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.. , ..

Boris RADOVSKIY
Bagdat TELTAYEV

.. , ..., ,
- (),
.. ..., ,
()

VISCO-ELASTIC
PROPERTIES OF ASPHALTS
BASED ON PENETRATION
AND SOFTENING
POINT

lmaty
Publisher Bilim
2013


2013

-
-

( 7 8 2013 ).
: ,
,
.. (. , ),
,
.. (. , ),

.. (. , ).

.., ..
/ .. ,
.. . : , 2013. 152 .
ISBN
,
, : , . ,
: .
,
, .
, , , .

ISBN

..,
.., 2013
, 2013

........................................................................... 7
I.
1. 1.
1. 2.
1. 3.

.....................................10
..............................11
...................14

.....................................................18
1. 4.
..22
1. 5. - ...................33
....................................................................38

II. ........41
2. 1.
..............................................41
2. 2.
.........................................46
2. 3. 50
....................................................................63
III.
3. 1.
3. 2.
3. 3.
3. 4.

..66
......................67
................................70
.............................85


...................................................................95
..................................................................104
5

IV. .....................................107
4. 1.
.................................................................108
4. 2.

.............................................................115
4. 3.

.........................................................119
4. 4.


..............................................................125
4. 5.
..................................................138
..................................................................143
..........................................................................146
...........................................................................149

- . ,

. ,
, - , .
,
,
.

,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, , :
,
7

. ,

: .
.
. . : , , , .

.
, [1-8].
,
, - ,
. , . , ,
, , , . , , . , -

, ,
.

1. . . .
. / . . . , . , , 1973,
328, II. 14, II. 15, II. 16.
2. . . , . . , . . .
. ,
, 1989, 168.
3. . . . -
. , , 2003,
252.
4. . . / . . . . : .
, 1999. 217 .
5. , . . -
// . 2012. 2. - . 14-18.
6. . . - // . 2006. 1. - . 18-21.
7. . .
- / . . 17/1. - . : , 2007. - . 68-81.
8. . . - -
/ -
II . , 2007. - . 307-308.

I.

I.

, . . ,
, ( ).

, . , .
, ,
, . .
, .
- , . ,
. . . . [1] - , 1973 ., 232 , [2], 10

, 332 ,
[3] 586 . , ,

.
1.1.
. . 1943 . 1945 .
, ,

[4]. . .
[5]. ,
: , , . ., . . , , ,

.

.
,
, , , .
, , , , .


11

I.

, , ,
1954 .
SHELL [6].
.
,

0.20 ,
10 / (36 /).

, . E, T t,
.
,

SHELL [10],

[11], [12] [13] .
. . [14]

: .

,
0.1.
.
46-72. , [15,16], , 0.1. 00 ( ) 100 ( ).
.
,
, , 0.1. -, ,

S(t) = /(t)

(1.1)


(t), , , t , , T.
,
S. [7].
1964 ( 3%)
[8].
,
, .

. ,
T t. SHELL [9] S
, , t = 0.02 . 12

13

I.

. ,
,
, . -, . , , , ,
.
,
-
. [17],
[18], [19] .

, . . .
- (
); - ;
- ; - ;
G = E / 2(1 + ) - ( ); E - ( ); - ( ). 1
(250 )
= 0.35, = 0.450.50.
= 0.5;
E = 3G , .
, . , :

1.2.
, . .
:
,
, , , ,
, . (Maxwell, J. C. , [20], p. 276).
, ( )
, ( )
.
, . ,
:


14

(1.2)
,

(1.3)

(1.4)

(1.5)

(1.6)


(1.7)
.
, , . - 15

I.

,
. 3 ,
E = 3G . 200
0.001 .
,
, 800 3000 .
, ,
.

[21].
, , , . . , :

, , , , :

(1. 8)
(1. 9)

Gg, Eg - , .
,
,
g(glassy). Gg =1000 , Eg = 3000 . ,

.

16

(1. 10)

(1. 11)

= / Gg - .
, . , .
(..which may be called time of relaxation
of the elastic force, [21], . 53). (t /
<<1), ,
. t / >>1, . , . ,
, , i. ,
, ,
.
(1. 1) (1. 9)
:
(1.12)
, , 17

, , , , , .
,
. .
1.3.

, ,
. , , , , , . , [22,23].
, , ,
. . , , ,
=/E.
, d(t) t,
d, + d ( t),

d() , D(t ) (t ) :
18

I.

(1.13)

, , D(t) - : , ,
.
, d(t) t d()
(t ) E(t ):
,

(1.14)

E(t) - .
(1.13) (1.14), t, , ,

(1.15)
(1.16)
, t ,
.
,
(t ) D(t). ,
t , . , (t ) E(t).
19

I.

, . E(t) D(t)

, ( )
E 1/E.
D(t) .
t , :

(1.15), (1.16)

(1.17)
(1. 1) (1. 17), ,
,
S(t) = 1/D(t)

(1.18)

E(t)
.
t :
(1. 19)
E(t)
,
E .
(1.15) (1.16),
, , D(t) E(t) .
20

(1.20)
(1.20) , D(t), E(t), . .
. , . .

. D(t) E(t)
, t.
(1.13)-(1.20) . , , . D(t)
E(t) J(t) = (t)/ G(t) = (t)/.
(1. 20)
(1.21)

(t) ,

D(t) = J(t)/3 , E(t) = 3G(t)
(1.22)
(1.18) (1.22) ,
J(t) S(t)
,
J(t) = 3/S(t)
(1.23)
. ,
21

I.

- , [3, 24]. 1970- [25]


[26, 27].
, , - ,
- ,
: , , , . .

, . ,
, . , ,
. , . [28]

.

G(t) E(t) , , ,
, .
(t)
= const, E(t) = (t)/.
= const G(t) = (t)/.
. :
(1) ; (2) , (t). ,
, . , , . , , . .
,
,
.
, , . J(t) D(t)
, ,
(t) ,
D(t) = (t)/.
J(t) = (t)/.

1.4.

J(t), D(t)
E(t), G(t)
.
,
- , . .
22

23

I.

: (1) ; (2) , . , ,
= const.
,
.

.

, , .
t, .
, ,
, 0.5 , D(t) t > 5 c. E(t) D(t) t.
. 1.1 , .. [29]. 4040160 , 70 , 47.50 120. 6% , 40% , 13% ( 4- [29]). 3.3%.
.. , 0.0030.006

. ,
.
,
. , . . . 1.1
0.3 320 .


. 1970- . .
[24, 30]. -

24

. 1.1
200 [29]

25

,
:
[31] .


.

.
(t) = 0sin(t) 0 (t) = 0() sin(t ) 0,
.
0 , .
0 ,

I.

. 1.2. 1 25

(DSR)

(1.24)

( ASTM D 7175)
(. 1.2)
DSR (. 1.3).
25 1 8 2
.
, ,
(. 1.3). : (. . )
26

. 1.3.

. , , , . () = 0
27

I.

sin(t) 0
. (t) = 0 () sin(t ) 0 () , . 0 () () (.
1.4).

0, ,
0 () |G*()|
Gd:

. = 0 ,
( (1.2)). = / 2
, ( (1.4)). = / 4

.
. 1.4
= 10 ./ 2 / 10 = 0.628 .
90/130
460. 0 = 1.617 0 = 0.1183. ( )
Gd ( = 10) = |G* ( = 10)| = 0 / 0( = 10) =
= 1.617 / 0.1183 = 13.67 . t = 0.129 (.
1.4).
(-

(1.25)
, ,
,
,
.
, Gd.
, : G' G''. G' ,
G'' - . ,
,

(1.26)

G' = Gd cos(), G'' = Gd sin()


tg() = G'' / G',
,
28

. 1.4.
90/130 =460 =10 ./:
;
.
DSRIIAir BohlinInstruments
.

29

)
( ). , . 0.129
10 ./ = 1.29
740. G' = 13.67cos(740) = 3.77 ,
G'' = 13.67 sin(740) = 13.14 ,
tg() = tg(740) = 3.49.
. 1 , .
.

[22,
23].
, , G' G'' G(t):
, (1.27)
, , , . . , ( G(t) t ) . ( G(t) t , . . )
.
,
G(t) G' G'':
30

I.

. (1.28)

,
G(t). (1.27), (1.28) G(t), E(t).
(1.28)
G(t), G'() G''() , , ,
, . ,
(1.27) G'() G''(),
t.

