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WELCOME

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TRANSMISSION LINES DESIGN
AND CONSTRUCTION

BY
K.VEERABHADRA RAO
RETD.CHIEF ENGINEER,AP TRANSCO
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DEVELOPMENT OF AC TRANSMISSION LINES

16-5-1888 TRANSMISSION LINE PATENT GIVEN FIRST


LINE 25 kV LINE LAUFFEN TO FRANKFURT IN GERMANY
1912 110 kV LINE LAUCHLAMMER TO RIESA
17-4-1929 220 kV LINE BRAUWEILER TO FRANKFURT TOWERS
DESIGNED FOR 380 kV
5-10-1957 380 kV LINE ROMERSKIRCHEN TO LUDWIGSBURG-
HOHENECH
1967 735 kV LINE IN HYDRO QUEBEC
1982 1200 kV LINE IN SOVIET UNION
EXTREMEMELY HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION BEYOND 2000 kV NOT
PREFERED DUE TO HIGH CORONA DISCHARGELOSSES MORE THAN
LOSSES DUE TO LINE RESISTANCE

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DESIGN BASIS

1.ECONOMIC FACTORS

2.NETWORK SAFETY

3.REDUNDANCY

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MAIN COMPONENTS
1. CONDUCTOR

2. CONDUCTOR ACCESSORIES
a) REPAIR SLEEVES b) COMPRESSION JOINTS
c) VIBRATION DAMPERS d) SPACERS / SPACER
DAMPERS
3. EARTH WIRE
a) COMPRESSION JOINTS
b) VIBRATION DAMPERS
c) COPPER EARTH BONDS

4. INSULATORS

5. EARTHING/ COUNTER POISE EARTHING SETS


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MAIN COMPONENTS contd..

6. INSULATOR STRING HARDWARE


a) SUSPENSION STRING HARD WARE
b) TENSION STRING HARD WARE

7. OPGW

8. EARTH WIRE /OPGW HARDWARE

9. TOWERS

10. TOWER ACCESSORIES


a) PHASE PLATES b) DANGER BOARDS
c) BIRD GAURDS d) ANTI CLIMBING DEVICES
e) STEP BOLTS

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CONDUCTORS
1. COPPER
2 .COPPER CONDUCTOR STEEL REINFORCED
3. ALUMINIUM
4. ALL ALUMINIUM ALLOY CONDUCTORS(AAAC)
5. ALUMINIUM ALLOY CONDUCTOR STEEL
REINFORCED(AACSR)
5. ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR STEEL REINFORCED(ACSR)
6. ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR ALUMINIUM CLAD STEEL
REINFORCED - ACSR(AS)

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ADVANTAGES OF ACSR

1. MORE SPAN-LESS SAG

2. LARGER DIA -LESS CORONA LOSS FOR UHV

LINES

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STANDARDS

1. IS:398 IEC-1098-1991:
SPECIFICATION FOR ALUMINIUM
CONDUCTORS FOR OVERHEAD
TRANSMISSION LINES
2 IS-398 PART-II : ACSR
3. IS-398 PART-V : ACSR FOR 400 kV AND ABOVE
4. IEC-1232 : ALUMINIUM CLAD STEEL WIRES FOR
ELECTRICAL PURPOSES
5.IS-1778 :REELS AND DRUMS FOR BARE
CONDUCTORS

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PRINCIPAL PARAMETERS OF ACSR
1. APPLICABLE STANDARDS
2. NO./WIRE DIA.AL./STEEL
3. SECTIONAL AREA OF ALUMINIUM (SQ,mm)
4. TOTAL SECTIONAL AREA (SQ,mm)
5. OVERAL DIA.(mm)
6. APPROXIMATE WT(.KG / KM)
7. DC RESISTANCEAT 20 DEG.C( OHM/KM)
8. ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH ( KN)
9. FINAL MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (KG/cm)
10. COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR EXPANSION (PER DEG.C)
11.LAY RATIO( MAX./MIN.)
12.TECHNICAL PARTICULARS OF STEEL AND AL.STRANDS
a) strand dia. b) cross sectional area c) wt./km d) min.breaking load befor stranding and after stranding KN
e)zinc coating of steel wire f) joints in strands g) chemical composition of steel wire

