx cnonrcx x paore c orentntmn nnxcenamn. naxo
ontmnncrno rpa]nuecxnx nnnorex noepxnnamr paory n c onee cnoxntmn oexramn, nocxontxy
paora rontxo na yponne orentno nsxrtx nnxcenon tna t ouent sarpynnrentno nx nporpammncra n
ne+]]exrnnno (ornnuanact t nentcoxnm tcrpoecrnnem).
pen noontx oexron, npecrannxmmnx coo oennennx nnxcenon, moxno ntennrt cneymmne
ocnonnte rpynnt: .
nnnente nsopaxennx (pacrponte opast xpnntx);
cnnomnte oexrt (pacrponte opast nymepntx onacre);
mpn]rt;
xaprnnxn (npxmoyrontnte marpnnt nnxcenon).
ax npannno, xaxt xstx nporpammnponannx nmeer cnom rpa]nuecxym nnnorexy, oecneunnammym
paory c ocnonntmn rpynnamn rpa]nuecxnx oexron. pn +rom rpeyercx, urot noonax nnnorexa
noepxnnana paory c ocnonntmn rnnamn nneoaanrepon.
ymecrnyer necxontxo nyre oecneuennx +roro.
anpnmep, moxno nanncart nepcnn nnnorexn nx ncex ocnonntx rnnon aanrepon. naxo
nporpammncr onxen nsnauantno snart, nx xaxoro xonxperno nneoaanrepa on nnmer cnom nporpammy,
n ncnontsonart coornercrnymmym nnnorexy. onyuennax npn +rom nporpamma yxe ne yer paorart na
3
pyrnx aanrepax, neconmecrnmtx c rem, nx xoroporo nncanact nporpamma. o+romy nmecro ono
nporpammt nonyuaercx nent naop nporpamm nx pasntx nneoaanrepon. pnnnnn conmecrnmocrn
aanrepon ntpyuaer sect ne cnntno: xorx nporpamma, paccunrannax na aanrep CGA, n yer paorart na
VGA, no ona ne cmoxer ncnontsonart ero nosmoxnocrn n yer paorart c nnm rontxo xax c CGA.
oxno nxnmunrt n nnnorexy nepcnn nponeyp nx ncex ocnonntx rnnon aanrepon. 3ro oecneunr
nexoropym crenent mamnnno nesanncnmocrn. naxo nentsx ncxnmuart cnyua nannunx y nontsonarenx
nporpammt xaxoro-nno rnna aanrepa, ne noepxnnaemoro nnnorexo (nanpnmep, XGA). o camtm
cymecrnenntm neocrarxom raxoro noxoa xnnxercx cnnmxom ontmo pasmep nonyuaemoro
ntnonnxemoro ]ana, uro ymentmaer oem oneparnnno namxrn, ocrynnt nontsonarenm.
axonen, moxno ncnontsonart panept ycrpocrn. pn +rom ntenxercx nexoropt ocnonno naop
rpa]nuecxnx onepann rax, uro nce ocrantnte onepannn moxno peannsonart, ncnontsyx rpa]nuecxne
onepannn ocnonnoro naopa. pnnxsxa x nneoaanrepy saxnmuaercx nmenno n peannsannn +rnx
ocnonntx (asncntx) onepann. nx xaxoro aanrepa nnmercx rax nastnaemt panep - neontmax
nporpamma co cranaprntm nnrep]ecom, peannsymmax nce +rn onepannn nx annoro aanrepa n
nomemaemax n orentnt ]an. nnnorexa n nauane cnoe paort onpeenxer rnn nmemmerocx
nneoaanrepa n sarpyxaer coornercrnymmn panep n namxrt. axnm opasom ocrnraercx nourn
nonnax mamnnnax nesanncnmocrt nanncanntx nporpamm.
accmorpnm paory ono ns nanonee nonynxpntx rpa]nuecxnx nnnorex -moynx Graph cncremt
Turbo Pascal 6.0. ce antnemee nsnoxenne yer necrnct npnmennrentno x xstxy Turbo Pascal, onaxo
cneyer nmert n nny, uro peannsannx +ro nnnorexn n pyrnx npoyxrax ]npmt Borland npaxrnuecxn
ne ornnuaercx or +ro nepcnn. nx noxnmuennx rpa]nuecxo nnnorexn nontsonarent onxen
ncnontsonart oneparop uses Graph n cnoe nporpamme.
accmorpnm ocnonnte rpynnt onepann.

nx nnnnnannsannn nnnorexn cnyxnr nponeypa InitGraph
<:B?FXM:F ZC>D9:;<= ([;: \:>[F:] ^BXF_ ZCDF`F:a
\:>[F:R;D=_ KD:>C`)
epnt napamerp saaer nnnorexe rnn aanrepa, c xoroptm yer necrnct paora. coornercrnnn c
+rnm napamerpom yer sarpyxen panep yxasannoro nneoaanrepa n nponsneena nnnnnannsannx nce
nnnorexn. npeenen px xoncranr, saammnx naop cranaprntx panepon: CGA, EGA, VGA,
HercMono n Detect.
nauenne Detect coomaer nnnorexe o rom, uro rnn nmemmerocx nneoaanrepa nao onpeennrt e
camo n ntpart nx nero pexnm nanontmero paspemennx.
ropo napamerp Mode onpeenxer pexnm.

CGACO, CGAC1, CGAC2, CGAC3 320 na 200 rouex na 4 nnera
CGAHi 640 na 200 rouex a 2 nnera
EGALo 640 na 200 rouex na 16 nneron
EGAHi 640 na 350 rouex na 16 nneron
VGALo 640 na 200 rouex na 16 nneron
VGAMed 640 na 350 rouex na 16 nneron
4
VGAHi 640 na 480 rouex na 16 nneron
HercMono 720 na 348 rouex na 2 nnera
cnn n xauecrne nepnoro napamerpa tno nsxro snauenne Detect, ro napamerp Mode ne ncnontsyercx.
xauecrne rpertero napamerpa ntcrynaer nmx xaranora, re naxonrcx panep aanrepa - ]an rnna BGI
(Borlands Graphics InterIace):
CGA.BGI - panep aanrepa CGA;
EGAVGA.BGI - panep aanrepon EGA n VGA;
HERC.BGI - panep aanrepa Hercules.
ynxnnx GraphResult nosnpamaer xo sanepmennx npetyme rpa]nuecxo onepannn
bMC?D>BC 9:;<=WF@MED_ ZCDF`F:a
Vcnemnomy ntnonnennm coornercrnyer snauenne grOk.
nx oxonuannx paort c nnnorexo neoxonmo ntsnart nponeypy CloseGraph ;
<:B?FXM:F AEB@F9:;<=a

<:B`:;c 9:;<=dF@Da
M@F@
9:;<=a
[;:
\:[] ^BXF _ ZCDF`F:a
SF`>C
\:[ _e \FDF?Da
ZC>D9:;<= 7\:[] ^BXF] ff8a
>b 9:;<=WF@MED gh `:iT D=FC
SF`>C
j:>DFYC 7fk 33 )f8a
l;ED 748a
FCXa
Y>CF 7*] *] *] 9FD^;Vm8a
Y>CF 7*] 9FD^;Vm] 9FD^;Vn] 9FD^;Vm8a
Y>CF 79FD^;Vn] 9FD^;Vm] 9FD^;Vn] *8a
Y>CF 79FD^;Vn] *] *] *8a
AEB@F9:;<=a
FCX+
+ 4+4
porpamma nepexonr n rpa]nuecxn pexnm n pncyer na +xpane npxmoyrontnnx nanontmero pasmepa.
cnyuae omnxn ntaer narnocrnuecxoe coomenne. ocne nnnnnannsannn nnnorexn aanrep
5
nepexonr n coornercrnymmn pexnm, +xpan ounmaercx n na nem ycranannnnaercx cneymmax
xoopnnarnax cncrema (pnc. 1.1). auantnax rouxa c xoopnnaramn (0, 0) pacnonaraercx n nenom nepxnem
yrny +xpana.
Vsnart maxcnmantnte snauennx n n 6 xoopnnar nnxcena moxno, ncnontsyx ]ynxnnn GetMaxX n
GetMaxY
bMC?D>BC 9FD^;Vn _ ZCDF`F:a
bMC?D>BC 9FD^;Vm _ ZCDF`F:a
nx onpeenennx rexymero pexnma moxno nocnontsonartcx ]ynxnne GetGraphMode
bMC?D>BC 9FD9:;<=^BXF _ ZCDF`F:a

poneypa PutPixel crannr nnxcen saannoro nnera Color n rouxe c xoopnnaramn (/, !)
<:B?FXM:F RMDR>VFE 7/] ! _ ZCDF`F:a ABEB: _ jB:X8a
ynxnnx GetPixel nosnpamaer nner nnxcena c xoopnnaramn (/, !)
bMC?D>BC 9FDR>VFE 7/] ! _ ZCDF`F:8 _ jB:Xa

pn pnconannn nnnentx oexron ocnonntm nncrpymenrom xnnxercx nepo (ro, uem +rn oexrt xax t
pncymrcx). epo nmeer cneymmne xapaxrepncrnxn (napamerpt):
nner (no ymonuannm ent);
ronmnna (no ymonuannm 1);
manon (no ymonuannm cnnomno).
+ 4+O
anon cnyxnr nx pnconannx nynxrnpntx n mrpnxnynxrnpntx nnnn. nx ycranonxn napamerpon nepa
ncnontsymrcx cneymmne nponeypt ntopa.
poneypa SetColor ycranannnnaer nner nepa
<:B?FXM:F KFDABEB: 7ABEB: _ jB:X8a
poneypa SetLineStyle onpeenxer ocrantnte napamerpt nepa
<:B?FXM:F KFDY>CFKDoEF 7KDoEF] R;DDF:C] j>XD= _ jB:X8a
6
epnt napamerp saaer manon nnnnn. tuno n xauecrne +roro napamerpa ntcrynaer onn ns
npeonpeenenntx manonon: SolidLn, DottedLn, DashedLn
nauenne UserBitLn osnauaer, uro manon saaercx (nontsonarenem) nroptm napamerpom. anon
onpeenxercx 8 nramn, re snauenne nra 1 osnauaer, uro n coornercrnymmem mecre yer nocrannena
rouxa, a snauenne 0, uro rouxa crannrtcx ne yer.
pern napamerp saaer ronmnny nnnnn n nnxcenax. osmoxntmn snauennxmn +roro napamerpa xnnxmrcx
rontxo 1 n 3.
pn nomomn nepa moxno pnconart px nnnentx oexron - npxmonnnente orpesxn, yrn oxpyxnocre
n +nnnncon, nomante.
&%/
poneypa Line pncyer orpesox, coennxmmn rouxn (V
1
, o
1
) n (/
2
, !
2
).
<:B?FXM:F Y>CF (V
l
, o
l
, V
2
, !
2
: Integer);
!&
poneypa Circle pncyer oxpyxnocrt panyca r c nenrpom n rouxe (/, !).
procedure Circle (/, !, : : Integer);
!
poneypt Arc n Ellipse pncymr yrn oxpyxnocrn (c nenrpom n rouxe (/, !) n panycom :) n +nnnnca (c
nenrpom (/, !), nonyocxmn :
V
n :
o
, napannentntmn xoopnnarntm ocxm), naunnax c yrna StartAngle n
saxanunnax yrnom EndAngle. Vrnt saamrcx n rpaycax n nanpannennn npornn uacono crpenxn (pnc. 1.2)
<:B?FXM:F p:? (/] !] KD;:DpC`EF] qCXpC`EF] : _ ZCDF`F:);
<:B?FXM:F qEE><@F 7V] !] KD;:DpC`EF] qCXpC`EF] :V]:o_ ZCDF`F:8a


nonxrnem saxpamnnannx recno cnxsano nonxrne xncrn. ncrt onpeenxercx nnerom n manonom -
marpnne 8 na 8 rouex (nr), re nr, pannt 1, osnauaer, uro nyxno crannrt rouxy nnera xncrn, a 0 - uro
nyxno crannrt uepnym rouxy (nnera 0).
nx saannx xncrn ncnontsymrcx cneymmne nponeypt:
<:B?FXM:F KFDJ>EEKDoEF 7R;DDF:C] ABEB: _ jB:X8a
<:B?FXM:F KFDJ>EER;DDF:C 7R;DDF:C _ J>EER;DDF:Cdo<Fa ABEB: _ jB:X8a
nn FillPatternType onpeenen cneymmnm opasom:
Do<F
J>EER;DDF:Cdo<F e ;::;o r4++8s Bb UoDFa
poneypa SetFillStyle cnyxnr nx saannx xncrn. apamerp Style onpeenxer manon xncrn nno xax
onn ns cranaprntx (EmptyFill, SolidFill, LineFill, SlashFill n r. .), nno xax manon, saanaemt
7
nontsonarenem (UserFill). ontsonarentcxn manon ycranannnnaer nponeypa SetFillPattern, nepnt
napamerp n xoropo n saaer manon - marpnny 8 na 8 nron, copanntx no ropnsonrann n art. o
ymonuannm ncnontsyercx cnnomnax xncrt enoro nnera.
poneypa ar saxpamnnaer ntpanno xncrtm npxmoyrontnnx c nentm nepxnnm yrnom (V
1
, o
1
) n npantm
nnxnnm yrnom (V
2
, o
2
)
<:B?FXM:F U;: 7V
l
, o
l
, V
2
, o
2
: ZCDF`F:8a
poneypa FillEllipse saxpamnnaer cexrop +nnnnca
<:B?FXM:F J>EEqEE><@F 7V] !] KD;:DpC`EF] qCXpC`EF] :V] :o_ ZCDF`F:8a
poneypa FloodFill cnyxnr nx saxpacxn cnxsno onacrn, orpannuenno nnnne nnera BorderColor n
coepxame rouxy (/, !) nnyrpn cex:
<:B?FXM:FJEBBXJ>EE (/] ! _ ZCDF`F:a UB:XF:ABEB: _ jB:X);

nnnorexa noepxnnaer raxxe nosmoxnocrt sanomnnannx npxmoyrontnoro ]parmenra nsopaxennx n
otuno (oneparnnno) namxrn n ntnoe ero na +xpan. 3ro moxer ncnontsonartcx nx sanomnnannx
nsopaxennx n ]an, cosannx myntrnnnnxannn n r. n.
em namxrn, rpeyemt nx sanomnnannx ]parmenra nsopaxennx, n arax moxno nonyunrt npn
nomomn ]ynxnnn ImageSize
bMC?D>BC Zc;`FK>tF (VE] oE] VO] oO _ ZCDF`F:) : jB:Xa
exomenyercx nonyuart rpeyemym namxrt nnamnuecxnm nyrem, ncnontsyx nponeypt GetMem n
FreeMem (cm. npnmep, npnneennt nnxe).
nx sanomnnannx nsopaxennx cnyxnr nponeypa Getlmage
<:B?FXM:F9FDEc;`F (VE] oE] VO] oO _ ZCDF`F:a [;: Zc;`F);
pn +rom sannctnaercx npxmoyrontnt ]parmenr, onpeenxemt rouxamn (/
1
, !
1
) n (/
2
, o
2
) n onacrt
namxrn, saanaemym nocnennm napamerpom Image. ponepox na ro, uro namxrn xnarnr, ne nponsnonrcx.
nx ntnoa nsopaxennx cnyxnr nponeypa Putlmage
<:B?FXM:FRMDEc;`F (/] ! _ ZCDF`F:a [;: Zc;`Fa ^FD=BX _ jB:X);
panxmeecx n namxrn nsopaxenne, xoropoe saaercx napamerpom Image, ntnonrcx na +xpan rax, urot
rouxa (/, o) tna nepxnnm nentm yrnom nsopaxennx. ocnenn napamerp onpeenxer cnoco nanoxennx
ntnonmoro nsopaxennx na yxe nmemmeecx na +xpane (cm. nponeypy SetWriteMode).
uses
9:;<=a
[;:
K>tF _ jB:Xa
Zc;`F _ RB>CDF:a


SF`>
C

8
.
K>tF _e Zc;`F@>tF 7VE] oEb VO] oO8a
9FD^Fc 7Zc;`F] K>tF8a
9FDEc;`F 7VE] oE] VO] oO] Zc;`Fu8a

RMDEc;`F 7V] o] Zc;`Fu] vB:c;ERMD8a
J:FF^Fc 7Zc;`F] K>tF8a
.
FCX+
+ro nporpamme nponcxonr nnamnuecxoe ntenenne no saannt ]parmenr nsopaxennx na +xpane
rpeyemoro oema namxrn. 3ror ]parmenr sanomnnaercx n orneennym namxrt. anee coxpanennoe
nsopaxenne ntnonrcx na nonoe mecro (n nepmnny nenoro nepxnero yrna - (/, !) n orneennax no
nsopaxenne namxrt ocnooxaercx.

o mpn]rom otuno nonnmaercx naop nsopaxenn cnmnonon. pn]rt moryr pasnnuartcx no
oprannsannn (pacrponte n nexropnte), no pasmepy, no nanpannennm ntnoa n p. pn]r moxer trt
]nxcnponanntm (pasmept ncex cnmnonon connaamr) nnn nponopnnonantntm (ntcort cnmnonon
connaamr, no onn moryr nmert pasnym mnpnny).
nx ntopa mpn]ra n ero napamerpon cnyxnr nponeypa SetTextStyle
<:B?FXM:F KFDdFVDKDoEF 7JBCD] \>:F?D>BC] K>tF _ jB:X8a
ect napamerp Font saaer nenrn]nxarop onoro ns mpn]ron:
DeIaultFont - cranaprnt pacrpont mpn]r pasmepom 8 na 8 rouex, naxoxmncx n V
nneoaanrepa;
TriplexFont, GothicFont, SansSeriIFont, SmallFont - cranaprnte nponopnnonantnte nexropnte
mpn]rt, nxoxmne n xomnnexr Turbo Pascal (xaxt mpn]r xpannrcx n ]ane rnna CHR n no
+ro xomane norpyxaercx n oneparnnnym namxrt; +rn ]ant onxnt naxonrtcx n rom xe
xaranore, re naxoxrcx panept ycrpocrn).
apamerp Direction saaer nanpannenne ntnoa:
HorizDir - ntno no ropnsonrann;
VertDir - ntno no neprnxann.
apamerp Size saaer, no cxontxo pas nyxno ynennunrt mpn]r nepe ntnoom na +xpan. onycrnmte
snauennx 1, 2, , 10.
pn xenannn n ]opmare CHR moxno ncnontsonart nmte mpn]rt (a ne rontxo cranaprnte). nx +roro
n xauecrne nepnoro napamerpa cneyer nsxrt snauenne, nosnpamaemoe ]ynxnne InstallUserFont
bMC?D>BC ZC@D;EEw@F:JBCD 7JBCDJ>EFv;cF _ KD:>C`8 _ ZCDF`F:a
JBCD _ e ZC@D;EEw@F:JBCD 7fA_xdRxJivdKx9Wqqy+AlWf8a
KFDdFVDKDoEF 7JBCD] lB:>t\>:] 48a
nx ntnoa rexcra cnyxnr nponeypa OutTextXY <:B?FXM:FiMDdFVDnm (V] ! _ ZCDF`F:a DFVD _ KD:>C`);
pn +rom crpoxa text ntnonrcx rax, uro rouxa (/, !) oxastnaercx nepmnno nenoro nepxnero yrna nepnoro
cnmnona.
9
nx onpeenennx pasmepa, xoropt samer na +xpane crpoxa rexcra npn ntnoe rexymnm mpn]rom,
ncnontsymrcx ]ynxnnn, nosnpamammne mnpnny n ntcory n nnxcenax crpoxn rexcra
bMC?D>BC dFVDj>XD= 7DFVD _ KD:>C`8 _ ZCDF`F:a
bMC?D>BC dFVDlF>`=D 7DFVD _ KD:>C`8 _ ZCDF`F:a
()
pn ntnoe nsopaxennx na +xpan otuno nponcxonr samemenne nnxcena, panee naxonnmerocx na +rom
mecre, na nont. oxno, onaxo, ycranonnrt raxo pexnm, uro n nneonamxrt yer sannctnartcx
pesyntrar nanoxennx panee nmenmerocx snauennx na ntnonmoe. ocxontxy xaxt nnxcen npecrannen
]nxcnponanntm xonnuecrnom nron, ro ecrecrnenno, uro n xauecrne raxoro nanoxennx ntcrynamr
nonronte onepannn. nx ycranonxn ncnontsyemo onepannn cnyxnr nponeypa SetWriteMode
<:B?FXM:F KFDj:>DFpbBXF (^BXF _ ZCDF`F:);
apamerp Mode saaer cnoco nanoxennx n moxer npnnnmart ono ns cneymmnx snauenn:
ormalPut- nponcxonr npocro ntno (samemenne);
otPut - nponcxonr ntno nnnepcnoro nsopaxennx;
OrPut - ncnontsyercx nonronax onepannx ;
XorPut - ncnontsyercx nonronax onepannx RRB ;
AndPut - ncnontsyercx nonronax onepannx .
ame ncero ncnontsymrcx snauennx ormalPut n XorPut. exnm XorPut yoen rem, uro nonropnt ntno
onoro n roro xe nsopaxennx na ro xe mecro ynnuroxaer pesyntrar nepnoro ntnoa, noccranannnnax
nsopaxenne, xoropoe tno na +xpane o +roro.
poneypt saxpacxn nrnopnpymr ycranonnennt pexnm nanoxennx (ntnoa).
( )
pn xenannn nontsonarent moxer cosart na +xpane oxno - cnoero poa manentxn +xpan co cnoe
noxantno cncremo xoopnnar. nx +roro cnyxnr nponeypa SetViePort
<:B?FXM:F KFDz>F{RB:D 7VE] oE] VO] oO_ ZCDF`F:a AE><_ UBBEF;C8a
3ra nponeypa ycranannnnaer oxno c rnoantntmn xoopnnaramn (V
1
, o
1
) - (V
1
, o
2
). pn +rom noxantnax
cncrema xoopnnar nnonrcx rax, uro rouxe c xoopnnaramn (0, 0) coornercrnyer rouxa c rnoantntmn
xoopnnaramn (V
1
, o
1
). axrnuecxn +ro osnauaer, uro noxantnte xoopnnart ornnuamrcx or rnoantntx
xoopnnar nnmt cnnrom na (V
1
, o
1
). pn +rom nce nponeypt pnconannx (xpome SetViePort) paoramr
ncera c noxantntmn xoopnnaramn. apamerp Clip onpeenxer, nyxno nn npononrt orceuenne
nsopaxennx, ne nomemammerocx nnyrpt oxna, nnn ner.

anrep EGA n nce conmecrnmte c nnm aanrept npeocrannxmr ononnnrentnte nosmoxnocrn no
ynpannennm nnerom. ax yxe ormeuanoct, maxcnmantno nosmoxnoe uncno nneron, xoropte moxno
ononpemenno oropasnrt na +xpane monnropa, onpeenxercx xonnuecrnom nr nneonamxrn, ornonmo
aanrepom no nnxcen. nx aanrepa EGA maxcnmantno nosmoxnoe xonnuecrno nneron panno 16. naxo
monnrop, noxnmuaemt x aanrepy EGA, uncro ]nsnuecxn cnocoen oropasnrt 64 nnera, rax xax nmeer
6-nront nneocnrnan. em camtm nneoaanrep nepenonr 4-nront nner nnxcena n 6-nront
nneocnrnan. nx nepenoa ncnontsyercx ananor rannnt (]axrnuecxn aanrep nmeer 16 cnennantntx
nnyrpennnx perncrpon, re nx xaxoro nornuecxoro nnera xpannrcx ero 6-nronoe snauenne
nneocnrnana), nastnaemt nannrpo. ymecrnyer nosmoxnocrt nsmenxrt +ry rannny, ycranannnnax nx
10
nmoro nornuecxoro nnera ero nneocnrnan, r. e. ntnpax ero ns nosmoxntx 64 nneron aanrepa. nx
+roro cnyxnr nponeypa SetPalette
<:B?FXM:F KFDR;EFDDF 7ABEB: _ jB:X] ABEB:z;EMF _ K=B:DZCD8a
3ra nponeypa ycranannnnaer nx nornuecxoro nnera Color ]nsnuecxn nner ColorValue, xoropt
]opmnpyercx cneymmnm opasom. ocxontxy nmo nnerno monnrop nonyuaer nnera nyrem nanoxennx
rpex asontx nneron - xpacnoro, senenoro n cnnero - pasntx nnrencnnnocre, ro nneocnrnan saaer
nnrencnnnocrt +rnx rpex xomnonenr (no 2 nra na xaxym xomnonenry), npnuem +rn nrt nyr
cneymmnm opasom: :`SW9U**,
re rR - nnrencnnnocrt xpacno xomnonenrt, gG - nnrencnnnocrt seneno n b - cnne: naop
saxanunnaercx nymx nynentmn nramn.
anrep VGA npeocrannxer eme onee mnpoxne nosmoxnocrn no ynpannennm nneramn: nx xaxoro
nnera moxno saart ero 18-nrnym pacxnaxy no xomnonenram (no 6 nr na xaxym xomnonenry). nx
+roro cnyxnr nponeypa SetRGBPalette
<:B?FXM:F KFDW9UR;EFDDF 7ABEB:] WFXz;EMF] 9:FFCz;EMF] UEMFz;EMF _ ZCDF`F:8;
re Color - nornuecxn nomep nnera, a RedValue, GreenValue n BlueValue - ero RGB-nnrencnnnocrn.

nx ontmnncrna pexnmon (nanpnmep, nx EGAHi) oem nneonamxrn, neoxonmt nx xpanennx
ncero nsopaxennx (+xpana), cocrannxer menee nononnnt nmemmecx nneonamxrn (256 ar nx EGA).
+rom cnyuae ncx nneonamxrt ennrcx na pannte uacrn (nx xonnuecrno otuno xnnxercx crenentm
noxn), nastnaemte crpannnamn, rax, uro nx xpanennx ncero nsopaxennx ocrarouno xaxo
crpannnt. nx pexnma EGAHi nneonamxrt ennrcx na 2 crpannnt - 0-m (apec 000:0) n 1-m (apec
000:8000).
neoaanrep oropaxaer na +xpan rontxo ony ns nmemmnxcx y nero crpannn. 3ra crpannna nastnaercx
nnnmo n ycranannnnaercx cneymme nponeypo SetVisualPage
<:B?FXM:F KFDz>@M;ER;`F 7R;`F _ jB:X8;
re Page - nomep ro crpannnt, xoropax craner nnnmo na +xpane nocne ntsona +ro nponeypt.
Ipa]nuecxax nnnorexa raxxe moxer ocymecrnnxrt paory c nmo ns nmemmnxcx crpannn. rpannna, c
xoropo paoraer nnnorexa, nastnaercx axrnnno. xrnnnax crpannna ycranannnnaercx nponeypo
SetActiePage
<:B?FXM:F KFDp?D>[FR;`F 7R;`F _ jB:X8;
re Page - nomep crpannnt, c xoropo paoraer nnnorexa n na xoropym nponcxonr nect ntno.
cnontsonanne nneocrpannn nrpaer ouent ontmym pont npn myntrnnnnxannn. eannsannx
myntrnnnnxannn na 3 saxnmuaercx n nocneonarentnom pnconannn na +xpane ouepenoro xapa. pn
rpannnonnom cnocoe paort (xap pncyercx, +xpan ounmaercx, pncyercx cneymmn xap) nocroxnnte
ouncrxn +xpana n nocrpoenne nonoro nsopaxennx na uncrom +xpane cosamr xpane nexenarentnt
+]]exr mepnannx nsopaxennx.
nx ycrpanennx +roro +]]exra ouent yono ncnontsonart crpannnt nneonamxrn. pn +rom, noxa na
nnnmo crpannne nontsonarent nnnr onn xap, axrnnnax, no nennnmax crpannna, ounmaercx n na ne
pncyercx nont xap.
11
ax rontxo xap roron, axrnnnax n nnnmax crpannnt menxmrcx mecramn n nontsonarent nmecro craporo
xapa cpasy nnnr nont.
\:;{J:;cF 7*8a | " *-& }
KFDp?D>[FR;`F 748a | !" !0 3! }
bB: J:;cF _e 4 DB ^;VJ:;cF@ XB | 3 }
SF`>C
AEF;:z>F{<B:Da | " 3! }
\:;{bJ:;cF 7>8a | " !01& }
| " 3% }
KFDz>@M;ER;`F 7> cBX O8a
KFDp?D>[FR;`F 74 - 7> cBX O8 8a
FCXa
m y
nora nosnnxaer neoxonmocrt ncnontsonart necranaprnte panepa ycrpocrn. 3ro moxer
nosnnxnyrt, nanpnmep, n cnyuae, ecnn nt xornre paorart c pexnmom aanrepa VGA paspemennem 320 na
200 rouex npn xonnuecrne nneron 256. axo pexnm ne noepxnnaercx cranaprntmn panepamn, n
cneyer nocnontsonartcx panepom VGA256.BGI, ne nxoxmnm n cranaprnt xomnnexr Turbo Pascal,
Turbo .
nxe npnnonrcx npnmep nporpammt noxnmuamme +ror panep.
M@F@
9:;<=a
[;:
\:[] ^BXF _ ZCDF`F:a
J
bMC?D>BC pX;<DF:R:F@FCD _ ZCDF`F:a
SF`>C
pX;<DF:R:F@FCD _e 4a
FCXa
J-
SF`>C
>b ZC@D;EEw@F:\:>[F:7fz9pO#6+U9Zf] ~pX;<DF:R:F@FCD8 gh `:iT
D=FC l;ED 748a
\:[ _e \FDF?Da
ZC>D9:;<= 7\:[] ^BXF] Q8a
.
AEB@F9:;<=a
FCXa
+rom npnmepe ]ynxnnx AdapterPresent ncnontsyercx nnnorexo nx nponepxn nannunx
coornercrnymmero aanrepa. nx npocrort nsnoxennx ona ne nponepxer nannune coornercrnymmero
nneoaanrepa, nosnpamax 1 n nmom cnyuae. nx xoppexrno paort nporpammt no ncex cnyuaxx cneyer
nponsnonrt nponepxy nannunx aanrepa. nx +roro moxno ncnontsonart ]ynxnnm VGAPresent,
onncannym n rnane, nocnxmenno npxmo paore c rpa]nuecxnmn ycrpocrnamn.
12
BABAHHR HA RCKCTH H B CTAHCTB
tno nsopaxennx na +xpan ncnnex n pasnoopasnte ecrnnx c nnm, n rom uncne n nnsyantnt
ananns, rpeymr or nontsonarenx nsnecrno reomerpnuecxo rpamornocrn. Ieomerpnuecxne nonxrnx,
]opmynt n ]axrt, ornocxmnecx npexe ncero x nnocxomy n rpexmepnomy cnyuaxm, nrpamr n saauax
xomntmrepno rpa]nxn ocoym pont. Ieomerpnuecxne coopaxennx, noxot n nen n coennennn c
nocroxnno pacmnpxmmnmncx nosmoxnocrxmn ntuncnnrentno rexnnxn xnnxmrcx nenccxxaemtm
ncrounnxom cymecrnenntx nponnxenn na nyrn pasnnrnx xomntmrepno rpa]nxn, ee +]]exrnnnoro
ncnontsonannx n nayuntx n nntx nccneonannxx. opo axe camte npocrte reomerpnuecxne meronxn
oecneunnamr samernte nponnxennx na orentntx +ranax pemennx ontmo rpa]nuecxo saaun.
npocrtx reomerpnuecxnx paccmorpenn mt n naunem nam paccxas.
amernm npexe ncero, uro ocoennocrn ncnontsonannx reomerpnuecxnx nonxrn, ]opmyn n ]axron, xax
npocrtx n xopomo nsnecrntx, rax n nontx, onee cnoxntx, rpeymr ocooro nsrnxa na nnx n nnoro
ocmtcnennx.
A
xomntmrepno rpa]nxe nce, uro ornocnrcx x nymepnomy cnyuam, npnnxro oosnauart cnmnonom (2D)
(2-dimension).
penonoxnm, uro na nnocxocrn nneena npxmonnnenax xoopnnarnax cncrema. ora xaxo rouxe '
crannrcx n coornercrnne ynopxouennax napa uncen (V, o) ee xoopnnar (pnc. 2.1). nox na nnocxocrn eme
ony npxmonnnenym cncremy xoopnnar, mt crannm n coornercrnne ro xe rouxe ' pyrym napy uncen
(Vu, ou).
+ O+4
epexo or ono npxmonnneno xoopnnarno cncremt na nnocxocrn x pyro onnctnaercx
cneymmnmn coornomennxmn
Vu V o , ()
ou V o ,
re , , , , nponsnontnte uncna, no


0
13
+ O+O + O+-
+ O+N + O+#
!% 7u8 " _

8
/ 7+ O+O8 - " '
& ] 0 " %
(V, o) (Vu, ou),

8
] / 7+ O+-8 - )!% 7u8 0
] 1 "!0 ! ' (V, o) ! ' (V, o), % &
% & & +
antnemem nam yono paccmarpnnart ]opmynt () n cmtcne .
aunem paccmorpenne c necxontxnx uacrntx cnyuaen, cunrax nx npocrort, uro saannax cncrema
xoopnnar xnnxercx npxmoyrontno exaprono.
(.
onopor (noxpyr nauantno rouxn na yron ) (pnc. 2.4) onnctnaercx
]opmynamn
V Vcos() - osin(),
o Vsin() - ocos()
.
acrxxenne (cxarne) nont xoopnnarntx oce moxno saart rax
/ /,
o o,
0, 0
acrxxenne (cxarne) nont ocn acnncc oecneunnaercx npn
ycnonnn,uro 1 (a 1 coornercrnenno). a pnc. 2.5 1.
).
rpaxenne (ornocnrentno ocn acnncc) (pnc. 2.6) saaercx npn
nomomn ]opmyn
Vu V,
ou -o.
.


a pnc. 2.7 nexrop nepenoca

'
'