,
. .
J(t), D(t) G(t), E(t), , [22, 23]. ,

,

(1.29)

gi - ,
i .
i
gi .

. 31

, (Rouse; Bueche;
Doi-Edwards, Bird-Armstrong .), i
. ,
.
gi i (1.29) GM(t). [23].
GM(t), ,
105 105 15
(1.29), . . N = 15. , N
i gi - , , 30 ,
GM(t).
,
, ..
i gi [32]. , , , i gi 2N
(, 30 ).
,
(1.29) , 30 , , .
, , ,
.

32

I.

1.5. -
[33, 34, 35]. , , t T . , D(t)
J(t) t T. , t T E(t) G(t)
. , , ,
T (580) , T t , . . 10 .
,
[22]. - Tr
(reference temperature)
tr t T
tr = t / aT(T)

(1. 30)

aT(T) - - ,
T; tr -
Tr.
, aT(T)
: , E(t), D(t), Ed() . - (
- ) ,
,
33

I.

tr (1.30) ; ,
, (1.30).
(T t) - , -,
( T t
tr), -,

. , ,
200 0.001, 10150 1.
, , aT(T).

(T), - [22]:

. / R (1.32) (K).
(1.32) - Ea,
aTr(T)
T. , [6] Ea = 50 / = 2.09 105
/.

aTr(T) . , . .
() [35]:

(1.31)
(Tr) - Tr, .
- aT(T)
(1.32) (1.33). , . (1916 ) .
(1.32)
aTr(T) - -
Tr; T ,
,0; Ea - , /; R = 8.314 /( K) - 34

(1.33)
: ln(10) = 2,303 ; C1, C2 - . C1 - , C2 (K).
Tr 500
, : C1 = 8.86, C2 = 101.6 [35].
(1.33)
(, , .) ,
, (, .) .
, . ,
. [22] C1, C2. ..
..
( ) ( ) C1 = 23, C2 = 218
[24].
35

.. , 4040160 . , . 1.1 ( 4- [29]). ,


(t) t = 0.1, 1, 10, 32 100 .
20, 15, 0, 5
8.50. . 1.5
S(t) = / (t) .
. - , r = 200, , , aTr(T), , , . 1.6.
aTr(T) (1.32), Ea = 1.88 105 /.
, ,
= 150,

I.

. 1.5.
[29]:
- 200, - 150, - 00, - 50, - 8.50

= 3.82,
50 3.82
Tr = 200.
, S(t), 150 t = 0.1, 1, 10, 32 100 , tr = 0.0262, 0.262, 2.62,
8.38 26. 2 200. ,
.
1.6,
200.
36

. 1.6.
T = 200C
- 200, - 150, - 00, - 50, - 8.50

37

I.

,
-
0.1 100
0.00001 100
200.
,
.

Overlays for Road Trafc, Shell International Petroleum Co Ltd,London,


UK.
11. Asphalt Institute (1982), Research and development of The
Asphalt Institutes thickness design manual, Manual Series 1, Research
Report 82-2, Maryland.
12. British Standards (2001), BS EN 12697: Bituminous mixtures.
Test methods for hot mix asphalt, British Standards Publ. , UK; HD 23/99
(1999). Design Manual for Roads and Bridges. Vol. 7, Pavement Design
and Maintenace
13. Design of Pavement Structures, Technical Guide (in French).
SETRA, Laboratoire Central des PontsetChausses, Dec. 1994.
14. , . .
. , 1964, 6, . 20-21.
15. 46-83 (1985) , . , , . 1-157.
16. 218. 046-01 (2001) , . , . 1-152.
17. , . . , . . .
. , 1981, . 17, N. 6, c. 45-52; Privarnikov, A. K. and B. S. Radovskii.
Action of moving load on viscoelastic multilayer base. Int. Appl. Mech. ,
Vol. 17, No. 6, 1981, p. 534-540.
18. , . .
. . . , 1982, 35.
19. Chen, E. Y. G. , E. Pan, T. S. Norfolk, O. Wang. Surface loading of a
multilayered viscoelastic pavement. Road Materials and Pavement Design,
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20. Maxwell, J. C. Theory of Heat. Elibron Classics, (2001) Reprint of
the 1872 edition, pp. 1-312.
21. Maxwell JC (1866), On the dynamical theory of gases,
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. London A157, 2678.
22. , . . . .
. : , 1963, 536c.
23. Tschoegl, N. W. , The phenomenological theory of linear
viscoelastic behavior. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1989, 769 pp.
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Rheological properties of road bitumens. Rheologica Acta, 1977, Vol. 16,
p. 266281.
25. Monismith, C. L, R. L. Alexander, K. E. Secor, Rheological behavior

1. . . , . . . . . ,
, 1973, 264.
2. LesueurD, The colloidal structure of bitumen: Consequences on the
rheology and on the mechanisms of bitumen modication, Advances in
Colloid and Interface Science, 2009, V. 145, 1-2, p. 42-82.
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in layered soil systems, Journal of Applied Physics, 1945, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp.
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properties of bitumens and its relation to routine test data. Journal of
Applied Chemistry, London, Vol. 4, 1954, pp. 221-236.
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Rheologica Acta, 1, 1958, p. 198205.
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38

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of asphalt concrete. Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt Paving


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, 2010, 3, . 24-27.
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, , 1977. 116.
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. , , 1937,
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77, 3701-3707.

II.

, . (.. 11501-78
ASTM D 5) (
, 11506-73 ASTM D 36) , , , , .
2.1.

, [1-3]

c (t), ..
S(t) = c / (t).

(2.1)


S(t) , [1, 2].

,
( ), S(t), . 1 10 000 [2]. 40

41

II.


3, 0.5 .

1 /. 1000 /. , .. Ed() = |E*()| = 0 /0()
. ,
6% -
, , .

, , , , ,
:

log S(t) log t


103 104.
,
- , .
1.5. . , . . (),
.
(1.32),
Ea = 50 / = 2.09 105 / [1].
47 , (, , , , ).
S(t) .
PI (penetration index), 1936 [4]
:

S(t) Ed ()| =1/t

(2.2)

(2.2)
, ( (1.9)).
log S(t) log t, S(t)
Ed t
, 1 /. S(t)
t 1 . , 42

PI =

(2.3)

A - , P :
A=

(2.4)

P - () 250,
Trb - , (ring and ball temperature), 43

II.

,
800, ..
800 ().
,
(2.3) PI A
,
, ,
250 200, PI = 0. (2.3) PI = 20 ( = 0), PI = 10 , , .
,
PI 3 +5.
PI +2 2.
PI 2 , . , 22245-90 40/60
200/300 1 < PI < +1.
, 250 P ( ASTM D5) Trb ( ASTM D36)
PI.
2.6 +6.3, .. , .
. , PI = 2.3
Trb = 660 = 5, 15, 25, 35 450,
PI = +5.3
Trb = 1160 - T = 20, 0, 20, 40 600. -


t
log S(t) log t S(t).

[1].
P Trb
S T t . PI,
(Trb ) t 106
1010 S 104 2.5109 .
, ,
,
[5, 6 .].
, [7], ([8] .), ([9] .), .
, ,
,
.
,
50% , .
,

. , , , -

44

45

II.

13 ( 10 2.510 ),
50% . . ,
[1], 20 ,
,
.
SHELL
, ,
P. Ullidz K.R. Peattie -
PONOS
[10, 11]. 2000 Ababtech, Inc. G.M. Rowe M.J. Sharrock
BitProps, , PONOS, . .

R. Saal [13],
. 11 12 [1].
t = 0.4
:

2.2.

, , S(t) J(t) D(t), G(t) E(t),
|G*()| |E*()|,
( P
250 Trb),
.
S(t) P, Trb T
.
46

(2.5)
.
. -, . -, , = 250. -, (2.5),
t = 0.4 , .. . , P = 100 (2.5) S0.4 = 0.4 .
, P = 100 Trb = 38.80C, 47.50C 59.50C, PI = 3,0 +3, (
BitProps) S = 0.26 , 0.40 0.52 . , PI = 0, PI = 3 +3 ,
(2.5) PI .
P. Ullidz B. Larsen [12]
S(t) = 1.157 107 t0.368 ePI (Trb T)5

(2.6)

. , ,
(2.6) ,
,
t. T = Trb (2.6) , 47

II.