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IMP. TYPE TESTS
1.ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH
2.CORONA EXTINSION VOLTAGE
3.RADIO INTERFERENCE VOLTAGE
4.DC RESISTANCE
5.STESS STAIN TEST
This test is to collect the creep data of the conductor.Creep is due to
settlement of strands and due to non -elastic elongation of metal when
subjected to load.The manufacturer shall furnish the amount of creep in
10,20,30,40,50 years along with supporting calculations.The calculation
to be based on every day temp. and tension 22 % of UTS. for 400 kV
and 25 %UTS for 220 kV

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INSULATOR STRINGS
TYPES OF INSULATORS
1. PORCELAIN DISC INSULATORS,LONG ROD INSULATORS
2.TOUGHENED GLASS
3.POLYMER SILICON RUBBER/ALLOY OF SILICON RUBBER AND EPDM
NORMAL SIZES
1.254 X 145 mm 70KN/90KN EMS. 280mm CREEPAGE
2.280 X 170 mm 120 KN/160KN,
280mm/330mm/430mm CREEPAGE
3.305 X 145 mm 120 KN,
280mm /330mm/430mm CREEPAGE
4.305 X 170 mm 160 KN
280mm /330mm/430mm CREEPAGE
BALL DIA--16mm, 20mm

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INSULATOR STRINGS---- CONTINUED

TYPES OF STRINGS
1.SINGLE SUSPENSION
2.DOUBLE SUSPENSION
3.SINGLE TENSION
4. DOUBLE TENSION
5.V-SRTING

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CONSTRUCTION WORKS
1. SURVEYS
a) ROUTE ALIGNMENT
b) DETAILED SURVEY c) CHECK SURVEY
i) PROFILES
ii) SOIL PARTICULARS
iii) SAG TEMPLATE
iv)TOWER SPOTTING
v) RIGHT OF WAY

2. APPROVALS FROM CONCERNED


a) ROAD CROSSINGS
i) RAIL CROSSINGS ii) TELECOM LINES
iii) RIVER CROSSINGS iv) AIR PORT AUTHORITIES
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CONSTRUCTION WORKS contd..

3. FOUNDATIONS
i) DESIGN FOR DIFFERENT SOILS ii) EXCAVATION PLAN
iii) FORM BOXES iv) STUB SETTING
v) CONCRETING vi) REVETMENTS
vii) EARTHING

4. TOWER ERRECTION
i) TOWER SCHEDULES ii) INSEPCTION AND SORTING OUT
MEMBERS
iii) TREATMENT OF JOINS iv) ASSEMBLY
v) TIGHTENING AND PUNCHING OF BOLTS AND NUTS
vi) FIXING ACCESSORIES

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CONSTRUCTION WORKS contd..

5. INSULATOR HOISTING

6. POWER AND EARTH CONDUCTOR ERRECTION


i) DELIVERY OF CONDUCTOR AT SITE ii) PAYING OUT AND STRINGING
iii) TENSIONING AND SAGGING iv) CLIPPING -IN

7. FIXING OF CONDUCTOR AND EARTH WIRE ACCESSORIES

8. FINAL CHECKING

9. TESTING AND COMMISIONING


i) CONDUCTOR CONTINUITY TEST ii) INSULATION RESISTENCE TEST
iii) TO BE CHARGED AT LOW VOLTAGE
iv) STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET

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COST COMPONENTS

1. TOWERS AND ACCESSORIES 28%


2. ACSR CONDUCTOR AND ACCESSORIES 36%
3. EARTH WIRE AND ACCESSORIES 01%
4. INSULATOR AND STRINGS 06%
5. FOUNDATIONS 04%
6. ERRECTION 14%
7. CENTAGES 11%