14
nmeer xoopnnart n . epenoc oecneunnamr coornomennx
V V ,
o o .
+ O+6 + O+7
top +rnx uacrntx cnyuaen onpeenxercx nymx ocroxrentcrnamn:
1) xaxoe ns npnneenntx ntme npeopasonann nmeer npocro n narnxnt reomerpnuecxn cmtcn n
2) xax oxastnaercx n xypce anannrnuecxo reomerpnn, nmoe npeopasonanne () ncera moxno
npecrannrt xax nocneonarentnoe ncnonnenne (cynepnosnnnm) npocremnx npeopasonann nna , ,
n I (nnn uacrn +rnx npeopasonann).
naunr, n nmoe oropaxenne nna () moxno onncart npn nomomn oropaxenn, saanaemtx ]opmynamn
, , n I.
nx +]]exrnnnoro ncnontsonannx +rnx nsnecrntx ]opmyn n saauax xomntmrepno rpa]nxn onee
yono xnnxercx nx marpnunax sannct. arpnnt, coornercrnymmne cnyuaxm , n , crpoxrcx nerxo.
nn nmemr coornercrnenno cneymmn nn:

cos -sin
sin cos
,
0
0
,
1 0
0 -1

Xenax, onaxo, oxnarnrt marpnuntm noxoom nce uertpe npocremnx npeopasonannx (n rom uncne n
nepenoc), mt onxnt nepern x onncannm nponsnontno rouxn nnocxocrn yxe ne napo uncen, xax +ro
tno cenano ntme, a rpoxo.
15
neem nx +roro onoponte xoopnnart nponsnontno rouxn. npoxo ncnontsyemte n npoexrnnno
reomerpnn onoponte xoopnnart nosnonxmr +]]exrnnno onnctnart rax nastnaemte necocrnennte
+nemenrt (no cymecrny, re, xoroptmn npoexrnnnax nnocxocrt ornnuaercx or npnntuno nam enxnnono
nnocxocrn).
ycrt ' - nponsnontnax rouxa nnocxocrn c xoopnnaramn / n !+ nopontmn xoopnnaramn rouxn
nastnaercx rpoxa ononpemenno nepanntx nynm uncen V
1
, V
2
, V
3
, ecnn ntnonnent cneymmne
coornomennx
V
1
V
3
V,
V
2
V
3
o.
xomntmrepno rpa]nxe onoponte xoopnnart otuno nnoxrcx rax: rouxe '(V, o) crannrcx n
coornercrnne rouxa 'f(V, o, 1) n npocrpancrne (pnc. 2.8). amernm, uro nponsnontnax rouxa na npxmo,
coennxmme nauano xoopnnar, rouxy k (0, 0, ), c rouxo 'f(V, o, 1), moxer trt saana rpoxo
(=V, =o, =)
cxnmuax rouxy k ns paccmorpennx, yem cunrart, uro =0.
+ O+8
exrop, onpeenxemt rpoxo =V, =o, = xnnxercx nanpannxmmnm nexropom npxmo, coennxmme rouxn
k n 'f+ 3ra npxmax nepecexaer nnocxocrt teE n rouxe (V, o, 1), xoropax onosnauno onpeenxer rouxy (/, !)
xoopnnarno nnocxocrn /k!+ em camtm mexy rouxo (/, !) n mnoxecrnom rpoex (=V, =o, =), =0
ycranannnnaercx nsanmno onosnaunoe coornercrnne. 3ro nosnonxer cunrart uncna =V, =o, = ee
xoopnnaramn.
ax yxe ronopnnoct ntme, raxne xoopnnart nastnamrcx onopontmn. npoexrnnno reomerpnn nx
nnx npnnxro cneymmee oosnauenne
/_ !_ 1
nnn, onee omo,
V
1
: V
2
: V
3

(nanomnnm, uro sect nenpemenno rpeyercx, urot uncna V
1
, V
2
, V
3
ononpemenno n nynt ne opamannct).
16
pnmenenne onopontx xoopnnar oxastnaercx yontm yxe npn pemennn npocremnx saau.
accmorpnm, nanpnmep, nonpoct, cnxsannte c nsmenennem macmraa. cnn ycrpocrno oropaxennx
paoraer rontxo c nentmn uncnamn (nnn neoxonmo paorart rontxo c nentmn uncnamn), ro nx
nponsnontnoro snauennx = (nanpnmep, =1) rouxy c onopontmn xoopnnaramn
(0.5; 0.1; 2.5)
npecrannrt nentsx. naxo npn pasymnom ntope moxno onrtcx roro, urot xoopnnart +ro rouxn
tnn nentmn uncnamn. uacrnocrn, npn =10 nx paccmarpnnaemoro npnmepa nmeem
(5;1;2.5).
esyntrart npeopasonannx, pasymeercx, ne onxnt npnnonrt x apn]mernuecxomy nepenonnennm.
o+romy nx npeopasonannx rouxn c xoopnnaramn
(80000, 40000, 1000) moxno nsxrt, nanpnmep, =0,01. pesyntrare nonyunm
(800, 400, 10).
ocnenne na npnmepa noxastnamr nonesnocrt ncnontsonannx onopontx xoopnnar npn nponeennn
pacueron. naxo ocnonno nentm nneennx onopontx xoopnnar n xomntmrepno rpa]nxe xnnxercx nx
necomnennoe yocrno.
unrax =1, cpannnm ne sanncn: nomeuennym cnmnonom () n nnxecneymmym, marpnunym:
(Vu, ou, 1) (V, o, 1)
0
0
1
erpyno samernrt, uro nocne nepemnoxennx ntpaxenn, croxmnx n npano uacrn nocnenero
coornomennx, mt nonyunm ne ]opmynt () n nepnoe uncnonoe panencrno 11.
em camtm +rn ne cpannnnaemte sanncn moxno cunrart pannocnntntmn.
2 ! "! ! " - " 3
17
V
o
1



0 0 1
V
o
1
3ra sannct +xnnnanenrna npnneenno ntme sanncn no crpoxam.
rot peannsonart ro nnn nnoe oropaxenne no saanntm reomerpnuecxnm xapaxrepncrnxam, nao narn
+nemenrt coornercrnymme marpnnt. tuno ee nocrpoenne pasnnamr na +rant. a xaxom +rane
crponrcx marpnna nx onoro ns ntenenntx ntme cnyuaen , , nnn I. tnnmem +rn marpnnt.
(. arpnna npamennx (rotation)
W
cos sin 0
18
-sin cos 0
0 0 1
.
arpnna pacrxxennx(cxarnx) (dilatation)
\
0 0
0 0
0 0 1
,
).
arpnna orpaxennx (reIlection)
'
1 0 0
0 -1 0
0 0 1
. arpnna nepenoca (translation)
d
1 0 0
0 1 0
1
19
.
accmorpnm necxontxo npnmepon.
4+ " 3! ! $7] S8 ! 7+ O+98+
1-* +,-# epenoc na nexrop -$7-]-S8 nx conmemennx nenrpa nonopora c nauanom xoopnnar;
W


cos sin 0
-sin cos 0
0 0 1
- marpnna coornercrnymmero npeopasonannx.
+ O+9
2-* +,-# onopor na yron marpnna coornercrnymmero npeopasonannx nmeer nn
d
-A

1 0 0
0 1 0
20
-; -S 1
3-* +,-# epenoc na nexrop $7] S8 nx nosnpamennx nenrpa nonopora n npexnee nonoxenne;
d
A

1 0 0
0 1 0
; S 1
marpnna coornercrnymmero npeopasonannx.
epemnoxnm marpnnt n rom xe nopxxe, n xoropom onn ntnncant
d
-A
W

d
A
.
pesyntrare nonyunm, uro ncxomoe npeopasonanne ntrnxnr cneymmnm opasom
(Vu, ou, 1) (V, o, 1)
cos sin 0
-sin cos 0
-;cos Ssin ; -;sin - Scos S 1
3nemenrt nonyuenno marpnnt (ocoenno n nocnene crpoxe) ne rax nerxo sanomnnrt. a n nao nn
O+
" 3! 5))3 " 3
" 3 $7] S8 7+ O+4*8+
1-* +,-# epenoc na nexrop -$7-] -S8 nx conmemennx nenrpa pacrxxennx c nauanom xoopnnar;
21
d
-A

1 0 0
0 1 0
-; -S 1
- marpnna coornercrnymmero npeopasonannx.
2-* +,-# acrxxenne nont xoopnnarntx oce c xo+]]nnnenramn n coornercrnenno; marpnna
npeopasonannx nmeer nn
\
0 0
0 0
0 0 1
.
+ O+4*
3-* +,-# epenoc na nexrop $7] S8 nx nosnpamennx nenrpa pacrxxennx n npexnee nonoxenne; marpnna
coornercrnymmero npeopasonannx -
22
d
A

1 0 0
0 1 0
; S 1
epemnoxnn marpnnt n rom xe nopxxe
d
-A
\d
A
,
nonyunm oxonuarentno
(Vu, ou, 1) (V, o, 1)
0 0
0 0
(1 - ); (1-)S 1
A
parnmcx renept x rpexmepnomy cnyuam (3D) n naunem c nneennx onopontx xoopnnar.
ocrynax ananornuno romy, xax +ro tno cenano n pasmepnocrn na, samennm rpoxy (/] !] t), saammym
rouxy n npocrpancrne, na uernepxy
(/] !] t, 1)
nnn, onee omo, na
(=V]=o]=t]=), = 0.
em camtm xaxax rouxa npocrpancrna (xpome nauantno rouxn k) moxer trt saana uernepxo
ononpemenno ne panntx nynm uncen; +ra uernepxa onpeenena onosnauno c rounocrtm o omero
mnoxnrenx.
penoxennt nepexo aer nosmoxnocrt nocnontsonartcx marpnuno sannctm n n onee cnoxntx,
rpexmepntx saauax.
23
ax nsnecrno, nmoe a]]nnnoe npeopasonanne n rpexmepnom npocrpancrne moxer trt npecranneno n
nne cynepnosnnnn npamenn, pacrxxenn, orpaxenn n nepenocon. o+romy ocrarouno nopono
onncart marpnnt rontxo +rnx nocnennx npeopasonann.
$. arpnnt npamennx n npocrpancrne.
arpnna npamennx noxpyr ocn acnncc na yron :
W
V

1 0 0 0
0 cos sin 0
0 -sin cos 0
0 0 0 1
arpnna npamennx noxpyr ocn opnnar na yron
W
o

cos
0
sin
0
0
1
0
0
-sin
0
cos
0
0
0
0
1
.
arpnna npamennx noxpyr ocn annnnxar na yron
24
W
o

cos
-sin
0
0
-sin
cos
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
.
. arpnna pacrxxennx (cxarnx): A000
\

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
25
,
sect 0 - xo+]]nnnenr pacrxxennx (cxarnx) nont ocn acnncc,
0 - xo+]]nnnenr pacrxxennx (cxarnx) nont ocn opnnar,
0 - xo+]]nnnenr pacrxxennx (cxarnx) nont ocn annnnxar.
. arpnnt orpaxennx.
arpnna orpaxennx ornocnrentno nnocxocrn /k!:
^
t

1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
-1
0
0
0
0
1
.
arpnna orpaxennx ornocnrentno nnocxocrn !kt_
^
V

-1
0
26
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
.
arpnna orpaxennx ornocnrentno nnocxocrn tiV_
^
o

1
0
0
0
0
-1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
.
. arpnna nepenoca:
d
1
0
0

0
1
0

27
0
0
1

0
0
0
1
;
sect (, ,) - nexrop nepenoca.
amernm, uro, xax n n nymepnom cnyuae, nce ntnncannte marpnnt nentpoxent.
pnneem naxnt npnmep nocrpoennx marpnnt cnoxnoro npeopasonannx.
+
" 3! 1 ! ! & Y] /1& ! $7] S] 8
01!0 01& 7E] c] C8+ ' "] 01& &
%_
E
2
c
2
C
2
1.
1-* +,-# epenoc na nexrop -$7-] -S] -8 npn nomomn marpnnt
d
1
0
0
-;
0
1
0
-S
0
0
1
-
0
0
0
1
.
pesyntrare +roro nepenoca mt onnaemcx roro, urot npxmax Y npoxonna uepes nauano xoopnnar.
2-* +,-# onmemenne ocn annnnxar c npxmo Y nymx nonoporamn noxpyr ocn acnncc n ocn opnnar
(pnc. 2.11).
1- nonopor - noxpyr ocn acnncc na yron y (nonexamn onpeenennm). rot narn +ror yron,
samernm npexe ncero, uro npxmax Yf xnnxercx oproronantno npoexnne na nnocxocrt n 0 ncxono
npxmo Y c nanpannxmmnm nexropom ( E , c, C).
28
o+romy nanpannxmmn nexrop npxmo Yf onpeenxercx npocro. n panen
(0,c,C.)
rcma ntrexaer, uro
cos
C
X
, sin
c
X
,
re X c
2
C
2
.
+ O+44
oornercrnymmax marpnna npamennx nmeer cneymmn nn
W
V

1
0
0
0
0
C/X
-c/X
0
0
c/X
C/X
0
0
0
0
1
.
29
o ecrnnem npeopasonannx, onnctnaemoro +ro marpnne, xoopnnart nexropa (E , c, C) nsmenxrcx.
epecunraem nx n nonyunm
(E, c, C, 1) W
V
(E, 0, X, 1).
2- nonopor - noxpyr ocn opnnar na yron, onpeenxemt coornomennxmn
cos E, sin -X+
oornercrnymmax marpnna npamennx nmeer cneymmn nn
W
o

E
0
-X
0
0
1
0
0
X
0
E
0
0
0
0
1
.
3-* +,-# pamenne noxpyr npxmo Y na saannt yron . ax xax renept npxmax Y connaaer c octm
annnnxar, ro coornercrnymmax marpnna nmeer nn
W
t

cos
-sin
0
0
sin
cos
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
30
.
4-* +,-# onopor noxpyr ocn opnnar na yron - n sarem noxpyr ocn acnncc na yron - .
,1 !+ 5! ] 1]
" !1%+
5-* +,-# epenoc na nexrop $7] S] 8 +
epemnoxax naennte marpnnt n nopxxe nx nocrpoennx, oxonuarentno nonyunm cneymmym marpnny
dW
V
W
o
W
t
W
o

-1
W
V

-1
d
-1
.
accmarpnnax pyrne noonte npnmept, yem nonyuart n pesyntrare nentpoxennte marpnnt nna

0
0
0
1
.
+ O+4O
pn nomomn +rnx marpnn moxno noneprart npocremnm npeopasonannxm nmte nnocxne n
npocrpancrnennte ]nrypt. ostmem, x npnmepy, ntnyxnt mnororpannnx. n onosnauno saaercx
maccnnom cnonx nepmnn. oecrnonan na +ror maccnn naenno marpnne, mt nonyuaem nont maccnn,
saammn ntnyxnt mnororpannnx - opas ncxonoro (pnc. 2.12).
B
cranonnmcx na xnaccn]nxannn ocnonntx nnon npoexrnponannx, ncnontsyemtx n mamnnno rpa]nxe.
raxontm ornocxrcx napannentnte n nenrpantnte (nepcnexrnnnte) npoexrnponannx (pnc. 2.13). axt
31
ns ocnonntx nnon pasnnaercx na necxontxo nonnon n sanncnmocrn or nsanmnoro pacnonoxennx
xaprnnno nnocxocrn n xoopnnarntx oce. exoropoe npecrannenne o +rom moryr art cneymmne
rannnt.
+ O+4-
annna 1
annna 2
+ O+4N
3+
32
nx onncannx npeopasonann npoexrnponannx yem ncnontsonart marpnnt n onoponte xoopnnart,
uro nosnonnr ynpocrnrt nsnoxenne n spnmo onerunr pemenne saau reomerpnuecxoro moennponannx.
prorpa]nuecxax npoexnnx - xaprnnnax nnocxocrt connaaer c ono ns xoopnnarntx nnocxocre nnn
napannentna e (pnc. 2.14). arpnna npoexrnponannx nont ocn n na nnocxocrt mi( nmeer nn
R
V

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
.
cnyuae, ecnn nnocxocrt npoexrnponannx napannentna xoopnnarno nnocxocrn, neoxonmo ymnoxnrt
marpnny R
V
na marpnny cnnra. meem
R
V

1
0
0
<
0
1
0
0
33
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
<
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
.
nanornuno sannctnamrcx marpnnt npoexrnponannx nont nyx pyrnx xoopnnarntx oce:
1
0
0
0
0
0
34
0
L
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
,
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
L
0
0
0
:
0
0
0
1
.
xconomerpnuecxax npoexnnx - npoexrnpymmne npxmte nepnennxynxpnt xaprnnno nnocxocrn.
asnnuamr rpn nna npoexnn n sanncnmocrn or nsanmnoro pacnonoxennx nnocxocrn npoexrnponannx n
xoopnnarntx oce:
rpnmerpnx - nopmantnt nexrop xaprnnno nnocxocrn opasyer c opramn xoopnnarntx oce
nonapno pasnnunte yrnt (pnc. 2.15);
nmerpnx - na yrna mexy nopmantm xaprnnno nnocxocrn n xoopnnarntmn ocxmn pannt (pnc.
2.16);
nsomerpnx - nce rpn yrna mexy nopmantm xaprnnno nnocxocrn n xoopnnarntmn ocxmn pannt
(pnc. 2.17).
35
axt ns rpex nnon yxasanntx npoexnn nonyuaercx xomnnanne nonoporon, sa xoropo cneyer
napannentnoe npoexrnponanne.
+ O+4# + O+46 + O+47
s xypca anannrnuecxo reomerpnn nsnecrno, uro nmte ne onnaxono opnenrnponannte rpoxn
xoopnnarntx oce (oe npante nnn oe nente) moxno conmecrnrt nymx nonoporamn, npn xaxom ns
xoroptx ocraercx nensmenno ona xoopnnarnax oct. pn nonopore na yron ornocnrentno ocn m] na
yron noxpyr ocn n n nocneymmero npoexrnponannx na nnocxocrt (e* nosnnxaer marpnna
^
cos
0
sin
0
sin cos
cos
-sin cos
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

cos
0
sin
0
0
1
36
0
0
-sin
0
cos
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
cos
-sin
0
0
sin
cos
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
37
0
1
.
pn +rom npeopasymrcx n ennnunte oprt xoopnnarntx oce n] m] (_
(1 0 0 l)^ (cos sinsin 0 1),
(0 1 0 1)' (0 cos 0 1),
(0 0 1 1)^ (sin -sincos 0 1).
pn rpnmerpnn nnnt nonyuenntx n pesyntrare npoexnn pasnnunt. nmerpnx xapaxrepnsyercx rem, uro
nnnt nyx npoexnn connaamr:
sin
2
sin
2
sin
2
cos
2

cnyuae nsomerpnn ononnnrentno nmeem
sin
2
sin
2
cos
2
cos
2

s nocnennx nyx coornomenn nerxo nonyuaem, uro
sin
2

1
2
, sin
2

1
3
.
axonen, xocoyrontnax npoexnnx (nyuox npxmtx ne nepnennxynxpen nnocxocrn +xpana).
tenxmr na nna xocoyrontntx npoexnn: cnoonym npoexnnm (yron naxnona npoexrnpymmnx
npxmtx x nnocxocrn +xpana panen nononnne npxmoro) n xannernym npoexnnm (uacrnt cnyua
cnoono npoexnnn; macmra no rperte ocn nnoe mentme).
pn xocoyrontnom npoexrnponannn opra ocn Z na nnocxocrt nim (pnc. 2.18) nmeem
(0 0 1 1) ( 0 l).
38
+ O+48
arpnna coornercrnymmero npeopasonannx nmeer cneymmn nn
1
0

0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
cnyuae cnoono npoexnnn
cos
a
4
,
n cnyuae xannerno

1
39
2
cos
a
4
.
epcnexrnnnte (nenrpantnte) npoexnnn crpoxrcx onee cnoxno. penonoxnm, uro nenrp
npoexrnponannx nexnr na ocn (,
H(0,0,)
a nnocxocrt npoexrnponannx connaaer c xoopnnarno nnocxocrtm nim (pnc. 2.19). ostmem n
npocrpancrne
nponsnontnym rouxy '(/] !] t), nponeem uepes nee n rouxy H npxmym n sannmem ee napamerpnuecxne
ypannennx. meem
nu Vt, m oD, (u (t - ?)D.
aem xoopnnart rouxn nepeceuennx +ro npxmo c nnocxocrtm nim+ s roro, uro ( 0, nonyuaem
D

1
1 -
t
?
n, anee,
n

1
1 -
t
?
V, m

1
1 -
t
?
o,
or xe camt pesyntrar mt nonyunm, npnnnexax marpnny
40
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-1/?
1
+ O+49
camom ene,
(/ ! t 1)
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
41
0
-1/
1
(V o 0 1 -
t

)
nnn, uro ro xe,

V
1 -
t



o
1 -
t

0 1
arpnna npoexrnponannx, xoneuno, ntpoxena; marpnna xe coornercrnymmero nepcnexrnnnoro
npeopasonannx (es npoexrnponannx) nmeer cneymmn nn

1
0
0
0
0
1
0
42
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
-1/
1
accmorpnr nyuox npxmtx, napannentntx ocn (, n nonpoyem ntxcnnrt, uro c nnm nponcxonr no
ecrnnem marpnnt .
axax npxmax nyuxa onosnauno onpeenxercx rouxo cnoero nepeceuennx c nnocxocrtm nim n
onnctnaercx ypannennxmn
n V
>
, m o
>
, ( D.
epexox x onopontm xoopnnaram n ncnontsyx marpnny , nonyuaem
(V o t 1) (V o D 1 -
D

)
nnn, uro ro xe,

V
1 -
D



o
1 -
D

- ?
D
D -
?
43
1 .
Vcrpemnm D n ecxoneunocrt.
ouxa
(/ ! t 4)
npeopasyercx n
(0 0 1 0)
ocrarouno pasennrt nce na D,
(
V
D
o
D
1
1
D
)
+ O+O*
n nepern x npeeny. oornercrnymmax e rouxa
(0 0 - 1)
nonyuaercx noontm xe opasom ns
V
1 -
D


44
o
1 -
D

-?
D
D - ?
1 .
em camtm ecxoneuno yanennt nenrp (0 0 1 0) nyuxa napannentntx ocn ( npxmtx nepexonr n rouxy
(0 0 - l) ocn (. onyuennax rouxa nastnaercx rouxo cxoa.
noome, xaxt necocrnennt nyuox npxmtx (conoxynnocrt npxmtx, napannentntx saannomy
nanpannennm), ne napannentnt xaprnnno nnocxocrn, no ecrnnem npeopasonannx, saanaemoro
marpnne , nepexonr n cocrnennt nyuox.
enrp nonyuaemoro npn +rom nyuxa nastnamr rouxo cxoa. pnnxro ntenxrt rax nastnaemte rnannte
rouxn cxoa, coornercrnymmne nyuxam npxmtx, napannentntx xoopnnarntm ocxm.
nx npeopasonannx c marpnne cymecrnyer nnmt ona rnannax rouxa cxoa (pnc. 2.20). omem
cnyuae (xora ocn xoopnnarno cncremt ne napannentnt nnocxocrn +xpana) raxnx rouex rpn. arpnna
coornercrnymmero npeopasonannx ntrnxnr rax:
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
-1/;
-1/S
-1/?
1
yuox npxmtx, napannentntx ocn
in im
(l 0 0 0) (0 1 0 0),
nepexonr n nyuox npxmtx c nenrpom
45
(1 0 0 -
1
;
)
(1 0 0 -
1
S
)
nnn, uro ro xe,
(- 0 0 1) (-S 0 0 1)
(rnannte rouxn cxoa).
a pnc. 2.21 nsopaxent npoexnnn xya co croponamn, napannentntmn xoopnnarntm ocxm, c ono n c
nymx rnanntmn rouxamn cxoa.
+ O+O4
O a
+ O+OO
sopaxenne oexron na xaprnnno nnocxocrn cnxsano c eme ono reomerpnuecxo onepanne -
npoexrnponannem npn nomomn nyuxa npxmtx. anonee ynorpenmte na npaxrnxe nnt npoexrnponannx
cyrt napannentnoe n nenrpantnoe (pnc. 2.22).
nx nonyuennx npoexnnn oexra na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt neoxonmo nponecrn uepes xaxym ero rouxy
npxmym ns saannoro npoexrnpymmero nyuxa (cocrnennoro nnn necocrnennoro) n sarem narn
xoopnnart rouxn nepeceuennx +ro npxmo c nnocxocrtm nsopaxennx. cnyuae nenrpantnoro
npoexrnponannx nce npxmte ncxoxr ns ono rouxn - nenrpa cocrnennoro nyuxa; npn napannentnom xe
npoexrnponannn nenrp (necocrnennoro) nyuxa cunraercx nexamnm n ecxoneunocrn.
pexe uem nepexonrt x onee nopono xnaccn]nxannn yxasanntx nnon npoexrnponannx,
ocranonnmcx na nexoroptx +]]exrax, nensexno nosnnxammnx npn npoexrnponannn ncxpnnnenntx
oexron (rnanntm opasom nonepxnocre) na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt. pn +rom naxno ormernrt, uro
onnctnaemte nnxe +]]exrt nosnnxamr nne sanncnmocrn or roro, xnnxercx nn npoexrnponanne
napannentntm nnn nenrpantntm.
46
yem cunrart nx npocrort, uro npoexrnponanne npononrcx npn nomomn nyuxa napannentntx npxmtx,
nymnx nepnennxynxpno xaprnnno nnocxocrn, a cncrema xoopnnar (n] m] () n npocrpancrne ntpana
rax, uro xaprnnnax nnocxocrt connaaer c xoopnnarno nnocxocrtm n 0.
Vxaxem rpn npnnnnnnantno pasnnuntx cnyuax.
4-& !&
npoexrnpyem saannym nonepxnocrt - nnocxocrt, onnctnaemym ypannennem ( e n, na nnocxocrt n e 0
(pnc. 2.23). anncan ee ypannenne n nexnnom nne
n - ( 0, ntuncnnm xoopnnart nopmantnoro nexropa. meem

v

(1, 0, -1).
exrop

Y

, nont xoroporo ocymecrnnxercx npoexrnponanne, nmeer xoopnnart

Y

(1, 0, 0).
erxo nnert, uro cxanxpnoe nponsneenne
(

v

,

Y

) 1 0
em camtm, nexrop npoexrnponannx n nopmantnt nexrop paccmarpnnaemo nonepxnocrn ne
nepnennxynxpnt nn n ono rouxe.
rmernm, uro nonyuennax npoexnnx ocoennocre ne nmeer.
47
+ O+O-
+ O+ON
+ O+O#
+ O+O6
+ O+O7
O-& !&
aannax nonepxnocrt - napaonnuecxn nnnnnp c ypannennem ( e n nnn, uro ro xe,
n
2
- ( 0.
opmantnt nexrop
v (2n, 0, -1)
oproronanen nexropy npoexrnponannx

Y

n rouxax ocn m+ 3ro ntrexaer ns roro, uro
(

v
48

,

Y

) 2n.
ect n ornnune or nepnoro cnyuax rouxn nnocxocrn n 0 pasnnamrcx na rpn xnacca: x 1-my ornocxrcx
rouxn (( 0), y xoroptx na npoopasa (na pnc. 2.24 +ror xnacc samrpnxonan), xo 2-my - re, y xoroptx
npoopas onn (( 0). ro xe xacaercx rouex 3-ro xnacca, ro y nnx npoopason na nnnnnpe ner nonce.
pxmax n 0, ( 0 xnnxercx ocoo. ont nee nexropt

v

n

Y

oproronantnt. coennocrt +roro rnna nastnaercx cxnaxo.
--& !&
accmorpnm nonepxnocrt, saannym ypannennem
( n
3
nm
nnn, uro ro xe,
n
3
nm - ( 0.
tuncnnm nopmantnt nexrop +ro nonepxnocrn

v

(3n
2
m, n, -l)
n nocrponm ee, npnmennn mero ceuenn. ycrt m 1. ora
( n
3
n
(pnc. 2.25). pn m 0 nmeem
Z X
3

(pnc. 2.26). axonen, npn m -1 nonyuaem
49
Z X
3
- X
(pnc. 2.27).
ocrpoennte ceuennx amr npecrannenne oo nce nonepxnocrn. o+romy napnconart ee renept yxe
necnoxno (pnc. 2.28).
+ O+O8
+ O+-*
+ O+O9
s ycnonnx
n ypannennx nonepxnocrn nonyuaem, uro nont nexame na ne xpnno c ypannennxmn
nexrop npoexrnponannx

Y

n nopmantnt nexrop

v

paccmarpnnaemo nonepxnocrn oproronantnt. cxnmuax n, nonyuaem, uro
50
nnn
ocnenee panencrno saaer na xoopnnarno nnocxocrn n 0 nonyxynuecxym napaony (pnc. 2.29),
xoropax ennr rouxn +ro nnocxocrn na rpn xnacca: x 1-my ornocxrcx rouxn, nexamne na ocrpne (y
xaxo ns nnx na saanno nonepxnocrn ponno na npoopasa), nnyrpn ocrpnx xaxax rouxa nmeer no rpn
npoopasa, a nne ero no onomy. coennocrt +roro rnna nastnaercx copxo.
,01 - ! ! ! ! + k
!& &] 1& & /+
reopnn ocoennocre (nnn xaracrpo]) oxastnaercx, uro npn npoexrnponannn na nnocxocrt
nponsnontnoro rnaxoro oexra - nonepxnocrn nosmoxnt (c rounocrtm o manoro menenennx,
pacctnammero onee cnoxnte npoexnnn) rontxo rpn yxasanntx rnna npoexnn - otxnonennax
npoexnnx, cxnaxa n copxa.
xasannoe cneyer nonnmart rax: npn npoexrnponannn rnaxnx nonepxnocre na nnocxocrt moryr
nosnnxart n pyrne, onee cnoxnte ocoennocrn. naxo n ornnune or rpex nepeuncnenntx ntme nce onn
oxastnamrcx neycrounntmn - npn mantx nsmenennxx nno nanpannennx npoexrnponannx, nno
nsanmnoro pacnonoxennx nnocxocrn n npoexrnpyemo nonepxnocrn +rn ocoennocrn ne coxpanxmrcx n
nepexoxr n onee npocrte.
!1!] %/ / % O- O-
" 7+ O+-*8+
51
52
MTHHCKH CRAHHL
cropnm cnnanon npnnxro orcunrtnart or momenra noxnnennx nepno paort enepra n 1946
roy. nauana cnnant paccmarpnnannct xax yont nncrpymenr n reopnn n npaxrnxe npnnnxennx
]ynxnn. naxo onontno cxopo onacrt nx npnmenennx nauana tcrpo pacmnpxrtcx n onapyxnnoct,
uro cymecryer ouent mnoro cnnanon camtx pasntx rnnon. nnant crann axrnnno ncnontsonartcx n
uncnenntx meroax, n cncremax anromarnuecxoro npoexrnponannx n anromarnsannn nayuntx
nccneonann, no mnornx pyrnx onacrxx uenoneuecxo exrentnocrn n, xoneuno, n xomntmrepno
rpa]nxe.
am repmnn cnnan nponcxonr or anrnncxoro spline. menno rax nastnaercx rnxax nonocxa crann,
npn nomomn xoropo ueprexnnxn npononnn uepes saannte rouxn nnannte xpnnte. tnte npemena
noont cnoco nocrpoennx nnanntx onoon pasnnunoro poa ren, nanpnmep raxnx, xax xopnyc
xopanx, ]msenxx nnn xptno camonera, xyson anromonnx n r. n., tn onontno mnpoxo pacnpocrpanen n
npaxrnxe mamnnocrpoennx. pesyntrare ]opma rena saananact npn nomomn naopa ouent rouno
nsroronnenntx ceuenn - nnason. oxnnenne xomntmrepon nosnonnno nepern or +roro, nnasono-
manonnoro, meroa x onee +]]exrnnnomy cnocoy saannx nonepxnocrn orexaemoro rena. ocnone
+roro noxoa x onncannm nonepxnocre nexnr ncnontsonanne cpannnrentno necnoxntx ]opmyn,
nosnonxmmnx noccranannnnart onnx nsennx c neoxonmo rounocrtm. cno, uro nx ontmnncrna ren,
ncrpeuammnxcx na npaxrnxe, npx nn nosmoxno ortcxanne npocrtx ynnnepcantntx ]opmyn, xoropte
onnctnann t coornercrnymmym nonepxnocrt rnoantno, r. e. n nenom. 3ro osnauaer, uro npn pemennn
saaun nocrpoennx ocrarouno nponsnontno nonepxnocrn neontmnm xonnuecrnom ]opmyn, xax
npannno, oornct ne yaercx. mecre c rem anannrnuecxoe onncanne (onncanne nocpecrnom ]opmyn)
nnemnnx onoon nsennx, r. e. saanne nyxmepno nonepxnocrn n rpexmepnom npocrpancrne) onxno
trt ocrarouno +xonomntm. 3ro ocoenno naxno, xora peut, ner o opaorxe nsennx na cranxax c
uncnontm nporpammntm ynpannennem. tuno nocrynamr cneymmnm opasom: saamr xoopnnart
cpannnrentno neontmoro uncna onopntx rouex, nexamnx na ncxomo nonepxnocrn, n uepes +rn rouxn
nponoxr nnannte nonepxnocrn. menno rax nocrynaer xoncrpyxrop npn npoexrnponannnn xysona
anromonnx (xcno, uro na +ro crann nponecc npoexrnponannx cnoxnoro oexra xnno coepxnr
ne]opmantnym cocrannxmmym). a cneymmem mare xoncrpyxrop onxen nonyunrt anannrnuecxoe
npecrannenne nx npnymanntx xpnntx nnn nonepxnocre. or nx raxnx saau n ncnontsymrcx
cnnant.
pecrna xomntmrepno rpa]nxn, ocoenno nnsyannsannx, cymecrnenno nomoramr npn npoexrnponannn,
noxastnax xoncrpyxropy, uro moxer nonyuartcx n pesyntrare, n anax emy mnoronapnanrnym nosmoxnocrt
cpannnrt +ro c rem, uro ecrt y nero n ronone.
t ne crannm nepe coo n unrarenem saaun paccxasart oo ncex cnnanax, n uacrnocrn, noromy, uro
+ro orentnax ontmax rema, rpeymmax n ontmero nnnmannx n ontmero oema. o nnonom xypce
nam xaxercx onee ymecrntm noxasart n cpannennn nexoropte ns npenmymecrn ncnontsonannx cnnanon
n saauax reomerpnuecxoro moennponannx npn npoexrnponannn xpnntx n nonepxnocre. axoe
npecrannenne nonesno naunnammemy nontsonarenm nx ero opnenrannn n crpemnrentno
pacmnpxmmemcx mnpe cnnanon.
ocrarouno rnnnuno xnnxercx cneymmax saaua: no saannomy maccnny rouex na nnocxocrn (2D) nnn n
npocrpancrne (3D) nocrponrt xpnnym nno npoxoxmym uepes nce +rn rouxn (saaua nnrepnonxnnn), nno
npoxoxmym nnnsn +rnx rouex (saaua crnaxnnannx).
onepmenno ecrecrnenno nosnnxamr nonpoct:
1) n xaxom xnacce xpnntx ncxart pemenne nocrannenno saaun n
2) xax ncxart.
53
aunem c ocyxennx npannn ntopa xnacca xpnntx, oparnnmnct nx onpeenennocrn x saaue
nnrepnonxnnn.
cno, uro onycrnmt xnacc xpnntx onxen trt raxnm, urot pemenne saaun tno enncrnenntm
(+ro ocroxrentcrno cnntno nomoraer n npeoonennn mnornx rpynocre noncxa). pome roro, xopomo t,
urot nocrpoennax xpnnax nsmenxnact nnanno.
ycrt na nnocxocrn saan naop rouex
(V
>
, o
>
), > 0, 1, c
npnuem V
0
V
1
V
c-1
V
c
(pnc. 3.1). yem ncxart xpnnym n xnacce mnorounenon.
ax nsnecrno ns xypca maremarnuecxoro anannsa, cymecrnyer nnrepnonxnnonnt mnorounen arpanxa
re , rpa]nx xoroporo npoxonr uepes nce saannte rouxn. 3ro ocroxrentcrno
n npocrora onncannx (samernm, uro mnorounen onosnauno onpeenxercx naopom cnonx xo+]]nnnenron;
n annom cnyuae nx uncno connaaer c xonnuecrnom rouex n maccnne) xnnxmrcx necomnenntmn
ocronncrnamn nocrpoennoro nnrepnonxnnonnoro mnorounena (ecrt n pyrne).
cranonnmcx na nexoroptx neocrarxax npenoxennoro noxoa.
1. renent mnorounena arpanxa na ennnny mentme uncna saanntx rouex. o+romy uem ontme rouex
saano, rem ntme crenent raxoro mnorounena. , xorx on ncera yer npoxonrt uepes nce rouxn maccnna,
ero yxnonenne (or oxnaemoro) moxer oxasartcx onontno snaunrentntm (pnc. 3.2).
+ -+4
37
+ -+O
+ -+- + -+N
54
2. smenenne ono rouxn (cnryannx, onontno uacro ncrpeuaemax na npaxrnxe) rpeyer nonnoro
nepecuera n x romy xe moxer cymecrnenno nonnnxrt na nn mnorounena.
pyro cropont, moxno nocrynnrt concem npocro: nocneonarentno coennnn rouxn saannoro
maccnna, mt nonyunm nomanym (pnc. 3.3). pn raxo, xycouno-nnneno, nnrepnonxnnn rpeyercx narn
ncero 2c uncen (xo+]]nnnenron T
>
n S
>
orpesxon npxmtx), no, x coxanennm, nocrpoennax raxnm opasom
annpoxcnmnpymmax ]ynxnnx ne onaaer nnxaxo rnaxocrtm: yxe nepnax nponsnonax +ro ]ynxnnn
repnnr pasptnt n ysnax nnrepnonxnnn.
accmorpen +rn ne xpanne cnryannn, nonpoyem narn xnacc ]ynxnn, xoropte n ocnonnom coxpannnn
t nepeuncnennte ntme ocronncrna oonx noxoon n ononpemenno tnn t n nsnecrnom cmtcne
cnoont or nx neocrarxon.
nx +roro nocrynnm cneymmnm opasom. yem ncnontsonart mnorounent (xax n n nepnom cnyuae) n
crponrt nx nocneonarentno, sneno sa snenom (xax no nropom cnyuae). pn raxom noxoe ouent naxno
npannntno ntpart crenent +rnx mnorounenon. urot pesyntrnpymmax xpnnax nsmenxnact nnanno,
neoxonmo eme narn noxoxmne xo+]]nnnenrt (nx rnaxoro conpxxennx cocennx snenten).
o, uro nonyunrcx n pesyntrare, nastnamr cnnan-]ynxnnxmn nnn npocro cnnanamn.
nx roro, urot nonxrt, xaxoe ornomenne nmemr cnnan-]ynxnnn x ueprexntm cnnanam, nostmem
rnxym crantnym nnnexy, nocrannm ee na pepo n, saxpennn onn ns xonnon n saanno rouxe, nomecrnm
mexy onopamn, xoropte pacnonaramrcx n nnocxocrn k/! n rouxax
(V
>
, o
>
), > 0, 1, c
re V
0
V
1
V
c-1
V
c
(pnc. 3.4).
nrepecno ormernrt, uro ]ynxnnx K7V8, onnctnammax npo]nnt nnnexn, mexy nmtmn nymx
cocennmn onopamn xnnxercx mnorounenom rperte crenenn n naxt nenpeptnno n]]epennnpyema na
ncem npomexyrxe V
0
, /
c
.
ocrpoennax ]ynxnnx K7V8 ornocnrcx x rax nastnaemtm nnrepnonxnnonntm xynuecxnm cnnanam. 3ror
xnacc n nonno mepe yonnernopxer ntcxasanntm ntme rpeonannxm n onaaer eme nentm pxom
sameuarentntx cnocrn.
epeem, onaxo, x rountm ]opmynnponxam.
nrepnonxnnonntm xynuecxnm cnnanom nastnaercx ]ynxnnx K7V8, onaammax cneymmnmn
cnocrnamn:
1) K(V
>
) o
>
, > 0, 1, , c;
2) na xaxom ns orpesxe V
>
,V
>4
, > 0, 1, , c-1 ]ynxnnx
3) na ncem orpesxe saannx V
0
, V
c
]ynxnnx K(V) nmeer nenpeptnnym nropym nponsnonym.
ax xax na xaxom ns orpesxon V
>
,V
>4
cnnan K7V8onpeenxercx uertptmx xo+]]nnnenramn, ro nx ero
nonnoro nocrpoennx na ncem orpesxe saannx neoxonmo narn ncero 4c uncen.
55
nx ntnonnennx rpertero ycnonnx ocrarouno norpeonart nenpeptnnocrn cnnana no ncex nnyrpennnx
ysnax V
>
, > 0, 1, , c-1 (+ro aer c-1 ycnonn na xo+]]nnnenrt), a raxxe ero nepno (c-1 ycnonn) n
nropo (eme c-1 ycnonn) nponsnontx n +rnx ysnax. mecre c rpeonannem 1) nonyuaem
m - 1 m - 1 m - 1 m 1 4m - 2
panencrn. eocrammne na ycnonnx nx nonnoro onpeenennx xo+]]nnnenron moxno nonyunrt, saan, x
npnmepy, snauennx nepntx nponsnontx na xonnax orpesxa /
0
, V
c
(rpannunte ycnonnx):
K'(V
0
) E
0
, K'(V
c
) E
c
.
oxoxnm opasom pemaercx onee cnoxnax saaua nocrpoennx no saannomy maccnny rouex n
npocrpancrne (3D) nnrepnonxnnonno ]ynxnnn nyx nepemenntx. oxaxem, nanpnmep, xax moxno
nocrponrt nnrepnonxnnonnt nxynuecxn cnnan.
ycrt na nnocxocrn saan naop ns (c 1)(C 1) rouex (pnc. 3.5)
(V
>
, o