, T > Trb , . , ,
Trb. (2.6) P.Ullidz
B. Larsen [12] 0.01 < t < 0.1, 1 < PI < 1
100C < (Trb T) < 700C.
, , . , PI = 1,
P = 54.5 Trb = 500C, T = 300C t = 0.1
(2.6) S = 2.35 , ( BitProps) S = 1.27 , . . PI = +1, P = 109.5
Trb = 500C, T = 300C t = 0.01 (2.6) S = 0.742 , BitProps S = 2.021
, . . ,

(2.6)
, [12], 40%.
, , , (2.6) , [14], 200C < (Trb T) < 600C.
, Trb = 500C 10 300, (2.6)
, .
(2.6),
M.Y.Shahin [15], . lg(t), PI (Trb T).

lg(t), PI (Trb T),


, . lg(S), , .
M. Shahin [15] ,
, S < 1 ( (2) [15]),
S > 1 ( (3) [15]).
, , . , , PI = 1,
P = 54.5 Trb = 500C, T = 230C t = 1
S = 0.826 , S = 13.34 , , ,
.
23 350C. .
A.A.A. Molenaar
[16], . [15],
2 < PI < 2, . , .
. , PI = 1 = 150
t = 0.01 (3) [15] 16000 . : 6-7
.
, ,
,
. [12,13,15] . ,

48

49

II.

- = c / Eg,
, (2.1),
t 0
Eg (glassy modulus).
S(t).
. ,
( (1.7)), (t) = c t / 3, , (2.1), t S(t) = 3 / t.
log(S) log(t) ,
450.
() () S(t) . 2.1. , , Eg = 3 / t,
t0 = 3 / Eg. t0 = 0.005 . S(t).

2.3.
, ,
.
S(t) ( . 2.1).
P = 80
250 Trb = 500C ( PI = 0). 150 32 t 106 103
BitProps 32
, .
c t 0 (t)

(2.7)

. 2.1
:
, (2.8);
()
() S(t)

50

. . [17], ,
. v = w 1992 . |G*()| .
. [18,19]
CA (Christensen-Anderson model).
t0 , v
. . .
v [18]. 51

II.


0.1 ([19], . 198).
. . v w [20] ( CAM). . [21], t0, v w .
, .

S(T, t) T t, .. t 0. ,
.. [22]. 8- t = 0.00005, 0.0001, 0.0002, 0.0005, 0.001,
0.002, 0.005 0.010 , ,
BitProps S t = 0.00005 . 420 PI = +2 90 PI = 3.
S
. (18) (37) [22]
, , .
, PI 2
+3
Eg = 2460 7%, Eg
(. 2.2).


Eg = 2460 .
, , Eg = 2500
[2]; . Gg = 1000 [23],
Eg = 3000 ; . .
, Gg = 720
Gg = 1120 , Eg = 2160 - 3360 ,
Eg = 3000 [18].
, (. 2.3).
(2.8) S .

(2.8)
Eg - ;
- , ; - (0 < < 1),
.
(2.8) ,
[18]
|G*()|. (2.8) .2.1.

(2.8) Eg,
,
S = 3 / t. .
S(t) ,
.. .
Eg,
P Trb .
Eg
52

53

II.

. 1.5,
aTr(T) , t
T, tr
Tr, .. - tr = t / aTr(T)
log(t) ,
. ,
aTr(T) = t / tr,

. 2.2. ,

( Eg = 2460 )

. 2.3.
: PI = 0.5, Trb=500C

,
-
aTr(T).
54

(2.9)

t tr -
T Tr, .
, PI = 0.5, Trb = 500C, . 2.3, - T = 150C Tr = 400C. BitPros ( , ) ,
T = 150C t = 100 S = 0.0807
. Tr = 400C tr = 0.2205 . (2.9)
, aTr(T) = 100 / 0.2205 = 454.
, 40 15 = 250C
t 454 . , . T = 150C t = 10 ( 100 , ). S = 0.5395 . Tr = 400C tr = 0.02153 ,
aTr(T) = 10 / 0.02153 = 464. 2%. , S(t, T = 150C)
S(t, T = 400C) . 2.3 55

II.

log (t)
log (460) = 2.663 .
(2.9)
aTr(T) PI
. ,
aTr(T), , .
aTr(T) . .-.-. () [24], . 1.5:


(2.9) aTr(T) Ea(PI), C1 (PI) C2 (PI).

(2.10)
(
(

)
)

(2.11)

< Tr
, > Tr -
. ( ) , 100C ,
.
Tr = (Trb 10)
, Tg
50-700C Trb [25,
26],
,
C1 = 8.86, C2 = 101.6
Tr = (Tg + 50).
(Tg + 100) . ,
Tr = (Trb 10), . , (Trb 10) . PI = 3 PI = +2
(T Tr) 100 +140 100C
56

Ea = 9.745104

, Ea = 1.56105 / PI = +2 Ea = 2.25105
/ PI = 3. , [2] Ea = 50 / = 2.09 105
/,
Tr = Trb,
Ea = 2.5 105 / [19] Ea = 2.61 105 / [18]
Trb.

C1 =

C2 =104.5

C1 = 7.97 PI = +2
C1 = 11.5 PI = 3,
PI. , ,
[24], C1 = 8.86, C2 = 101.6. , - aTr(T):
(Trb 10):
(2.12a)
> (Trb 10):
(2.12b)
57

II.

,
t tr = t / aTr(T). . 2.3, S(t)

(. 2.4), (2.12). , . 2.3 106 103 ,
1010 105 , .. 6 .
(2.12) aTr(T),
(T) ,
(Tr ), .. [24]

(2.13) (2.12) :
= aTr Ahrr(T) (Tr) T Trb 10;
(2.15)
= aTr WLF(T) (Tr) > Trb 10
- , aTr Ahrr(T), aTr WLF(T), (Tr),
(2.12a), (2.12b) (2.14), .

(2.15) . 2.5.
SHELL [16, . 70] [27, . 68].

(2.13)
(Tr),
(Tr) = 0.00124

(2.14)

. 2.4.
T = Tr: - (2.12)
Tr = 400C

58

. 2.5.

59

(2.8) Eg , .
- ,

t / aTr(T). PI = 3 PI = +2 , (T Trb)
450C 100C S(t), (2.8), .

(2.16)
= 0.1285 PI = +2 = 0.5476
PI = 3.
, S ,
,
(2.8), Eg = 2460 , (2.15), - (2.16).
,
P = 80 250 Trb = 500C,
PI = 0 S 150C
1 . (2.12a) - = 150 Tr = 400 aTr Ahrr(T) = 347.5.
(2.14) (Tr) = 0.01222 . (2.15) 150 = 4.25
. (2.16) = 0.1794.
, (2.8)
60

II.

= 2.042
BitProps
S = 2.107, . 3%.
. 2.1 . BitProps, , MathCAD Excel,
. 2.1 .
S, (2.8), ( BitPtops) 1910 ,
PI = 3 PI = +2, (T Trb) 450C 100C t 0.0001
10 000 , 14.6%. 540

.2.6.

. , - ,
Trb = 500,
: P = 54.5; 80 109.5 ( PI = 1, 0 1, ).
, t = / S(t). = / Eg,
visc = t / 3 del, .
. ,
(2.17)
61

. 2.6.
,
(2.8) (2.15), (2.16):
PI = 3, 0 1, = 5 , 15, 30, 40, 50, 600C, t = 106 104

(. 2.7) , t = 0.1 , , -1 0 50 450 . .


, PI = 1.
(PI = +1),
40 600.
62

II.

. 2.7.
:
Trb = 5 00, ,
t = 0.1 .

,
Trb = 500 109.5 ( 250)
, .

, .