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DESIGN BY PROBABILISTIC METHOD
IEC-826
CLIMATIC LOADS
a) RETURN PERIODS OF CLIMATIC EVENTS
1) 50 YEARS
2) 150 YEARS
3) 500 YEARS
b) DRAG COEFFICIENT OF CONDUCTOR
c) TERRAIN CATEGORIES

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
a) RELIABILITY (STRUCTURAL)
OR
PROBABILITY OF SURVIVAL
b) SECURITY (STRUCTURAL)
c) SAFETY

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DESIGN BY PROBABILISTIC METHOD
IEC-826
COORDINATION OF STRENGTH OF COMPONENTS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MAJOR COORDINATION WITH
COMPONENT MA JOR COMPONENTS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TO FAIL FIRST TANGENT TOWER TOWER,FOUNDATIONS,
HARDWARE
NOT TO FAIL FIRST ANGLE TOWER TOWER,FOUNDATIONS,
WITH 90% CONFIDENCE HARDWARE
DEAD END TOWER TOWER,FOUNDATIONS,
HARDWARE
CONDUCTOR CONDUCTORS, INSUL-
LATORS, HARDWARE

✔ NOTE: WITH IN EACH MAJOR COMPONENTS THE UNDERLINED COMPONENT IS THE


WEAKEST WITH 90% CONFIDENCE

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LOADINGS ON TRANSMISSION LINES
LIVE LOADS
1. WIND LOADS
a. NON-SNOWY REGIONS
b. WITH ICE SNOWY REGIONS
c. WITHOUT ICE SNOWY REGIONS
2. DEAD LOADS
a. WEIGHT OF TOWER
b. WEIGHT OF CONDUCTORS,
c. HARDWARE AND INSULATORS
3. SPECIAL LOADS
a. EXTERNAL LOADS DURING
b. CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANACE

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REQUIREMENT OF LOADS

1.RELIABILITY REQUIREMENTS
CLIMATIC LOADS UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS

2.SECURITY REQUIREMENTS
FAILURE CONTAINMENT LOADS UNDER BROKEN WIRE CONDITION

3.SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
LOADS DURING CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE LOADS

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METHODOLOGY FOR THE DESIGN
OF TRANSMISSION LINES
ESTABLISH SAFETY SELECT SECURITY SELECT
REQUIREMENTS REQUREMENTS RELIABILITY

CALCULATE CALCULATE LOADS


CONSTRUCTION RELATED TO CALCULATE
AND MAINTENANCE LOADS SECURITY CLIMATIC LOADS

COMBINE ALL LIMIT


LOADS
CHECK SAFETY
REQUIREMENTS
FROM
NATIONAL
DESIGN COMPONENTS
CALCULATE STRENGTH REGULATIONS
FOR LOADS AND
NEEDED TO COMPLY STRENGTH
WITH ALL LOADS AND REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENTS 22
TOWER OUTLINE

1. TOWER HEIGHT

2. TOWER WIDTH

3. CROSS ARM WIDTH

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ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES

1. MIN.GROUND CLEARANCE


2. MIN.CLEARANCE ABOVE HIGHEST FLOOD LEVEL
3. CLEARACE AND SWING ANGLES
4. AIR CLEARANCE
5. POWER LINE CROSSINGS
6. TELECOM.LINE CROSSINGS
7. RAIL TRACK CROSSINGS

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DESIGN PARAMETERS
1. NO.OF CIRCUITS
2. CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
a. WIND
b. TEMPERATURE
c. ISOKERANIC LEVEL
d. SEISMIC INTENSITY
e. ICE FORMATION
3. ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
4. CONDUCTOR
5. EARTH WIRE
6. INSULATOR STRINGS
7. SPAN
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LOADINGS

1. CLIMATIC LOADS RELATED TO RELIABILITY REQUIREMENTS:


WIND LOADS
i) SNOWY WITH ICE ii) SNOWY WITH OUT ICE
iii) NON SNOWY

2. FAILURE CONTAINMENT LOADS RELATED TO SECURITY REQUIREMENTS.


i) LONGITUDINAL LOADS ii) TORSIONAL LOADS
iii) ANTI CASCADING LOADS

3. LOADS DURING CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE LOADS RELATED TO


SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.