), > 0, 1, , c; 0, 1, , C,
re
V
0
V
1
V
c-1
V
c
, o
0
o
1
o
C-1
o
C
.
oannm x xaxo nape (V

, o

) rpertm xoopnnary t
>
: (V

, o

, t
>
).
em camtm mt nonyuaem maccnn
(V

, o

, t
>
), > 0, 1, , c; 0, 1, , C.
pexe uem crponrt nonepxnocrt, npoxoxmym uepes nce rouxn saannoro maccnna, onpeennm ]ynxnnm,
rpa]nxom xoropo yer +ra nonepxnocrt.
-+#
nrepnonxnnonntm nxynuecxnm K7V]o8 cnnanom nastnaercx ]ynxnnx nyx nepemenntx, onaammax
cneymmnmn cnocrnamn:
1) K(V
>
, o

) t
>
, > 0, 1, , c; 0, 1, , C;
2) na xaxom uacrnunom npxmoyrontnnxe
V
>
, V
>4
o

, o
4
, > 0, 1, , c-1, 0, 1, , C-1
]ynxnnx
56
3) na ncem npxmoyrontnnxe saannx V
0
,V
c
o
0
,o
C
]ynxnnx K7V]o8 nmeer nenpeptnnym nropym
nponsnonym.
nx roro, urot nocrponrt no saannomy maccnny (V
>
, o

,t
>
) nnrepnonxnnonnt nxynuecxn cnnan,
ocrarouno onpeennrt nce 16cC xo+]]nnnenron. ax n n onomepnom cnyuae, ortcxanne xo+]]nnnenron
cnnan-]ynxnnn cnonrcx x nocrpoennm pemennx cncremt nnnentx ypannenn, cnxstnammnx ncxomte
xo+]]nnnenrt ;
>
ET
. ocnenxx nosnnxaer ns nepnoro n rpertero ycnonn, nocne oannennx x nnm
neocrammnx coornomenn nyrem saannx snauenn nponsnono ncxomo ]ynxnnn n rpannuntx ysnax
npxmoyrontnnxa V
0
,V
c
o
0
,o
C
(nnn nntx coopaxenn).
pexe uem nepexonrt x paccmorpennm saaun crnaxnnannx, noneem nexoropte nrorn.
ocronncrna npenoxennoro cnocoa necomnennt: nx pemennx nnnentx cncrem, nosnnxammnx n xoe
nocrpoennx cnnan-]ynxnn, cymecrnyer mnoro +]]exrnnntx meroon, x romy xe +rn cncremt
ocrarouno npocrt; rpa]nxn nocrpoenntx cnnan-]ynxnn npoxoxr uepes nce saannte rouxn,
nonnocrtm coxpanxx nepnonauantno saannym nn]opmannm.
mecre c rem nsmenenne nnmt ono rouxn (cnyua na npaxrnxe onontno rnnnunt) rpeyer nepecuera
npaxrnuecxn ncex xo+]]nnnenron. acro ncxont naop rouex saaercx npnnnxenno, n, snaunr,
neyxocnnrentnoe npoxoxenne rpa]nxa nocrpoenno ]ynxnnn uepes nce rouxn oxastnaercx nsnnmnnm.
r +rnx neocrarxon cnoont nexoropte ns meroon crnaxnnannx, x onncannm xoroptx mt n
nepexonm, pacmnpnn xnacc oexron, n xoropom yer necrnct noncx coornercrnymmnx xpnntx n
nonepxnocre. onee rouno, mt orxaxemcx or rpeonannx onosnaunoro npoexrnponannx ncxomo xpnno
nnn nonepxnocrn na xoopnnarnym nnocxocrt. axo noxo nosnonxer ocnanrt n rpeonannx x
saannomy maccnny. pana, npn +rom oxastnaercx neoxonmtm neontmoe reomerpnuecxoe nneenne.
aunem, xax n npexe, c xpnntx.
am yer yono nontsonartcx napamerpnuecxnmn ypannennxmn xpnno. anomnnm neoxonmte
nonxrnx.
+ -+6
+ -+7
+ -+8
apamerpnuecxn saanno xpnno nastnaercx mnoxecrno rouex ^7V]o]t8, xoopnnart /] !] t xoroptx
onpeenxmrcx coornomennxmn
V V(D), o o(D), t t(D), ; _ D _ S, (1)
re V7D8] o7D8] t7D8 - ]ynxnnn, nenpeptnnte na orpesxe ;] S (pnc. 3.6).
oornomennx (1) nastnamrcx napamerpnuecxnmn ypannennxmn xpnno .
es orpannuennx omnocrn moxno cunrart, uro ; 0 n S 1; +roro ncera moxno onrtcx npn nomomn
sament nna
57
M
D - ;
S -
;
.
ectma nonesna nexropnax ]opma sanncn napamerpnuecxnx ypannenn
: :(D), 0 _ D _ 1,
re :(D) (V(D), o(D), t(t)).
apamerp D saaer opnenrannm napamerpnsonanno xpnno (nopxox npoxoxennx rouex npn
monoronnom nsmenennn napamerpa). pnnax nastnaercx perynxpno xpnno, ecnn :' 0 n xaxo ee
rouxe. 3ro osnauaer, uro n xaxo rouxe xpnno cymecrnyer xacarentnax x ne n +ra xacarentnax menxercx
nenpeptnno ncne sa nepememennem nont xpnno ee rexyme rouxn (pnc. 3.7). nnnunt nexrop
xacarentno x xpnno panen
cnn ononnnrentno norpeonart, urot saammax xpnnym nexropnax ]ynxnnx nmena nropym
nponsnonym, ro onpeenen nexrop xpnnnsnt xpnno
moynt xoroporo xapaxrepnsyer crenent ee orxnonennx or npxmo (pnc. 3.8). uacrnocrn, . 0, ecnn -
orpesox npxmo.
+ -+9 + -+4*
"&] %+ ! %/
/ + ] !
! 7 1] %& %8+ ]
& & % / & "
%/ &_ " !0 "]
5 ! ! - !7/8+
uacrnocrn, ona nnonne moxer trt samxnyro, camonepecexammecx n r. . ce nocneymmne
nocrpoennx yyr saxonnt n n +rnx ocrarouno cnoxntx cnyuaxx. accmorpnm nexoropte ns nosmoxntx
noxoon x nocrpoennm crnaxnnamme xpnno. ycrt na nnocxocrn nnn n npocrpancrne saan
58
ynopxouennt naop rouex, onpeenxemtx nexropamn z
0
, z
1
, , z
c
(pnc. 3.9). omanax z
0
z
1
z
c

nastnaercx xonrpontno nomano, nopoxenno maccnnom z z
0
, z
1
, , z
c
(pnc. 3.10).
pnno este, onpeenxemo maccnnom z, nastnaercx xpnnax, onpeenxemax nexropntm ypannennem
re - xo+]]nnnenrt n pasnoxennn nnoma tmrona (uncno couerann ns c +nemenron
no >). pnnax este onaaer sameuarentntmn cnocrnamn:
ona xnnxercx rnaxo;
naunnaercx n rouxe z
0
n saxanunnaercx n rouxe z
c
xacaxct npn +rom orpesxon z
0
z
1
n z
c-1
z
c

xonrpontno nomano;
]ynxnnonantnte xo+]]nnnenrt A
>
c
D
>
(1 - D)
c->
npn nepmnnax z
>
, > 0, 1, , c cyrt ynnnepcantnte
mnorounent (mnorounent epnmrena); onn neorpnnarentnt, n nx cymma
o+romy xpnnax este nennxom nexnr n ntnyxno oonouxe, nopoxaemo maccnnom (pnc. 3.11).
opxox rouex n maccnne cymecrnenno nnnxer na nn xpnno este. a pnc. 3.12 noxasan nn xpnntx
este nx maccnna ns uertpex rouex. erpyno samernrt, uro,
+ -+44 + -+4O
+ -+4-
naxoxct n ono n ro xe ntnyxno oonouxe, +rn xpnnte cnntno pasnxrcx, ntraxct nonropnrt
xonrpontnym nomanym n rnaxom napnanre.
cnonntx neocrarxon y xpnntx este na:
crenent ]ynxnnonantntx xo+]]nnnenron nanpxmym cnxsana c xonnuecrnom rouex n maccnne (na
ennnny mentme);
npn oannennn xorx t ono rouxn neoxonmo nponsnecrn nonnt nepecuer napamerpnuecxnx
ypannenn;
nsmenenne xorx t ono rouxn npnnonr x samernomy nsmenennm nce xpnno.
nnont, xax n npexe, nontraemcx narn xnacc xpnntx, coxpanxmmnx ocronncrna xpnntx este n
nnmenntx nx neocrarxon.
59
ax xax n nexropnom ypannennn, saammem xpnnym este, nexropnte cocrannxmmne nocroxnnt (+ro
npocro nepmnnt maccnna), ro mt yennm ocnonnoe nnnmanne ntopy ]ynxnnonantntx xo+]]nnnenron,
crapaxct coxpannrt npn +rom nx sameuarentnte cnocrna.
amennm n nexropnom ypannennn (2) mnorounent epnmrena na -cnnant (asonte (base) cnnant).
onte ]ynxnnonantnte xo+]]nnnenrt nneem npn nomomn pexyppenrntx ]opmyn.
ycrt 0 D
0
D
1
D
c-1
D
c
1 - pasnenne orpesxa 0,1. onoxnm
v
>]4
(D) 1, D D
>
, D
>1
,
v
>]4
(D) 0, D / D
>
, D
>1

n anee (pnc. 3.13)
amernm, uro c ynennuennem nnexca crenent mnorounenon, onpeenxmmnx nnonmte ]ynxnnn, pacrer:
nx ]ynxnn na orpesxe D
>
, D
>L
ona panna L-1.
rmernm eme nexoropte ouennnte cnocrna +rnx ]ynxnn:
v
i, q
(D) 0 na nnrepnane (D
>
, D
iq
);
v
i, q
(D) 0 nne nnrepnana (D
>
, D
iq
);
+ -+4N
+ -+4#
na nce onacrn saannx ]ynxnnx v
i, q
(D), q 3, nmeer nenpeptnnte nponsnonte o nopxxa - 2
nxnmunrentno.
! & v
>,4
(D) ! " ! D
>
, D
>4
, D
>O
, D
>-
, D
>N

0, 1. 5! ! /] / % 0]
D
-3
D
-2
D
-1
0, D
c1
D
c2
D
c3
1.
ononnnrentno nneennte orpesxn nmemr nynenym nnny n nepnonauantnte nepnt D
0
0 n nocnenn
D
c
1 ysnt cranonxrcx xparntmn. a pnc. 3.14 noxasan nonnt naop xynuecxnx -cnnanon,
nocrpoenntx na pacmnpennom mnoxecrne ysnon
D
-3
D
-2
D
-1
0;
D
1
0,2; D
2
0,4; D
3
0,6; D
4
0,8;
60
D
5
D
6
D
7
D
8
1.
nrepecno, uro nx nneenntx ]ynxnn coxpanxercx panencrno
3ro osnauaer, uro xpnnax, saannax nexropntm ypannennem
ncera npnnanexnr ntnyxno oonouxe nepmnn maccnna. pome roro, ona ntxonr ns nepmnnt z
0
n
nxonr n nepmnny z
c
, xacaxct xoneuntx orpesxon xonrpontno nomano.
cnny rpertero cnocrna coxpanxercx ocrarounax rnaxocrt xpnno: ecnn nsxrt L 4, ro nce
]ynxnnonantnte xo+]]nnnenrt yyr nmert nenpeptnnte nropte nponsnonte. nx npaxrnuecxnx
saau ontme rnaxocrn, xax npannno, ne rpeyercx. o+romy anee mt orpannunmcx paccmorpennem
cnyuax, xora L 4.
ocrpoennax xpnnax onaaer naxntm noxantntm cnocrnom: nsmenenne ono nepmnnt n maccnne yxe
ne neer, xax npexe, x nonnomy nsmenennm nce xpnno. cnny cnocrn ]ynxnnonantntx
xo+]]nnnenron nepecuera rpeymr rontxo nxrt cnaraemtx.
o+]]nnnenrt npn uertpex nocneonarentntx nepmnnax n ]opmyne (3) nonoxnrentnt, n nx cymma
panna ennnne. 3ro osnauaer, uro onpeenxemt nmn orpesox xpnno onxen nexart nnyrpn nx ntnyxno
oonouxn - uertpexyrontnnxa n nnocxom cnyuae n rerpa+pa - n npocrpancrnennom (pnc. 3.15).
-cnnant onaamr mnornmn pyrnmn sameuarentntmn cnocrnamn. uacrnocrn, nx moxno
ncnontsonart n nx nocrpoennx samxnyrtx xpnntx.
accmorpnm cneymmym ocrarouno rnnnunym cnryannm. o saannomy maccnny rouex mt nocrponnn -
cnnan, ntnenn pesyntrar na +xpan n, nnnmarentno nsyunn ro, uro nonyunnoct, saxorenn n onom nnn
necxontxnx mecrax nemnoro nonpannrt xpnnym, ne nsmenxx nepnonauantnoro maccnna.
anonee noxoxmnm nncrpymenrom nx noono nponeypt xnnxmrcx napamerpt, nneennte n
ypannenne xpnno. axym nosmoxnocrt npeocrannxmr era-cnnant, x xoroptm mt n oparnmcx, onncan
npn +rom nx ontme nonnort xaprnnt necxontxo nno noxo, ornnunt or npnneennoro ntme, a
nmenno ncnontsymmn cocrannte xpnnte.
nocrpoennn cocranno perynxpno xpnno naxnym pont nrpamr ycnonnx conpxxennx n rouxax xonraxra
cnarammnx ee orpesxon perynxpntx xpnntx.
ycrt
1
n
2
perynxpnte xpnnte, saannte napamerpnuecxnmn ypannennxmn
: :
1
(D), 0 _ D _ 1; : :
2
(D), 0 _ D _ 1
coornercrnenno n nmemmne omym rouxy
:
1
(D) :
2
(D).
nx roro, urot xpnnax , cocrannennax ns xpnntx
1
n
2
tna perynxpno, norpeyem connaennx n
ome rouxe ennnuntx xacarentntx nexropon
61
n nexropon xpnnnsnt
conpxraemtx xpnntx
1
n
2
.
erpyno nponepnrt, uro ecnn panyct-nexropt xpnntx
1
n
2
cnxsant ycnonnxmn reomerpnuecxo
nenpeptnnocrn
re
1
0,
2
_ 0 - uncnonte napamerpt, ro xaxoe ns ycnonn (4) - (6) yer ntnonneno.
accmorpnm naop ns c 1 rouex z
0
, z
1
, , z
c-1
, z
c
saanntx cnonmn panycamn - nexropamn (pnc. 3.16).
+ -+46
yem ncxart crnaxnnammym cocrannym perynxpnym xpnnym npn nomomn uacrnuntx xpnntx
>
,
onnctnaemtx ypannennxmn nna
re
ne sanncxmne or > neconte ]ynxnnonantnte xo+]]nnnenrt.
nx roro, urot narn +rn neconte xo+]]nnnenrt, norpeyem, urot nexropt :
>
(D) n :
>4
(D) n rouxe
conpxxennx yonnernopxnn ycnonnxm reomerpnuecxo nenpeptnnocrn (7). yuerom ]opmyn (8) +rn
ycnonnx moxno sanncart rax:
62
3ro nosnonxer narn nce ]ynxnnonantnte xo+]]nnnenrt
S

(D), -2, -1, 0, 1.


acnncan, nanpnmep, nepnoe ns panencrn (10) noponee
S
-2
(0)z
>-4
S
-1
(0)z
>
S
0
(0)z
>4
S
1
(0)z
>O
S
-2
(1)z
>-O
S
-1
(1)z
>-4
S
0
(1)z
>
S
1
(1)z
>4

n npnpannxn xo+]]nnnenrt npn onnaxontx nexropax, nonyunm
0 S
-2
(1), S
-2
(0) S
-1
(0) S
0
(1), S
0
(0) S
1
(1), S
1
(0) 0.
oontm xe opasom ns nyx pyrnx nexropntx panencrn (9) nonyuamrcx coornomennx, cnxstnammne
snauennx n rouxax 0 n 1 nepntx n nroptx nponsnontx necontx xo+]]nnnenron.
pnnnexax ]opmynt (9), nonyuaem n nrore nnnenym cncremy nx ncxomtx uncen ?
T
, onpeennrent
xoropo
tuncnnm xo+]]nnnenrt n nocrannm nx n ]opmynt (9). aennte ntpaxennx nx necontx ]ynxnn
+ -+47
+ -+48
63
+ -+49
+ -+O*
roxrcx nx nce xoncrpyxnnn. ocrannxx nx n ]opmyny (8), nonyuaem snauennx nexropntx ]ynxnn
:
2
(D), , :
c-1
(D).
amernm, uro xpnnax, onpeenxemax nexropno ]ynxnne :
>
(D) n, snaunr, nepmnnamn z
>-4
, z
>
, z
>4
, z
>O
,
nexnr n nx ntnyxno oonouxe (pnc. 3.17).
nx roro, urot cocrannax xpnnax npoxonna uepes nepmnnt z
0
n z
c
, xacaxct orpesxon z
0
z
1

xonrpontno nomano (pnc. 3.18), cneyer oannrt x nonyuennomy naopy nexrop-]ynxnn eme uertpe:
em camtm ncxomax cocrannax - xpnnax - naena. a pnc. 3.19 noxasano, uro nsmenenne napamerpon
1

n
2
nneuer nsmenenne ]opmt pesyntrnpymme xpnno.
saxnmuenne nemnoro noronopnm o crnaxnnammnx nonepxnocrxx. sect nenecoopasno nauart c
neoxonmoro nanomnnannx.
erynxpno nonepxnocrtm nastnaercx mnoxecrno rouex '7V]o]t8 npocrpancrna, xoopnnart /] !] t
xoroptx onpeenxmrcx ns coornomenn
V V(M][), o o(M][), t t(M][), (M][)
\
(11)
(sect \ - nexoropax onacrt na nnocxocrn napamerpon M n [), re V(M][), o(M][), t(M][) - rnaxne ]ynxnnn
cnonx aprymenron, npnuem ntnonneno coornomenne
pnneennoe nepanencrno osnauaer, uro n xaxo rouxe perynxpno nonepxnocrn cymecrnyer xacarentnax
nnocxocrt n ona nsmenxercx nenpeptnno npn nenpeptnnom nepememennn no nonexnocrn rexyme rouxn
' (pnc. 3.20).
64
+ -+O4
+ -+OO
Vpannennx (11) nastnamrcx napamerpnuecxnmn ypannennxmn nonepxnocrn. x uacro sannctnamr raxxe n
nexropno ]opme:
: e :7M][8] 7M][8 \
re r(u,) (x(u,), y(u,), z(u,)).
antnemem yem cunrart nx npocrort, uro onacrt na nnocxocrn napamerpon npecrannxer coo
xnapar co cropono 1 (pnc. 3.21).
penonoxnm saanntm naop rouex z
>
, > 0, 1, , c; 0, 1, , C. oennxx coornercrnymmne
nepmnnt npxmonnnentmn orpesxamn, nonyuaem xonrpontnt mnororpannnx saannoro maccnna z(pnc.
3.22).
rnaxnnammax nonepxnocrt crponrcx ornocnrentno npocro, n nne rax nastnaemoro rensopnoro
nponsneennx. anpnmep, ypannenne nxynuecxo nonepxnocrn este nmeer nn
0 _ M _ 1, 0 _ [ _ 1.
3ro -
0 _ M _ 1, 0 _ [ _ 1 -
ypannenne nxynuecxo -cnnanono nonepxnocrn, a +ro -
ypannenne (> ]T)-ntpesxa nxynuecxoro era-cnnana.
0 _ M _ 1, 0 _ [ _ 1.
cno, uro rax nocrpoennte nonepxnocrn nacneymr nexoropte cnocrna ononmenntx xpnntx. 3ro
ntrexaer ns cnocoa nx saannx.
t ocranonnnnct n +ro rnane nnmt na nexoroptx npocrtx cnocoax nocrpoennx nnanno nsmenxmmnxcx
xpnntx n nonepxnocre. nont xapaxrep xnnrn n xecrxne orpannuennx na ee oem ne nosnonxmr
ronopnrt o +rom onee nopono. em ne menee mt crpemnnnct x romy, urot y unrarenx cnoxnnoct
npannntnoe nauantnoe npecrannenne o reomerpnuecxnx cnnanax n rom mecre, xoropoe onn sannmamr n
xomntmrepno rpa]nxe. o namemy mnennm, axe neontmax camocroxrentnax nontrxa xomntmrepno
65
peannsannn ntcxasanntx sect npocrtx reomerpnuecxnx coopaxenn yer, necomnenno, nonesna n
ocnoennn npaxrnuecxn nencuepnaemtx nosmoxnocre xomntmrepno rpa]nxn.
ACTBL ARHTML
+ N+4 + N+O
+ro rnane no ncxperno nnocxocrtm yem nonnmart mnoxecrno ncex rouex c nenouncnenntmn
xoopnnaramn na otuno nyxmepno nnocxocrn. ncxpernym nnocxocrt nastnamr raxxe
nenouncnenno pemerxo, pacrpono nnocxocrtm nnn pacrpom.

nx yocrna antnemero nsnoxennx yem cunrart, uro na nnocxocrn nmeercx xnaparnax cerxa c
marom 1, npnuem ysnt name nenouncnenno pemerxn xnnxmrcx nenrpamn coornercrnymmnx xnaparntx
xueex cerxn. pyrnmn cnonamn, ysnt pacrpa oxpyxent ennnuntmn xnaparntmn oxpecrnocrxmn
panyca 1/2. nnnnannsannn rouxn pacrpa c xoopnnaramn (>] ) coornercrnyer saxpacxa xaxnm-nno
nnerom ee xnaparno oxpecrnocrn (pnc. 4.1).
ouxn na nnocxocrn nastnamrcx 4-cocexmn (nnn nenocpecrnenntmn cocexmn), ecnn y nnx
ornnuamrcx rontxo /-xoopnnart nnn rontxo o-xoopnnart, npnuem rontxo na 1.
ouxn na nnocxocrn nastnamrcx 8-cocexmn (nnn xocnenntmncocexmn), ecnn y nnx ornnuamrcx V-
xoopnnart nnn o-xoopnnart, no ne onee uem na 1.
amernm, uro n coornercrnnn c +rnmn cornamennxmn ncxxn nenocpecrnennt coce xnnxercx n ro xe
npemx n xocnenntm coceom.
cxxax rouxa na nnocxocrn nmeer uertpex nenocpecrnenntx cocee n nocemt xocnenntx cocee,
orxya n nropoe nasnanne nx raxnx rouex. cnn rouxn xnnxmrcx nenocpecrnenntmn cocexmn, ro nx
xnaparnte oxpecrnocrn nmemr omym cropony; xnaparnte oxpecrnocrn xocnenntx cocee nmemr
omym cropony nnn omym nepmnny (pnc. 4.2).
neem nonxrne nyrn na nenouncnenno pemerxe.
4-nyrem (nnn cnntnocnxsntm nyrem) na nnocxocrn nastnaercx mnoxecrno rouex, p
1
, p
2
, , p
C
nx
xoroptx rouxn p
>
, p
>1
xnnxmrcx xocnenntmn cocexmn nx > 1, 2, , C-1.
8-nyrem (nnn cnaocnxsntm nyrem) na nnocxocrn nastnaercx mnoxecrno rouex p
1
, p
2
, , p
C
nx xoroptx
rouxn p
>1
, p
>
xnnxmrcx cnatmn cocexmn nx > 1, 2, , C-1.
yrt nastnaercx samxnyrtm, ecnn $
1
$
C
.
noxecrno na nenouncnenno pemerxe nastnaercx cnntnocnxsntm (uertpex-cnxsntm), ecnn nmte ne
rouxn ero moxno coennnrt cnntnocnxsntm nyrem.
66
noxecrno na nenouncnenno pemerxe nastnaercx cnaocnxsntm (noctmn-cnxsntm), ecnn nmte ne
rouxn ero moxno coennnrt cnaocnxsntm nyrem.
onpoyem onpeennrt xpnnym na ncxperno nnocxocrn, r. e. onomepnoe mnoxecrno na
nenouncnenno pemerxe.
pocro xpnno na nnocxocrn nastnaercx mnoxecrno, y xoroporo nce rouxn, sa ncxnmuennem nyx, nmemr
ponno nyx cocee (cnatx nnn cnntntx, n sanncnmocrn or nna xpnno). 3rn ne ncxnmunrentnte
rouxn nmemr ponno no onomy cocey.
pocro samxnyro xpnno na nnocxocrn nastnaercx mnoxecrno, y xoroporo nce rouxn nmemr ponno nyx
cocee (cnatx nnn cnntntx, n sanncnmocrn or nna xpnno).
pocrax samxnyrax cnaocnxsnax xpnnax pasnnaer nnocxocrt na na cnntnocnxsntx mnoxecrna. pocrax
samxnyrax cnntnocnxsnax xpnnax pasnnaer nnocxocrt na na cnaocnxsntx mnoxecrna.
a

antnemem nenouncnennym pemerxy yem nastnart pacrpom.
penonoxnm, uro na otuno nyxmepno nnocxocrn nmeercx nexoropt reomerpnuecxn oexr n
nyxno nonyunrt ncxpernoe npecrannenne oexra na nenouncnenno pemerxe, nnn, xax ronopxr,
pacrponoe npecrannenne oexra.
3ro osnauaer, uro saanno reomerpnuecxo ]nrype (nnnnn nnn onacrn) cneyer nocrannrt n
coornercrnne mnoxecrno na nenouncnenno nnocxocrn, xoropoe n nexoropom cmtcne xnnxercx
npnnnxennem ncxono ]nrypt.
axoe npecrannenne neonosnauno, rax xax, uro raxoe npnnnxenne, moxno nonnmart no-pasnomy n
cymecrnymr pasnte cnocot npnnnxennx nenpeptnnoro oexra.
nx sanonnenno reomerpnuecxo ]nrypt pacrpontm npnnnxennem moxno cunrart mnoxecrno rouex
ncxperno nnocxocrn, npnnanexamnx +ro ]nrype. naxo raxoe onpeenenne repxer cmtcn, ecnn mt
xornm nonyunrt pacrponoe npecrannenne orpesxon npxmtx nnn yr xpnntx.
anpnmep, pacrpontm npnnnxennem xpyra na nnocxocrn moxer cnyxnrt mnoxecrno rouex, nonanmnx
nnyrpt +roro xpyra, a pacrpontm npnnnxennem npxmo - mnoxecrno rouex, xnnxmmnxcx nenrpamn xueex
pemerxn, c xoroptmn npxmax nepecexaercx.
oxno npenoxnrt n pyrne cnocot pacrponoro npecrannennx +rnx oexron.
axntm xnnxercx nonpoc peannsannn roro nnn nnoro npecrannennx, r. e. o anropnrmax pacrpono
pasneprxn n o nx +]]exrnnnocrn.
Vrounnm saauy. yem cunrart, uro n namem pacnopxxennn nmeercx +nemenrapnax onepannx -
nnnnnannsannx rouxn c nenouncnenntmn xoopnnaramn.
xaxom xonxpernom cnyuae nyxno yxasart anropnrm ntopa nocneonarentnocrn rouex, xoropte nyxno
nnnnnnponart na pacrpe, urot nonyunrt coornercnymmee pacrponoe npecrannenne oexra n nenom.
osnnxaer ecrecrnennt nonpoc: sauem nyxno snart, xax paoramr anropnrmt renepannn orpesxa
npxmo, oxpyxnocrn nnn +nnnnca, anropnrmt saxpacxn mnoroyrontnnxa nnn, n onee omem cnyuae,
onacrn nnocxocrn, ecnn nce onn peannsonant n nne cranaprntx nponeyp n nmom naxere rnna Turbo
Pascal nnn Turbo . eno n rom, uro monnrop ne enncrnennoe pacrponoe ycrpocrno, a npn paore c
67
raxnmn ycrpocrnamn, xax npnnrep, nnorrep, mtmt, neoxonmo ymert nporpammno peannsontnart
pacrponym renepannm coornercrnymmnx reomerpnuecxnx oexron.
eoxonmocrt sanesrt nnyrpt anropnrma renepannn nosnnxaer n rora, xora arpnyrt nnnnnnpyemoro
nnxcena (nner, nannune nnn orcyrcrnne) sanncxr or xaxnx-nno ycnonn. anpnmep, or nonoxennx
nnxcena na npxmo nnn nnyrpn saxpamnnaemoro mnoroyrontnnxa. Vmenne nocrponrt coornercrnymmn
anropnrm uacro nosnonxer nsmennrt crpyxrypy cymecrnymmero anropnrma c nentm ycxopennx ero paort.
axne cnryannn rnnnunt npn paspaorxe anropnrmon yanennx nennnmtx nnnn n nonepxnocre
(nanpnmep, nx pacrpono peannsannn ono ns nepcn meroa nnanammero ropnsonra nnn meroa y]epa
rnynnt).
. Aa B
ponecc nocneonarentno nnnnnannsannn mnoxecrna nnxcenon +xpana, nsopaxammero orpesox npxmo
nnnnn, nastnaercx pacrpono pasneprxo orpesxa, a camo +ro mnoxecrno - pacrpontm npecrannennem
orpesxa. s cxasannoro xcno, uro naxno snart ne rontxo, xax ycrpoeno +ro mnoxecrno, no n nnaert
cnocoom ero renepannn, r. e. pacnonarart anropnrmom, nosnonxmmnm nocneonarentno crponrt rouxn
+roro mnoxecrna.
onee rouno, ecnn nam nsnecrnt nenouncnennte xoopnnart xonnon orpesxa, mt onxnt snart, xaxne
rouxn nanexnr nocneonarentno nnnnnnponart na pacrpe, urot nonyunrt nonnoe pacrponoe
npecrannenne orpesxa. 3ra saaua pemaercx neonosnauno. e pemenne sanncnr or roro, xaxoro rnna
pacrpont opas mt xornm nonyunrt. axe ecnn orpannunrt xnacc pacrpontx npecrannenn orpesxa
npocrtmn pacrpontmn xpnntmn n cmtcne onpeenenn npetymero nynxra, ro raxnx npecrannenn
moxer trt na - noctmncnxsnoe n uertpexcnxsnoe. osmoxnt n pyrne pacrponte moenn orpesxa n
sanncnmocrn or roro, xaxnmn cnocrnamn mt xorenn t naennrt nonyuennt opas. e yrnynxxct n
ocyxenne +roro nonpoca, npenoxnm cnauana npocroe, nannnoe, pemenne saaun.
rot ntpart npomexyrounte nnxcent (rouxn pacrpa), xoropte xnnxmrcx n nexoropom cmtcne
nanmenee yanenntmn or neantnoro orpesxa, moxno, nanpnmep, nnnnnannsnponart nocneonarentno nce
rouxn pacrpa, oxpecrnocrn xoroptx nepecexamrcx c +rnm orpesxom (pnc. 4.3).
+ N+-