1. Van der Poel C., A general system describing the visco-elastic


properties of bitumens and its relation to routine test data. Journal of
Applied Chemistry, London, Vol. 4, 1954, pp. 221-236.
2. Van der Poel C., Representation of rheological properties of

63

II.

bitumens over a wide range of temperature and loading times. Proceedings


of 1st International Congress of Rheology, N. 2, Oxford, 1954, London:
Butterworths Scientic Publications, pp. 331-337.
3. Van der Poel C., On the rheology of concentrated dispersions.
Rheologica Acta, V. 1, No. 2-3, 1958, pp. 198-205.
4. Pfeiffer J.Ph., P.M. van Doormal. The rheological properties of
asphaltic bitumens. Journal of the Institute of Petroleum Technologists
USA, 1936, vol. 22, pp. 414-440.
5. Heukelom, W., Klomp, A. J., Road design and dynamic loading.,
Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 1964,
Vol. 33, pp.92-123.
6. Bonnaure, F., G.Gest, A.Gervois, P. Uge. A New Method of Predicting
the Stiffness of Asphalt Paving Mixtures. Proceedings, Association of
Asphalt Paving Technologists, Vol. 46. 1977. pp. 64-100.
7. The SHELL Bitumen Handbook. 5th Edition. Thomas Telford Ltd,
London, 2003, 460p.
8. Roberts, F. L., P. S. Kandhal, E. R. Brown, D.-T. Lee, and T. W.
Kennedy, 1996, Hot Mix Asphalt Materials, Mixtures, and Construction.
National Asphalt Pavement Association, Lanham, MD, 585 pp.
9. Yang H. Huang. Pavement Analysis and Design. Prentice Hall, Inc.,
New Jersey, 1993, 805pp.
10. Bats, F.Th. A computer simulation of Van der Poel nomograph.
Journal of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 23, 1973, pp. 139140.
11. Ullidtz, P., K. R. Peattie. Pavement Analysis by Programmable
Calculators. ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 106, No.
TE5, 1980, pp. 581-597.
12. Ullidz, P., B.K. Larsen. Mathematical model for predicting
pavement performance. Transportation Research Record 949, TRB, 1984,
pp. 45-54.
13. Saal, R.N.J. Mechanical testing of asphaltic bitumen. 4th World
Petroleum Congress, Rome, 1955, Section VI/A, Paper 3, pp. 1-17.
14. Collop, A.C., D. Cebon. A parametric study of factors affecting
exible pavement performance. ASCE Journal of Transportation
Engineering, 1995, Vol. 121, No 6, pp. 485494.
15. Shahin, M. Y. Design system for minimizing asphalt concrete
thermal cracking, Proceedings of 4th International Conference on the
Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements, Ann Arbor, 1977, University of
Michigan, pp. 920 932.
16. Molenaar A.A.A. LECTURE NOTES ROAD MATERIALS, PART III,
Delft, 2005, 97pp.

17. Havriliak, S., S. Negami, Complex plane analysis of -dispersions


in some polymer systems. Journal of Polymer Science, Part C: Polymer
Symposium, 1966, Vol. 14, p. 99.
18. Christensen D.W., D.A. Anderson. Interpretation of dynamic
mechanical test data for paving grade asphalt cements. Journal of AAPT,
V. 61, 1992, 67-116.
19. Christensen, D.W. Mathematical modeling of the linear viscoelastic
behavior of asphalt cements. Ph. D. Dissertation Thesis. The Pennsylvania
State University, 1992, 278p.
20. Marasteanu, M. O., Anderson, D. A. Improved model for bitumen
rheological characterization, Eurobitume Workshop on Performance
Related Properties for Bituminous Binders, Paper No. 133, Luxembourg,
May 1999.
21. Lesuer D., J-F. Gerard, P. Claudy, J-M. Letoffe, J-P. Planche, D.
Martin. Relationships between the structure and the mechanical properties
of paving grade asphalt cements. Journal of AAPT, V. 66, 1997, pp. 486505.
22. Drozdov, A.D. A model for the viscoelastic and viscoplastic
responses of glassy polymers. International Journal of Solids and
Structures, 2001, Vol. 38, pp. 8285-8304.
23. Dobson, G.R. The dynamic mechanical properties of bitumen.
Journal of AAPT, V. 38, 1969, pp. 123-135.
24. , . . . .
.: , 1963, 536c.
25. Schmidt, R.J., L.E. Santucci. A practical method for determining
the glass transition temperature of asphalts and calculation of their low
temperature viscosities. Journal of AAPT, V. 35, 1965, pp. 61-85.
26. Bahia, H.U., D.A. Anderson. Glass transition behavior and physical
hardening of asphalt binders. Journal of AAPT, V. 62, 1993, pp. 93-125.
27. Claessen, A. J. M., J. M. Edwards, P. Sommer, P. Uge. Asphalt
Pavement Design The Shell Method. Proceedings, 1977, 4th
International conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements,
Vol. I, Ann Arbor, pp.39-74.

64

65

III.

III.

.
3.1.
S(t) = c / (t)
- ( CA)

: J(t) D(t), G(t) E(t),


|G*()| |E*()|,
S(t), , .
S(t) , , .
G(t)
E(t). , , , 40/60, 6000 , , 0.1
00 E(t) = E(t = 0.1) = 6000 . . : ,
.
; ,
66

(3.1)
, ,
S, :
= aTr Ahrr (T) (Tr) (T Trb 10);
= aTr WLF (T) (Tr) (T > Trb 10)

(3.2)

(Tr) = 0.00124
(3.3)
aTr Ahrr (T)=exp
(3.4)
aTr WLF (T) = exp

(3.5)

(3.6)
67

III.

: S - , ;
Eg - , Eg = 2460 ; - , ; (Tr) - Tr = (Trb 10);
aTrAhrr (T) - -
Trb 10; aTr WLF (T) - > Trb 10; Trb
- , 0C;
PI - PI = (20 500A) / (1 + 50A);
A = (lg (800 / P)) / (Trb 25) -
; P - ()
250; t - , ; T - , 0C.
(3.1)-(3.6)
, : Trb P. PI = 3 PI = +2, (T Trb) 450C 100C t 0.0001 10000
S (3.1)
14.6%. (3.1)-(3.6) , .
[1].
, .. . , (3.2)-(3.6) , . , PI = 3 Trb = 500C
T = 300C S t > 300 .
, t D(t) = (t) / c, , : D(t) = 1 / S(t). , (3.1),

( (1.23))

D(t) =

J(t) =

(3.8)

Gg = E g / 3 Gg = 820 .
, (3.8)
, 250 P = 80 Trb = 500 ( PI = 0),
150. (3.6) = 0.1794.
(3.2) 150
= 4.247 . (3.8)
(. 3.1):

(3.7)
. 3.1

68

69

J(t) =

(3.9)

. 3.1 .
3.2.
E(t) G(t)

,
E G. ,
, E(t)
T.
, ,
(, (3.7) (3.8)), . ,
Trb P.

, , t [2,3]:
(3.10)
(3.11)
,
70

III.


, - ,
D(t) - J(t) E(t) - G(t).
, -
D(t) E(t),
J(t) G(t). , , D(t) E(t), ,
(3.10) (3.11) . D(t) E(t) [3,4], . .
re ( re - ) (t) = ret.
(3.10) (3.11)
ret =

(t) =

d(t) / dt = reE(t)
,
(3.12a)

(3.12b)

(3.12) x = t . (3.12), ,
. ,
D(t),
E(t) , (3.12) .
71

III.

, J(t)
G(t):

, ,
[6].
-
, , [7, 8, 9] . , - : ASTM D
6816-02 AASHTO PP 42-07 [10,11]. ,
, .
,
, , . (3.12),

(3.13a)

(3.13b)

J(t)
,
G(t) ,
(3.13).

(3.12) . . [4], . .
[5]. , , D(t)
E(t).
, . D(t),
t, E(t) . [4] [0, t] (3.12) , ( ), , , . - ,
. -
[5]. . [3] - 72

(3.14)
(3.12) t
(3.10), (3.11).
(3.14)

[a, b] ,
:
(3.15)
(3.14),
E(t) tm D(t)
0 < t < tm. ti ( i = 0, 1,
2m 1, m). (3.14)

73

E() , .

III.

, ti log t.
, (3.17) t = 1 t0 t1,
. -,
,

E0 = 1 / D(0)

(3.15),

(3.18)

-, E1
t1. (3.17):
(3.19)

(3.16)
(3.16) (m-) ,
E(ti ) = Ei:

Em,

(3.17)

0 < t < tm [ti 1, ti ].
, , 74

(3.18) (3.19) (3.17). (3.19) ,


D(t1 ) / D(0) 3. t1 ,
1.5. , D(t),
.
, D(t) E(t) (3.12) , .. . (3.17)
E(t) D(t), D(t) E(t), .
,
D(t) E(t) , J(t) G(t) . , (3.17) G(t):
75

(3.20)

,

(3.21)

(3.17), (3.20),
- [4],
, . ([3], . 407). (3.17) (3.20) ,
0.1 10 11 , 22000 .
J(t) G(t) , . , t
,
0 t. 100
t (3.20)
0.09%.
, (3.20) G(t) , 250 P = 80 Trb = 500 ( PI = 0),
150. , (3.9)
. 3.1.
t0 = 0 (3.21)
76

III.