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LOADINGS contd..

NATURE OF LOADS
1. TRANSVERSE LOADS(T)
WIND LOAD ON TOWER STRUCTURE, CONDUCTOR, GW & INSULATOR
STRING
COMPONENT OF MECHANICAL TENSION
2. VERTICAL LOADS(V)
SELF WEIGHT
LOADS DURING CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
3. LONGITUDINAL LOADS(L)
RELIABILITY CONDITION (NORMAL CONDITION),
SECURITY CONDITION (BROKEN WIRE CONDITION) AND
SAFETY CONDITION (CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE) HAVE ALL
THE ABOVE LOADS UNDER THEIR LOADING COMBINATIONS.
SAFTETY CONDITION HAS BOTH NORMAL AND BROKEN WIRE CONDITION.

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ANTI CASCADING CHECKS

ALL ANGLE TOWERS SHALL BE CHECKED FOR ANTI CASCADING


CONDITIONS WITH ALL THE CONDUCTORS AND G.W. INTACT ONLY
ON ONE SIDE.

1. TRANSVERSE LOADS(T) : UNDER NO-WIND CONDITION

2. VERTICAL LOADS(V) : CONDUCTOR, GW WEIGHTS ON ONE


SIDE ONLY, WEIGHT OF INSULATOR STRINGS AND ACCESSORIES

3. LONGITUDINAL LOADS(L): PULL OF CONDUCTOR/GW AT EVERY


DAY TEMPERATURE AND NO-WIND APPLIED SIMULTANEOUSLY AT
ALL POINTS ON ONE SIDE WITH ZERO DEGREE DEVIATION.

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BROKEN WIRE CONDITION
(BWC)
SINGLE CIRCUIT: ONE PHASE OR GW BROKEN WHICH EVER IS
MORE STRINGENT FOR A PARTICULAR MEMBER

MULTI CIRCUIT:
SUSPENSION TOWER: ANY ONE PHASE OR GW BROKEN WHICH
EVER IS MORE STRINGENT FOR A PARTICULAR MEMBER

SMALL ANGLE TOWERS: ONE PHASE AND GW OR TWO PHASES


BROKEN ON ONE SIDE.

LARGE ANGLE TOWERS/DEAD END TOWERS: ANY THREE


PHASES BROKEN ON THE SAME SIDE OR ANY TWO PHASES
AND GW BROKEN ON THE SAME SIDE.

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DESIGN OF TOWER MEMBERS
STRESS ANALYSIS:
1. GRAPHICAL DIAGRAM METHOD: NOW OBSOLETE
2. ANALYTICAL METHOD
3. COMPUTER AIDED ANALYSIS: 3D ANALYSIS

SELECTION OF MATERIAL
i) BOLT DIAMETER FLARGE WIDTH
16MM 45 MM
ii) MINIMUM THICKNESS: 5 MM LEG
4MM BRACINGS/REDUNDENT MEMBERS
iii) GRADE OF STEEL : MILD STEEL AND HIGH TENSILE STEEL
iv) STENDERNESS RATIO:
LEGS < 120
BRACINGS < 200
REDUNDENT < 250
TENSION < 400

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DESIGN OF TOWER MEMBERS contd..