+
6"] !" ! %/ +
"& 3 5& &+
ycrt xonnt '
1
n '
2
orpesxa nmemr xoopnnart (V
1
, o
1
) n (V
2
, o
2
). ora orpesox onpeenxercx ypannennem
! !
1
T(V - V
1
),
re k
y
2
- y
1
x
2
- x
1
, x
1
_ x _ x
2
.
nx npocrort npenonoxnm, uro yrnono xo+]]nnnenr T neorpnnarenen n ne npenocxonr 1: T_1.
nxe npecrannena nponeypa renepannn pacrpono pasneprxn orpesxa.
68
\V _e 4a \o ; ;S@7oO-oE87VO-VE8a
V_ehVEa o_eoEa
bB: >_e* DB Y-E XB
SF`>C
RMDR>VFE 7V]:BMCX7o8 8 a
V _e V \Va ! _e ! \oa
FCX+
xema paort +roro anropnrma npocra: nonyuaem ouepenym rouxy na orpesxe n nnnnnnpyem nnxcen,
nnxamn x +ro rouxe.
Vcnonne T _ 1 nyxno, urot n nponecce nocrpoennx pacrpono pasneprxn ne tno nponymeno nn ono
rouxn; mar no ocn / ennnunt, a no ocn ! - mentme 1. cnn yrnono xo+]]nnenr npxmo ontme 1,
nyxno nomenxrt ponxmn nepemennte / n !+
amernm, uro nenouncnennax acnncca rouxn nsmenxercx na xaxom mare na 1, n ro npemx xax
nenouncnennax opnnara nperepnenaer nsmenenne nnmt n cnyuae, xora n pesyntrare naxonnennx
npnpamenn \o nemecrnennax opnnara rouxn oxaxercx n oxpecrnocrn panyca 0.5 cocenero yponnx no
ocn opnnar. Vurem +rn nanmennx n necxontxo nsmennm anropnrm no ]opme, ocrannxx ocnonnym cxemy
es nsmenennx.
/ _e VEa ! _eu oEa C _e /O - VEa
c _e !O - oEa X _ e cCa _e *a
bB: >_eE DB C XB
SF`>C
| 3 % }
/ _ e /4a F_eFXa

| !1 ! / 4O]
! !" ! 4 " ! }
>b h *+# D=FC
SF`>C
!_e!4a _e-4
FCX
RMDR>VFE 7V]o8
FCX
+ N+N
erpyno samernrt, uro n pesyntrare paort anropnrma nonyunrcx noctmncnxsnoe npecrannenne orpesxa,
rax xax nepexo x cneymme rouxe pasneprxn ocymecrnnxercx na ony ns noctmn cocennx xnerox.
ontraemcx renept c]opmynnponart coopaxennx, xoropte nosnonxmr onncart xax noctmncnxsnoe, rax n
uertpexcnxsnoe pacrponte npecrannennx orpesxa na nnocxocrn.
poanannsnponan pacnonoxenne orpesxa ornocnrentno xnaparntx oxpecrnocre ysnon pemerxn, moxno
npenoxnrt cneymmne npannna renepannn uertpexcnxsno n noctmncnxsno pasneprxn orpesxa:
1) uertpexcnxsnax pasneprxa orpesxa nxnmuaer re n rontxo re rouxn pemerxn, xnaparnte
oxpecrnocrn xoroptx nepecexamrcx c orpesxom;
2) noctmncnxsnax pasneprxa orpesxa nxnmuaer re n rontxo re rouxn pemerxn, oxonte cropont
xnaparntx oxpecrnocre xoroptx nepecexamrcx c orpesxom (pnc. 4.4).
69
ontsyxct npannnom 1), ntnnmem anropnrm nx renepannn uertpexcnxsno pasneprxn. meem
/ _e VEa ! _e oEa
C _ /O - / 4 ; m : ! O - oE ;
d .- 7cC8a _ e XOa
bB: >_eE DB Cc XB
SF`>C
| 3 % }
/ _e /4a F_eFXa

| !1 ! / *+#]
!" ! 4 " ! }
>b e *+# D=FC
SF`>C
o_e!4a _e-4
FCX
FE@F
SF`>C
/_e/4a F_eFX
FCX
RMDR>VFE7V]o8
FCX
+ro cxeme nepemennax Fntpaxaer pasnnny mexy opnnaro rexyme rouxn na npxmo n opnnaro
rouxn nepeceuennx npxmo c npano rpannne xnaparno oxpecrnocrn rexyme rouxn pacrpono
pasneprxn.
cnn _ 0.5, ro orpesox nepecexaercx c oxono cropono xnaparno oxpecrnocrn rouxn, nexame
cnpana or rexyme rouxn, n nyxno cmecrnrtcx nnpano na 1.
+ N+#
cnn 0.5, ro orpesox nepecexaercx c nnxne rpannne xnaparno oxpecrnocrn, nexame ntme rouxn,
n nyxno cmecrnrtcx na 1 nnepx. 3rn coopaxennx noxastnamr raxxe, uro n pesyntrare paort nocnenero
anropnrma nonyunrcx uertpexcnxsnax pasneprxa (pnc. 4.5).
snecrno, uro onepannn c nemecrnenntmn uncnamn ocymecrnnxmrcx ropaso menennee
coornercrnymmnx onepann c nentmn uncnamn. o+romy nx nontmennx +]]exrnnnocrn paort
anropnrma xenarentno ocnoonrtcx or onepann, ncnontsymmnx nemecrnennym apn]mernxy. +ro
nentm n anropnrme nx nonyuennx noctmn-cnxsno pasneprxn orpesxa, ymnoxax nepemennte n X na
nenoe uncno 2C, mt nsannxemcx or pontx uncen. smennn macmra nepemenntx n nnecx
xoppexrnponxn n nepanencrna, ncnontsyemte n onepannxx cpannennx, nonyunm nenouncnennym nepcnm
anropnrma:
/ _ e VEa ! _ e oEa
C _e /O - VEa c _e !O - oEa
XV : Ouca Xo _e OuCa _e *a | 4 --h Xo e OuC }
bB: >_eE DB C XB
70
SF`>C
| 3 % }
/ _ e /4a F_eFXV

| !1 ! / 4O]
! !" ! 4 " ! }
>b h C D=FC
SF`>C
! _ e!4 a _ eF-XV
FCX
RMDR>VFE 7V]o8
FCX
onyuennt anropnrm nocnr nasnanne nenouncnennoro anropnrma pesenxema nx noctmncnxsno
pasneprxn orpesxa n nepnom xnapanre.
cnontsyx ananornunte npeopasonannx, sannmem nponeypy renepannn uertpexcnxsno pasneprxn.
meem:
/ _ e VEa ! _e oEa
C _ e /O - VEa c _ e !O - oEa
XV _e Ouca Xo _e Ou_ _e ca
bB: >_eE DB Cc XB
SF`>C
| 3 % }
x : x1; e:ed;
| !1

! / 4O] ! !" ! 4
" ! }
>b F h C D=FC
SF`>C
o_eoEa F_eF-Xo
FCX
FE@F
SF`>C
V _ eVE a F _ e FXV
FCX
RMDR>VFE 7V]o8
FCX
onyuennt anropnrm nastnaercx nenouncnenntm anropnrmom pesenxema nx uertpexcnxsno
pasneprxn orpesxa n nepnom xnapanre.
O a B

nx nonyuennx omero anropnrma pacrpono pasneprxn nyxno nsannrtcx or orpannuenn, xoropte mt
o cnx nop naxnatnann na pacnonoxenne orpesxa na nnocxocrn, a nmenno or rpeonannx 0 _ T _ 1 na
yrnono xo+]]nnnenr T.
Vunrtnax opnenrannm orpesxa ornocnrentno nonoxnrentntx nanpannenn oce xoopnnar n menxx
ponxmn nepemennte / n ! n cnyuae k 1, nonyunm oxonuarentnte omne nepcnn anropnrma.
mn anropnrm pesenxema nx noctmncnxsno pasneprxn orpesxa:
RWiAq\wWq E>CF87VE]oE]VO]oO_ >CDF`F:8a
71
zpW
V]o]@E]@O]XV]Xo]Fbt_ >CDF`F:a
?=;C`F_ SBBEF;Ca
BEGI
x : eVE a ! _ eoE a XV _ e;S@ 7VO-VE 8 a Xo _ e;S@ 7oO-oE 8 a
@4 _ e@>`C 7VO-VE 8 a @O _ e@>`C 7oO-oE 8 a
iI XohXV D=FC
SF`>C t_eXVa XV_eXoa Xo_eta
?=;C`F _eD:MF
FCX
FE@F ?=;C`F _e b;E@Fa
e: 2dy-dx;
Ior i:l to dx do
SF`>C
<MDR>VFE7V]ob ?BEB:8 a
{=>EF Fhe* XB
SF`>C

>b ?=;C`F D=FC V_eV@E
FE@F o_eo@Oa F_eF-OuXVa
FCXa
>b ?=;C`F D=FC o_eo@O
FE@F V_eV@Ea
F_eFOuXo
FCXa
<MDR>VFE 7V]o] ?BEB:8
qv\a
mn anropnrm pesenxema nx uertpexcnxsno pasneprxn orpesxa:
RWiAq\wWq E>CFN7VE]oE]VO]oO_ >CDF`F:8a
zpW
V]o]@E]@O]XV]Xo]F]t_ >CDF`F:a
?=;C`F_ SBBEF;Ca
Uq9Zv
V_eVEa o_eoEa XV_e;S@7VO-VE 8 a Xo_e;S@7oO-oE8 a
@V_e@>`C7VO-VE8 a @o_e@>`C7oO-oE8 a F_e OuXo-XVa
>b XogXV D=FC ?=;C`F_ e b;E@F
FE@F
SF`>C t_eXVa XV_eXoa Xo_eta
?=;C`F _eD:MF
FCX

bB: >_eE DB XVXo XB
SF`>C
>b F g XV D=FC
SF`>C
>b ?=;C`F D=FC o_eo@o
FE@F V_eV@Va
F_eFOuXoa
FCX
FE@F
>b ?=;C`F D=FC V_eV@V
FE@F o_eo@oa
F_eF-OuXV
FCXa
<MDR>VFE 7V]o] ?BEB:8
qv\a
72
3
onpoc o sanonnennn nnyrpennocrn cnnomno onacrn sannmaer naxnoe mecro cpen saau pacrpono
rpa]nxn. ontmnncrno saau o sanonnennn nyxmepno ]nrypt moxer trt orneceno x onomy ns nyx
rnnon: sanonnenne nnyrpennocrn mnoroyrontnnxa, saannoro cnonmn nepmnnamn nnn pepamn, n
sanonnenne nnyrpennocrn onacrn, orpannuenno samxnyrtm xonrypom, npecrannenntm cnoe
pacrpono pasneprxo.

yem nonnmart no mnoroyrontnnxom ]nrypy, orpannuennym na nnocxocrn npocro
(necamonepecexammecx) samxnyro nomano. ama nomanax saaercx naopom cnonx nepmnn p
>
7 V
>
] o
>
8] >
e 1,2,...,C] npnuem cocenne rouxn n +rom cnncxe xnnxmrcx cmexntmn nepmnnamn nomano. aaua
cocronr n rom, urot nonyunrt pacrponym pasneprxy mnoroyrontnnxa, r. e. nnnnnnponart ero nnyrpennne
rouxn.
aunem c ocyxennx saaun o noxannsannn rouxn ornocnrentno mnoroyrontnnxa. emenne +ro saaun
acr nosmoxnocrt +]]exrnnno onpeenxrt, xnnxercx nn rouxa nnyrpenne nnn nnemne no ornomennm x
nemy.
namennrax reopema Xopana yrnepxaer, n uacrnocrn, uro npocrax (r. e. ne nmemmax camonepeceuenn)
samxnyrax nnocxax nomanax pasnnaer nnocxocrt na ne cnxsnte xomnonenrt - orpannuennym, xoropax
xnnxercx nnyrpennocrtm mnoroyrontnnxa, n neorpannuennym, xoropax xnnxercx cx nnemne no
ornomennm x mnoroyrontnnxy.
nropnrm onxen ymert pasnnuart nnyrpennne n nnemnne rouxn nnocxocrn. osnaunm pepa
mnoroyrontnnxa uepes q
>
:
q
>
: p
>
, p
>4
, > 1,2,..., C
ycrt (/] !) - nexoropax rouxa nnocxocrn, ne nexamax na nomano, n nyxno onpeennrt, npnnanexnr
ona +romy mnoroyrontnnxy nnn ner.
poneem uepes rouxy ropnsonrantnym nonynpxmym c npantm xonnom n rouxe + ax xax nomanax
orpannuena, ro ncera nerxo narn na +ro nonynpxmo ocrarouno yanennym rouxy , xoropax saneomo
ne npnnanexnr mnoroyrontnnxy. cnn orpesox R ne nmeer nepeceuenn c rpannne mnoroyrontnnxa, ro
rouxn n nexar n ono xomnonenre cnxsnocrn n, cneonarentno, rouxa - nnemnxx.
accmorpnm cnyua, xora orpesox R nepecexaer nomanym (pnc. 4.6). yem nnrartcx or rouxn n
nanpannennn x rouxe + nnonan nepnoe nepeceuenne orpesxa n rpannnt, mt nonaem nnyrpt
mnoroyrontnnxa. nnonan cneymmee nepeceuenne orpesxa n rpannnt, mt oxaxemcx cnapyxn
mnoroyrontnnxa, n rax anee. erxo nnert, uro ecnn mt ncrpernm na cnoem nyrn uernoe uncno
nepeceuenn, ro rouxa yer nnemne rouxo mnoroyrontnnxa. cnn xe uncno nepeceuenn oxaxercx
neuerntm, ro rouxa yer nnyrpenne rouxo mnoroyrontnnxa. axno rontxo yocronepnrtcx, uro
+ N+6
73
nepeceuennx orpesxa c rpannne tnn cymecrnenntmn, r. e. orpesox ecrnnrentno nepecex nomanym, a
ne npocro xacancx ee n ono ns nepmnn.
nx ntxnnennx cymecrnenntx nepeceuenn moxno nocnontsonartcx cneymmnm npannnom. epeceuennx
orpesxa c ropnsonrantntmn pepamn nrnopnpymrcx. pn nocuere uncna nepeceuenn neropnsonrantntx
peep nomano c orpesxom R nepeceuenne nrnopnpyercx, ecnn rouxo nepeceuennx xnnxercx nepxnxx
nepmnna pepa, n sacunrtnaercx n nmom pyrom cnyuae. yuerom +roro cornamennx xacanne orpesxa R
c nomano n rouxax maxcnmyma nrnopnpyercx, a n rouxax mnnnmyma cunraercx naxt. em camtm
necymecrnennte nepeceuennx ne nsmenxmr uernocrn omero uncna nepeceuenn. cnn xe cymecrnennoe
nepeceuenne nmeer mecro n nepmnne nomano (nepxnee pepo nepecexaer orpesox R n nnxne nepmnne,
a nnxnee pepo - n nepxne nepmnne, n no namemy cornamennm npnnnmaercx no nnnmanne nnmt nepnoe
nepeceuenne), ro uncno nocunranntx nepeceuenn ynennunnaercx na ennnny.
tcxasannte ntme coopaxennx npnnoxr x cneymmemy anropnrmy:
SF`>C
@_e*a
bB: >_eE DB C XB
>b | " } D=FC
>b | R / 3
then s : @4a
>b | @ } D=FC | R ! }
FE@F | R ! }
FCX+
yu
nx sanonnennx nnyrpennocrn mnoroyrontnnxa moxno tno t nocnontsonartcx onncanntm ntme
recrom npnnanexnocrn, nepenpax nocneonarentno rouxn pacrpa n nnnnnnpyx re ns nnx, xoropte nexar
nnyrpn mnoroyrontnnxa. axo anropnrm npocr n nonxren, onaxo n cmtcne npemenntx sarpar ouent
ne+]]exrnnen. ro moxno necxontxo ynyumnrt, nomecrnn mnoroyrontnnx nnyrpt mnnnmantnoro
oemnmmero npxmoyrontnnxa co croponamn, napannentntmn ocxm xoopnnar, n anannsnponart nnmt re
rouxn, xoropte nonann nnyrpt npxmoyrontnnxa.
omanax, orpannunnammax mnoroyrontnnx, pasnnaer ncxxym ropnsonrantnym npxmym na uepeymmnecx
nnrepnant, nexamne nnyrpn nnn cnapyxn mnoroyrontnnxa. nx onpeenennx xonnon +rnx nnrepnanon
moxno nocrynnrt cneymmnm opasom.
a]nxcnpyem ropnsonrantnym npxmym Y, na xoropo npenonaraercx onpeennrt mecrononoxenne
nnrepnanon, naxoxmnxcx nnyrpn mnoroyrontnnxa, nmem rouxn nepeceuennx c +ro npxmo, ecnn onn
ecrt, xaxoro pepa mnoroyrontnnxa. nx nponepxn nannunx nepeceuennx npenapnrentno yenmcx n
rom, uro xonnt pepa pacnonoxent no pasnte cropont or npxmo.
pn noncxe rouex nepeceuennx yem nontsonartcx npannnamn, npnmenenntmn n recre npnnanexnocrn.
ora xparnte nepeceuennx c xonrypom mnoroyrontnnxa n ero nepmnnax yyr npannntno yurent. anee
ynopxounm
74
+ N+7+ + N+8
+ N+9
nonyuennte rouxn cnena nanpano n crpynnnpyem nx nonapno. 3rn napt n yyr xnnxrtcx xonnamn
nnrepnanon, nexamnx nnyrpn mnoroyrontnnxa n nonexamnx saxpacxe (pnc. 4.7).
snoxennax cxema sanonnennx mnoroyrontnnxa nocnr nasnanne sanonnennx n nopxxe cxannponannx
crpox, a cam anropnrm ornocnrcx x rnny anropnrmon nocrpounoro cxannponannx.
nx ycxopennx paort anropnrma moxno npenapnrentno ynopxounrt pepa n nopxxe nospacrannx
nanontme ns opnnar xonnon. pn nepememennn cxannpymme npxmo cnepxy nnns nponepxe na
nepeceuenne nonepramrcx nnmt re pepa, y xoroptx snauenne maxcnmantno opnnart ontme
opnnart cxannpymme npxmo. pn +rom ns cnncxa ncxnmuamrcx pepa, snauenne mnnnmantno
opnnart xoroptx ontme opnnart cxannpymme npxmo. axnm opasom noepxnnaercx nn]opmannx
o mnoxecrne axrnnntx peep, nepecexammnxcx co cxannpymme npxmo (pnc. 4.8).
pnneennt anropnrm npnroen nx sanonnennx nponsnontntx mnoroyrontnnxon. cnn xe
mnoroyrontnnx xnnxercx ntnyxntm, ro anropnrm moxno ynpocrnrt n nontcnrt ero +]]exrnnnocrt.
amernm, uro rpannny ntnyxnoro mnoroyrontnnxa moxno pasnrt na ne nomante - nenym n npanym
n, nosmoxno, na pepa - nepxnee n nnxnee rax uro xaxax ns oxontx nomantx nmeer ponno ono
nepeceuenne c xaxo cxannpymme npxmo (pnc. 4.9). cnontsyx anropnrm pesenxema n ononpemenno
renepnpyx pacrponoe npecrannenne nx peep neno n npano nomantx
rpannnt, nonyunm nent n npant nnxcent rpannnt mnoroyrontnnxa na xaxo cxannpymme
ropnsonrantno npxmo. ocneonarentno sanonnxx nnrepnant mexy +rnmn nnxcenamn nx xaxoro
snauennx opnnart or nepxne crpoxn pasneprxn x nnxne, nonyunm pacrponym pasneprxy ntnyxnoro
mnoroyrontnnxa.
59
A
anropnrmax sanonnennx onacrn c sarpanxo ncnontsyercx nno noxo. nnx npenonaraercx, uro
rpannna onacrn saana na pacrpono nnocxocrn n yxasana ona ns nnyrpennnx rouex onacrn, xoropax
nastnaercx sarpanouno. peyercx sanonnnrt onpeenenntm nnerom cnxsnym xomnonenry onacrn,
coepxamym sarpanount nnxcen. o cnxsnocrtm nonnmaercx 4- nnn 8-cnxsnocrt na ncxperno
nnocxocrn (n sanncnmocrn or nocranonxn saaun). oxno npecrannrt, uro n sarpanouno rouxe
naxonrcx ncrounnx, sannnammn ncm onacrt onpeenenntm nnerom. o+romy +ror nponecc nnora
nastnamr sannnxo onacrn.
59
nnmem anropnrm sanonnennx onacrn c sarpanxo, ncnontsymmn crex. o crexom nonnmaercx
nnnent maccnn (cnncox) +nemenron, npnuem ncranxn n yanennx +nemenron moxno nponsnonrt nnmt c
75
onoro xonna, r. e. ecnn +nemenr tn ncrannen n cnncox nocnennm, on onxen trt opaoran n yanen
ns cnncxa nepntm.
yem npenonarart, uro nyxno nonyunrt sanonnennx 4-xomnonenrt, orpannuenno saanntm xonrypom.
aunem c roro, uro nomecrnm sarpanouno nnxcen n crex. anee, noxa crex ne nycr, yem nsnnexart ns
nero ouepeno nnxcen n, saxpacnn ero, anannsnponart nnxcent, cocenne c nnm. cnn cpen nnx ecrt
nnxcent, ne npnnanexamne rpannne n ne oxpamennte nyxntm nnerom, ro nomecrnm nx n crex. ocne
+roro nepnemcx x onepannn nsnneuennx nnxcena ns crexa. o oxonuannn paort anropnrma nce
nnyrpennne nnxcent onacrn yyr saxpament.
opmantno anropnrm moxno onncart rax:
|7/]!8 - 3 7/]!8
A
S
- 3 3%] H
>
- 3 ! +
7V
*
] o
*
8 - % +}
|1 7/
*
]!
*
8 +}
{=>EF | ! } XB
SF`>C
| 7/]!8 }
>b 77/]!8 gh A>8 D=FC ?7V]o8 _ e A>a
bB: | 7/]!8 } XB
>b 7?7V] o8 gh AS8 ;CX 7?7V] o8 gh A>8 D=FC
| " 7/]!8 }
FCX
pnneennt ntme anropnrm sanonnennx onacrn nectma ne+]]exrnnen, rax xax npenonaraer
neonoxparnym opaorxy onnx n rex xe nnxcenon n nexonrponnpyemt pocr nennunnt crexa. nxe
npnnonrcx onee +]]exrnnnt anropnrm sanonnennx onacrn.
%& &
pnmennm nem nocrpounoro cxannponannx nx pemennx saaun sanonnennx. amernm, uro na xaxo
crpoxe mnoxecrno nnxcenon, nonexamnx saxpacxe, cocronr ns nnrepnanon, npnnanexamnx
nnyrpennocrn onacrn. 3rn nnrepnant orenent pyr or pyra nnrepnanamn ns nnxcenon,
npnnanexamnx rpannne nnn nnemnocrn onacrn. pome roro, ecnn naop nnxcenon opasyer cnxsnt
nnrepnan, npnnanexamn nnyrpenne uacrn onacrn, ro nnxcent na n no +rnm nnrepnanom nno
xnnxmrcx rpannuntmn, nno npnnanexar nnyrpenne uacrn onacrn (pnc. 4.10). ocnenne moryr
cnyxnrt n xauecrne sarpanountx nnxcenon nx crpox, nexamnx ntme n nnxe paccmarpnnaemo crpoxn.
pnnnmax no nnnmanne cxasannoe, moxno npenoxnrt cneymmym cxemy sanonnennx onacrn.
+ N+4*
60
nnnnannsnpyem crex, nomemax n nero sarpanount nnxcen. oxa crex ne nycr:
7/]!8 a
" %& ] / ] "
76
%/ a
&00 !0 YV &00 !0 WV 3% a

/ / 7YV]WV8 / % 1! !
! % ] %] % ! ] % %]
5/ / & % %+ .%& 5/
+
nropnrm npannntno sanonnxer nmym onacrt, n rom uncne n raxym, n xoropo npncyrcrnymr ornepcrnx
(pnc. 4.11).
+ N+44
|7/]!8 - 3!]
% ]
RM@=7V]o8 - 3!] 1 %

7/!8 - 3 7/]!8
A
S
- 3 3%] H
>
- 3 ! +
7/
*
] !
*
8 - % +}
RM@=7V
*
]o
*
8 a
{=>EF | ! } XB
SF`>C
| 3! }
7/]!8a 7/]!8 : A>a
Vc_eVa | 3! }
{=>EF 7/] !8 ghAS XB | }
61

SF`>C
7/]!8 _ eA> a V_ e/4
FCXa
WV_eV-Ea | && }
/_e/ca | 3! }
{=>EF ?7V]o8ghAS XB | }
SF`>C
?7V]o8_eA>a x-1
FCXa
YV_eVEa | && }
/_e/ca | 3! }
|/ % % & 7YV] WV8] !
30 % /& }
77

bB: _e-E @DF< O DB 4 XB
SF`>C
o_eoEa V_eYVa
{=>EF V ge WV XB
SF`>C
qc<Do _eb;E@Fa
{=>EF 7?7V]o8ghAS8;CX7?7V]o8ghA>8;CX7VgWV8 XB
| ! }
SF`>C
>b CBD qc<Do D=FC qc<Do_eD:MFa V_eVE
FCXa
|&& 1 }
>b qc<Do D=FC
SF`>C
>b7VeWV8;CX7?7V]o8ghAS8;CX7?7V]o8ghA>8 D=FC
RM@= 7Vbo8
FE@F RM@=7V-E]o8a
qc<Do_ b;E@F
FCXa
|1 ! % % }
/S_e/a
{=>EF 7?7V]o8eAS8B:7?7V]o8-A>8;CX7VgWV8 /_e/4a
>b VeVS D=FC V_eVE
FCX
FCX |bB:}
62
YARHH HBHHMLX RHHHH H BXHCTH
osanne peanncrnuecxnx nsopaxennn rpexmepntx ren xnnxercx ono ns naxnemnx saau
mamnnno rpa]nxn. cnonnax rpynocrt, nosnnxammax npn paspaorxe +]]exrnnntx meroon
nnsyannsannn, cocronr n neoxonmocrn cosannx ocrarouno xauecrnennoro nsopaxennx sa
orpannuennoe npemx. ponema yanennx nennnmtx nnnn n uacre nonepxnocre xnnxercx ono ns
nanonee cnoxntx cocrannxmmnx ome saaun nnsyannsannn rpexmepntx oexron. nocot
ocrnxennx +]]exron npospaunocrn, orpaxennx n r. n., crporo ronopx, ne nxoxr n saauy yanennx
nennnmtx uacre rpexmepntx oexron n, rem ne menee, nexoropte ns nnx, raxne, nanpnmep, xax
nocrpoenne rene, recno cnxsant c nacroxme nponemo n moryr trt ecrecrnenno ncrpoent n
paccmarpnnaemte anropnrmt.

accmorpnm omym nocranonxy saaun yanennx nennnmtx uacre nonepxnocrn, nonexame
nnsyannsannn.
penonoxnm, uro n npocrpancrne pacnonoxen nexoropt oexr, saannt orpannunnamme ero
nonepxnocrtm (ne oxsarentno cnxsno); nsopasnm, uro nnnr nanmarent, naxoxmncx na nexoropom
paccroxnnn or +roro oexra.
opmannsannx npnnonr x raxo nocranonxe saaun. tennm n npocrpancrne W
-
nexoropym nnocxocrt
R
2
. pocrpancrno W
-
n antnemem yem nastnart oexrntm npocrpancrnom, a nnocxocrt R
2
-
xaprnnno nnocxocrtm. ycrt n oexrnom npocrpancrne naxonrcx nexoropax nonepxnocrt K,
pacnonoxennnax no ony cropony or xaprnnno nnocxocrn. yem cunrart, uro nanmarent pacnonoxen
78
no pyrym cropony or xaprnnno nnocxocrn n nenrpe npoexrnponannx (n cnyuae oproronantno npoexnnn
nenrp npoexrnponannx ecxoneuno yanen) (pnc. 5.1).
yem ronopnrt, uro rouxa
1
nonepxnocrn K saropaxnnaer rouxy <
2
+ro nonepxnocrn, ecnn npoexnnn
+rnx rouex na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt connaamr n npn +rom rouxa
1
oxastnaercx pacnonoxenno mexy
2
n nx ome npoexnne na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt. ouxa nonepxnocrn nastnaercx nnnmo, ecnn +ra
rouxa ne saropoxena nnxaxo pyro rouxo nonepxnocrn (pnc. 5.2).
+ #+4
+ #+O
63
aaua yanennx nennnmtx uacre nonepxnocrn cocronr n ntxnnennn ncex ee nnnmtx yuacrxon n
nsopaxennn nx na xaprnnno nnocxocrn.
ecmorpx na xaxymymcx npocrory nocranonxn saaun, na ceronxmnn ent ne nsnecren ynnnepcantnt
ntcoxonponsnonrentnt anropnrm yanennx nennnmtx nnnn n nonepxnocre. nxe mt paccmorpnm
nexoropte noxot x pemennm +ro saaun, xoropym uacro nastnamr raxxe saaue saropaxnnannx.
aunem c nexoroptx npocrtx +npncrnuecxnx coopaxenn, xoropte moryr cnyxnrt ornpanno rouxo
nx pemennx saaun saropaxnnannx.
(.
ycrt cnena pasnra na na ]parmenra - $ n ,+ cnn camte antnne rouxn ]parmenra $ nexar nnxe x
nanmarenm, uem camte nnxnne rouxn ]parmenra ,, ro uacrn ,, ouennno, nnxax ne moryr
saroponrt ]parmenra $+ o+romy, ecnn mt cnauana nocrponm nsopaxenne ]parmenra ,, a sarem
nsopaxenne ]parmenra $, ro n pesyntrare nonyunm npannntnoe nsopaxenne nce cnent. em camtm
mt ycranannnnaem npnopnrer, n coornercrnnn c xoroptm nyxno nponsnonrt opaorxy ncxontx
anntx nx nonyuennx nenocrnoro nsopaxennx (pnc. 5.3).
.
penoxnm necxontxo nno cnoco ntuncnennx npnopnreron orentntx ]parmenron cnent. ycrt n
oexrnom npocrpancrne nam yanoct narn nnocxocrt, xoropax pasenxer nce npocrpancrno na raxne
na nonynpocrpancrna, n onom ns xoroptx naxoxrcx ]parmenr $ n nanmarent, a n pyrom -
]parmenr ,+ cno, uro npn +rnx ycnonnxx ]parmenr , ne moxer saropaxnnart ]parmenr $+
xauecrne npnmepa paccmorpnm cneny, cocroxmym ns nyx nenepecexammnxcx mapon. annom cnyuae
pasenxmmax nnocxocrt crponrcx nerxo: ona npoxonr uepes rouxy orpesxa, coennxmmym nenrpt mapon
nepnennxynxpno emy (pnc. 5.4). craercx nnmt ysnart, n xaxoe nonynpocrpancrno nonan namarent.
cnn nenepecexammnecx ]parmenrt $ n , ntnyxnt, ro, xax nsnecrno, pasenxmmax nnocxocrt
oxsarentno nmeercx. cnn xe ]parmenrt $ , nentnyxnt, ro moxno nontrartcx nomecrnrt nx n
nenepecexammnecx ntnyxnte rena (nanpnmep, n mapt nosmoxno mentmnx panycon), uro n cnyuae
ycnexa nosnonnr cnecrn saauy x npetymemy onee npocromy cnyuam. ax xe moxno nocrynnrt n npn
ntuncnennn paccroxnn o nanmarenx (cm. ).
). petymne npnmept noxastnamr, uro nonesno ycranonnrt, npn xaxnx ycnonnxx opaorxa onoro ns
]parmenron cnent, cxaxem $, moxer nponsnonrtcx nosxe, uem opaorxa pyroro ]parmenra, n npn
79
+rom nsopaxenne n nenom cranercx npannntntm. onesno raxxe snart, xora na ]parmenra moryr
opaartnartcx nesanncnmo pyr or pyra. axe ecnn y nac ner
+ #+- + #+N
64
cpecrn nx napannentntx ntuncnenn, pemenne saaun saropaxnnannx n noontx cnyuaxx nce
panno samerno ynpomaercx. anpnmep, ecnn npoexnnn ]parmenron $ n , na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt ne
nepecexamrcx, ro opaorxa xaxoro ns nnx moxer nponsnonrtcx nesanncnmo.
max saaua o nepeceuennn npoexnn nponsnontntx oexron nectma cnoxna, onaxo ncnontsonanne
npocrtx ocrarountx ycnonn nenepeceuennx uacro oxastnaercx nonesntm. anpnmep, onncan noxpyr
npoexnn npxmoyrontnnxn co croponamn, napannentntmn ocxm xoopnnar, n yennmnct, uro onn ne
nepecexamrcx (+ro cneercx x nponepxe necxontxnx nepanencrn), mt moxem trt ynepent, uro ncxonte
]nrypt raxxe ne nepecexamrcx. pannna ntuncnennx npnopnrera nnn ycranonnennx ]axra
nesanncnmocrn ]parmenron onxnt trt ocrarouno npocrtmn, nnaue cpecrno ne onpanaer nent.
.
amernm, uro ntcxasannte ntme coopaxennx moxno npnmennrt nx nocrpoennx xaxoro ns
]parmenron $ n ,_ nyxno rontxo pasnrt ]parmenr $ na no]parmenrt $f n $ff, a ]parmenr , - na ,f n
,f n cnona npnmennrt onncannym ntme nponeypy. ex +roro meroa cocronr n npnmenennn omero
npnnnnna, nsnecrnoro no nasnannem pasenx n nnacrny. mecro pemennx ono cnoxno saaun
pexypcnnno pemaercx cepnx npocrtx saau. aaua ponrcx o rex nop, noxa cnryannx ne ynpocrnrcx
nacrontxo, uro ee moxno yer paspemnrt na ocnone npocrtx npannn (pnc. 5.5).
!.
mecro roro, urot pacunenxrt cneny, moxno nontrartcx pasnnart xaprnnnym nnocxocrt n
opaartnart nesanncnmo re uacrn nsopaxennx, xoropte nonaamr n coornercrnymmne ]parmenrt
xaprnnno nnocxocrn. pnnnnn ror xe, uro n ntme (cm. I), rontxo ananns nponsnonrcx ne n
oexrnom npocrpancrne, a na nnocxocrn nsopaxennx.
.
erpyno samernrt, uro cnocrna cnent cnxsant co cnocrnamn nsopaxennx na xaprnnno
nnocxocrn, n no+romy nx cronr yunrtnart npn ntope meroa pemennx saaun saropaxnnannx.
anpnmep, raxne xopomo oprannsonannte oexrt, xax ntnyxnte mnororpannnxn nnn rnaxne
necamonepecexammnecx nonepxnocrn, cymecrnenno ornnuamrcx no cnonm cnocrnam or ontmoro
xonnuecrna nponsnontntx mnoroyrontnnxon, narpomoxenntx cnyuantm opasom n npocrpancrne.
epnax n nropax cnent n ornnune or rperte onaamr cnocrnom rax nastnaemo xorepenrnocrn no
nnnmocrn. 3ro cnocrno ntpaxaercx n rom, uro n cnny onpeenenno ynopxouennocrn nnnmocrt
xaxoro +nemenra cnent sanncnr or nnnmocrn nnsnexamnx +nemenron, a xapaxrep nnnmocrn menxercx
nexoroptm perynxpntm opasom. anpnmep, n cnyuae ntnyxnoro mnororpannnxa ncxxax rpant nno
nonnocrtm nnnma, nno nonnocrtm nennnma. 3ro cnocrno yer ncnontsonano necxontxo nosxe npn
ocyxennn cnocoon nnsyannsannn ntnyxntx ren.
80
+ #+#
65
+ #+6+
entnyxnte mnororpannte nonepxnocrn noontm cnocrnom ne onaamr, onaxo n n +rom cnyuae
nsmenenne nnnmocrn npn nepexoe or onnx +nemenron x cocennm raxxe nocnr perynxpnt xapaxrep.
nmenno, nno +nemenr nonnocrtm nennnm, nno nonnocrtm nnnm, nno ecnn on uacrnuno nnnm, a
uacrnuno ner, ro ero npoexnnx na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt oxsarentno nepecexaercx c npoexnne pyroro
pepa mnororpannnxa, uepes xoropoe npoxonr cxnaxa npoexrnponannx nonepxnocrn mnororpannnxa na
xaprnnnym nnocxocrt, r. e. raxax nocneonarentnocrt peep mnororpannnxa, xaxoe ns xoroptx xnnxercx
cmexntm x nym rpanxm, pasnnuntm opasom opnenrnponanntm no ornomennm x nanmarenm (nopmann
x +rnm rpanxm nanpannent n pasnte cropont ornocnrentno nyua npoexrnponannx) (pnc. 5.6). 3ro
cnocrno xapaxrepa nnnmocrn rpane mnororpanno nonepxnocrn n ananornunoe cnocrno, nmemmee
mecro n cnyuae rnaxnx nonepxnocre, xnnxercx ocnonannem nx npnmenennx n saauax saropaxnnannx
rax nastnaemtx meroon xonnuecrnenno nennnmocrn.
snecrnte merot pemennx saaun saropaxnnannx pasnnuamrcx mexy coo no uertpem ocnonntm
xapaxrepncrnxam:
ntopy crpyxrypt anntx nx npecrannennx nonepxnocrn;
npocrpancrny, n xoropom nponcxonr ananns nnnmocrn;
cnocoy nnsyannsannn nonepxnocrn;
ncnontsonannm cnenn]nuecxnx reomerpnuecxnx cnocrn nsopaxaemtx oexron.
axno xapaxrepncrnxo meroa xnnxercx acnmnrornuecxoe npemx paort coornercrnymmero
anropnrma n sanncnmocrn or paspemennx nsopaxaemoro oexra n paspemennx xaprnnno nnocxocrn.
3ro npemx moxer trt cnxsano co cnocrnamn nsopaxaemo nonepxnocrn, nnyrpenne crpyxrypo
ncnontsyemoro anropnrma, a raxxe nexoroptmn pyrnmn ]axropamn.
accmorpnm +rn xapaxrepncrnxn noponee.
pecrannenne nonepxnocrn moxer trt:
81
anannrnuecxnm - nonepxnocrt npecrannena nexnno npn nomomn anannrnuecxoro ntpaxennx;
raxoe npecrannenne otuno ncnontsyercx nx saannx npocrtx oexron - c]ep, xonycon,
nnnnnpon n r. n.;
nonn+pantntm - nonepxnocrt npecrannena conoxynnocrtm mnoroyrontntx rpane;
napamerpnuecxnm - n nne naopa uacre, xaxax ns xoroptx npecrannxer coo napamerpnuecxn
saannym nonepxnocrt; nepexo npn nomomn rpnanrynxnnn raxne nonepxnocrn samenxmr nx
npecrannennem n nne mnororpannnxa.
o paspemennem nonn+pantno nonepxnocrn nonnmaercx xonnuecrno ee rpane. o paspemennem
xaprnnno nnocxocrn nonnmaercx xonnuecrno rouex pacrpa (nnxcenon) na +xpane monnropa.
66
+ #+7
epa mnororpannnxa n nnnnn cerxn napamerpnuecxoro npecrannennx nastnamr xapxacntmn nnnnxmn, a
coornercrnymmee nsopaxenne - xapxacntm. cnn xe nonepxnocrt nsopaxaercx c ncnontsonannem
nonyronono saxpacxn ee +nemenron, ro raxoe nsopaxenne nastnaercx nonyronontm, a cam nponecc
saxpacxn -nonyronontm sanonnennem (rpane) (pnc. 5.7). ponecc nonyrononoro sanonnennx uacro cam
npecrannxer coo nerpnnnantnym saauy xomntmrepno rpa]nxn.
o rnny npocrpancrna, n xoropom nponcxonr ananns nnnmocrn, anropnrmt enxrcx na rpn rpynnt:
oexrnte - anannsnpymmne nsanmnoe pacnonoxenne uacre nonepxnocrn n oexrnom
npocrpancrne (npemennte xapaxrepncrnxn raxnx anropnrmon otuno onaamr xnaparnuno
sanncnmocrtm or uncna oexron cnent n nx paspemennx);
xaprnnnte - onpeenxmmne nnnmocrt xaxoro +nemenra xaprnnno nnocxocrn (nnxcena) n
nnocxocrn nsopaxennx (npemennte xapaxrepncrnxn raxnx anropnrmon onennnamrcx xax
nnnente ]ynxnnn or nponsneennx uncna oexron na uncno rouex pacrpa);
cmemannte - ncnontsymmne nx anannsa xax nepnt, rax n nropo noxo.
o cnocoy nnsyannsannn anropnrmt saropaxnnannx pasenxmrcx na ne rpynnt, n ony ns xoroptx
nxoxr anropnrmt, opnenrnponannte na nonyuenne xapxacnoro, a n pyrym - nonyrononoro nsopaxennx.
o rnynno +nemenra nonepxnocrn nonnmaercx paccroxnne or +roro +nemenra o xaprnnno nnocxocrn.
anropnrmax saropaxnnannx mnpoxo ncnontsymrcx ne cnenn]nuecxne nponeypt: recr rnynnt n recr
npnnanexnocrn, cmtcn xoroptx yer xcen ns antnemero nsnoxennx.
67
82
H m a