G0 = 1 / J(0) = 820 , -
Eg = 2460 .
t1 = 109, t = 1000. 5 , ..
. ti = ti 1 101/5, log (t). G(t) . 3.2. 0.15.
(3.17) (3.20)
, , ,
, 3.1 3.2.
, . . [12] -

. 3.2. ,
(3.20) ,
. 3.1

77

III.

1:1 125000
750000 1800 [13].
J(t) (. 1 [12]),
(3.20) G(t)
. t1 = 104 100
50
300 . 2.5 . G(t) . 3.3
( ), [12]
. 0.0001 100 0.4%.
t ( ),
,
[13]
(.
3.3). G(t)
- .
G(t) , [12], , (3.17) (3.20) ( -

(3.1) -(3.6)) ,
- .

(3.17)
(3.20)
,
,
Trb
P, .

E(t) D(t) ,
(3.22)
a, d, m - , 0 < m < 1. (3.14), (3.17).
(
t E(t) 1 / D(t),
(3.14)
(3.23)

(3.14),
.

. 3.3. ,
(3.20) ( ), [12] ( )

78

855.51 [17],
1 < m < 1. (3.14)
79

III.

, m / sin (m). (3.22)


(3.23),
(3.24)

D(t) m

(3.24)
(3.22) (3.24) (3.14) .
. (3.24) [14], [16,17] . (3.22) (3.24), , , .. . (3.22) (3.24) ,
[12,18].
, , [19],
D(t) E(t) .
, log (D) log (t) log (E) log (t)
(3.22) (3.24) m
log (t), D(t) E(t) . (3.22)
(3.24)
:
(3.25)

(3.26)
80

(3.27)

(3.28)
(3.25), (3.26) D(t)
J(t) 0 < m < 1, m > 0.5
.

(3.8) (3.26)
:
(3.29)
m (3.8)
(3.28):
(3.30)
(3.2) (3.6).
, (3.29) G(t) , 250 P = 80 Trb = 500 ( PI = 0),
150. (3.6) = 0.1794.
(3.2) = 4.247 .
Gg = Eg /3 = 820 . (3.29)
. 3.4 ( )
,
(3.20) ().
81

III.

k, , .
[20] .
, , , ,
[2, .70, (51)):
.

(3.32)

(3.31) (3.32) t = x / Gg.


. 3.4. ,
(3.20) () (3.29) ()
, . 3.1

, (3.29) , : t = 0.01 3.5%,


t = 0.1 5%, t = 10 12%, m m = 0.795 , ..
0.80.
, , . ,
. . [20] ( ,
CAM):
(3.31)
, [22] , (3.7) (3.8), (Gg, ), (3.31) 82

, ,
. ([21], 3.241.4) b > 0, k > 1

(3.33)

(x) - -, . (3.33)
k = 1 + b. , , (3.31), [20], k , b k = 1 + b.
:
(3.34a)

83

III.

(3.34b)
b
, t0 = / Gg
(3.29).
(3.30) m = 1/2 (3.29) 3%. t = t0 (3.29)

, (3.34)
. , -

b :

. 3.5. ,
(3.20) () (3.34) ()
, . 3.1

(3.35)
= 4.23 ,
(3.6).
= 0.1285 PI = +2 = 0.5476
PI = 3, b - b = 0.1346 PI = +2
b = 0.6767 PI = 3.
(3.34) G(t) , 250 P = 80
Trb = 500 ( PI = 0), 150. (3.6) = 0.1794 (3.35) b = 0.1914. (3.2) = 4.247
. Gg =Eg / 3 = 820 . (3.34) . 3.5 ( ) , (3.20) ().
(3.34) 4%. (3.32) ,
84

= 4.247 0.4% . ,
: (3.29) (3.34).
3.3.
,

. 1960- [1, 20, 21, 22].

AASHTO T315 ASTM D7552-09, 85

AASHTO M
320-05 [23]. ,

[24].

, .

,


G*() = G'() + iG''(),

i =
- ; G- ; G- .

, |G*|
Gd, (), . ,
(3.36)
Gd
G' = Gd cos (), G'' = Gd sin ()

(3.38)

(3.34) , .
. . [19],
(3.25)
(3.26). ,
J(t) G(t) - ,
(3.38) , ,
log (t). ,
(3.39)
(3.13), (3.24)
(3.40)
(3.40) (3.38) ([15], 858.812),

(3.37)

, Gd ,
: .
, G
G G(t),
[2]:
86

III.

(3.41)

a(d)m
(3.39), (3.39) ,
(t 1/), a(d)m = 1 / J (1 /).
87

III.

(3.42)

(3.48)


(3.43)
, (3.42), (3.43) (3.36) (3.37), :
,

(3.44)

(3.42)-(3.44) [12,16,17], , , .
(3.39),
.

(3.8),
(3.2) (3.6). (3.44) (3.8)
m ,

= m () / 2

(3.49)
(3.50)

(3.45) , 250 P = 80
Trb = 500 (PI = 0) = 150. , = 0.1794 , = 4.247 Gg = 820 (. 3.6).

(3.45)
= m () / 2

(3.46)

m (3.8)
(3.28):

. 3.6. (3.45):
P = 80 Trb = 500 (PI = 0), = 150

(3.47)

Ed


. . ,

88

89

[25] [26] ,

[27] AAB-1.
AAB-1 . ,
-10 (..
600 1000 200 = 100 20 ),
PG-58-22 (
580 220). [27]
( ), 17.3% ,
-; 2% ,
; 38.3% ,
33.4% 8.6%
. -1
P = 98 250 Trb = 47.80, .. PI = 0.
RMS-803 0.1 100
/c 35, 25, 15, 5, 5, 15, 25, 35, 45
600. [25] -
250 (. 3 [25] . 3.3 [26]). 3.7 3.8.
Gd, , 16% (.. , ). (3.46) 12.2%.
. Gd
10 25% 15% ([26],
. 100), 0.4
0.9 . , 90

III.

. 3.7.
Gd -1:
[25,26]; (3.45)

. 3.8.
-1:
[25,26]; (3.46)

.
(3.45), (3.46) 91

III.

, (3.1)-(3.7), .

Gd ,
3.7 3.8, .
. [28].

(3.34) G(t) (T. Alfrey). ([2],
. 81), G(t)

, . ,

.
H()
, .. ,
.
. ([26], . 31, . 3.4)
AAB-1
= 250. . 3.9. .

(3.51)
(3.34) (3.51),

(3.52)

-1 (P = 98 250 Trb = 47.80)


(3.3), (3.6) (3.35) = 4.247 ,
b = 0.1914 , , Gg = 820 . , (3.52), . 3.10,
, . 3.9.
= 1.9 108 . , , (3.52)
(3.53)
. 3.9. -1
250 [26]:

G, G
H(),
( . )

92

, , . b, (3.34)
, 93

. 3.10. -1
250, (3.52)

(. 3.11). b
( (3.35)), b = 0.1346 PI = +2
b = 0.6767 PI = 3. b,
.
, , H()
log (), , ..
. 3.11 Gg = 820
. H , .. .
. H
.

94

III.

. 3.11.
b


b:
Hmax = bGg / 3

(3.53)

, ,
: , .
3.4.


, (.. - Ed () ())
,
95

III.

E(t). , ,

.

, . : , ,
. , .
, ,
, E(t),

[29, 30, 31,32]. E(t)

[33,
34, 35].
E(t)
Ed().
. (3.1)
(3.48),
:

m()
log (Ed()) log () (.
. 3.12). (1 + m) 1
m = 1 , 0.886, m = 0.46,
1 m = 0. ,
(1 + m) 0.886 1
. 11.4% (1 + m) 1
(3.54)

S(t) = (1 + m())Ed ()|=1/t


96

(3.54)

S(t) = Ed()|=1/t

(3.55)

(3.55)
[1], t S(t) , t < 1 c Ed(), . ,
13%, .. 1/0.886=1.13, ..
S(t), .
, Ed()
E(t):
1) Ed(i) i , 1 / ti, :
S(ti ) = Ed (1 / ti )

(3.56)

2) 1 1 (3.1):
(3.57)
, S1(t) S(ti).
3) 1 1 b1
(3.35)
97

III.