PERMISSIBLE STRESSES

SELECTION OF MEMBERS

BOLTS & NUTS


i) CLASS 4.6
ULTIMATE BEARING STRESS - 4440 Kgf/cm2
ULTIMATE SHEARING STRESS - 2220 Kgf/cm2

ii) CLASS 5.6


ULTIMATE BEARING STRESS - 6322 Kgf/cm2
ULTIMATE SHEARING STRESS -3161 Kgf/cm2

FOR16mmDIA BOLTS

i) CLASS 4.6
ULTIMATE BEARING STRESS - 3552 Kgf IN5mmTH.sECTION
ULTIMATE SHEARING STRESS - 4464 Kgf SINGLE SHEAR

i) CLASS 5.6
ULTIMATE BEARING STRESS - 5058 Kgf in 5mm th. SECTION
ULTIMATE SHEARING STRESS -- 63564464 Kgf SINGLE SHEAR

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TESTING OF TOWERS

TOWER TESTING STATION


1. TEST BED
2. PERMANENT ANCHORS: LONGITUDINAL MOST
3. ARRANGEMENT FOR APPLYING THE COMBINATION OF LOADS
4. ELECTRICAL WRINCHES (REMOTE CONTROLLED)
5. INSTRUMENTS TO RECORD THE LOAD APPLIED:
MECHANICAL SPRING GAUGES OR ELECTRICAL / ELECTRONIC
TRANSDUCEROS/DYNAMO METERS
6. CONTROL ROOM
7. THEODOLOTES TO OBSERVE DEFLECTION OF TOWER

TESTING
1. BOLT SLIP TEST 2. BWC/ANTI CASCADE CONDITION
3. NC 4. DESTRUCTION TEST

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APPLICATION OF LOADS

TRANSVERSE, LONGITUDINAL LOADS AND VERTICAL LOADS


AT PEAK AND RESPECTIVE CROSS ARM POINTS.

WIND LOAD ON TOWER BODY SIMULATED AT


A. G.W.
B. CROSS ARM LEVELS
C. WIND BELOW CROSS ARM LEVEL TO BE
SIMULATED TO ACT AT BOTTOM CROSS ARM LEVEL
D. TOWER WITH EXTENSION AT TOP OF EXTENSION

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QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN

1. QUALITY POLICY
2. QUALITY CONTOL(QC) DEPARTMENT
3. QUALITY PLANNING
4. DESIGN AND DRAWING
5. COMPANY STANDARDS
6. INSPECTION EQUIPMENT, TOOLS AND GUAGES
7. MATERIAL MANAGEMENT
8. INSPECTION OF INCOMING MATERIAL
9. BOUGHTOUT ITEMS
10. IN-PROCESS INSPECTION
11. DOCUMENTATION

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DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS

1. TYPE OF LOADS
a. COMPRESSION OR DOWN WARD THRUST
b. TENSION OR UPLIFT
c. LATERAL FORCES OR SIDE THRUST BOTH, TRANSVERSE AND
LOGITUDINAL DIRECTIONS

2. SOIL PARAMETERS
a. LIMIT BEARING CAPACITY
b. DENSITY OF SOIL
c. ANGEL OF EARTH FRUSTRUM
3. SOIL INVESTIGATION
a. TYPY OF SOIL
b. GROUND WATER TABLE

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DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS contd..

4. TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS
a. NORMAL DRY SOIL FOUNDATION
b. WET SOIL FOUNDATION
c. PARTIAL SUBMERGED FOUNDATION
d. FULLY SUBMERGED FOUNDATION
e. BLACK COTTON SOIL FOUNDATION
f. PARITAL BLACK COTTON SOIL FOUNDATION
g. SOFT ROCK/FISSURED ROCK FOUNDATION
h. HARD ROCK FOUNDATION
i. SANDY SOIL FOUNDATION

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DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS contd..

5. STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENT OF FOUNDATION


a. PCC TYPE
b. RCC SPREAD TYPE
c. BLOCK TYPE
d. UNDER CUT TYPE
e. GROUTED ROCK AND ROCK ANCHOR TYPE
f. PILE TYPE
g. WELL TYPE

6. REVETMENT ON FOUNDATION

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THE END

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