+ #+8
nropnrmt nepeopnoro rnna tnn ncropnuecxn nepntmn anropnrmamn, pemammnmn saauy
saropaxnnannx. acro nx ornocxr x meroam rpyo cnnt, rax xax npn anannse nnnmocrn
npenonaraercx npxmo nepeop +nemenron cnent. pn nx cosannn crpemnnnct rouno pemnrt saauy o
rom, xaxne nmenno uacrn +nemenron cnent onxnt trt yanent. o+romy +rn anropnrmt nyume
paspaorant nx nonyuennx xapxacntx nsopaxenn. anropnrmax nepeopnoro rnna, xax npannno,
paccmarpnnaercx xaxoe pepo, npnnanexamee xaxomy ns oexron cnent, n anannsnpyercx ero
nsanmnoe pacnonoxenne co ncemn rpanxmn xaxoro ns oexron, cocrannxmmnx cneny (pnc. 5.8). pn
+rom nosmoxnt cneymmne cnryannn.
.
epo naxonrcx n rom xe nonynpocrpancrne ornocnrentno rpann, uro n nanmarent. +rom cnyuae
pepo nonnocrtm nnnmo ornocnrentno +ro rpann.
67
.
epo nonnocrtm pacnonoxeno n nonynpocrpancrne, ne coepxamem nanmarenx. nauana nyxno
ntxcnnrt, ne saxptro nn ono rpantm. pn anannse nsanmnoro pacnonoxennx npoexnnn pepa n
npoexnnn xonrypa rpann na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt ocrarouno nponepnrt, pacnonoxena nn nepnax
npoexnnx nne nropo nnn nepecexaercx c ne. nepnom cnyuae pepo nnnmo ornocnrentno rpann. o
nropom cnyuae nponepxem, nexnr nn nepnax npoexnnx nonnocrtm nnyrpn npoexnnn rpann. cnn a, ro
pepo nonnocrtm saxptro rpantm n ero nyxno ncxnmunrt ns antnemnx paccmorpenn. cnn xe ono
uacrnuno saxptro rpantm, ro nyxno ntxnnrt nnnmte uacrn npoexnnn n nepern x anannsy
nsanmnoro pacnonoxennx pepa c ouepeno rpantm.
.
epo nepecexaercx c nnocxocrtm, necyme paccmarpnnaemym rpant. +rom cnyuae cneyer pasnrt
pepo na ne uacrn rouxo nepeceuennx n npnmennrt onncannte ntme nponeypt nx xaxo ns
uacre.
ocne sanepmennx nponecca yyr nsnecrnt nce nnnmte uacrn pepa.
pemennax cnoxnocrt anropnrmon raxoro rnna nponopnnonantna nponsneennm xonnuecrna peep n
xonnuecrna rpane n cnene, r. e. xnnxercx xnaparnuno or uncna +nemenron cnent (nnn paspemennx
oexra). nxaxne ononnnrentnte cnocrna nsopaxaemtx oexron ne yunrtnamrcx.
68
Mp Z-y
pyrnm meroom rpyo cnnt xnnxercx mero z-y]epa, xoropt nectma yoen nx annaparno
peannsannn nnny npocrort anropnrma n ncnontsyemoro n nem naopa onepann. pemennte
83
xapaxrepncrnxn +roro meroa nnneno sanncxr or xonnuecrna rouex pacrpa n rnynnno cnoxnocrn
cnent, r. e. ycpenennoro uncna rpane, nsanmno saxptnammnx pyr pyra.
ouepxnem, uro npemx paort anropnrma ne sanncnr or paspemennx oexra (uncna rpane nonepxnocrn
mnororpannnxa).
ax npannno, mero npnnnexaercx nx nsopaxennx cnoxntx cnen c npnmenennem oproronantnoro
npoexrnponannx na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt. nx ero peannsannn ncnontsymrcx ne onacrn namxrn: y]ep
rnynnt (t-y]ep) n y]ep xapa (xpanxmn nn]opmannm o cocroxnnn nnxcenon +xpana xomntmrepa).
y]ep rnynnt ncnontsyercx nx xpanennx xoopnnart t (rnynnt) xaxoro nnnmoro na anno crann
anannsa nsopaxennx nnxcena xaprnnno nnocxocrn. y]epe xapa sanomnnamrcx arpnyrt
(nnrencnnnocrt n nner) coornercrnymmero nnxcena (pnc. 5.9).
nauantnt momenr y]ep rnynnt nnnnnannsnpyercx snauennem rnynnt ]ona, a y]ep xapa -
arpnyramn ]ona. nponecce paort npoexnnx ouepeno rpann oexra pasnaraercx n pacrp. ocne
+roro anannsnpyercx rnynna (snauenne t) xaxoro nonoro nnxcena nsopaxennx nyrem cpannennx ee c
rnynno roro
+ #+9
68
nnxcena, xoropt nmeer ry xe npoexnnm na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt n yxe sanecen n y]ep rnynnt.
cnn snauenne t nonoro nnxcena npoexnnn mentme snauennx rnynnt coornercrnymmero nnxcena n z-
y]epe, ro paccmarpnnaemt +nemenr nsopaxennx naxonrcx nnxe x xaprnnno nnocxocrn, uem uacrt
yxe nocrpoenno cnent. +rom cnyuae arpnyrt nonoro nnxcena sanocxrcx n y]ep xapa n, xpome roro,
nponsnonrcx xoppexrnponxa xoopnnart z coornercrnymmero +nemenra y]epa rnynnt. cnn xe
cpannenne aer npornnononoxnt pesyntrar, ro nnxaxnx ecrnn ne nponsnonrcx n, cneonarentno,
y]ep rnynnt n y]ep xapa coxpanxmrcx es nsmenenn. axnm opasom, na xaxom mare mt nmeem
npannntnoe nsopaxenne ro uacrn cnent, xoropax yxe noneprnact anannsy.
opmantnoe onncanne meroa raxono. penonoxnm, uro cnena npecrannena n nne oennennx
mnoroyrontnnxon (nosmoxno, nepecexammnxcx) ocrponm oproronantnym npoexnnm cnent na
xaprnnnym nnocxocrt t 0.
penaraercx cneymmax nocneonarentnocrt maron:
23" !) )% 3+
23" !) !% !% )+
& 3% "_
" 30 !0 )!a
3 %" !! tet7V]o8a
" t7V]o8 !01 !) !% (7V]o8+
I t7V]o8 g (7V]o8] _
" !% 5 !) a
84
" t7V]o8 !01!0 30 !) !% (7V]o8+
2 / && "+
nropnrm, ncnontsymmn mero 2-y]epa, nerxo mon]nnnponart nx nonyuennx ceuenn nonepxnocrn
napannentntmn nnocxocrxmn. ycrt nac nnrepecyer nsopaxenne uacrn cnent, pacnonoxenno mexy
napannentntmn nnocxocrxmn, t
1
t t
2

peyemoe nsopaxenne moxno nonyunrt, ecnn ntnonrt na +xpan npoexnnn rontxo rex rouex
nonepxnocrn, snauenne rnynnt xoroptx n cnene nexnr n nnrepnane mexy t
1
n t
2
(pnc. 5.10). nx +roro
oneparop cpannennx n npetymem onncannn nyxno samennrt na cneymmn:
(z(x, y) Z(x, y)) n (z
1
z(x, y) z
2
).
+ #+4*
69
pesyntrare na xaprnnno nnocxocrn ocranyrcx rontxo re uacrn cnent, xoropte saxnmuent mexy
cexymnmn nnocxocrxmn, napannentntmn xaprnnno nnocxocrn n pacnonoxenntmn n npocrpancrne no
ornomennm x xaprnnno nnocxocrn coornercrnenno na rnynne t
1
n t
O
.
70
Y a aa
+ #+44
+ #+4O
ycrt n npocrpancrne saan mnororpannnx (ne oxsarentno ntnyxnt). aaua cocronr n nocrpoennn ero
nsopaxennx na xaprnnno nnocxocrn nno c ncnontsonannem nenrpantno npoexnnn c nenrpom
npoexrnponannx , nno oproronantnoro npoexrnponannx c nanpannxmmnm nexropom E.
ycrt J - nexoropax rpant mnororpannnxa. nocxocrt, necymax +ry rpant, pasenxer npocrpancrno na na
nonynpocrpancrna. asonem nonynpocrpancrno, n xoropoe cmorpnr nnemnxx nopmant x rpann J,
nonoxnrentntm (pnc. 5.11).
cnyuae nenrpantno npoexnnn nasonem rpant J mnororpannnxa nnneno, ecnn nenrp npoexrnponannx
nexnr n nonoxnrentnom no ornomennm x rpann J nonynpocrpancrne, n nennneno, ecnn nexnr n
orpnnarentnom nonynpocrpancrne. cnyuae oproronantno npoexnnn nasonem rpant J nnneno, ecnn
85
nexrop npoexrnponannx E n nexrop C nnemne nopmann x rpann J opasymr ocrpt yron, n nennneno - n
npornnnom cnyuae.
cnn mnororpannnx xnnxercx ntnyxntm, ro yanenne ncex nennnentx rpane nonnocrtm pemaer saauy
nnsyannsannn c yanennem nennnmtx rpane. cnyuae nponsnontnoro mnororpannnxa nennnente rpann
saneomo nennnmt, no+romy nyxno npoanannsnponart na npemer nnnmocrn nnmt nnnente rpann
mnororpannnxa. orx n +rom cnyuae mero ne aer oxonuarentnoro pemennx, rem ne menee xonnuecrno
rpane, nonexamnx anannsy, moxno coxparnrt npnmepno nnoe, rax xax nennnente rpann saneomo
nennnmt (pnc. 5.12). ouepxnem, uro +rn coopaxennx npnmennmt nnmt x nonepxnocrn, xnnxmmecx
rpannne nexoroporo rpexmepnoro rena.
"
ycrt J
1
, J
2
, , J
v
- rpann mnororpannnxa. accmorpnm ony ns rpane. anpnmep, J
>
.
osnaunm nepmnnt, nnnnenrnte rpann J
>
, uepes z
1
, z
2
, , z
T

aem nexrop nopmann x rpann J
Z
, ntuncnnn nexropnoe nponsneenne nmtx nyx cmexntx peep +ro
rpann. meem:
C
>
z
1
, z
2
, z
3

ycrt C
>
(p
>
, U
>
, A
>
); rora onopnax ]ynxnnx rpann J
>
nmeer nn:
Y
>
7<8 e p
>
V U
>
o A
>
t \
>
] \
>
e -7C
>
] z
>
8]
re (/] !] t).
70
ora ypannenne nnocxocrn, necyme rpant J
>
, moxno sanncart rax:
Y
>
(V] !] t) 0.
cnyuae, ecnn mnororpannnx xnnxercx ntnyxntm, xo+]]nnnenrt $
>
, U
>
n A
>
nerxo ntpart rax, urot
nexrop C
>
($
>
, U
>
, A
>
) tn nexropom nnemne nopmann. nx +roro naem xaxym-nno nnyrpennmm rouxy
mnororpannnxa j, nanpnmep ero apnnenrp:
j (R
1

2

c
)/m,
re R
1
, R
2
, , R
c
- mnoxecrno ncex nepmnn mnororpannnxa;
n nonoxnm T
>
- sign(Y
>
(j))
n, anee,
p
>
e T
>
p
>
] U
>
e T
>
U
>
] ?
>
e T
>
?
>
] \
>
e T
>
\
>
+
onoxnrentnoe R

n orpnnarentnoe R
-
no ornomennm x rpann J
>
nonynpocrpancrna onpeenxmrcx
coornercrnenno nepanencrnamn
Y
>
() 0 n Y
>
(<) 0.
]opmynnpyem ycnonnx, onpeenxmmne, xnnxercx nn rpant nnneno.
86
cnyuae nenrpantnoro npoexrnponannx rpant J
>
xnnxercx nnneno, ecnn Y
>
(<) 0, n nennneno, ecnn Y
>
()
0.
cnyuae oproronantnoro npoexrnponannx rpant J
>
- nnnenax, ecnn (C
>
, E) 0, n nennnenax,ecnn
(C
>
, E) 0.
71
Mp p
erot xonnuecrnenno nennnmocrn ocnonant na nocuere uncna rouex, saxptnammnx annym rouxy
nonepxnocrn.
accmorpnm na nonepxnocrn nenouncnennym ]ynxnnm, snauenne xoropo n rouxe nonepxnocrn
onpeenxercx xax xonnuecrno saxptnammnx ee rouex. 3ra ]ynxnnx nastnaercx ]ynxnne xonnuecrnenno
nennnmocrn rouxn n oosnauaercx uepes [(V).
osnaunm uepes b(V) oropaxenne npoexrnponannx rnaxo nonepxnocrn K na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt W
O
.
ouxa nonepxnocrn nastnaercx perynxpno rouxo oropaxennx b, ecnn ona nmecre c nexoropo cnoe
mano oxpecrnocrtm npoexrnpyercx nsanmno onosnauno na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt, n neperynxpno, ecnn
+ro ycnonne ne ntnonneno (pnc. 5.13).
noxecrno ncex neperynxpntx rouex oropaxennx b ecrecrnenntm opasom pacnaaercx na cnxsnte
xomnonenrt, xaxax ns xoroptx, xax npannno, nmeer crpyxrypy rnaxo xpnno, nexame na
nonepxnocrn. 3rn xpnnte uacro nastnamr xonrypntmn nnnnxmn. nnmte uacrn xonrypntx nnnn
cocrannxmr oueprannx nmoro npemera (pnc. 5.14).
+ #+4-
71
+ #+4N
+ #+4#
87
+ #+46
+ #+47
cnn nonepxnocrt naxonrcx n omem nonoxennn, ro oropaxenne npoexrnponannx nmeer nnmt
rnnnunte ocoennocrn - nnnnn cxnaxn (npecrannxmmne coo perynxpnte xpnnte na nonepxnocrn,
nsanmno onosnauno npoexrnpymmnecx na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt) n nsonnponannte rouxn copxn,
xoropte nexar na nnnnxx cxnaxn n xnnxmrcx ocotmn rouxamn npoexrnponannx nnnnn cxnaxn na
xaprnnnym nnocxocrt. ouepxnem, uro n rouxax copxn cama nnnnx cxnaxn ne nmeer ocoennocre.
coennocrt nmeer oropaxenne npoexrnponannx (pnc. 5.15).
osnnxaer nonpoc: nacxontxo rnnnuntm xnnxercx cnyua omero nonoxennx nonepxnocrn no
ornomennm x npoexrnponannm na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt reopnn ocoennocre rnaxnx oropaxenn
oxastnaercx, uro ncxxym nonepxnocrt moxno npnnecrn n omee nonoxenne cxont yrono mantm
menenennem, ecnn xe nonepxnocrt naxonrcx n omem nonoxennn, ro nnxaxoe ocrarouno manoe
menenenne nonepxnocrn ne moxer ncnoprnrt +roro cnocrna.
onanman sa nsmenennem nnnmocrn npn nnxennn rouxn no nonepxnocrn, moxno ntxnnrt cneymmne
cnocrna ]ynxnnn [(V) (pnc. 5.16).
(.
ynxnnx [(V) xnnxercx noxantno nocroxnno no ncex rouxax nonepxnocrn, na xoroptx oropaxenne
npoexrnponannx b npnnnmaer perynxpnte snauennx, r. e. n npoopase snauennx 7/8 ner neperynxpntx
rouex oropaxennx b.
).
ynxnnx [(V)menxer cxauxom cnoe snauenne rontxo n oxpecrnocrn rouex nonepxnocrn,
npoexrnpymmnxcx na npoexnnn xonrypntx nnnn (cocroxmnx ns rouex cxnaox npoexrnponannx).
3rn nanmennx nosnonxmr cnecrn saauy saropaxnnannx na rnaxo nonepxnocrn x anannsy nsanmnoro
pacnonoxennx +nemenra nonepxnocrn n ee xonrypntx nnnn. npouem, antnemne paccmorpennx
noxastnamr, uro n +ror ananns nstrouen n ocrarouno nsyunrt ]ynxnnm [(V)nnmt na xonrypntx nnnnxx
nonepxnocrn. nx +roro, n cnom ouepet, nyxno nccneonart nsanmnoe pacnonoxenne nnnn, cocroxmnx
ns rouex cxnaox npoexrnponannx na nonepxnocrn npn oropaxennn npoexrnponannx (pnc. 5.17).
axnmn cnocrnamn onaaer ]ynxnnx [(V)na nnnnxx cxnaxn npoexrnponannx (nnn xonrypntx nnnnxx) n
cnyuae nonepxnocrn omero nonoxennx oxno noxasart, uro ]ynxnnx [(V)moxer menxrt cnoe snauenne
na nnnnxx cxnaxn nnmt n nyx rnnax rouex (pnc. 5.18):
72
88
+ #+48
+ #+49
.
rouxax, npoexnnn xoroptx xnnxmrcx nepeceuennem, nnn camonepeceuennem, npoexnn nnnn
cxnaxn na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt (n +rnx rouxax ]ynxnnx [(V)nmeer cxauox, xparnt 2).
. rouxax copxn oropaxennx npoexrnponannx (n +rnx rouxax [(V) menxercx na 1).
epnt cnyua ocrarouno ouennen: yuacrox nonepxnocrn saropaxnnaercx cxnaxo pyroro yuacrxa
nonepxnocrn.
ropo cnyua menee npocr (n noromy onee nnrepecen). oxpecrnocrn rouex copxn npoexrnponannx
nonepxnocrt saropaxnnaer cama cex n noromy nsmenenne snauennx ]ynxnnn [(V) nponcxonr, xasanoct
t, es nnnmo npnunnt (pnc. 5.19).
%/ /&
] % )!3& ] ""+ !3
/ &] % % %]
] " !+
nropnrmt, ncnontsymmne nonxrne xonnuecrnenno nennnmocrn, n ornnune or anropnrmon rpyo
cnnt nmemr nnnente xapaxrepncrnxn npemenno cnoxnocrn or paspemennx nonepxnocrn, uro xnnxercx
neynyumaemtm no nopxxy pesyntrarom nx anropnrmon, paorammnx n oexrnom npocrpancrne. naxo
n pesyntrare paort raxoro anropnrma nonyuaercx xonrypnoe nsopaxenne, uro npenonaraer n
antnemem ero nanonnenne nnnmtmn xapxacntmn nnnnxmn nnn nonyronono saxpacxo. 3ro
cocrannxer orentnym saauy mamnnno rpa]nxn. nx ee pemennx ncnontsymrcx cnocrna ]ynxnnn [(V)n
rouxax, xnnxmmnxcx npoopasamn perynxpntx snauenn oropaxennx npoexrnponannx.
axne rouxn opasymr na nonepxnocrn orxptroe mnoxecrno. ax xax ]ynxnnx [(V)noxantno nocroxnna na
+rom mnoxecrne, ro na ncxxo ero cnxsno xomnonenre ona nocroxnna. tuncnxx snauenne ]ynxnnn [(V)n
nexoropo rouxe /
0
n ntxnnxx nce rouxn, nexamne n ro xe xomnonenre cnxsnocrn, mt nocneonarentno
onpeennm nnnmocrt ncex yuacrxon nonepxnocrn.
cnyuae ncnontsonannx +roro noxoa nx mnororpanntx nonepxnocre nosnnxaer nsnecrnax saaua o
nepeuncnennn ncex peep (nnn nepmnn) cnxsno xomnonenrt nexoroporo rpa]a, a raxxe nepeuncnennx
ncex xomnonenr cnxsnocrn rpa]a. ect n xauecrne rpa]a ntcrynaer onomepnt ocron mnororpannnxa.
73
89
. A B
+ #+O*
+ #+O4
accmorpnm onacrt xaprnnno nnocxocrn (npxmoyrontnnx n npocremem cnyuae), xoropym nasonem
axrnnntm oxnom (pnc. 5.20). ornuecxn nosmoxnt cneymmne cnyuan:
(. xno nycro (n nero ne nonana npoexnnx nn onoro +nemenra cnent).
xno saxpamnnaercx nnerom ]ona.
. xno oxnartnaercx npoexnne nnxamero x nemy no rnynne mnoroyrontnnxa.
xno saxpamnnaercx nnerom +roro npxmoyrontnnxa.
). asmept oxna mentme nnxcena xaprnnno nnocxocrn.

pnnnmaercx cnennantnoe pemenne o ero saxpacxe (nanpnmep, nnerom nmoro ns npxmoyrontnnxon,
nepecexammnxcx c oxnom).
. e ntnonneno nn ono ns npetymnx ycnonn.
xno pasnnaercx na uertpe uacrn n ananns nonropxercx nx xaxo ns uacre.
pesyntrare mt nonyuaem rerpapnoe epeno nsopaxennx, repmnnantntmn ysnamn xoroporo xnnxmrcx
arpnyrt nnera coornercrnymmero oxna (pnc. 5.21).
osmoxnt n pyrne npannna anannsa axrnnnoro oxna, nosnonxmmne coxparnrt uncno pasnenn. nx
peannsannn meroa neoxonmo ntpart +]]exrnnnt cnoco anannsa nsanmnoro pacnonoxennx
npxmoyrontnnxa (oxna) n mnoroyrontnnxa (npoexnnn rpann na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt). snecrna
mon]nxannx anropnrma, npn xoropo pasnenne xaprnnno nnocxocrn ocymecrnnxercx c
ncnontsonannem rpane nsopaxaemoro mnororpannnxa. ero nosnonxer npnmennrt nx anannsa
nsopaxennx napannentnte ntuncnennx.
74
K
+ #+OO
pn anannse nsanmnoro pacnonoxennx peep n rpane mnororpannnxa c nentm ntxnnennx nnnmtx
uacre peep ontmax uacrt npemenntx sarpar npnxonrcx na noncx rex nap pepo - rpant, npoexnnn
90
xoroptx nmemr na xaprnnno nnocxocrn -]axrnuecxoe nepeceuenne. epo n rpant, cocrannxmmne raxym
napy, nasonem nnnnenrntmn (pnc. 5.22).
accmorpnm nexoropte npocrte neoxonmte ycnonnx nnnnenrnocrn pepa n rpann.
.
onoueunt recr. cnn pepo n rpant nnnnenrnt, ro npxmoyrontnte oonouxn npoexnn pepa n
rpann na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt co croponamn, napannentntmn xoopnnarntm ocxm,
74
+ #+O-

nepecexamrcx. cnn nx napt pepo - rpant +ro ycnonne ne ntnonneno, r. e. npxmoyrontnte oonouxn
ne nepecexamrcx, ro ns antnemero anannsa raxym napy moxno ncxnmunrt.
.
asotem xaprnnnym nnocxocrt npn nomomn pannomepno cerxn na npxmoyrontnte xuexn. asonem
pepo n xuexy nnnnenrntmn, ecnn xuexa nepecexaercx c npoexnne pepa na xaprnnnym
nnocxocrt. Ipant n xuexa nastnamrcx nnnnenrntmn, ecnn npoexnnx rpann nepecexaercx c xuexo.
tuncnnn npenapnrentno nx xaxo xuexn cerxn nce nnnnenrnte c ne rpann, nepeem x
anannsy nsanmnoro pacnonoxennx peep n rpane. +ro nentm nx xaxoro pepa mnororpannnxa
naem nce xuexn, nnnnenrnte c nnm. anee anannsy nonexar nnmt re rpann, xoropte nmemr c
pepom omne nnnnenrnte xuexn (pnc. 5.23). nncox raxnx rpane nx xaxo xuexn y nac yxe
nmeercx. nennm rpyo npemennym cnoxnocrt anropnrmon es xemnponannx n c xemnponannem. pn
npxmom nepeope nx nonnoro anannsa neoxonmo nopxxa i(v
2
) onepann. anropnrme c
xemnponannem xonnuecrno onepann, neoxonmtx nx nonnoro anannsa nnnmocrn peep, nmeer
nopxox i(v). naxo n nocnenem cnyuae nx xpanennx nn]opmannn o nnnnenrnocrn rpane c
xuexamn cerxn rpeyercx ononnnrentnax namxrt.
75
M
+ #+ON
max cxema meroon npnopnreron cocronr n nontrxe npenapnrentno ynopxounrt +nemenrt cnent no
xaxomy-nno npnsnaxy. tuno n xauecrne napamerpa ynopxouennx ntnpaercx rnynna +nemenra n
cnene. xauecrne npocroro npnmepa paccmorpnm cnoco nsopaxennx nonepxnocrn, npecrannxmme
coo rpa]nx ]ynxnnn nyx nepemenntx, xoropax saana na npxmoyrontno cerxe (pnc. 5.24).
91
p yp.
y
penonoxnm, uro nyxno nsopasnrt nonepxnocrt n oproronantno npoexnnn. cnontsyx cranaprnym
rpnanrynxnnm onacrn saannx ]ynxnnn n xycouno nnnenoe npnnnxenne, nonyunm npnnnxenne
nonepxnocrn n nne mnororpanno nonepxnocrn, rpanxmn xoropo xnnxmrcx rpeyrontnnxn (pnc. 5.25).
tepem raxym nymepannm ysnon cerxn
A
ij
A(x
i
, y
j
), 0 i , 0 j M,
urot rouxa (/
0
, !
0
) tna nnxame x nanmarenm.
axpamnnax rpann coornercrnymmnm nnerom, cpocnm npoexnnn rpane na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt:
+ #+O#
75
bB: >_ev-4 XB{C DB * XB
bB: _e^-4 XB{C DB * XB
bB: T_eO XB{CDB 4 XB \:;{J;?F7Jr>]]Ts8
pn raxom ynopxouennn rpane mnororpannnxa npoexnnn rpane, nexamnx nnxe x nanmarenm,
cpactnamrcx na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt nosxe rpane, nexamnx antme or rouxn nanmennx. onee
rouno, ecnn rpant J
1
npemecrnyer rpann J
2
n cmtcne raxoro ynopxouennx, ro naercx pasenxmmax nx
rnnepnnocxocrt, raxax, uro J
1
npnnanexnr onomy nonynpocrpancrny, a J
2
n rouxa nanmennx -
ononnnrentnomy nonynpocrpancrny.
76
Mp mm
+ #+O6 + #+O7
penonoxnm renept, uro mt xornm nonyunrt xapxacnoe nsopaxenne nonepxnocrn (pnc. 5.26). neem
nymepannm peep q/>] ] T/ re (>, ) - nomep coornercrnymme npxmoyrontno xuexn, a T 1 nx
92
ropnsonrantnoro xarera, T 2 nx neprnxantnoro xarera, T 3 nx rnnorenyst. a +ror pas yem
cpactnart pepa n oparnom nopxxe:
bB: >_e* DB v-4 XB
bB: _e* DB ^-4 XB
bB: T_e4 DB - XB \:;{qX`F7qr>] ]Ts8
rnocnrentno nponeypt DraEdge neoxonmo cenart noxcnennx. nx nsopaxennx npoexnnn pepa
na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt ncnontsyem xaxo-nno cnoco pacrponoro npecrannennx orpesxa, nanpnmep
anropnrm pesenxema. pn ntnoe ouepeno rouxn npoexnnn na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt yem
anannsnponart nnnmocrt rexyme rouxn pepa npn nomomn nnxne n nepxne rpannn yxe nonyuenno x
+romy momenry uacrn nsopaxennx (pnc. 5.27). 3rn rpannnt nocxr nasnanne coornercrnenno nnxnero n
nepxnero nnanammnx ropnsonron; nnanammnx noromy, uro n nponecce paort anropnrma nx nonoxenne
xoppexrnpyercx c yuerom nnnmocrn (nnn nennnmocrn) ouepeno cpactnaemo na +xpan rouxn
npoexnnn pepa. namem cnyuae nepxnn n nnxnn ropnsonrt- moxno peannsonart xax na
nenouncnenntx maccnna minE n maxE, re E 0, 1, , Y (Y - xonnuecrno rouex pacrpa no ropnsonrann).
pn ntnonnennn nponeypt DraEdge nx rexymero pepa nyxno npoenart cneymmne onepannn:
!" % % !1& 7/]!8+
76