(3.58)
:
(3.59)
.

Gd () () . , 1.5 (.
. 1.5 1.6) 2.3 (. . 2.3 2.4), 200C Gd (). , Ed () = 3Gd (), , , . 3.12.
3.1.
200C

98

, /c

Ed(),

, /c

Ed(),

0.001

1.26 10

10

0.004

4.64 10

4 10

0.01

1.08 104

104

2.03 108

0.04

3.83 104

4 104

3.38 108

0.1

8.64 104

105

4.52 108

0.4

2.86 105

4 105

6.54 108

6.14 105

106

8.01 108

3
3

6.98 10

1.37 108

. 3.12. Ed () Tr = 200C
460C 100 250C

1.86 10

10

3.72 106

107

1.19 109

40

9.97 106

4 107

1.40 109

100

1.83 107

108

1.54 109

400

4.23 107

4 10

2
6

1.03 109


23 , . 3.12 , , ..
= 103 = 108 /c.
(3.56), Ed (i )
S(ti) ti = 1/i t = 108 t = 103 .
1 1
99

III.

(3.57). 3.1

S(108) = 1.54 109 S(103)=1.26 103 ( ),
, . , ,
, . 1 1 S1(t) ,
:
dev(1, 1) =

, min[dev(1, 1)]

1 = 5.34 105 , 1 = 0.2071.


S1(t)
(3.60)

. 3.13. ,
Ed ()

. 3.13,
S(ti), Ed (1 / ti) 3.1. , (3.60), .
3.13, 0.3%
( ). (3.58) b1 = 0.2232
(3.59) (. 3.14), .

Ed()
= 1 / t, S(t) E(t). , , 250 P = 80 Trb = 500 (PI = 0) = 100
0.1 ,
100

. 3.14. E(t), Ed ()

101

III.

(3.49) Ed(), (3.1) S(t) (3.34b) E(t).


Ed(10) = 23.7 , S(0.1) = 21.1 E(0.1) = 11.3 .
(3.54),
S(t) Ed( =1 / t), , 13%. , [25]
18%. Ed( =1 /t) E(t)
(. 3.15), .
, t = 0.1
Ed( =1 /t) E(t) 1.6
00, 2.1 100 2.9 200.
, . , -

, ,
.
, :
1. (3.17),
(3.20) E(t) G(t) D(t) J(t).
2. (3.29) ( P 250 Trb) (3.34a) (3.34b) E(t) G(t)
P Trb.
3. (3.45) - (3.49) Gd Ed P Trb. , .
4. E(t)
Ed() .

. 3.15.

102

103

1. Van der Poel C., A general system describing the visco-elastic


properties of bitumens and its relation to routine test data. Journal of
Applied Chemistry, London, Vol. 4, 1954, pp. 221-236.
2. Ferry, J.D. Viscoelstic Properties of Polymers, 3rd edition, John
Willey & Sons, Inc., New York, 1980, pp. 1-641.
1- : , . . .
. .: , 1963, 536c.
3. Tschoegl, N.W., The phenomenological theory of linear viscoelastic
behavior. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1989, 769pp.
4. Hopkins I.L., R.W. Hamming. On creep and relaxation. Journal
Applied Physics, 28, 1957, pp. 906-909.
5. Secor K.E., C.L. Monismith, Analysis and interrelation of stress
straintime data for asphalt concrete. Transactions of the Society of
Rheology, V. 8, 1964, pp. 1932.
6. Mead, D.W. Numerical interconversion of linear viscoelastic
material function. Journal of Rheology, V. 38, 1994, pp. 1769-1795.
7. Bouldin, M.G., R.N. Dongre, G.M. Rowe, M.J. Sharrock, D.A.
Anderson. Predicting thermal cracking of pavements from binder
properties: theoretical basis and eld validation, Journal of AAPT, V. 69,
2000, pp.455496.
8. Marasteanu, M. Low temperature testing and specications.
Transportation Research Circular E-C147. Development in Asphalt Binder
Specications, TRB, Washington, DC, 2010, pp.34-40.
9. Bahia, H.U., M. Zeng, K. Nam. Consideration of strain at failure and
strength in prediction of pavement thermal cracking. Journal of AAPT, V.
69, 2000, pp.497535.
10. ASTM D 6816-02. Standard practice for determining lowtemperature performance grade (PG) of asphalt binders.
11. AASHTO PP 42-07 Determination of low-temperature
performance grade (PG) of asphalt binders.
12. Baumgaertel,M., H.H. Winter. Determination of Discrete
Relaxation and Retardation Time Spectra from Dynamic Mechanical Data,
Rheologica Acta, V. 28, 1989, pp. 511-519.
13. Schausberger, A. A simple method of evaluating the complex
moduli of polystyrene blends. Rheologica Acta, V. 25, 1986, pp. 596605.
14. Leaderman, H. Viscoelasticity phenomena in amprphous high
polymeric systems. Rheology, Vol. II, edited by F.R. Eirich, Academic Press,
New York, 1958, pp.1- 61. : :

104

III.

. . . . . . . .. .. ., - . ., 1962. 824.
15. , ..
. - , ., 1966, 228.
16. Schwarzl, F.R.L., C.E. Struik. Analysis of relaxation measurements.
In: Advances in Molecular Relaxation Processes, 1968, 1, pp. 201-255.
17. Schapery, R.A., S.W. Park, Methods of interconversion between
linear viscoelastic material functions. Part II - an approximate analytical
method. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 1999, Vol.36,
pp.1677-1699.
18. Winter, H.H., F. Chambon. Analysis of linear viscoelasticity of a
crosslinking polymer at the gel point. Journal of Rheology, 1986, Vol. 30,
pp.367-382.
19. Ferry J.D., M.L. Williams . Second approximation methods for
determining the relaxation time spectrum of viscoelastic material. Journal
of Colloid Science, 1952, 7, pp. 347-353.
20. Marasteanu, M. O., Anderson, D. A. Improved model for bitumen
rheological characterization, Eurobitume Workshop on Performance
Related Properties for Bituminous Binders, Paper No. 133, Luxembourg,
May 1999.
21. Sayegh, G. Variation des modules de quelques bitumes purs et
btons bitumineux. Confrence au Groupe Franais de Rhologie, 1963,
51-74, France.
22. , .. .
, , 1977. 116.
23. Standard Specication for Performance Graded Asphalt Binder:
ASTM D 6373, AASHTO M 320.
24. Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide, Interim Edition: A
Manual of Practice. AASHTO, 2008, pp. 1-212.
25. Christensen D.W., D.A. Anderson. Interpretation of dynamic
mechanical test data for paving grade asphalt cements. Journal of AAPT,
V. 61, 1992, 67-116.
26. Christensen, D.W. Mathematical modeling of the linear
viscoelastic behavior of asphalt cements. Thesis. The Pennsylvania State
University, 1992, 278p.
27. The SHRP Materials Reference Library, SHRP A-646, Washington,
DC, 1993, pp. 1-228, (Appendix A).
28. Ninomiya, K., J.D. Ferry. Some approximate equations useful in
the phenomenological treatment of viscoelastic data. Journal of Colloid
and Interface Science, 1959, Vol. 14, pp. 36-48.
29. Elliot, J. F., F. Moavenzadeh. Analysis of stresses and displacements

105

in three-layer viscoelastic systems. Highway Research Record 345, 1971,


pp. 4557.
30. Huang, Y. H. Stresses and strains in viscoelastic multilayer systems
subjected to moving loads. Highway Research Record 457, 1973, pp.
6071.
31., .., .. . - . , 1981, . 17, No. 6, pp. 45-52.
32. Chen, E.Y.G., E. Pan,T.S. Norfolk, Q. Wang. Surface loading of a
multilayered viscoelastic pavement. Road Materials and Pavement Design.
Vol. 12, No. 4, 2011, pp. 849-874.
33.Monismith, C.L, Secor, G.A. and Secor, K.E., Temperature induced
stresses and deformations in asphalt concrete. Journal of the Association
of Asphalt Pavement Technologists, Vol. 34, 1965, pp. 245-285.
34. Radovskiy, B., V. Mozgovoy. Ways to Reduce Low Temperature
Cracking in Asphalt Pavements. 4th Eurobitume Symposium, 1989,
Madrid, Vol. 1, pp. 571-575.
35. Bouldin, M.G., R.N. Dongre, G.M. Rowe, M.J. Sharrock, D.A.
Anderson, Predicting thermal cracking of pavements from binder
properties: theoretical basis and eld validation, Journal of the Association
of Asphalt Paving Technologies, Vol. 69, 2000, pp. 455496.

106

IV.

, , ,
, , - ,
- , - .. (3.1) (3.2)-(3.6)
, , .
.
, , ,
,
, . ,
.
, , 107

IV.

, , .
, , ,
.


700. , . , , , . : (RTFO), ,

, (PAV),
(1000 2 )
, 4-8
- [5, 6].
.

, .
. . [7]
65% : = 0.65 . , [8], , 5.7% : = 50 Trb = 52.90,
= 32.5 ,
Trb = 59.30. , 3.5% , =100 Trb = 44.90, = 65 Trb = 51.40 (.

4.1
, .
. , , ,
() .
[1,2],
1980- [3,4]. , ,
, , - , -
. ,
.

140-1600 108

109

IV.

4.1 [8]). [9] ,




: 0.70-0.75 ( 250),
1.08 2.08
600.
. [10] , , ,
. , 0.6-0.8 , 0.6-0.8
. , . . [11], , ,

, -
250 [13].
. ( 4%) 5 0.7
, 10 0.5, ( 8%) 0.6 0.4, .
. , . .
18
[14].
60 , 4 31-34 , 11 2629 , .. 4 0.55 , 11 0.45. 11 520 660, .. 27%.
. [11], ,
,
14

P1 = 0.52P 2
60
29.2 ,
90 44.8 , .
[12], 8 , , ( 250) 0.59
( 0.53 0.70), ( 600)
2.5 ( 1.8-3.2), 1.13 .
, ,
0.6 1.1 .
. ,
5 15 , 110

P(t) = P1 b log (t)


t - , P1 - ,
P1 = 0.52P 2, b - ,
, .
, 14
9 ( 0.95).
b = 9.7 69 . 4.1 [4]. .
111

. 4.1.
[15]

.
5 , 10 20% . .
[15] , 10 10
. . 5-10
60-70 20-25 ,

. ,
, 5-7
3 , 600 .
. . [12], 112

IV.

8 , , ( 250) 0.34 ( 0.28


0.43), ( 600) 7.5
( 4.2-10.5),
1.13 . , , 0.6 1.25 ( 1.12-1.32).
, , 5-7 0.3-0.4 , 1.2
, 600 5-10 .
-
,
0.3-0.4 20-25%
.
, ,
, ,
, , .
[16] ,
4 13 ,
US 93
(. 4.2).
PG 76-16 .
,
.
113

Gd,

114

. 4.2. :
, 4 13 ; ()
Gd() , , ,
() ;
400

, ./c

IV.

4.2.

,
,
. , .
, , . .


. , Ste. Anne 1250 ./ (10% ) 8 (1967-75 .) 29 120 [17]. ( , 1%
0.5% ),
.
380, 400.

, . , , ,
[18].

.
, -, S , ,
115

IV.

.
S t = 7200 200 .
S , 6.2512.5125 102
. 100 ,
t = 60 ,
S(60) = 300 .
, S(t)
, , , .
m,
S(t)
, 0.30, ..

, .
.
,
60
48.80 ( PI = 1.08)
, 5-7
(
45 , 59.30 ( PI = 0.68).
t = 60
c
(3.1) (. 4.3).

> 0.30
t = 60 . S(60) = 300 mS > 0.30
AASHTO M 320-05. .
(3.1)
,
mS =

(4.1)

, 116

. 4.3.
,
, :
(
),
RTFOT PAV;
, mS = 0.30;
t = 60c S 180,
> 280C.

117

S(60) = 300 () .
, (4.1) mS = 0.30.
, . T = 210C, T = 180C. T = 180C (P = 45, Trb = 59.30, PI = 0.68) t = 60 (3.1) S = 302 , (4.1)
mS = 0.356, S < 300 .
(S < 300 , mS > 0.30) 60
10
. , , , , ,
280.
, [19] S m
. ,
[20].
. ,
[21], .

118

IV.

4.3.

, ,
.

[19]. [22].
, PG 64-34 , 64C,
34C. ,
, 6C.

,
. ,
20 ,
[23]. , , 20
, 20 . 119

IV.

,
.
[19]
( ) 10 . 80 . (, ) ,
( ), , PG 64 PG 58. (
), , PG 70 PG 58.
.


. , , , 10 . . 10 30 . , ( 6 ) . 30 . , . 76 820 -
. PG 76 PG 82

.
, ,
, , ,


( 1).

,
AASHTO M 320-05 [19] :
1) . |G*| / sin () 10 /c.
,
1 2.2
,
.
2) . ,
[19] , - 60
100 :
S < 300 , mS > 0.30.
3) . , 10
/c ,
, . [19]
. , PG 64-34
190.

|G*| sin () < 5
.
,
, , [19] ,

120

121

IV.

, ,
,
. [19] , (.
[20]).
,

.
,
.
, , , .
, - (SHRP).
, 32
( 4000 ), 11 ( 30 )
82 [24]. 32
SHRP 8
11 4 .
, . [24],

.
AAB-1 . , [24] ,
, [12].
Trb = 47.80, -

P = 98 ( 250C), PI = 0. :
TFOT: Trb = 520, P = 92
, PI = 0.95.
TFOT PAV: Trb = 570, P = 34 , PI = 0.455.
1) .

= 580.
Trb = 47.80, P = 98 , PI = 0 (3.6)
= 0.1794, (3.2) = 4.115104 .
, Gg = 820 , (3.47)
m = 0.8993 (3.46) = 1.413. ( )
(3.45) |G*| = 2.368103 = 2.368 . |G*| / sin () = 2.398 , ,
1
.

Trb = 520, P = 92, PI = 0.95
|G*| / sin () = 2.768 , 2.2 ,
.


= 640. , |G*| / sin () = 1.148 , .. ,
|G*| / sin () = 1.874 ,
2.2 .
PG 58.
2) .
PG 58 [19]
: 16, 22, 28, 34 400 ( -

122

123

IV.

). , 60 6, 12, 18, 24, 300.



= 280, = 180 t = 60c. Trb = 570, P = 34 , PI = 0.455
(3.6) = 0.1984 (3.2) = 3.928105 .
(3.1), , Eg = 2460 ,
S = 190 , S < 300 .
(4.1) mS = 0.398, 0.300.
,
340. = 240
t = 60 c. -, (3.6) = 0.1984,
(3.2) = 3.072106 , (3.1)
S = 391 , 300 . , 28.
3)
.
-1
PG
58-28. [19] 190 . (3.6) = 0.1984, (3.2) = 7.885 , (3.47)
m = 0.6141, (3.46) = 0.965. (3.45)
|G*| = 7.547 . |G*| sin () = 6.20
, ,
5 . -1 PG 58-28.
,

PG 58-22. [19]
220. = 0.1984, (3.2) = 3.695 , (3.47) m = 0.6491, (3.46)
= 1.02. (3.45) |G*| = 7.547 . |G*| sin () = 3.96 , ,
5
. -1 PG 58-22
.
, ( ),
-1 -
. , PG 58-22 , [24],
[12]
.
.
,
[25],

(. 4.4).

124

4.4.


,
[26].
125

IV.

EV
:
EV = c1 E1 + c2 E2

(4.4)

,
Ec, E1 E2, ,
- [28]:
ER Ec EV

. 4.4.
[25]

,
[27] .
, Ec,
E1 E2,
c1 c2,
( c1 + c2 = 1). .
(A. Reuss, 1929 [28]),

(4.5)

. (.
4.5 ),

E1 E2, .
, .
l = (l1 + l2)

(4.2)

c1 = l1 / l, c2 = l2 / l -
E1 E2 . ,
Ec,

. (W. Voigt, 1928 [28]),

= (4.3)

126

127

IV.

,
:
1 = E1 , 2 = E2 .
,
Q = 1 l1 a + 2 l2 a

=

= 1c1 + 2c2 = (E1c1 + E2c2)

c1 = l1 / (l1 + l2), c2 = l2 / (l1 + l2) - - E1 E2 .


,

Ec,
= Ec .