I ! h c;VrVsb
" ! 7/]!8a c/r/s_e !a

! g c>CrVs]
" ! 7/]!8a c>CrVs_e !a
nponecce paort anropnrma nsopaxenne ocrpannaercx nne sanpemenno onacrn, onpeenxemo
nepxnnm n nnxnnm ropnsonramn. ax xax nnyrpn +ro onacrn naxonrcx uacrt nsopaxennx,
pacnonoxennax x nanmarenm saneomo nnxe, uem eme ne opaorannte x +romy npemenn +nemenrt
cnent, ro +rn +nemenrt ne moryr saropaxnnart ro uacrn cnent, nsopaxenne xoropo yxe nonyueno na
+xpane.
77
Mp mm .
+ #+O8
pnneem rexcr ocnonno nponeypt, ncnontsyemo n pacrpono nepcnn meroa, a nmenno nponeypt
opaorxn npoexnn peep nsopaxaemo mnoropanno nonepxnocrn. o cymecrny, +ro nepcnx anropnrma
pesenxema pacrpono pasneprxn nx npoexnnn pepa mnororpannnxa na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt. ynxnnn
nnanammnx ropnsonron ntnonnxmr maccnnt Hmax(V) n Hmin(V) (pnc. 5.28).
RWiAq\wWq Y>CFl>XXFC7VE]oE]VO]oO8
Uq9Zv
C_e;S@7VO-VE8a c_e;S@7oO-oE8a
93
@V_e@>`C7VO-VE8a @o_e@>`C7oO-oE8a
V_eVEa o_eoEa @_e*a F_e*a
CO_eOuCa cO_eOuca
{=>EF @ g 7C-48 XB
SF`>C
@_e@Ea V_eV@Va F_eFcOa
>b FhC D=FC
SF`>C o_eo@oa F_eF-CO FCXa
RMDRB>CD7V]o8
>b ! g lc>C7V8 D=FC
SF`>C
RMDR>VFE7V]o]w<ABEB:8a lc>C7V8_e !
FCX
FE@F
>b ! h lc;V7V8 D=FC SF`>C
RMDR>VFE7V]o]\B{C ABEB:8a lc;V7V8_e !
end
end
ED;
77
+ #+O9
+ #+-*
yxnantnax peannsannx npnneennoro ntme onncannx anropnrma nnanammero ropnsonra aer xoppexrnoe
nsopaxenne nnmt n rom cnyuae, xora nsopaxennx peep mnororpannnxa na xaprnnno nnocxocrn
npecrannxmr coo orpesxn c yrnontm xo+]]nnnenrom T] no aconmrno nennunne ne npenocxoxmnm
ennnnt. nmt n +rom cnyuae pacrponax pasneprxa orpesxa ycrpoena raxnm opasom, uro npn nepexoe or
ono ee rouxn x pyro oxsarentno nsmenxercx acnncca rouxn. ocnenee rapanrnpyer cpannenne
opnnart coornercrnymme rouxn c pyro xomnonenro maccnnon max(/) n min(V) (pnc. 5.29).
cnn xe yrnono xo+]]nnnenr T npoexnnn pepa na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt ontme ennnnt, ro pacrponax
pasneprxa npoexnnn moxer nmert neprnxantnte yuacrxn, n rora uacrt nsopaxennx +roro yuacrxa, a
nmenno nce re rouxn yuacrxa, xoropte nexar nnxe ero camo nepxne rouxn, moxer trt yrepxna. 3ro
nponsoer, nanpnmep, n cnyuae, ecnn uacrt npoexnnn pepa naxonrcx ntme nepxnero ropnsonra n
nnxenne no pacrpono pasneprxe pepa nponcxonr c ymentmennem opnnart !] r. e. n nanpannennn
nepxnero ropnsonra. ora nepnoe cpannenne ! max(/) acr nonoxnrentnt pesyntrar, yer
nnnnnnponana rouxa (/] !) n nponsoer npncnoenne max(V): o. anee, npn nnxennn no pasneprxe
xoopnnara / ocranercx es nsmenenn, a xoopnnara ! ymentmnrcx na ennnny. pn ouepenom
cpannennn o max(V) ( !1) pesyntrar yer orpnnarentntm n ouepenax rouxa nsopaxena ne yer,
xorx ona n nexnr ntme sanpemenno onacrn (pnc. 5.30). 3ry nenpnxrnocrt moxno npeoonert pasntmn
cnocoamn. nn ns nnx peannsonan n npnneennom nnxe rexcre nporpammt.
RWiAq\wWq E>CFl>XXFC7VE]oE]VO]oO_ >CDF`F:8a
zpW
94
C]c]CO]cO]@V]@o]@]F]t]
M][]V]o]VB]oB_ >CDF`F:a
bE;`_ SBBEF;Ca

RWiAq\wWq <;D=4a|!&] T / 4}
Uq9Zv
CO_eOuCa cO_eOuca
{=>EF @ g 7C-48 XB
SF`>C
@_e@Ea V_eV@Va F_-FcOa
>b FhC D=FC
SF`>C o_eo@oa F_eF-CO FCXa
RMDRB>CD7V]o8
>b ! g lc>C7V8 D=FC
78

SF`>C
RMDR>VFE 7V ] o]w<ABEB: 8a lc>C7V8_e !
FCX
FE@F
>b ! h lc;V7V8 D=FC
SF`>C
RMDR>VFE7V]o]\B{CABE or8a lc;V7V8 _ e !
FCX
FCX
qv\a
RWiAq\wWq <;D=Oa |!&] T / 4}
Uq9Zv
t_eca c_eCa C_eta
CO_eOuCa cO_-Ouca
M_eVa [aeoa VB_eVa oB_eoa
{=>EF @ g 7C-48 XB
SF`>C
@a e@Ea [_eo@oa F_eFcOa
>b FhC D=FC
SF`>C M_eV@Va F_eF-CO FCXa
>b oglc>CrVs D=FC
SF`>C
RMDR>VFE 7V]o] w<ABEB:8 a
>b MghV D=FC
SF`>C
>b @oh* D=FC
lc>CrVBs_eoB FE@F lc>CrVs_eoa
VB_eMa oB_e[
FCX
FCX
FE@F
>b ohlc;VrVs D=FC
SF`>C
RMDR>VFE 7V]o]\B{CABEB:8 a
>b MghV D=FC
SF`>C
>b @og* D=FC
lc;VrVBs_eoB FE@F lc;VrVs_eoa
VB_eMa oB_e[
95
FCXa
FCX
FE@F
>b Mgh V D=FC SF`>C VB_eMa oB_e[ FCXa
79

V_eMa o_e[
FCXa
qv\a

Uq9Zv
C_e;S@7VO-VE8a c_e;S@7oO-oE8a
@V_e@>`C7VO-VE8a @o_e@>`C7oO-oE8a
V_eVEa o_eoEa @_e*a F_e*a

>b c g C D=FC R;D=E FE@F SF`>C R;D=Oa
qv\a
80
Mp p
+ #+-4
3ror mero ncnontsyer nen, sanoxennte n anropnrme xyoxnnxa, xora nocne npenapnrentno
opaorxn (coprnponxn rpane no rnynne) na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt cpactnamrcx rpann, naunnax c
camtx antnnx, a npoexnnn rpane, pacnonoxenntx x nanmarenm nnxe, naxnatnamrcx na npoexnnn
rpane, cpomenntx panee. pn sanepmennn +roro nponecca nonyunrcx npannntnoe nsopaxenne cnent
(pnc. 5.31).
nx ynopxouennx rpane ncnontsyercx npannno, cornacno xoropomy rpant J
1
npemecrnyer rpann J
2

ecnn rpant J
1
n nenrp npoexrnponannx nexar no ony cropony or nnocxocrn, necyme rpant J
2
.
npornnnom cnyuae cunraercx, uro rpant J
1
cneyer sa rpantm J
2
. amernm, uro rpann moryr ononpemenno
npemecrnonart n cneonart pyr sa pyrom! ntmn cnonamn, onpeenenne nopxxa cneonannx rpane
sanncnr ne rontxo or nx nsanmnoro pacnonoxennx n npocrpancrne, no n or anpnopnoro nopxxa, n xoropom
+rn rpann paccmarpnnamrcx (pnc. 5.32).
cnn necymax nnocxocrt nepecexaer recrnpyemym rpant, ro mt paspesaem ee nont +ro nnocxocrn n
nxnmuaem n paccmorpenne nsamen paspesanno ne nonte rpann.
tepem nponsnontntm opasom nexoropym rpant. a +rom mare yem nastnart ee axrnnno. asennm
nce ocranmnecx rpann na ne rpynnt: n ony ns nnx ornecem re, xoropte nexar ornocnrentno axrnnno
rpann n onom nonynpocrpancrne c nanmarenem, a n pyrym re, xoropte nexar n ononnnrentnom
nonynpocrpancrne. Ipann nepno rpynnt ne moryr saropaxnnartcx axrnnno rpantm, n axrnnnax rpant ne
moxer trt saropoxena nnxaxo rpantm nropo rpynnt. o+romy ecnn t mt cnauana nonyunnn
npannntnoe nsopaxenne uacrn cnent, cocroxme ns rpane nropo rpynnt, sarem nsopasnnn t
axrnnnym rpant n, naxonen, nocrponnn npannntnoe nsopaxenne uacrn cnent, cocroxme ns
96
+ #+-O
80
+ #+--
+ #+-N
rpane nepno rpynnt, ro n pesyntrare nmenn t nepnoe nsopaxenne cnent n nenom (pnc. 5.33).
axnm opasom, pasnenne cnent na ne uacrn c ncnontsonannem axrnnno rpann nosnonxer cnecrn saauy
saropaxnnannx nx ncxonoro mnoxecrna rpane x pemennm nyx nesanncnmtx saau saropaxnnannx
nnyrpn xaxo rpynnt rpane. 3ro nanmenne npnnonr x nocrpoennm pexypcnnnoro anropnrma
nsopaxennx cnent.
nx +roro n xaxo rpynne cnona nponsnontntm opasom ntenxem axrnnnym rpant n nponsnonm
antnemee enenne. ponecc pexypcnnno nonropxercx, noxa ne yyr orcoprnponant nce rpann. 3ra
nponeypa nanomnnaer nsnecrnt anropnrm tcrpo coprnponxn oapa. esyntrar pasnennx mnoxecrna
ncex rpane moxer trt npecrannen n nne nonunoro epena, ycrpoennoro cneymmnm opasom.
xaxom ysne epena nomemaercx rpant, n neno nernn epena - nnnente rpann no ornomennm x
xopneno, n npano nernn - nennnente (pnc. 5.34). nx nonyuennx nsopaxennx c ncnontsonannem +roro
epena ocrarouno pexypcnnno cpocnrt na nnocxocrt nsopaxennx npoexnn rpane no cneymmemy
npannny:
3! Q2" Q.
2" 7 !8.
2" !0 ".
2" 7 !8.
nncannt anropnrm anannsnpyer cneny ncxnmunrentno n oexrnom npocrpancrne. pn +rom
conepmenno nenaxno, nepecexamrcx rpann nnn ner n xaxo onn ]opmt. naxo n +rom n cnaax cropona
meroa: on nnxax ne yunrtnaer xorepenrnocrn no nnnmocrn uacre cnent, ecnn ona n nsopaxaemo
cnene npncyrcrnyer.
81
97
Aa a
nropnrmt nocrpounoro cxannponannx ncnontsymr nocneonarentnt ntno nsopaxennx uacrn cnent,
nonyuenno n pesyntrare nepeceuennx nce cnent cemecrnom ropnsonrantntx nnocxocre,
coornercrnymmnx ropnsonrantntm crpoxam pasneprxn +xpana. axax raxax nnocxocrt (nastnaemax
nnocxocrtm pasneprxn) onpeenxer conoxynnocrt orpesxon npxmtx, nosnnxammnx n pesyntrare
nepeceuennx c ne rpane (pnc. 5.35).
nx ]opmnponannx nsopaxennx rpeyercx pemnrt n xaxo nnocxocrn nyxmepnym saauy
saropaxnnannx, npoanannsnponan nsanmnoe pacnonoxenne orpesxon ornocnrentno nanmarenx na
nnocxocrn cxannponannx.
+ #+-#
81
nanns no ncex nnocxocrxx cxannponannx nosnonxer c]opmnponart mnoxecrno ncex crpox pasneprxn
nsopaxennx n, raxnm opasom, cnnresnponart nsopaxenne n nenom. 3ror noxo nosnonxer raxxe
]opmnponart xapxacnte nsopaxennx.
acroxmn mero ncnontsyer nocneonarentno paory n oexrnom npocrpancrne n n nnocxocrn
nsopaxennx, cnox rpexmepnym saauy saropaxnnannx x nocneonarentnocrn nyxmepntx saau
saropaxnnannx (nx orpesxon na nnocxocrn) (pnc. 5.36).
ero onycxaer pacrponym nepcnm, n no+romy ero uacro ncnontsymr nx annaparno peannsannn. Vuer
xorepenrnocrn no nnnmocrn nosnonxer nponsnecrn px cymecrnenntx ynyumenn sa cuer ncnontsonannx
onee cnoxntx crpyxryp anntx. anpnmep, npn anannse coepxnmoro nnocxocrn pasneprxn
]opmnpyercx cnncox rouex, n xoroptx nsmenxercx cocroxnne nnnmocrn xaxoro-nno ns peep.
ycrt nexoropoe pepo nnnmo n cnoe xonneno rouxe. o rex nop, noxa cocroxnne nnnmocrn pepa ne
menxercx, npoonxaercx ntno na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt orpesxa nepeceuennx cexyme nnocxocrn c
rpantm, coepxame +ro pepo. cnn xe cocroxnne nnnmocrn pepa nnyrpn rexyme cxannpymme
nnocxocrn nsmennnoct, r. e. pepo crano nennnmtm, ro, ouennno, mt oxaxemcx n ono ns rouex
yxasannoro ntme cnncxa. renept rpannne ntnonmoro na +xpan orpesxa yer nepeceuenne
cxannpymme nnocxocrn c rexymnm nnnmtm pepom.
ero nocrpounoro cxannponannx nosnonxer ncnontsonart nsnecrnt n ntuncnnrentno reomerpnn
npnnnnn sameramme nnocxocrn n coornercrnymmym crpyxrypy anntx, npncnoconennym nx paort
c nnamnuecxn menxmmecx nn]opmanne o pacnonoxennn orpesxon nepeceuennx cxannpymme
nnocxocrn c rpanxmn mnororpannnxa.
98
+ #+-6
82
Tyu. y
y ay .
Tay
aaua annpoxcnmannn ]ynxnnn or nyx nepemenntx cocronr n cneymmem: snauennx ]ynxnnn saant n
v nponsnontntm opasom pacnonoxenntx rouxax n rpeyercx annpoxcnmnponart ee n nexoropo nono
rouxe.
nn ns nosmoxntx noxoon x pemennm +ro saaun ocnontnaercx na xycouno-nnneno
annpoxcnmannn, npn xoropo nonepxnocrt, onpeenxemax ]ynxnne, npnnnxaercx xycouno-nnneno
nonepxnocrtm, cocroxme ns rpeyrontnnxon. nx +roro na nnocxocrn (x, y) cosaercx cert ns
nenepecexammnxcx rpeyrontnnxon. poexnnx xaxo rouxn npocrpancrna na nnocxocrt (x, y)
npnnanexnr nnmt ono ns rpeyrontntx rpane, n snauenne ]ynxnnn I(x, y) annpoxcnmnpyercx
xycouno-nnneno ]ynxnne, npnnnmamme saannte snauennx n rouxax onopnoro mnoxecrna. ponecc
rpnanrynxnnn cocronr n cosannn cern nenepecexammnxcx rpeyrontnnxon c nepmnnamn n saanntx
rouxax (pnc. 6.1).
o cpannennm c npxmoyrontno cerxo rpnanrynxnnx ncxontx anntx nmeer px npenmymecrn. o-
nepntx, +ro orcyrcrnne ennoro, nponsnontno ntpannoro macmraa nx ncex anntx, rora xax pasmep
xuexn npxmoyrontno cerxn anromarnuecxn ycranannnnaer npeen noponocrn xaprt n nce crymennx
rouex yyr ycpenxrtcx o pasmepa xuexn pemerxn. pnanrynxnnx xe rouex ecrecrnenntm opasom
nocrpannaercx no annte. am, re ncxonte rouxn paspexent, rpeyrontnnxn xpynnee, ram, re ecrt
crymennx, - mentue. onnuecrno rpeyrontnnxon onpeenxercx xonnuecrnom ncxontx rouex (no reopeme
3nepa, ono ne npentmaer ynoennoro uncna ncxontx rouex).
o-nroptx, y npxmoyrontno cerxn ecrt na ntenenntx nanpannennx, nnxax ne cornaconanntx c
nauantntmn anntmn. o+romy npn ee nocrpoennn ecrecrnenno rpeonart raxo rounocrn
annpoxcnmannn, urot npn nonopore pemerxn na nmo yron pesyntrnpymmax nonepxnocrt npaxrnuecxn
ne menxnact. nx aexnarnoro oropaxennx cnntno menxmmnxcx nonepxnocre npnxonrcx snaunrentno
nsmentuart cerxy, uro rpeyer ontmnx ntuncnnrentntx momnocre n neer x opasonannm
neycrounnocre. pn rpnanrynxnnn +roro ner.
ro xe npemx sa npenmymecrna rpnanrynxnnn npnxonrcx nnarnrt cnoxnocrtm nporpammnponannx.
nx onpeenennx xauecrna rpnanrynxnnn nsnecrno necxontxo xpnrepnen, xoropte ntnpamrcx, ncxox
ns rpeonann nx omnxn nnrepnonxnnn.
99
+ 6+4
83
a npaxrnxe, x npnmepy, moxer nosnnxnyrt neoxonmocrt mnnnmnsnponart cymmapnym nnny peep
rpnanrynxnnn (mnnnmantnax nsnemennax rpnanrynxnnx). snecren mero xano rpnanrynxnnn, npn
xoropom nnxora ne ormenxercx ro, uro yxe tno cenano panee. 3ror mero nocneonarentno nopoxaer
pepa, n nponecc sanepmaercx nocne roro, xax nopoxeno neoxonmoe uncno peep (ono nonnocrtm
onpeenxercx pasmepom mnoxecrna rouex n ero ntnyxno oonouxn). cnn nent cocronr n mnnnmnsannn
cymmapno nnnt peep, ro nce, uro moxno cenart, ncnontsyx xant mero, - +ro npnmennrt
noxantnt xpnrepn, oannxx na xaxom mare xparuamee ns nosmoxntx peep, conmecrnmoe c panee
nopoxenntmn pepamn, r. e. ne nepecexammee nn ono ns nnx.
nacroxmee npemx n ontmnncrne npnnoxenn ncnontsyercx rpnanrynxnnx enone. na crponrcx
onosnauno n coennxer ncxonte rouxn n cert nanonee npannntntx rpeyrontnnxon, uro yono n
pacuerax.
pnanrynxnnn enone ncxontx anntx ecrecrnenntm opasom coornercrnyer nenpeptnnax xycouno-
nnnenax nonepxnocrt n npocrpancrne, cocroxmax ns rpeyrontnnxon (pnc. 6.2). pn opaorxe ontmnx
naopon anntx +rnm moxno n yonnernopnrtcx.
+ 6+O
84
Aa ay
ax yxe ronopnnoct, saaua rpnanrynxnnn cocronr n coennennn saanntx v rouex na nnocxocrn
nenepecexammnmncx orpesxamn rax, urot xaxax onacrt nnyrpn ntnyxno oonouxn +roro mnoxecrna
rouex xnnxnact rpeyrontnnxom.
esyntrarom pemennx +ro saaun onxen trt cnncox peep, opasymmnx rpnanrynxnnm.
accmorpnm anropnrm nocrpoennx rpnanrynxnnn enone. e nocrpoennm npemecrnyer pasnenne
nnocxocrn na rax nastnaemte onacrn oponoro.
100
osnaunm ncxonoe mnoxecrno ns v rouex nnocxocrn uepes S. yem cunrart, uro nnxaxne 4 rouxn
ncxonoro mnoxecrna ne nexar na ono oxpyxnocrn. nacrtm oponoro z nx rouxn mnoxecrna S
nastnaercx mnoxecrno raxnx rouex nnocxocrn, paccroxnne or xoroptx o rouxn mentme, uem o nmo
pyro rouxn +roro mnoxecrna. onyuaemte raxnm opasom v onacre opasymr pasnenne nnocxocrn.
ennennax rpannna +rnx onacre npecrannxer coo nexoropym cert - narpammy oponoro (pnc.
6.3).
cnn mnoxecrno S cocronr ns nyx rouex, ro cpennnt nepnennxynxp x coennxmmemy nx orpesxy
ennr nnocxocrt na ne coornercrnymmne onacrn oponoro. omem cnyuae onacrt oponoro rouxn -
+ro nepeceuenne ncex nonynnocxocre, coepxamnx +ry rouxy n orpannuenntx cpennntmn
nepnennxynxpamn x orpesxam, coennxmmnm c ocrantntmn rouxamn mnoxecrna S. o+romy xaxax
onacrt oponoro z yer orpannuena ntnyxno nomanno - nno samxnyro, nno
+ 6+-
84
Cyy a a
nx npecrannennx nnanapnoro rpa]a uacro ncnontsyercx peepnt cnncox c nontmn cnxsxmn ().
nanornunoe npecrannenne onycrnmo n nx rpa]a, coornercrnymmero nonepxnocrn mnororpannnxa, r.
e. rpa]a, ynoxennoro na rnaxo nonepxnocrn.
ycrt z z
1
, , z
C
- nepmnnt rpa]a n I F
1
,
c
- mnoxecrno ero peep. Inannax xomnonenra
nx nnanapnoro rpa]a (z]q) - peepnt ysen. axoe pepo npecrannxercx onnm peepntm
ysnom, xoropt coepxnr mecrt none: z
1
- nauano pepa, z
2
- ero xonen, b
1
- nomep rpann, nexame
cnpana or pepa, b
2
-nomep rpann, nexame cnena or pepa, R
1
(
3
) - nomep nepnoro pepa, ncrpeuaemoro
ncne sa pepom (z
1
, z
2
) npn nonopore or nero npornn uacono crpenxn noxpyr z
1
(coornercrnenno z
2
)
(pnc. 6.10). parmenry rpa]a, nsopaxennoro na pncynxe, coornercrnyer cneymmn ]parmenr (pnc
6.11).
+ 6+4*
86
101
+ 6+44
nx roro urot moxno tno nerxo ntuncnnrt pepa, nnnnenrnte saanno nepmnne, nnn pepa,
orpannunnammne saannym rpant, nneem na maccnna - HV1: n HF1:b re b - xonnuecrno rpane (ono
ne ontme, uem xonnuecrno peep), >- +nemenr maccnna HV coepxnr nomep onoro ns peep,
nnnnenrntx >- nepmnne; >- +nemenr maccnna HF coepxnr nomep onoro ns peep, npnnanexamnx >-
rpann.
do<F p::ep::;orE++^;Vs Bb ZCDF`F:a
omepa nnnnenrntx peep sannmem n maccnn :rr, nx xonnuecrno - n nepemennym >. ora nponeypa
naxoxennx nnnnenrntx peep ntrnxnr cneymmnm opasom:
<:B?FXM:F ZC?>XFCD7>_ZCDF`F:a[;: p_p::a [;: T_ZCDF`F:8a
[;: ;];B_ZCDF`F:a
SF`>C
;_elJrsa ;B_e;a UrEs_e;a >_eEa
>b [Er;se D=FC ;_e<Er;s FE@F ;_e<Or;sa
{=>EF ;gh;B XB
SF`>C
Ur>s_e;a >_e>Ea
>b [Er;se D=FC ;_e<Er;s FE@F ;_e<Or;s
FCX
FCX |ZC?>XFCD}a
nanornuntm opasom mt moxem nanncart nponeypy
J;?F7>_ZCDF`F:ap_p::8,
onpeenxmmym rpn pepa >-ro rpeyrontnnxa (+nemenrt maccnna ).
87
y y y
aprt nnnn yponnx, nnn nsonnnn, ]ynxnn nyx nepemenntx mnpoxo npnmenxmrcx xax n
reopernuecxnx nccneonannxx, rax n n npnxnantx onacrxx. ocrarouno ncnomnnrt ncem snaxomte
ronorpa]nuecxne xaprt, xoropte xnnxmrcx no cymecrny xapramn nsonnnn ]ynxnnn ntcort pente]a
mecrnocrn (pnc. 6.12).
a npaxrnxe snauennx ]ynxnn uacro ocrynnt nnmt n rouxax nexoroporo xoneunoro neperynxpnoro
mnoxecrna (nanpnmep, na mnoxecrne cnyuano pacnpeenenntx rouex n nexoropo onacrn nnocxocrn).
cnn cerxa, na xoropo saant snauennx ]ynxnnn, xnnxercx ocrarouno pexo nx ntuncnennx
npnnnxenntx snauenn na onee uacro cerxe, ro npenapnrentno ncnontsymr nnrepnonxnnm, uro ne
102
npecrannxer rpya n cnyuae npxmoyrontno cerxn. arem, pasnnax xaxym npxmoyrontnym xuexy na
na rpeyrontnnxa, nonyuaem cranaprnym rpnanrynxnnm onacrn saannx ]ynxnnn.
+ 6+4O
87
Ipa]nx ]ynxnnn moxno samennrt mnororpanno nonepxnocrtm npn nomomn xycouno-nnneno
nnrepnonxnnn c nepmnnamn, npoexrnpymmnmncx nont ocn t n ysnt cerxn.
axnm opasom, mt cnonm ncxonym saauy x saaue nocrpoennx nnnn yponnx nonyunnmecx xycouno
nnneno ]ynxnnn, onpeenenno na oennennn rpeyrontnnxon. Ipanxmn +ro nonepxnocrn cnyxar
rpeyrontnnxn c nepmnnamn n rouxax R
>
(V
>
, o
>
, b
>
), re (V
>
, o
>
) - ysnt npxmoyrontno cerxn, b
>
-
coornercrnymmne snauennx ]ynxnnn b(V, o).
nnne yponnx +ro ]ynxnnn, coornercrnymme snauennm yponnx =, xnnxercx oennenne npoexnn na
nnocxocrt (/] !) orpesxon, nonyuammnxcx n pesyntrare nepeceuennx ropnsonrantno nnocxocrn t = c
rpeyrontntmn rpanxmn nonepxnocrn mnororpannnxa.
rax, nx pemennx saaun nyxno nmert n cnoem pacnopxxennn nponeypy naxoxennx nepeceuennx
rpeyrontno rpann c ropnsonrantno nnocxocrtm. pnmennn nponeypy nocneonarentno x xaxo
rpann, nonyunm xycouno-nnnenym annpoxcnmannm nnnn yponnx ]ynxnnn b (pnc. 6.13).
amernm: nosmoxnt cneymmne cnyuan nsanmnoro pacnonoxennx rpeyrontnnxa n nnocxocrn (pnc. 6.14):
(. peyrontnnx n nnocxocrt ne nepecexamrcx - nce nepmnnt nexar no ony cropony or nnocxocrn.
. peyrontnnx xacaercx nnocxocrn ono nepmnno -nce nepmnnt nexar no ony cropony or nnocxocrn.
).
peyrontnnx nepecexaercx c nnocxocrtm no pepy -nce nepmnnt nexar no ony cropony or nnocxocrn,
npnuem ne nepmnnt - n nnocxocrn.
.
peyrontnnx nepecexaercx c nnocxocrtm - naercx napa nepmnn, nexamnx no pasnte cropont or
nnocxocrn.
!. peyrontnnx nexnr n nnocxocrn - nce nepmnnt nexar n nnocxocrn.
nxe npnnonrcx rexcr nponeypt naxoxennx npoexnnn nepeceuennx nnocxocrn n rpeyrontno rpann,
saanno cnonmn nepmnnamn.
103
+ 6+4-
+ 6+4N
88
RWiAq\wWq >@BE>CFa
zpW >]]T]CE]<]L]@ _ >CDF`F:a
tc>C]tc;V]tbc>C]tbc;V]t]:b==b F<@ _ :F;Ea
W;>CUB{ _ ;::;o r*++4#s Bb >CDF`F:a
RWiAq\wWq FVFJ7>]]T_ >CDF`F:8a
zpW
@]<]L]@C]<C]LC _ >CDF`F:a
D]t _ :F;Ea
V _ ;::;o r*++Os Bb [F?DB:a
RWiAq\wWq J@F?D>BC7t_ :F;E8a
zpW E]@]Ct]>_ >CDF`F:a
@`_ ;::;o r*++Os Bb >CDF`F:a
;_ ;::;o r4++-]4++Os Bb :F;Ea
Uq9Zv
Ct_e*a @_e*a
bB: >_e* DB O XB
>b Vr>]-sgt D=FC @`r>s_e-E FE@F
>b Vr>]-sht D=FC @`r>s_eE FE@F
SF`>C @`r>s_e*a Ct_CtE FCXa
A;@F Ct Bb
*_ SF`>C
bB: >_e* DB O XB
SF`>C
<_e>a L_e7>E8 cBX - a
>b @`r<su@`rLsg* D=FC
SF`>C
D_e7t-Vr<b-s87VrLb-s-Vr<b-s8a
>b 7*geD8 ;CX 7DgeE8 D=FC
SF`>C
@_e@Ea
;r@]Es_ueVr<]EsDu7VrL]Es-Vr<]Es8b
;r@]Os_eVr<]OsDu7VrL]Os-Vr<]Os8a
FCX
FCXa
FCXa
E>CF@7;rE]Es] ;rE]Os] ;rO]Es] ;rO]Os8
FCXa
89
104

4_ SF`>C
bB: >_e* DB O XB >b @`r>se* D=FC
SF`>C <_e7>E8 cBX -a L_e7>O8 cBX - FCXa
>b @`r<su@`r`sg* D=FC
SF`>C
;rE]Es_eVr>]Esa ;rE]Os_eVr>]Osa
D_e7t-VrR]-s87VrL]-s-VrR-s8a
;rO]Es_eVr<]EsDu7VrL]Es-Vr<]Es8a
;rO]Os_eVr<]O8Du7VrL]Os-Vr<]Os8a
E>CF@7;rE]Es] ;rE]Os] ;rO]Es] ;rO]Os8
FCXa
FCXa
O_ SF`>C
bB: >_e* DB O XB
>b @`r>se* D=FC
SF`>C
@_e@Ea
;r@]Es_eVr>]Esa ;r@]Os_eVr>]Os
FCXa
E>CF@7;rE]Es] ;rE]Os] ;rO]Es] ;rO]Os8
FCXa
-_ bB: >_e* DB O XB
E>CF@7Vr>]Es] Vr>]Os]
Vr7>E8 cBX -]Es]Vr7>E8 cBX -]Os8a
FCXa
qv\a


Uq9Zv
?;@F T Bb
4_ SF`>C
Vr*s_e[r>]s[F?a
VrEs _e[r>E] ]s+[F?a
VrOs_e[r>]4s+[F?a
FCXa
O_ SF`>C
Vr*s_e[r>E]s+[F?a
VrEs_e[r>E]4s+[F?a
90

VrOs_e[r>]Es+[F?a
FCXa
FCXa

c>C-7Vr*]-s]VrE]-s]VrO]-s]tbc>C]tbc;V8a
<C_eD:MC?77tbc>C-tc>C8==8Ea LC_ eD:MC? 77tbc;V-
tc>C8==8a
bB: @C_e<C DB LC XB
SF`>C
KFDABEB:7W;>CUB{r @Cu46 X>[ CE ^i\ 4#4 s8a
t_etc>C@Cu==a
J@F?D>BC7t8a
FCXa
qv\a
105
cnyuae, xora snauennx ]ynxnnn saant n rouxax neperynxpnoro mnoxecrna, moxno nocrynnrt
cneymmnm opasom. nnm ns nsnecrntx meroon nonyunrt rpnanrynxnnm c nepmnnamn n rouxax +roro
mnoxecrna. ocne pasnennx onacrn onpeenennx ]ynxnnn na rpeyrontnnxn nocrponrt xycouno-
nnnenym nnrepnonxnnx ]ynxnnn c nepmnnamn n rouxax ncxonoro mnoxecrna (uepes rpn pasnnunte
rouxn n npocrpancrne, ne nexamne na ono npxmo, moxno nponecrn enncrnennym nnocxocrt - nx
+roro n nyxna tna rpnanrynxnnx).
pnmenxx renept onncannym ntme nponeypy naxoxennx npoexnnn nepeceuennx nnocxocrn n
rpeyrontnnxa x rpeyrontnnxam, opasymmnm rpa]nx xycouno-nnneno ]ynxnnn, nonyunm nnnnn yponnx
]ynxnnn nx pasnnuntx snauenn yponnx h. arem nocnontsyemcx onncanno ntme nponeypo nx
renepannn nnnn yponnx coornercrnymme xycouno-nnneno nonepxnocrn.
91
ABTA C CHBHLMH AOHHCKHMH YCTHCTBAMH
ecmorpx na nannune pasnnuntx rpa]nuecxnx nnnorex (nanpnmep, raxnx, xax moynt Graph n Turbo
Pascal), uacro nosnnxaer neoxonmocrt npxmo paort c rem nnn nntm rpa]nuecxnm ycrpocrnom. 3ro
moxer trt cnxsano xax c rem, uro nnnorexa ne noepxnnaer coornercrnymmee ycrpocrno (nanpnmep,
mtmt nnn npnnrep), rax n c rem, uro paora c anntm ycrpocrnom oprannsonana ne ocrarouno
+]]exrnnno nnn ne ncnontsyer ncex nosmoxnocre ycrpocrna. accmarpnm ocnonnte npnemt paort c
nexoroptmn ycrpocrnamn.

anonee pacnpocrpanenntm ycrpocrnom nnoa rpa]nuecxo nn]opmannn n 3 xnnxercx mtmt.
tmt npecrannxer coo xopoouxy c nymx nnn rpemx xnonxamn, coennennym c xomntmrepom. pn
nepememennn mtmn n/nnn naxarnn/ornycxannn xnonox mtmt nepeaer nn]opmannm n xomntmrep o
cnonx napamerpax (nennunne nepememennx n craryce xnonox). ymecrnyer mnoro pasnnuntx rnnon
ycrpocrna rnna mtmt, ornnuammxcx xax no npnnnnny paort (mexannuecxax, onromexannuecxax n
onrnuecxax), rax n no cnocoy omennx (nporoxony) c 3. nx ocrnxennx nexoropo ynn]nxannn
xaxax mtmt nocrannxercx otuno nmecre co cnonm panepom - cnennantno nporpammo,
nonnmamme annt xonxpernt rnn mtmn n npeocrannxmme nexoropt nourn ynnnepcantnt
nnrep]ec npnxnantm nporpammam. pn +rom ncx paora c mtmtm nponcxonr uepes panep, xoropt
orcnexnnaer nepememennx mtmn, naxarne n ornycxanne xnonox mtmn n oecneunnaer paory c
xypcopom mtmn - cnennantntm mapxepom na +xpane (otuno n nne crpenxn), ynnpymmnm nce
nepennxennx mtmn n nosnonxmmnm nontsonarenm yxastnart mtmtm na re nnn nnte oexrt na
+xpane.
aora c mtmtm peannsyercx uepes mexannsm npeptnann. pnxnanax nporpamma ocymecrnnxer
npeptnanne 33= (33), nepeaer n perncrpax neoxonmte napamerpt n n perncrpax nonyuaer snauennx,
ntannte panepom mtmn.
nx ncnontsonannx mexannsma npeptnann n xstxe Turbo Pascal n moyne Dos nneena nponeypa Intr
<:B?FXM:F ZCD:bECDvB_ UoDFa [;: WF`@_ WF`>@DF:@8
apamerp Into saaer nomep npeptnannx, xoropoe neoxonmo ocymecrnnrt, a Regs - crpyxrypa,
moennpymmax perncrpt nponeccopa. pn ntsone anno nponeypt n perncrpt nponeccopa
nomemamrcx coornercrnymmne snauennx ns none Regs, ntstnaercx npeptnanne, a no oxonuannn
npeptnannx snauennx perncrpon sannctnamrcx n nonx crpyxrypt Regs.
92
106
nxe yyr npnneent npnmept paort c mtmtm na xstxe Turbo Pascal, nnnmcrpnpymmne ocnonnte
]ynxnnn panepa mtmn. o ncex +rnx npnmepax nx paort rpeyercx moynt DOS.
93
Huu
ynxnnx ResetMouse nponsnonr nnnnnannsannm mtmn n nosnpamaer snauenne True, ecnn mtmt
onapyxena.
bMC?D>BC WF@FD^BM@F _ UBBEF;Ca
[;:
: _ WF`>@DF:@a
SF`>C
:+;V _ e *a
>CD: 7G--] :8a
WF@FD^BM@F _e :+;V e GJJJJa
FCXa
93
Bu a y
poneypa ShoMouseCursor ntnonr na +xpan xypcop mtmn. pn +rom xypcop nepememaercx
cnnxponno c nepememennxmn camo mtmn.
<:B?FXM:F K=B{^BM@FAM:@B:a
[;:
: _ WF`>@DF:@a
SF`>C
:+;V _e 4a
>CD: 7G--] :8a
FCXa
93
Yu (pu p) y
poneypa HideMouseCursor ynpaer xypcop mtmn c +xpana. naxo npn +rom panep mtmn
npoonxaer orcnexnnart ee nepememennx.
<:B?FXM:F l>XF^BM@FAM:@B:a
[;:
: _ WF`>@DF:@a
SF`>C
:+;V _e Oa
>CD: 7G--] :8a
FCXa
93
u ( p )
True, ecnn xnonxa naxara. oopnnart nosnpamamr
107
cx n nnxcenax axe nx rexcronoro pexnma (npn paore n rexcronom pexnme +rn xoopnnart neoxonmo
pasennrt na 8 nx nonyuennx rexcrontx xoopnnar). poneypa ReadMouseState nosnpamaer cocroxnne
mtmn n cnonx aprymenrax.
93
<:B?FXM:F WF;X^BM@F@D;DF 7[;: V] ! _ ZCDF`F:a [;:
YFbDUMDDBC] ^>XXEFUMDDBC] W>`=DUMDDBC _ UBBEF;C8
[;:
: _ WF`>@DF:@a
SF`>C
:+;V _ e -a
>CD: 7G--] :8a
V _ e :+?Va
! _e :+XVa
YFbDUMDDBC _e 7:+SV pCX 48 gh *a
W>`=DUMDDBC _e 7:+SV pCX O8 gh *a
^>XXEFUMDDBC _e 7:+SV pCX N8 gh *a
FCXa
94
pyu y y p p
nx +roro ncnontsyercx nponeypa MoeMouseCursor.
<:B?FXM:F ^B[F^BM@FAM:@B: 7V] ! _ ZCDF`F:8a
[;:
: _ WF`>@DF:@a
SF`>C
:+;V _e Na
:+?V _ e Va
:+XVae oa