. 4.5.
,
,

, ER (4.2).
(. 4.5 ),
a l1 l2 E1 E2,
. 128

:
Ec = E1c1 + E2c2
, EV (4.4).
,
( ) (4.3),
( ) (4.4).
, -,
( (4.2)) ( (4.4)) . , (c1 = c2 = 0.5)
(E1 = 1 , E2 = 2 ) , ER = 1.33
129

IV.

EV = 1.50 , .. Ec
1.33-1.50
. 100 (E1 = 1 ,
E2 = 100 ), - Ec 1.98 50.5 .
, (4.3)
(4.4) : , (), (), .. , -.
1962 . . , (4.2) (4.4):

. Pc . [27]:

(4.6)
k ,

. ,
, k = 0 , . 4.5
. , k = 1, (4.6) (4.4),
(. 4.5 ).
. . , . . [27]
.
.
.
130

(4.7)

(4.8)
P0 , P1 P2 - .
: Eagg - ; Eb - ; VMA - ( ); VFA - , .
(1 VMA) (4.7)
,
VMA VFA - . Pc = 1 (4.7)
(4.4) ( ),
Pc = 0 (4.2) ( ).
(4.7) [27] , .. Ed () = |E*()|. ,
[27] Emix (4.7) Emix d ().
[27]
Eagg = 29000 , [29]
19000 . , (4.7) [27]
Eb =Eb d (),
.
131

, [27] P0 , P1 P2
(4.8),
VMA = 0.137 0.216,
VFA = 0.387 0.68, 5.6-11.2%. 0.1 5 /c, 100 +540.
SSP (Superpave Shear Tester)
SPT (Simple Performance Tester). 9.5, 19
37.5 . DSR (Dynamic Shear Rheometer)
, .
[27] (4.8) .
(4.8) : P0 P2 . , P0 = 0.138, P1 = 0.58 P2 = 36.25.
Pc . 4.6.
,
Pc , ,
Emix d () Emix (t). (4.7)
E(t).
(4.7) Emix = Emix (t) Eb = E(t),
(3.34b):
(4.9)
132

IV.

. 4.6. VMA = 0.144, VFA = 0.75.

1. .
, Trb = 500 80 ( PI = 0), T = 200 t = 0.1 . 1.03 /3, 2.703 /3, 2.442
/3.
5.6%, .. 5.6 100 / (100 + 5.6) = 5.3% 94.7% . ,
0.8%.
,
( ),
5.3 0.008 94.7 = 4.54% .

4.54 2.442 / 1.03 = 10.8% = 0.108.

94.7 2.442 / 2.703 = 85.6% = 0.856. 133

IV.

VMA -
VMA = 1 0.856 = 0.144. 0.144 0.108 = 0.036 (.. 3.6%). , , (4.7) (4.8), VFA = 0.108 / 0.144 = 0.75. (3.34b) b. PI = 0 (3.6)
= 0.1794 (3.35) b = 0.1914.
T = 200 (3.2) = 1.217 .
t = 0.1 (3.34b):
=1.637

E = 2.46103

(4.8)

= 0.088

. 4.7.

(4.7):
Emix (t) = 0.088[1.9 104(1 0.144)+1.636 0.144 0.75] +
+

=1440

. 4.7, .
4.8 250 +400 0.1 . , , -14, , 65 134

. 4.8.

135

IV.

.
4.8 0.09 .
, , 5-7 0.4 , 25%. , (4.7), . 4.9
, , Trb = 450 P = 90 . , 50 t = 0.1 , VMA = 0.144
VFA = 0.75 6600 , 8700 . 200 2.5
.

Emix (4.7)
. 46-83 ,
0.1 . , - 1979 .
, 90/130 Trb = 470 P = 114 .
5.5% .
40% , .
4%. ( ) 12%.
4 4 16
t = 0.1 : 4130 , 1830
1090 = 0, 10 200, . (4.7) VMA = 0.16 VFA = 0.75
5400 , 2500 920 . , , 10-30% .
, 3
90/130 0, 10 200
3600, 2400 1200 , .

. ASTM D 36
, 0.20 0.50.
0.720, -

. 4.9. :
Trb = 450 P = 90 ,
5-7 Trb = 560 P = 36 ;
0.1

136

137

IV.

1.08 . ASTM D 5-06


= 0.8
60 , 60 = 0.8 + 0.03(P 60) . , 80
1.4
. .

, . P = 80
Trb = 500 PI = 0 t = 0.1 c
T = 100 (3.34b)
E(t) = 11.2 , (4.7) Ed = 3730
, . 4.5 4.6. P = 78 Trb = 490 (PI = 0.342), E(t) = 13.6 , (4.7) Emix = 4050 . ,
20%, 9%.

Eb d . .

[27]:

4.5.

, . ,
.. Emix d mix .
. [27] ,
(3.48)
138

Emix d = Ec d

[ Eagg ( 1 VMA) + Eb d VMA VFA] +

(4.10)

mix = 21 (log ( Pcd))2 55 log ( Pcd)

(4.11)

[27]

(4.12)

P0 = 0.138, P1 = 0.58 P2 = 36.25.



(3.48)
Ebd () =

, m() =

)
(

(3.3), - (3.6).
2. , 1,
T = 200
= 10 /. VMA = 0.144; , , VFA = 0.75. PI = 0 (3.6) = 0.1794.
T = 200 (3.2) = 1.217 . (3.48)
139

m() =

)
(

IV.

= 0.68,

Eb d () =

=4.713 .

(4.12)

Pc d =

= 0.15.


(4.10):
Emix d = 0.15[ 1.9 ( 1 0.144) + 4.713 0.144 0.75] +
+

= 2461 .

( ) (4.11) [27]:
mix = 21 (log (0.15))2 55 log (0.15) =310.
, = 10 /c
t = 0.1 2461 / 1440 = 1.78 . . 4.10 (
t = 0.1 ) ( = 10 /c) .
. 4.10, , ,
t = 1 / . Emix d Emix 2.1 340.
140

. 4.10. ( , t = 0.1 )
( , = 10 /c)
= 200

. 4.11
(4.11) [27]. , .
. , ,
. . . , [31].
48 , . 40 200 .
19 , 3 (
141

IV.

40 ( PI = 0.095). : 82.6%,
10.5%, 6.9%. 100 16 5100 .
(4.10), 100 = 2 16 = 100.5 /c Emix d = 4376 , 14.2%.
,
(4.7)
(4.10) .
.
, ,
, .
0

. 4.11. = 10 /c

). 16 500
. , 8 60% , 34% 6% 39 ( 250) 610. :
81.6%, 14.2%, 4.2%.
100
16 8500 .

. 0.63. = 2 16 = 100.5 /c. VMA = 18.4%. ,
, VFA = 14.2 / 18.4 = 0.772.
(4.10), 100 Emix d = 7996 , 6%.
1 95.3% 4.7% 197 ( 250) 142

1. Hubbard, P., H. Gollomb. The Hardening of Asphalt with Relation to


Development of Cracks in Asphalt Pavements. Proceedings of AAPT, Vol.
9, 1937, pp.165-194.
2.Traxler, R.N. Relation between asphalt composition and hardening
by volatilization and oxidation. Proceedings of AAPT, V.30, 1961,
pp.359372.
3. Welborn, J.Y. Relationship of Asphalt Cement Properties to
Pavement Durability. TRB, NCHRP Report 59, 1979.
4. Bell C. Summary Report on Aging of Asphalt-Aggregate Systems,
SHRP Report A-305. Washington D. C.: National Research Council, 1989,
pp. 1-121.
5. Lesueur D, The colloidal structure of bitumen: Consequences on
the rheology and on the mechanisms of bitumen modication, Advances
in Colloid and Interface Science, 2009, V. 145, 1-2, p. 42-82.
6. Anderson, D.A., D.W. Christensen, H.U. Bahia, R., Dongre, et al.
Binder Characterization and Evaluation. Volume 3: Physical Characterization,
SHRP report A-369.Washington D. C.: National Research Council; 1994.

143

IV.

7. S.Brown. Introduction to Analytical Design of Asphalt Pavement,


Nottingham, 1980.
8. Brunton J.M., Developments in the analytical design of asphalt
pavements using computers. University of Nottingham, 1983, 406p.
9. Airy, G., S.F. Brown. Rheological Performance of Aged Polymer
Modied Bitumens. AAPT, V.67, 1997, pp. 66-100.
10. Culley, R. Relationships between hardening of asphalt cement
and transverse cracking pavements in Saskatchewan. AAPT, V. 38, 1969,
pp.629-645.
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