>CD: 7G--] :8a
FCXa
pn paore c mtmtm cneyer nmert n nny, uro ntnonrt nsopaxenne nonepx xypcopa mtmn nentsx.
o+romy, ecnn nyxno nponsnecrn ntno na +xpan n rom mecre, re moxer naxonrtcx xypcop mtmn,
cneyer ypart ero c +xpana, ntnonnnrt rpeyemt ntno n sarem cnona ntnecrn xypcop mtmn na +xpan.
94

xauecrne ycrpocrna nx nonyuennx rnepo xonnn nsopaxennx na +xpane otuno ntcrynaer


marpnunt npnnrep. paxrnuecxn nmo marpnunt npnnrep nosnonxer ocymecrnnrt nocrpoenne
nsopaxennx, rax xax cam ntnonr cnmnont, nocrpoennte ns rouex (xaxt cnmnon npecrannxercx
marpnne rouex; nx ontmnncrna npnnrepon - marpnne pasmepa 8 na 11).
nx ocymecrnnennx ynpannennx npnnrepom cymecrnyer cnennantnt naop xoman (otuno nastnaemtx
Esc-nocneonarentnocrxmn), nosnonxmmn ynpannxrt pexnmom paort npnnrepa, nporonxn ymarn na
saannoe paccroxnne n neuarn rpa]nuecxo nn]opmannn. axax xomana npecrannxer coo nexoropt
naop cnmnonon (xoon), npocro noctnaemtx (neuaraemtx) na npnnrep. rot npnnrep
108
94
mor ornnunrt +rn xomant or otunoro neuaraemoro rexcra, onn otuno naunnamrcx c cnmnona c xoom
mentme 32, r. e. xoa, xoropomy ne coornercrnyer nn onoro ASCII cnmnona. nx ontmnncrna xoman n
xauecrne raxoro cnmnona ntcrynaer cnmnon Escape (xo 27).
ax npannno, xaxt npnnrep nmeer cnon ocoennocrn, xoropte, ecrecrnenno, naxoxr orpaxenne n
naope xoman. naxo moxno ntennrt nexoropt naop xoman, peannsonanntx na ocrarouno
mnpoxom xnacce npnnrepon.
accmorpnm xnacc 9-nrontuartx npnnrepon rnna EPSO, STAR n conmecrnmt c nnmn. nxe npnnonrcx
xparxax cnoxa ocnonntx xoman nx +roro xnacca npnnrepon.
' %& .&
LF 10
epexo na cneymmym crpoxy, xaperxa ne
nosnpamaercx x nauany crpoxn
CR 13 osnpar xaperxn x nauany crpoxn
FF 12 poron ymarn o nauana cneymme crpannnt
ESC 'A'n 27, 65, n
Vcranonnrt paccroxnne mexy crpoxamn (nennunny
nporona ymarn no xomane LF) n n/72 mma
ESC'J'n 27, 74, n epennnyrt ymary na n/216 mma
ESC'K'n
1
n
2
data 27, 75, n
1
, n
2
, data
euart noxa rpa]nxn ntcoro 8 nnxcenon n
mnpnno n
2
256 n
1
nnxcenon c nopmantno
nnornocrtm (80 rouex /mm)
ESC'L'n
1
n
2
data 27, 76, n
1
, n
2
, data
euart noxa rpa]nxn ntcoro 8 nnxcenon n
mnpnno n
2
256 n
1
nnxcenon c nono
nnornocrtm-(120 rouex /mm)
ESC'3'n 27, 51, n
Vcranonxa paccroxnnx mexy crpoxamn nx
nocneymmnx xoman nepenoa crpoxn. accroxnne
ycranannnnaercx panntm n/216 mma
anpnmep, nx nosnpara xaperxn n nauantnoe nonoxenne n cnnr ymarn na 5/216 mma nyxno nocnart
na npnnrep cneymmne art: 13, 27, 74, 5.
epnt ar oecneunnaer nosnpar xaperxn, a rpn cneymmnx - cnnr ymarn.
pn neuarn rpa]nuecxoro nsopaxennx, rononxa npnnrepa sa onn npoxo pncyer nox (nsopaxenne)
mnpnno n
1
256n
2
rouex n ntcoro 8 rouex. ocne n
2
nyr art, saammne nsopaxenne, - no 1 ary
na xaxte 8 neprnxantno croxmnx nnxcenon. cnn nyxno crannrt rouxy n i-m cnnsy nnxcene, ro n are >-
nr panen 1.
95
anpnmep.
Value
128 - - O - - - - -
64 - O - - - - - O - -
32 - - - - - - - O -
16 - - - - - - O - -
109
8 - - O - - O - - -
4 - - - - O - - - - -
2 - O - O - O - O -
1 - - - - O - - - - -
34 80 138 0 143 0 138 80 34 0
accmorpnm, xax ]opmnpymrcx art nx +ro xomant. ax xax mnpnna nsopaxennx panna 10, ro
orcma C
1
10 di 256, C
2
10 mod 256. nx ]opmnponannx nepnoro ara, onnctnammero nsopaxenne,
nostmem nepnt cronen ns 8 nnxcenon n saxonpyem ero nramn: rouxe nocrannm n coornercrnne 1, a
nycromy mecry - 0. onyunnmnecx nrt sannmem cnepxy nnns. pn +rom nonyuaercx nonunoe uncno
00100010, ecxrnunoe snauenne xoroporo panno 34. ropo cronen xonpyercx naopom nr 01010000 c
ecxrnuntm snauennem 80. ponex ananornunte pacuert, nonyunm, uro nx neuarn +roro nsopaxennx
na npnnrep neoxonmo nocnart cneymmne xot:
27 75 10 0 34 80 138 0 143 0 138 80 34 0.
nx ntnoa na npnnrep nsopaxennx ntcoro ontme 8 nnxcenon ono pasnnaercx na nonoct ntcoro no
8 nnxcenon.
.
. !"& 5 7/
4
]!
4
8-7/
O
]o
O
8
3] % ! " )+
Do<F
ABEB:KF:D e @FD Bb rUE;?T++j=>DFsa
<:B?FXM:F l;:XAB<o 7VE] oE] VO] !O _ ZCDF`F:a
U;?T9:BMCX _ ABEB:KFD8a
?BC@D
q@? 27;
YRdRB:D e 4a
[;:
K?;CY>CF _ ZCDF`F:a | d=F ?M::FCD @?;C E>CF }
CE] CO _ UoDFa | O SoDF <:>CDF: ?BCD:BE ?BXF }
^;@T _ UoDFa
=F>`=D _ ZCDF`F:a
| KFCX BCF SoDF DB D=F <:>CDF: }
<:B?FXM:F KFCXUoDFbU _ SoDF8a
96
[;:
WF`@ _ WF`>@DF:@a
SF`>C
:F<F;D
WF`@+pl _ e *a
WF`@+pY _e Ua
WF`@+\n _e R:FX7YRdRB:D8a
ZCD:7G47] WF`@8a
>b 7WF`@+pl ;CX G*4 gh *8 D=FC
| D>cF-BMD F::B: }
>b 7WF`@+pl ;CX GN*8 gh * D=FC
q::B: ]7fR:>CDF: CBD :F;Xof8 | R:>CDF: CBD
DM:CFX BC }
FE@F
>b WF`@+pl e Gp4 D=FC
110
q::B: 7fR:>CDF: SM@of8 | w@FX So RWZvd }
FE@F
>b 7WF`@+pl ;CX GO*8 gh * D=FC
q::B: 7fR:>CDF: BMD Bb <;<F:f8
FE@F
q::B: 7fR:>CDF: iJJ-YZvqf8 | @BcF BD=F: F::B: }
FE@F
FV>Da
MCD>E J;E@Fa
FCXa | KFCXUoDF }
|GU

} | dM:C Bbb @=B:D ?>:?M>D SBBEF;C F[;EM;D>BC }




bMC?D>BC ABC@D:M?DUoDF7n] m _ >CDF`F:8 _ SoDFa
| ABC@D:M?D ; <:>CD SoDF So :F;X>C` S>D@ b:Bc D=F `:;<=>?@
@?:FFC SMbbF: }
?BC@D
U>D@ _ ;::;or*++7s Bb SoDF e 74O8]6N]-O]46]8]N]O]48a
[;:
AUoDF] U>D] AR>V _ SoDFa
SF`>C
AUoDF _e *a
bB: U>D _e * DB 7 XB
SF`>C
AR>V _ e 9FDR>VFE 7n]m U>D8a
>b CBD 7AR>V >C U;?T9:BMCX8 D=FC
AUoDF _e AUoDF U>D@ rU>Dsa
FCXa
97
ABC@D:M?DUoDF _ e AUoDFa
FCXa | ABC@D:M?DUoDF }

|GU-} | dM:C BC @=B:D ?>:?M>D SBBEF;C F[;EM;D>BC }
<:B?FXM:F \BY>CFa | \Mc<@ BCF <:>CD E>CF DB D=F <:>CDF: }
[;:
nR>VFE _ >CDF`F:a
R:>CDUoDF _ SoDFa
SF`>C
KFCXUoDF 7q@?8a
KFCXUoDF7i:X7fyf88a | KFEF?D XBMSEF-XFC@>Do `:;<=>?@ <:>CD
cBXF }
KFCXUoDF7CE8a | KFCX O SoDF ?BCD:BE ?BXF }
KFCXUoDF7CO8a

bB: nR>VFE _e VE DB VO XB
SF`>C
R:>CDUoDF _e ABC@D:M?DUoDF 7nR>VFE] oE K?;CY>CFu88
;CX ^;@Ta
KFCXUoDF7R:>CDUoDF8a
FCXa

KFCXUoDF7E*8a | KFCX E>CF bFFX }
KFCXUoDF74-8a | @FCX ?;::>;`F :FDM:C }
111
FCXa | \BY>CF }

SF`>C | l;:XAB<o }
^BXF _e ^BXF cBX #a | ^BXF@ * D=:BM`= N @M<<B:DFX }
KFCXUoDF 7q@?8a | KFEF?D O-O46->C?= E>CF @<;?>C` }
KFCXUoDF 7i:X7f-f88a
KFCXUoDF 7O-8
CE _e YB 7VO - VE 48a | \FDF:c>CF O SoDF ?BCD:BE ?BXF bB: }
CO_e l> 7VO - VE 48a | D=F CMcSF: Bb XBD@ <F: <:>CD E>CF }
KD;:Dn _e VEa
qCXn _ e VOa
^;@T _e GJJa
=F>`=D : oO - oE 4a
bB: K?;CY>CF .- 0 to 7=F>`=D X>[ 88 - 4 XB
\BY>CFa
>b 7=F>`=D cBX 88 gh * D=FC
98

SF`>C
^;@T _e UoDF 7CBD 7GJJ @=: 7=F>`=D cBX 8888a
K?;CY>CF _e =F>`=D X>[ 8a
\BY>CFa
FCXa
KFCXUoDF7q@?8 a
KFCXUoDF7B:X7 fpf8 8 a
KFCXUoDF74O8a
KFCXUoDF74*8 a
KFCXUoDF74-8a
FCXa | l;:XAB<o }
99
B EGA VGA
cnonntm rpa]nuecxnm ycrpocrnom, c xoroptm uame ncero npnxonrcx paorart, xnnxercx
nneocncrema xomntmrepa. tuno ona cocronr ns nneoxaprt (aanrepa) n noxnmuennoro x ne
monnropa. sopaxenne xpannrcx n pacrponom nne n namxrn nneoxaprt: annaparypa xaprt
oecneunnaer perynxpnoe (50 pas/cex) urenne +ro namxrn n ee oropaxanne na +xpane monnropa.
o+romy ncx paora c nsopaxennem cnonrcx x rem nnn nntm onepannxm c nneonamxrtm.
pnneem cnncox ocnonntx pexnmon nx +rnx xapr. axt pexnm onpeenxercx nomepom, paspemennem
+xpana n xonnuecrnom nneron.
P 5 . 3
OD 320200 16
640200 16
10 640350 16
12 640480 16
13 320200 256
nx ycranonxn nyxnoro pexnma moxno nocnontsonartcx nponeypo SetVMode:
112
<:B?FXM:F KFDz^BXF 7^BXF _ jB:X8
[;:
: _ WF`>@DF:@a
SF`>C
:+;V .- ^BXFa
>CD: 7G4*] :8a
FCXa
99
ynxnnn EGAPresent n VGAPresent nosnonxmr onpeennrt nannune EGA-nnn VGA-conmecrnmo
nneoxaprt.
bMC?D>BC q9pR:F@FCD _ UBBEF;Ca
[;:
: _ WF`>@DF:@a
SF`>C
:+;V _e G4O**a
:+SV _e G**4*a
>CD: 7G4*] :8a
q9pR:F@FCD _e 7:+SV pCX GiiJJ8 gh G**4*
FCXa

bMC?D>BC z9pR:F@FCD_ UBBEF;Ca
[;:
: _ WF`>@DF:@a
SF`>C
:+;V _e G4p**a
>CD: 7G4*] :8a
z9pR:F@FCD _e 7:+;V pCX G**JJ8 e G**4pa
FCXa
nxe yer paccmorpena paora c nneonamxrtm na xapre EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter) n VGA
(Video Graphics Array).
100
16- EGA VGA
nx 16-nnerntx pexnmon no xaxt nnxcen nsopaxennx neoxonmo ntennrt 4 nra nneonamxrn.
naxo +rn 4 nra ntenxmrcx ne nocneonarentno n onom are, a pasnecent n 4 pasntx noxa
(nneronte nnocxocrn) nneonamxrn.
cx nneonamxrt xaprt (otuno 256 ar) ennrcx na 4 pannte uacrn, nastnaemte nnerontmn
nnocxocrxmn. pn +rom xaxomy nnxceny crannrcx n coornercrnne no onomy nry n xaxo nnocxocrn,
npnuem nce +rn nrt onnaxono pacnonoxent ornocnrentno ee nauana. tuno +rn nnocxocrn
npecrannxmr napannentno pacnonoxenntmn ona na pyro, rax uro xaxomy nnxceny coornercrnyer 4
pacnonoxenntx pyr no pyrom nra. ce +rn nnocxocrn npoexrnpymrcx na onn n ror xe yuacrox
apecnoro npocrpancrna nponeccopa, naunnax c apeca 000:0. pn +rom nce onepannn urennx n sanncn
nneonamxrn onocpeymrcx nneoxapro! o+romy ecnn nt sanncann ar no apecy 000:0, ro +ro
nonce ne osnauaer, uro n ecrnnrentnocrn nocnannt ar sannmercx xorx t n ony nnocxocrt n uro
npn onepannn urennx npounrannt ar yer connaart c onnm ns 4 aron n coornercrnymmnx
nnocxocrxx. exannsm +roro onocpeonannx
113
+ 7+4
100
onpeenxercx nornxo xaprt, no nx nporpammncra cymecrnyer nosmoxnocrt nsnecrnoro ynpannennx +ro
nornxo, npn paore ononpemenno c 8 nnxcenamn.
nx paort c nnxcenom neoxonmo onpeennrt apec ara n nneonamxrn, coepxamero annt
nnxcen, n nronym macxy, onpeenxmmym nosnnnm nnxcena nnyrpn ara (nocxontxy onn nnxcen
oropaxaercx na onn nr n xaxo nnocxocrn, ro ar coornercrnyer cpasy 8 nnxcenam). nx pexnmon c
ropnsonrantntm paspemennem n 640 nnxcenon +rn nennunnt onpeenxmrcx cneymmnm opasom:
R>VFEpXX:+e ! u 8* 7/ X>[ 88a
R>VFE^;@T _e G8* K=: 7V cBX 88a
re (/] !) - xoopnnart nnxcena; PixelAddr - apec ara nneonamxrn no cermenry 000; PixelMask -
nronax macxa nx annoro nnxcena.
a nneoxapre naxonrcx naop cnennantntx 8-nrontx perncrpon. acrt ns nnx ocrynna rontxo nx
urennx, uacrt - rontxo nx sanncn, a nexoropte noome neocrynnt nporpammncry. ocryn x perncrpam
ocymecrnnxercx uepes noprt nnoa/ntnoa nponeccopa.
erncrpt nneoxaprt enxrcx na necxontxo rpynn. pn +rom xaxo rpynne coornercrnyer napa
nocneonarentntx nopron (nopr apeca n nopr snauennx). nx sanncn snauennx n perncrp nneoxaprt
neoxonmo cnauana sanncart nomep perncrpa n nepnt nopr (nopr apeca), a sarem sanncart snauenne n
cneymmn nopr (nopr snauennx).
nxe mt paccmorpnm ne ocnonnte rpynnt perncrpon, npnnanexamnx nym uacrxm nneoxaprt, -
Graphics Controller n Sequencer.
axo rpynne coornercrnyer cnox napa nopron.
101
Graphics ControIIer ( $3C- $3CF)
P H
0 Set/Reset 00
1 Enable Set/Reset 00
2 Color Compare 00
3 Data rotate 00
4 Read Map Select 00
5 Mode 10
114
6 Miscellaneous 05
7 Color Don't Care OF
8 Bit Mask FF
nx sanncn n perncrp neoxonmo cnauana nocnart nomep perncrpa n nopr , a sarem sanncart
coornercrnymmee snauenne n nopr 3CF.
ponnnmcrpnpyem +ro na nponecce ycranonxn perncrpa nrono, macxn (Bit Mask) (ycranonxa ocrantntx
perncrpon ocymecrnnxercx ananornuno).
101
poneypa SetBitMask ycranannnnaer snauenne perncrpa nrono macxn.
<:B?FXM:F KFDU>D^;@T 7^;@T _ UoDF8a
SF`>C
RB:D rG-Aqs _e 8a
RB:D rG-AJs _e ^;@Ta
FCXa
102
Sequencer ( $3C4-$3C5)
s ncex perncrpon +ro rpynnt mt paccmorpnm rontxo perncrp macxn nnocxocrn (Map Mask) n nomep 2.
poneypa SetMapMask ycranannnnaer snauenne perncrpa macxn nnocxocrn.

<:B?FXM:F KFD^;<^;@T 7^;@T _ UoDF8
SF`>C
RB:D rG-ANs _ e Oa
RB:D rG-A#s _e ^;@Ta
FCXa
accmorpnm renept, xax nponcxonr paora c nneonamxrtm.
pn onepannn urennx ara ns nneonamxrn unramrcx cpasy 4 ara - no onomy ns xaxo nnocxocrn.
pn +rom npounrannte snauennx sannctnamrcx n cnennantnte perncrpt - samenxn (latch-perncrpt),
neocrynnte nx npxmoro ocryna. ar, npounrannt nponeccopom, xnnxercx xomnnanne snauenn
latch-perncrpon.
pn onepannn sanncn nocnannt nponeccopom ar naxnatnaercx na snauennx latch-perncrpon no
npannnam, onpeenxemtm snauennxmn pyrnx perncrpon, a pesyntrnpymmne 4 ara yyr sanncant n
coornercrnymmne nnocxocrn.
ax xax npn sanncn ncnontsymrcx snauennx latch-perncrpon, ro uacro neoxonmo, urot nepe sannctm n
nnx tnn nsnecrnt ncxonte snauennx rex aron, xoropte sarem nsmenxmrcx. 3ro uacro npnnonr x
neoxonmocrn ocymecrnnrt urenne ara no apecy nepe sannctm no +romy apecy nonoro snauennx.
pannna, onpeenxmmne nanoxenne npn sanncn nocnanntx nponeccopom anntx na snauennx latch-
perncrpon, onpeenxmrcx ycranonnenntm pexnmom sanncn, n, coornercrnenno, pexnm urennx saaer
cnoco, xoroptm onpeenxercx snauenne, npounrannoe nponeccopom.
115
neoxapra EGA noepxnnaer 2 pexnma urennx n 3 pexnma sanncn, y xaprt VGA ecrt eme onn
ononnnrentnt pexnm sanncn.
Vcranonxa pexnmon urennx n sanncn ocymecrnnxercx sannctm coornercrnymmnx snauenn n perncrp
Mode. nr 3 orneuaer sa pexnm urennx, nrt. n 1 -sa pexnm sanncn.
poneypa SetRWMode nnnmcrpnpyer ycranonxy pexnmon urennx n sanncn.
<:B?FXM:F KFDWj^BXF 7WF;X^BXF] j:>DF^BXF _ UoDF8a
SF`>C
RB:D rG-Aqs _ e #a
RB:D r-AJs _e 7j:>DF^BXF pCX -8 i: 77WF;X^BXF pCX 48 K=> -8 a
FCXa
102

0
+rom pexnme nosnpamaercx ar ns latch-perncrpa (nnocxocrn) c nomepom ns perncrpa Read Map Select.
bMC?D>BC WF;XR>VFE 7V] ! _ ZCDF`F:8 _ ZCDF`F:a
[;:
R>VFE^;@T _ UoDFa
R>VFEpXX: _ jB:Xa
RE;CF _ ZCDF`F:a
ABEB: _ ZCDF`F:a
Y;D?= _ UoDFa
SF`>C
ABEB: _e *a
R>VFEpXX: _e ! u 8* 7V X>[ 88a
R>VFE^;@T _e G8* @=: 7V cBX 88a
bB: RE;CF _ e - XB{C DB * XB
SF`>C
R;:D rG-Aqs _ e Na
RB:D rG-AJs _e RE;CFa
Y;D?= _e 7^FcrGpi**_R>VFEpXX:s pCX R>VFE^;@T8 @=: 7VcBX88a
ABEB: _ e 7ABEB: @=E 48 i: Y;D?=a
FCXa
WF;XR>VFE _ e ABEB:a
FCXa
npnneennom npnmepe nosnpamaercx snauenne (nner) nnxcena c xoopnnaramn (x, y). nx +roro c
xaxo ns nnocxocre no ouepen unramrcx coornercrnymmne nrt n ns nnx conpaercx nneronoe
snauenne nnxcena.
116
103
1
nosnpamaemom snauennn >- nr panen 1, ecnn
9FDR>VFE pCX ABEB:\BCfDA;:F ABEB:ABc<;:F pCX ABEB:\BCfDA;:F
cnyuae, ecnn ColorDon'tCare 0F, n npounrannom are n rex nosnnnxx, re nner nnxcena connaaer co
snauennem n perncrpe ColorCompare, yer croxrt 1.
3ror pexnm ouent yoen nx noncxa rouex saannoro nnera.
<:B?FXM:F J>CXR>VFE 7ABEB: _ ZCDF`F:a [;: V] ! _ ZCDF`F:a
[;: WF@ _ UBBEF;C8a
[;:
R>VFEpXX: _ jB:Xa
R>VFE^;@T _ jB:Xa
^;@T _ jB:Xa
SF`>C
WF@ _e J;E@Fa
103

R>VFEpXX:_e !u8* 7V X>[ 88a
^;@T_e vBD 7GJJ K=: 7V cBX 888a
KFDWj^BXF 7E] *8a
KFDABEB:ABc<;:F 7ABEB:8a
{=>EF V g 6N* XB
SF`>C
R>VFE^;@T : ^Fc r Gp***_R>VFEpXX: s pCX ^;@Ta
>C? 7R>VFEpXX:8a
^;@T _e GJJa
>b R>VFE^;@T gh * D=FC
SF`>C
{=>EF 7R>VFE^;@T pCX G8*8 e *8 XB
SF`>C
R>VFE^;@T _ e R>VFE^;@T K=4 4a
>C? 7V8a
FCXa
FV>Da
FCXa
>C? 7V] 88a
FCXa
FCXa
pnneennax nponeypa ocymecrnnxer noncx nnxcena nnera Color n crpoxe !, naunnax c nosnnnn /. pn
+rom ncnontsyercx pexnm urennx 1. ce art, coornercrnymmne anno crpoxe, unramrcx no ouepen n,
xax rontxo yer nonyueno nenynenoe snauenne (naen, no xpane mepe, onn nnxcen annoro nnera n
are), onpeenxercx nnxcen c nanmentmnm nomepom, nmemmn annt nner. epemennax Mask cnyxnr
nx orcennannx ns ara, coornercrnymmero nauantno rouxe (/, !). ex nnxcenon, y xoroptx acnncca /
mentme crapronoro snauennx.
104
117

0
3ro, noxany, camt cnoxnt ns ncex paccmarpnnaemtx pexnmon, ammn onaxo camte ontmne
nosmoxnocrn.
paccmarpnnaemom pexnme perncrp BitMask nosnonxer samnmart or nsmenennx onpeenennte nnxcent.
rex nosnnnxx, re coornercrnymmn nr ns perncrpa BitMask panen 0, nnxcen ne nsmennr cnoero
snauennx. erncrp MapMask nosnonxer samnmart or nsmenennx onpeenennte nnocxocrn.
nrt 3 n 4 perncrpa DataRotate onpeenxmr cnoco nanoxennx ntnonmoro nsopaxennx na
cymecrnymmee (ananornuno nponeype SetWriteMode n xstxe Turbo Pascal).
104
k3 dM:SB R;@?;E
0 0 amena ormalPut
0 1 r OrPut
1 0 And AndPut
1 1 or XorPut
poneypa SetWriteMode ycranannnnaer coornercrnymmn pexnm nanoxennx.
<:B?FXM:F KFDj:>DF^BXF 7^BXF _ UoDF8a
SF`>C
RB:D rG-Aqs _e -a
RB:D rG-AJs _e 7UoDF pCX -8 K=4 -a
FCXa
ocnannt nponeccopom ar nnxnnuecxn cnnraercx (npoxpyunnaercx) nnpano yxasannoe n nrax 0 - 2
perncrpa Data Rotate xonnuecrno pas.
esyntrnpymmee snauenne onpeenxercx cneymmnm opasom:
a nnocxocrt, coornercrnymmn nr xoropo n perncrpe Enable Set /Reset panen 0, naxnatnaercx
nocnannt nponeccopom ar, npoxpyuennt saannoe xonnuecrno pas c yuerom perncrpon BitMask n
MapMask. cnn coornercrnymmn nr panen 1, ro no nce nosnnnn, paspemennte perncrpom BitMask,
sannctnaercx nr ns perncrpa Set /Reset, coornercrnymmn nnocxocrn.
a npaxrnxe nanonee uacro ncrpeuamrcx cneymmne na cnyuax:
(.
Enable Set/Reset 0
(ar, nocnannt nponeccopom, nnxnnuecxn cnnraercx n coornercrnnn co snauennem nron 0 - 2
perncrpa Data Rotate; nocne +roro nonyunnmncx ar naxnatnaercx saanntm cnocoom (cm. nrt 3
- 4 perncrpa Data Rotate) na re nnocxocrn, xoropte paspement perncrpom Map Mask, npnuem
nsmenxmrcx nnmt paspemennte perncrpom BitMask nrt).
.
Enable Set/Reset OF
(n nosnnnn, paspemennte perncrpom BitMask, cranxrcx rouxn nnera, saannoro n perncrpe Set/Reset;
ar, nocnannt nponeccopom, nnxaxo ponn ne nrpaer).
+ 3+
118
nx roro, urot napnconart rontxo nyxnt nnxcen, neoxonmo nocrannrt perncrp BitMask rax, urot
samnrnrt ocrantnte 7 nnxcenon, coornercrnymmnx +romy ary, or nsmenennx. 3ro ocrnraercx
ycranonxo ncex nron perncrpa n 0, xpome nra c nomepom x mod 8.

<:B?FXM:F KFDR>VFE 7/] ! _ ZCDF`F:a ABEB: _ UoDF8a
[;:
pXX: _ jB:Xa
^;@T _ UoDFa
105

SF`>C
pXX: _e 7V X>[ 88 ! u 8*a
^;@T _e G8* @=: 7V cBX 88a
KFDqC;SEFKFDWF@FD 7GiJ8a
KFDKFDWF@FD 7ABEB:8a KFDU>D^;@T 7^;@T8a

>C? 7^Fc rGp***_pXX:s8a

KFDqC;SEFKFDWF@FD 7*8a | " /
}
KFDU>D^;@T 7GJJ8a | " /

FCXa
106
1
+rom pexnme snauennx latch-perncrpon nenocpecrnenno xonnpymrcx n coornercrnymmne nnocxocrn.
erncrpt macox n pexnma ne ecrnymr. ocnannoe nponeccopom snauenne ne nrpaer nnxaxo ponn. 3ror
pexnm nosnonxer ocymecrnnxrt tcrpoe xonnponanne ]parmenron nneonamxrn. pn urennn ara no
ncxonomy apecy npounrannte 4 ara c nnocxocre sarpyxamrcx n latch-perncrpt, a npn sanncn
snauennx latch-perncrpon sannctnamrcx n nnocxocrn no apecy, no xoropomy mna sannct. axnm opasom,
sa ony onepannm nepesanncn xonnpyercx cpasy 4 ara (8 nnxcenon).

|3! !"& 5}
<:B?FXM:F AB<o 7VE] oE] VO] oOb VC] oC _ ZCDF`F:8a
[;:
K:?pXX: _ jB:Xa
\@DpXX: _ jB:Xa
ABE@ _ ZCDF`F:a
vFVDWB{ _ ZCDF`F:a
V] ! _ ZCDF`F:a
SF`>C
K:?pXX: _e oE u 8* 7VE @=: -8a
\@DpXX: _ e oC u 8* 7VC @=: -8a
ABE@ _e 7VO @=: -8 - 7VE @=: -8a
vFVDWB{ _e 8* - ABE@a

KFDWj^BXF 7*] 48a | KFD :F;X cBXF *] {:>DF cBXF 4 }
bB: ! _e oE DB !O XB
106
119

SF`>C
bB: V ae 4 DB ABE@ XB
SF`>C
^Fc rGp***_\@DpXX:s _e ^Fc rGp***_K?:pXX:sa
>C? 7\@DpXX:8a
>C? 7K:?pXX:8a
FCXa
>C? 7K:?pXX:] vFVDWB{8a
>C? 7\@DpXX:] vFVDWB{8a
FCXa
KFDWj^BXF 7*] *8a
FCXa
cnny orpannuenn pexnma sanncn 1 +ra nponeypa moxer xonnponart rontxo onacrn, re V
1
xparno 8 n
mnpnna xparna 8, rax xax xonnponanne ocymecrnnxercx noxamn no 8 nnxcenon cpasy. pome roro, +ror
npnmep ne yunrtnaer nosmoxnocrn roro, uro onacrt, xya nponsnonrcx xonnponanne, nmeer nenycroe
nepeceuenne c ncxono onacrtm. +rom cnyuae nosmoxna nexoppexrnax paora nponeypt. rot
noonoro ne nosnnxano, neoxonmo nponepxrt onacrn na nepeceuenne n n cnyuae nenycroro
nepeceuennx ocymecrnnxrt xonnponanne n oparnom nopxxe.
107
2
+rom pexnme mnamne 4 nra ara, nocnannoro nponeccopom, onpeenxmr nner, xoroptm yyr
nocrpoent ne samnmennte nrono macxo nnxcent. erncrp nrono macxn samnmaer or nsmenennx
onpeenennte nnxcent. erncrp macxn nnocxocrn samnmaer or nsmenennx onpeenennte nnocxocrn.
erncrp DataRotate ycranannnnaer cnoco nanoxennx nocrpoenntx nnxcenon na cymecrnymmee
nsopaxenne.
|3! !"}
<:B?FXM:F WF?D 7VE] oE] VO] !O _ ZCDF`F:a ABEB: _ UoDF8a
[;:
R>VFEpXX: _ jB:Xa
WB{@ _ ZCDF`F:a
ABE@ _ ZCDF`F:a
vFVDWB{ _ ZCDF`F:a
YFbD^;@T _ UoDFa
W>`=D^;@T _ UoDFa
V] ! _ ZCDF`F:a
Y;D?= _ UoDFa
SF`>C
WB{@ _ e !O - oEa
ABE@ _e 7VO X>[ 88 - 7VE X>[ 88 - 4a
YFbD^;@T _ e GJJ K=: 7VE cBX 88a
107
W>`=D^;@T _e GJJ K=4 77 - VO ^BX 88a
vFVDWB{_e 79 - ABE@a
R>VFEpXX: _e oE u 8* 7VE X>[ 88a

>b ABE@ g * D=FC
SF`>C
YFbD^;@T : YFbD^;@T pCX W>`=D^;@Ta
W>`=D^;@T _e *a
120
ABE@ ae *a
FCXa

KFDWj^BXF 7*] O8a

bB: ! _e oE DB !O XB
SF`>C
KFDU>D^;@T 7YFbD^;@T8a
Y;D?= _e ^Fc rGpi**_R>VFEpXX:sa
^Fc rGp***_R>VFEpXX:s _e ABEB:a
>C? 7R>VFEpXX:8a
KFDU>D^;@T 7GJJ8a

bB: V _e 4 DB ABE@ XB
SF`>C
Y;D?= _e ^Fc rGp***_R>VFEpXX:sa
^Fc rGp***_R>VFEpXX:s _ e ABEB:a
>C? 7R>VFEpXX:8a
FCXa

KFDU>D^;@T 7W>`=D^;@T8a
Y;D?= _e ^Fc rGp***_R>VFEpXX:sa
^Fc rGpi**_R>VFEpXX:s _e ABEB:a
>C? 7R>VFEpXX:] vFVDWB{8a
FCXa

KFDU>D^;@T 7GJJ8a
KFDWj^BXF 7*]*8a
FCXa
108
256- VGA
s ncex nneopexnmon +ror pexnm xnnxercx camtm npocrtm. pn paspemennn +xpana 320200 rouex on
nosnonxer ononpemenno ncnontsonart nce 256 nneron. nx oropaxennx 256 nneron ononpemenno
neoxonmo no xaxym rouxy na +xpane ornecrn no 8 nr. paccmarpnnaemom pexnme +rn 8 nr nyr
nocneonarentno onn sa pyrnm, opasyx 1 ar. em camtm n +rom pexnme nnocxocrn ne ncnontsymrcx.
neonamxrt naunnaercx c apeca 000:0. pn +rom rouxe c xoopnnaramn (/, !)coornercrnyer ar
namxrn no apecy 320! /.
<:B?FXM:F KFDR>VFE 7/] !] _ ZCDF`F:a ABEB: _ UoDF8a
SF`>C
^Fc rGp***_-O*uoVs _e ABEB:a
FCXa
bMC?D>BC 9FDR>VFE 7/] ! _ ZCDF`F:8 _ UoDFa
SF`>C
9FDR>VFE _e ^Fc rGp***_-O*uoVsa
FCXa
109
121
AOHHCKHH RLBATRLCKHH HHTOHC
nrep]ec - nexoropt cnoco (cranapr) nsanmoecrnnx (omena nn]opmanne, anntmn) mexy
nporpammo n uenonexom, pyro nporpammo n r. n.
o rpa]nuecxnm nontsonarentcxnm nnrep]ecom (GUI - Graphical User InterIace) nonnmaercx nexoropax
cncrema (cpea), cnyxamax nx oprannsannn nnrep]eca npnxnantx nporpamm c nontsonarenem na
ocnone rpa]nuecxoro mnorooxonnoro npecrannennx anntx.
cnn nocmorpert na nmym xopomo cenannym npnxnanym nporpammy, ro npnercx npnsnart, uro ne
menee nononnnt ncero xoa nporpammt cnyxnr nmenno nx oprannsannn nnrep]eca - nno/ntno
nn]opmannn, paora c mtmtm, oprannsannx menm, peaxnnx na omnxn n r. n.
cpee GUI oprannsannm ncero nsanmoecrnnx c nontsonarenem eper na cex nmenno cama cpea,
ocrannxx npnxnano nporpamme enart rontxo cnom paory.
unraercx, uro ocnont GUI tnn sanoxent paoramn n nccneonarentcxom nenrpe PARC ]npmt Rank
Xerox. snaunrentno crenenn no nnnxnnem +rnx paspaorox n nauane 1984 roa nosnnx xomntmrep
Macintosh ]npmt Apple (a nmecre c nnm n ncrpoennt rpa]nuecxn nnrep]ec). Macintosh tn
]axrnuecxn nepntm xomntmrepom, cnennantno cnpoexrnponanntm nx paort c GUI n nmenmnm nx
+roro nce neoxonmoe annaparnoe n nporpammnoe oecneuenne (ocnonnax uacrt nocnenero naxonrcx n
V xomntmrepa). cnontsonanne GUI n xomntmrepe Macintosh cenano paory c nnm upesntuano
narnxno n nonxrno axe nx naunnammnx nontsonarene.
Vxaxem nexoropte npenmymecrna +ro cpet. ce ocnonnte oexrt (ncxn, xaranorn, nporpammt n np.)
npecrannxmrcx nnxrorpammamn. axo nporpamme ornonrcx ono nnn necxontxo oxon na +xpane,
xoropte nontsonarent no cnoemy ycmorpennm moxer nepennrart, nsmenxrt pasmept, ynnuroxart. nx
mannnynnponannx oexramn axrnnno ncnontsyercx mtmt. ce nporpammt nmemr omne npnnnnnt
nocrpoennx, onnaxont nsan, cocroxmn ns onnx n rex xe +nemenron, npnuem nce +rn +nemenrt
npocrt n narnxnt.
cne sa +ro cpeo noxnnnnct pyrne rpa]nuecxne cpet - GEM ]npmt Digital Research n MicrosoIt
Windos (nepnax nepcnx - noxpt 1985 roa) - nx nepconantnoro xomntmrepa ]npmt IBM.
uncny pyrnx rpa]nuecxnx cpe moxno raxxe ornecrn:
Presentation Manager (OS/2);
OpertLook, MotiI (Unix - crannnn);
extStep (ext).
Vxaxem necxontxo omnx npnnnnnon, nexamnx n ocnone nepeuncnenntx ntme cncrem. uncny raxontx
ornocxrcx:
rpa]nuecxn pexnm paort;
110
npecrannenne pxa oexron nnxrorpammamn;
mnorooxonnocrt;
ncnontsonanne yxasymmero ycrpocrna - mtmn;
aexnarnocrt nsopaxennx na +xpane nsopaxaemomy oexry (npnnnnn WYSIWYG - What You
See Is What You Get);
narnxnocrt;
122
cranaprnsannx ncex ocnonntx ecrnn n +nemenron (nce nporpammt nx anno rpa]nuecxo
cpet ntrnxxr n neyr cex conepmenno onnaxono, ncnontsymr onnaxonte npnnnnnt
]ynxnnonnponannx, rax uro ecnn nontsonarent ocnonn paory c ono ns nporpamm, ro on moxer
nerxo ocnonrt n ocrantnte nporpammt nx anno cpet);
nannune ontmoro uncna cranaprntx +nemenron (xnonox, nepexnmuarene, none
peaxrnponannx), xoropte moryr ncnontsonartcx npn xoncrpynponannn npnxnantx nporpamm,
enax nx noxoxnmn n opamennn n oneruax nponecc nx nanncannx.
accmorpnm renept xonnennnn, nexamne n ocnone mnornx GUI.
no ns xonnennn, xapaxrepno nx ontmnncrna cymecrnymmnx cncrem n nporpamm nx nnx,
xnnxercx nonxrne nporpammt, ynpannxemo anntmn. ax npannno, +ra xonnennnx npaxrnuecxn
peannsyercx uepes mexannsm coomenn. nemnne ycrpocrna (xnannarypa, mtmt, ramep) noctnamr
coomennx moynxm nporpammt o nacrynnennn rex nnn nntx cotrn (nanpnmep, npn naxarnn xnannmn
nnn nepennxennn mtmn). ocrynammne coomennx nonaamr n ouepet coomenn, orxya
nsnnexamrcx npnxnano nporpammo.
axnm opasom, nporpamma ne onxna nce npemx onpamnnart mtmt, xnannarypy n pyrne ycrpocrna n
oxnannn, ne nponsomno nn uero-nnyt, sacnyxnnammero nnnmannx. ora cotrne nponsoer,
nporpamma nonyunr nsnemenne o +rom c rem, urot nanexamnm opasom ero opaorart. o+romy
nporpammt nx raxnx cpe otuno npecrannxmr coo nnxn opaorxn coomenn: nsnneut ouepenoe
coomenne, opaorart ero, ecnn ono nnrepecno, nno nepeart cranaprnomy opaorunxy coomenn,
otuno nxoxmemy n cncremy n npecrannxmmemy coo cranaprnte ecrnnx cncremt n orner na ro
nnn nnoe cotrne.
oomennx moryr noctnartcx ne rontxo ycrpocrnamn, no n orentntmn uacrxmn nporpammt (n
uacrnocrn, nosmoxna noctnxa coomennx cee). ax onn moynt moxer nocnart coomenne pyromy
moynm, rax menm noctnaer coomenne o ntope onpeenennoro nynxra. pn +rom cymecrnyer eme
cnoco npxmo noctnxn coomennx, mnnyx ouepet, xora nenocpecrnenno ntstnaercx opaorunx
coomenn apecara.
ropo ocnonononaramme xonnennne xnnxercx nonxrne oxna, oxna xax oexra. xno - +ro ne npocro
npxmoyrontnax onacrt na +xpane, +ro n nporpamma (nponeypa, ]ynxnnx), cnoconax ntnonnxrt
pasnnunte ecrnnx, npncymne oxny. nnm ns ocnonntx raxnx ecrnn xnnxercx pearnponanne na
nocrynammne coomennx n noctnxa coomenn pyrnm oexram.
111
Do<F j>CXB{ e BSF?D
V] ! _ ZCDF`F:a | % }
j>XD= _ ZCDF`F:a | }
lF>`=D _ ZCDF`F:a | % }
| 3! 3 1 }
<:B?FXM:F l;CXEF 7[;: c _ ^F@@;`F8a [>:DM;Ea
FCXa
annom npnmepe oxno nneeno xax oexr xstxa Turbo Pascal n coepxnr xoopnnart nepmnnt
nepxnero nenoro yrna (/] !), pasmept (Width, Height) n nponeypy pearnponannx na coomennx (Handle),
xoropax cenana nnpryantno, npeocrannxx oexram, nponcxoxmnm ns Windos, nosmoxnocrt
nepeonpeenennx +ro nponeypt.
cpee Windos oxno - +ro sannct (record), onnm ns none xoropo xnnxercx apec ]ynxnnn,
ntnonnxmme opaorxy coomenn.
no ns ocnonntx ]ynxnn oxna xnnxercx nepepnconxa coepxannx oxna. moe oxno onxno ymert
npn nonyuennn coornercrnymmero sanpoca nepepnconart cex (nnn cnom uacrt) na +xpane. epepnconxa
123
moxer peannsontnartcx nnn xax peaxnnx na cnennantnoe coomenne, nnn xax nnpryantnax ]ynxnnx (npn
ncnontsonannn oexrno-opnenrnponanntx xstxon). cocran nmo GUI oxsarentno nxonr ocrarouno
momnt rpa]nuecxn moynt (GDI n Windos, QuickDra n Mac), oecneunnammn ntnonnenne ncex
ocnonntx rpa]nuecxnx onepann n noepxnnammn orceuenne nsopaxennx no saanno (n rom uncne
n onontno cnoxno) onacrn orceuennx. a cuer +roro peannsyercx nosmoxnocrt nepepnconxn ]parmenra
oxna - ycranannnnaercx onacrt orceuennx, connaammax c rpeyemtm ]parmenrom, a sarem ntnonnxercx
sanpoc na nepepnconxy. pn orpaorxe sanpoca na nepepnconxy oxno moxer onpeennrt pasmep rexyme
onacrn orceuennx n ne ntrartcx pnconart ro, uro saneomo yer orceueno.
neyer samernrt, uro cranaprnax rpa]nuecxax nnnorexa, nxoxmax n cocran Turbo Pascal (Turbo ),
nponsnonr orceuenne nexoroptx oexron (raxnx, xax rexcr) nexoppexrno.
pen oxon nnoxrcx ornomennx npnnanexnocrn n cneonannx, r. e. nmoe oxno moxer nmert oxno-
ponrenx, xoropomy ono npnnanexnr, n, cneonarentno, saaercx no nnyrpennnx xoopnnarax
ponrentcxoro oxna, orcexaercx n pasmepax ponrentcxnm oxnom n ynnuroxaercx npn ynnuroxennn
ponrentcxoro oxna. moe oxno moxer nmert n npnnanexamne emy oxna (nooxna), npnuem nocnenne
nexoroptm opasom ynopxounnamrcx. em camtm oxna opasymr penonnnte crpyxrypt nounnennx
(pnc. 8.1).
a npnneennom epene ysnt coornercrnymr oxnam, a orpesxn - ornomennxm npnnanexnocrn. ax, oxno
ne nmeer ponrenx, no saro nmeer na nooxna - l
+ 8+4
112
n 2. cnom ouepet, oxno 2 xnnxercx ponrentcxnm oxnom nx oxna 3, xoropoe xnnxercx ponrenem
oxna 4.
Do<F
Rj>CXB{ j>CXB{a

j>CXB{ e BSF?D
.
R;:FCD _ Rj>CXB{a | % " vZY},
A=>EX _ Rj>CXB{a | % }
vFVD _ Rj>CXB{a | % !01 }
R:F[ _ Rj>CXB{a | % %!1 }
124
..
FCXa
onrentcxoe oxno n npnnanexamne emy nooxna moryr omennnartcx coomennxmn pyr c pyrom. 3rn
coomennx otuno pasenxmrcx na na xnacca -sanpoc na ntnonnenne oxnom nexoroporo ecrnnx n
coomenne, ononemammee oxno o rom, uro n pyrom oxne (otuno nooxne) nponsomnn nexoropte
nsmenennx.
max cncrema otuno npeocrannxer nx paort nexoropt cranaprnt naop rnnon oxon. 3ro
cnoeopasnte xnpnnunxn, ns xoroptx nontsonarent moxer crponrt cnon nporpammt.
113
O
!!"
ocronr ns sarononxa (Caption), xnonxn ynnuroxennx (nnn cncremnoro menm) n paoue onacrn. pome
+roro moryr npncyrcrnonart xnonxn mnnnmnsannn (xnonxa mnnnmnsannn npenpamaer oxno n
nnxrorpammy), maxcnmnsannn (xnonxa maxcnmnsannn enaer oxno nanontmero nosmoxnoro pasmepa) n
cxponnept (Scroll Bar), cnyxamne nx ynpannennx oropaxennem n oxne oexra, cnnmxom ontmoro,
urot nennxom ymecrnrtcx n nem (pnc. 8.2).
+ 8+O
113
K ( - Pushbutton)
+ 8+-
oxer trt c rexcrom nnn xaprnnxo. pn naxarnn xnonxa noctnaer yneomnxmmee coomenne
ponrentcxomy oxny (pnc. 8.3).
114
Check Box (mu)
epexnmuarent moxer naxonrtcx n onom ns nyx cocroxnn; npn nepexnmuennn noctnaer
yneomnxmmee coomenne ponrenm (pnc. 8.4).
125
+ 8+N
114
Radio Button
Radio Buttons ecrnymr ananornuno Check Box, no, xax npannno, oennxmrcx n rpynnt rax, uro
ncxxn pas nxnmuen rontxo onn nepexnmuarent ns rpynnt. pn nxnmuennn noctnaer yneomnxmmee
coomenne ponrenm n ntxnmuaer ocrantnte nepexnmuarenn ns ro xe rpynnt (pnc. 8.5).
+ 8+#
114
p
nocrpount nnn mnorocrpount peaxrop rexcra, npeocrannxmmn nce cranaprnte cpecrna nx
peaxrnponannx rexcra (pnc. 8.6).
+ 8+6
114
C
pxmoyrontnax onacrt c rexcrom nnn xaprnnxo (pnc. 8.7).
+ 8+7
114
C (ScroII Bar)
penasnauen nx rpa]nuecxoro ntopa nenpeptnnoro snauennx ns nexoroporo nanasona. meer xnonxn
nx nnannoro nsmenennx nennunnt n nnxox, xoropt moxno nepememart mtmtm o nyxnoro
snauennx. xponnep tnaer nnn ropnsonrantntm, nnn neprnxantntm (pnc. 8.8)
+ 8+8
126
114
C (List Box)
oepxnr cnncox oexron, nosnonxer nx oannxrt, yanxrt n ntnpart. xauecrne oexron moryr
ntcrynart xax crpoxn rexcra, rax n conepmenno acrpaxrnte oexrt, ymemmne coomnrt cno pasmep n
napnconart cex. nncox moxer noepxnnart coprnponxy n mnoxecrnennoe ntenenne, nosnonxmmee
npocro ormernrt px +nemenron. ce ecrnnx, cnxsannte c ntopom +nemenron, npnnoxr x noctnxe
+ 8+9
114
yneomnxmmero coomennx ponrentcxomy oxny (pnc. 8.9).
ax nnno ns nocnennx npnmepon, n cocran oxna moryr nxonrt pyrne oxna n ecrnonart npn +rom xax
ennoe nenoe. anpnmep, n cocran oxna-cnncxa nxonr cxponnep.
pen oxon otuno ntenxmrcx rax nastnaemte nanoronte oxna, npenasnauennte nx neennx
nanora c nontsonarenem, nnoa anntx n r. n. tuno n nx ocnone nexnr cranaprnoe oxno c ontmnm
naopom nooxon, nrpammnx pont ynpannxmmnx +nemenron. ax npannno, nanoronoe oxno (nnn
nponeypa, neymax nanor) cnaxaercx cnennantno ]ynxnne nx xoopnnannn paort ynpannxmmnx
+nemenron. anpnmep, nanor nx ntopa ]ana (pnc 8.10).
+ 8+4*
pome cranaprntx oxon nontsonarent moxer cosanart cnon cocrnennte rnnt oxon, nno oannxx
xaxne-ro nonte cnocrna, nno nepeonpeenxx uacrt craptx n nacneymmnx nce ocrantnoe.
Do<F ^oj>CXB{ e BSF?D 7j>CXB{8
127
.
<:B?FXM:F l;CXEF 7[;: c _ ^F@@;`F8a [>:DM;Ea | }
.
FCXa
<:B?FXM:F ^oj>CXB{+ l;CXEF 7[;: c _ ^F@@;`F8
SF`>C
?;@F c+ABXF Bb
.
FE@F | ] % / " -! }
j>CXB{+l;CXEF 7c8a
FCXa
115
npnneennom npnmepe cosaercx nont rnn oexra - MyWindo, nponcxoxmn or asonoro rnna
Windo, no ornnuammncx or nero nno opaorxo nexoroptx coomenn.
accmorpnm mexannsm nepeaun oxny coomenn or mtmn n xnannarypt.
tuno nce coomennx or mtmn noctnamrcx romy oxny, na xoroptm naxonrcx xypcop mtmn
(nponsomno cotrne). naxo cymecrnyer nyrt oxoa +roro. xno moxer nomart mtmt, nocne uero
nce coomennx or mtmn, re t onn nn nponcxonnn, yyr nocrynart rontxo +romy oxny o rex nop,
noxa oxno, nomanmee mtmt, ne ornycrnr ee.
accmorpnm cneymmym cnryannm: nontsonarent naxan xnonxy mtmn n ror momenr, xora xypcop mtmn
naxonncx na naxnmaemo xnonxo. +rom cnyuae nyxno naxart ee (nepepnconart ee nsopaxenne) n
yepxnnart naxaro, noxa naxara xnonxa mtmn n xypcop mtmn no-npexnemy naxonrcx na
naxnmaemo xnonxo. naxo ecnn nontsonarent pesxo cnnner mtmt, yepxnnax xnonxy mtmn
naxaro, ro naxnmaemax xnonxa ne nonyunr coomennx o rom, uro mtmt noxnnyna npeent naxnmaemo
xnonxn, ncnecrnne roro, uro, xax rontxo mtmt noxnner +rn npeent, coomennx or nee yyr nocrynart
yxe pyromy oxny. pn +rom xnonxa nce npemx yer ocranartcx naxaro. o+romy naxnmaemax xnonxa
onxna saxnarnrt mtmt n yepxnnart ee, noxa xnonxa mtmn naxara n xypcop mtmn naxonrcx na
naxnmaemo xnonxo. ora xorx t ono ns +rnx ycnonn napymnrcx, xnonxa orxnmaercx n mtmt
ocnooxaercx.
pn paore c xnannarypo naxnym pont nrpaer nonxrne ]oxyca nnoa.
oxyc nnoa - +ro ro oxno, xoropomy nocrynamr nce coomennx or xnannarypt. ymecrnyer necxontxo
cnocoon nepememennx ]oxyca nnoa:
npn naxarnn xnonxn mtmn ]oxyc nepeaercx romy oxny, na xoroptm +ro nponsomno;
oxna nanora otuno nepexnmuamr ]oxyc mexy ynpannxmmnmn +nemenramn nanora npn
naxarnn onpeenenntx xnannm (cranaprno +ro Tab n Sh1It-Tab);
nocpecrnom xnnoro ntsona ]ynxnnn ycranonxn ]oxyca nnoa.
xny, repxmmemy ]oxyc nnoa, otuno noctnaercx yneomnenne o +rom, n ono moxer
npeornparnrt nepexo ]oxyca or cex. xny, nonyuammemy ]oxyc, nepeaercx coomenne o rom,
uro ono nonyunno ]oxyc nnoa.
accmorpnm renept mexannsm peannsannn ocnonntx oxonntx ]ynxnn.
2
Vcranannnnaercx onacrt orceuennx, pannax nepeceuennm oxna c ponrentcxnm oxnom, n ntnonnxercx
onepannx nepepnconxn.
6 5
128
nx roro, urot ypart oxno c +xpana, neoxonmo noccranonnrt ro, uro ono panee saxptnano. nx +roro
nepenpamrcx nce oxna, nexamne no ynpaemtm,
+ 8+44
116
n onpeenxercx, xaxne onacrn xaxnx oxon cranyr nnnmtmn. ocne uero nx ncex raxnx oxon nponcxonr
nepepnconxa orxptnmnxcx ]parmenron (pnc. 8.11).

rapoe nsopaxenne oxna, xax npannno, npocro xonnpyercx na nonoe mecro, npn +rom noxnnxmrcx
onacrn, rpeymmne nepepnconxn. 3ro orxptnmnecx ]parmenrt pyrnx oxon n uacrt rexymero oxna,
nennnmax panee, no cranmax nnnmo renept.
2
xno nepepncontnaercx nennxom. cnn npn +rom orxptnamrcx ]parmenrt pyrnx oxon, ro onn
nepepncontnamrcx rax, xax onncano ntme.
117
Cp
anonee pacnpocrpanenntmn meroamn nocrpoennx peanncrnuecxnx nsopaxenn xnnxmrcx
rpaccnponxa nyue (Ray Tracing) n nsnyuarentnocrt (Radiosity). nxe yer ano xparxoe onncanne oonx
meroon.

unraercx, uro mero rpaccnponxn nyue aer nanntcmym nosmoxnym crenent peannsma. pome roro, on
npeocrannxer nosmoxnocrt nx npocroro pemennx mnpoxoro xpyra saau.
pn nocrpoennn nsopaxennx nyu noctnaercx n saannom nanpannennn nx onenxn npnxoxme orrya
cnerono +neprnn. 3ra +neprnx onpeenxercx ocnemennocrtm nepno nonepxnocrn, ncrpernnmecx na
nyrn nyua.
accmorpnm mexannsm nosnnxnonennx +ro ocnemennocrn onee erantno. axt ncrounnx cnera
ncnycxaer nyun no ncex nanpannennxx. onaax na nonepxnocrt, nyu uacrnuno npenomnxercx, uacrnuno
orpaxaercx n uacrnuno paccennaercx (pnc. 9.1).
poxox uepes npospaunt marepnan, nyu nperepnenaer ecrecrnennoe ocnanenne c xo+]]nnnenrom T
exp (E), re E - nnna nyrn nnyrpn marepnana, a - xo+]]nnnenr ero npospaunocrn.
129
rpaxenne moxer trt sepxantntm n n]]ysntm. pn sepxantnom orpaxennn yron, cocrannxemt
orpaxenntm nyuom c nopmantm x rnaxo nonepxnocrn, panen yrny mexy naammnm nyuom n +ro
nopmantm n nexnr c nnm n ro xe nnocxocrn. pn n]]ysnom orpaxennn (paccexnnn) cneronax +neprnx,
cornacno saxony amepra, c onnaxono nnrencnnnocrtm paccennaercx no nce cropont.
ostmem na nonepxnocrn rouxy c ennnuntm nexropom nnemne nopmann C (pnc. 9.2).
ycrt rouxa ocnemaercx roueuntm ncrounnxom cnera n nanpannennn, onpeenxemom ennnuntm
nexropom E. ora +neprnx Y
:
, orpaxaemax n nanpannennn nexropa [, saaercx ]opmyno
+ 9+4
+ 9+O
118
re W - xo+]]nnnenr orpaxennx; Y
>
- nnrencnnnocrt ncrounnxa; : - paccroxnne or rouxn o ncrounnxa
cnera.
yuerom n]]ysnoro orpaxennx moxno sanncart:
re W
@
- xo+]]nnnenr nx sepxantnoro orpaxennx (npn uncro sepxantnom orpaxennn ncx +neprnx
orpaxaercx n nanpannennn [2(E, C)C-E); W
X
- n]]ysnax cocrannxmmax (or nanpannennx ne sanncnr).
ycrt naammn nyu cocrannxer yron c nopmantm C. npeennm yron ' cneymmnm opasom:
re C
@
- xo+]]nnnenr npenomnennx marepnana.
ora
130
o+]]nnnenrt k
1
, n T
2
sanncxr or marepnana.
penomnennt nyu yer nexart n nnocxocrn ncxonoro nyua n nopmann x nonepxnocrn n cocrannxrt c
nem yron ', nneennt ntme. nrencnnnocrt npenomnennoro nyua saaercx ]opmyno
ocrynax raxnm opasom, moxno onpeennrt ocnemennocrt xaxo nonepxnocrn cnent n nocrponrt
rpeyemoe nsopaxenne.
s xaxoro ncrounnxa ntnycxamrcx nyun no nce cropont. pn nepeceuennn nyua c nonepxnocrtm
nonyuamrcx orpaxennt n npenomnennt nyun, a ecnn moennponart n]]ysnoe ocnemenne, ro n nyuox
nyue, pannomepno pacnpocrpanxmmnxcx no nce cropont. pocnexnnax nce nyun, mt onapyxnm, uro
uacrt ns nnx, nepecexax xaprnnnym nnocxocrt, n xonne xonnon nonaer n rnas nanmarenx.
naxo nonnt npocuer nyue, nastnaemt npxmo rpaccnponxo, ns-sa orpomnoro xonnuecrna
ntuncnenn, xoropte neoxonmo nponsnecrn, xax npannno, ne npnmenxercx. pome roro, ontmax uacrt
paort oxaxercx nponeenno nnycrym, rax xax snaunrentnoe uncno ycnnn yer na onpeenenne
ocnemennocrn nonepxnocre, nennnmtx nanmarenm.
119
o+romy raxo noxo npnmenxercx pexo. tuno ncnontsyercx rax nastnaemax oparnax rpaccnponxa,
npn xoropo orcnexnnamrcx rontxo nyun, nonaammne n rnas nanmarenx.
3ro nponcxonr rax. s rnasa nanmarenx uepes xaxt nnxcen xaprnnno nnocxocrn n cneny
nponycxaercx nyu, n sarem on orcnexnnaercx n oparnom nanpannennn. ora nyu naranxnnaercx na
nonepxnocrt, nnrencnnnocrt coornercrnymmero nnxcena xaprnnno nnocxocrn onpeenxercx
ocnemennocrtm nnxame rouxn nepeceuennx nyua n nonepxnocrn. cnemennocrt +ro rouxn
cxnatnaercx ns orpaxenno n npenomnenno +neprn, nenocpecrnenno nonyuenntx or ncrounnxon
cnera, n orpaxenno n npenomnenno +neprn, nymnx or pyrnx oexron cnent.
nx onpeenennx ocnemennocrn, nopoxaemo nenocpecrnenntm ocnemennem, ns rouxn nepeceuennx
ntnycxamrcx nyun xo ncem ncrounnxam cnera n onpeenxercx nxna rex ncrounnxon, xoropte ne
sacnonent pyrnmn oexramn.
nx onpeenennx ocrantntx nennunn ns rouxn ntnycxamrcx nropnunte nyun (orpaxennt n
npenomnennt) n onpeenxercx npnnocnmax nmn +neprnx.
nx moennponannx n]]ysntx nonepxnocre ns rouxn ntnycxaercx nyuox nyue, pannomepno
pacnpeenenntx no ncem nanpannennxm.
pn rpaccnponxe nyua moxer nosnnxnyrt cnryannx, xora nyu nmeer ecxoneunym nnny, r. e. na nyrn
nyua ne nosnnxaer nnxaxoro oexra. +rom cnyuae +neprnx, npnnocnmax nyuom, npnxonr ns
oxpyxammero npocrpancrna.
131
xpyxammee npocrpancrno moxer trt onopontm, r. e. ne. sanncxmnm or nanpannennx (nanpnmep,
neo). naxo n pxe cnyuaen onoponax moent ne noxonr (nanpnmep, xora oxpyxammnm
npocrpancrnom cnyxnr nn ns oxna). raxnx cnyuaxx cnena oxpyxaercx nexoropo ocrarouno ontmo
nonepxnocrtm, na xoropym npoexrnpyercx oxpyxammee npocrpancrno. xymem cnyuae nyu nonaaer na
+ry nonepxnocrt, n ero nnrencnnnocrt nerxo onpeenxercx nyrem nnrepnonxnnn xaprnnt na ne.
axnm opasom, mero rpaccnponxn nyue saxnmuaercx n moennponannn npoxoxennx nyue n pamxax
reomerpnuecxo onrnxn. yume ncero on noxonr nx cnen, ne coepxamnx n]]ysntx nonepxnocre,
no omen +neprne mexy nnmn moennpyercx cnoxno.
nyua roueuntx ncrounnxon cnera n neantno sepxantntx nnn npospauntx ren xnnxercx nanonee
npocrtm: nx xaxoro nyua mt moxem nocrponrt epeno, ysnam xoroporo yyr coornercrnonart rouxn
nepeceuennx nyua c nonepxnocrtm, a nernxm - orpesxn nyua mexy rouxamn nepeceuennx. pn +rom n
xaxo rouxe nyu nnn orpaxaercx, nnn pasenxercx na orpaxennt n npenomnennt. em camtm
pasenenne nyua na necxontxo nyue moxer nponsorn n xaxom ysne. pn +rom onn nyu, ntnymennt
ns rnasa nanmarenx, moxer noponrt epeno, coepxamee cornn nnn axe rtcxun nyue. axnm
opasom, axe n npocremem cnyuae oem ntuncnenn moxer oxasartcx ouent ontmnm. rot ero xax-
ro ymentmnrt, otuno nnoxr orpannuennx na rnynny epena. ax xax ne nce nyun nnocxr onnaxont
nxna n nroronym ocnemennocrt, ro, onennnax nxna xonxpernoro nyua n nroronym
120
nnrencnnnocrt nnxcena xaprnnno nnocxocrn, moxno npexparnrt antnemym ero rpaccnponxy, xax
rontxo pesyntrar oxaxercx nnxe rpeyemo rounocrn.
ner xaxoro nnxcena onpeenxercx nnrencnnnocrxmn rpex cocrannxmmnx nneron - xpacnoro, senenoro n
cnnero.
em camtm npn rpaccnponxe nyua neoxonmo ntuncnnrt cpasy rpn nnrencnnnocrn, onpeenxmmne
nroront nner. o+]]nnnenrt orpaxennx n npenomnennx nx rpex cocrannxmmnx nneron pasnnunt n
onpeenxmrcx nnerom nonepxnocrn (otuno sanncnmocrtm xo+]]nnnenra npenomnennx or nnera
npeneperamr).
121
y
cnonntmn neocrarxamn meroa rpaccnponxn nyue xnnxmrcx ne+]]exrnnnocrt paort c n]]ysntmn
nonepxnocrxmn n ro, uro onpeenenne ocnemennocrn nonepxnocre npononrcx napannentno c
nocrpoennem nsopaxennx n sanncnr or nonoxennx nanmarenx.
ero nsnyuarentnocrn ycrpanxer +rn neocrarxn, oecneunnax ntcoxym rounocrt npn paore c
n]]ysntmn oexramn n orentnoe ntuncnenne rnoantno ocnemennocrn nesanncnmo or nonoxennx
nanmarenx.
ocnone meroa nsnyuarentnocrn nexnr saxon coxpanennx +neprnn n samxnyro cncreme. ce oexrt
pasnnamrcx na ]parmenrt, n nx +rnx ]parmenron cocrannxmrcx ypannennx ananca +neprnn.
ycrt
,
>
- +neprnx, orpactnaemax >-m ]parmenrom cnent;
q
>
- cocrnennax nsnyuarentnocrtm ]parmenra;
J
>
- onx +neprnn >-ro ]parmenra, nonaammax na - ]parmenr (xo+]]nnnenrt ]opmt); p
>
- xo+]]nnnenr
orpaxennx.
132
Vpannennx ananca +neprnn nmemr nn
3rn coornomennx moxno nepenncart n cneymme ]opme:
pesyntrare nonyuaem cncremy nnnentx anrepanuecxnx ypannenn. o, uro +ro cncrema c cnntntm
naronantntm npeonaannem, nosnonxer ncnontsonart nx ee pemennx nrepannonnte merot (rnna
Iaycca-eenx), ammne sa neontmoe uncno nrepann nnonne yonnernopnrentnoe pemenne.
nx onpeenennx nnera ]parmenra coornercrnymmne cncremt sannctnamrcx nx xaxo ns rpex
ocnonntx nnerontx cocrannxmmnx, npnuem xo+]]nnnenrt ]opmt or nnera ne sanncxr n onpeenxmrcx
rontxo reomerpne cnent.
121
tuno nocne onpeenennx ocnemennocrn xaxoro ]parmenra nponsnonrcx nnnnenax nnrepnonxnnx
ocnemennocrn no ncem oexram, ammax nnannoe ecrecrnennoe ocnemenne.
ocne ntopa rouxn nanmennx oexrt cnent npoexrnpymrcx na xaprnnnym nnocxocrt n crponrcx
nsopaxenne.
anonee rpyoemxnm marom meroa nsnyuarentnocrn xnnxercx ntuncnenne xo+]]nnnenron ]opmt.
accmorpnm +ror nponecc noponee.
tepem ]parmenrt p
>
n $

n +nemenrapnte yuacrxn Xp
>
n X$

na nnx c nopmanxmn coornercrnenno C


>
n C


(pnc. 9.3). ora onx +neprnn +nemenra X$

, nonaamme na +nemenr Xp
>
, panna
re : - paccroxnne mexy +nemenramn Xp
>
n X$

;
>
n

- yrnt mexy nopmanxmn x nnm n coennxmmnm nx


orpesxom.
nrerpnpyx no ]parmenry $

, nonyunm
onropnoe nnrerpnponanne npnnonr x ]opmyne
133
ocnenee coornomenne ne yunrtnaer oexron, saxptnammnx uacrt onoro ]parmenra or pyroro. nx
nx yuera n notnrerpantnoe ntpaxenne nyxno oannrt eme onn unen - ]ynxnnm HID
>
, npnnnmammym
snauennx ns orpesxa 0,1 n xapaxrepnsymmym crenent nnnmocrn ]parmenra p
Z
c ]parmenra $

:
ounoe ntuncnenne +roro nnrerpana, xax npannno, npecrannxer snaunrentnte rpynocrn. o+romy nx
ortcxannx xo+]]nnnenron ]opmt ncnontsyercx px ocrarouno +]]exrnnntx npnnnxenntx meroon.
anonee pacnpocrpanenntm xnnxercx mero nonyxya.
yem cunrart, uro paccroxnne mexy ]parmenramn nennxo no cpannennm c nx pasmepamn. ora, ntpan
n xauecrne rouxn na ]parmenre p
>
ero nenrp, moxno sanncart npnnnxenno, uro
+ 9+-
122
9+N
ocrponm noopaxaemt xy raxnm opasom, urot ero nenrp connan c nenrpom ]parmenra, a sa
nanpannenne ocn it (n cncreme xoopnnar xya) nostmem nopmant x ]parmenry n ero nenrpe (pnc. 9.4).
asotem uacrt nonepxnocrn xya, nexamym n nnocxocrn t 0, na xnaparnte nnxcent, n cnpoexrnpyem
nce npocrpancrno na nxrt rpane nonyunnmerocx nonyxya. nx xaxoro nnxcena nonyxya onpeenxercx
nnxamn npoexrnpyemt na nero ]parmenr, nocne uero ntuncnxercx nxna xaxoro nnxcena nonyxya
n 1-m crpoxy marpnnt xo+]]nnnenron ]opmt.
134
cnn nnxcen nexnr na nepxne rpann, ro ero nxna n xo+]]nnnenr ]opmt panen
re A- nnomat coornercrnymmero nnxcena, a nx nnxcena na oxono cropone
axnm opasom, xo+]]nnnenrt ]opmt or p
>
onpeenxmrcx cpasy xo ncem ocrantntm ]parmenram.
nx coxpamennx oema ntuncnenn nnora ncnontsyercx mero nporpeccnnno nsnyuarentnocrn. +rom
meroe xaxt pas nmercx nonepxnocrt c nanontme nsnyuarentnocrtm (cnauana +ro ncrounnxn cnera)
n onpeenxmrcx xo+]]nnnenrt ]opmt or nee xo ncem ocrantntm nonepxnocrxm. ocne +roro
nsnyuarentnocrn ncex ocrantntx ]parmenron xoppexrnpymrcx, naxonrcx ]parmenr c nanontme
nsnyuarentnocrtm n rax anee. ponecc npoonxaercx o ocrnxennx nyxno crenenn rounocrn.
123
135