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8/8/2014 Mrunal Economic Survey Ch12: Sustainable Development, MDG

http://mrunal.org/2014/08/economic-survey-ch12-sustainable-development-millennium-development-goals-mdg-sdg-napcc.html/print/ 1/11
[Economic Survey] Ch12: Sustainable Development, Millennium Development
Goals, MDG, SDG, NAPCC, WTO Solar subsidies
1. [Act 1] MDG, SDG, Kyoto Agreements
1. #1: Millennium Development goals (MDG)
2. MDG & India
3. Budget 2014 on sustainable Development
4. #2: Sustainable Development goals (SDG)
5. #3: Kyoto and WARSAW
6. #4: Fodder: Future agreements
7. #5: Fodder: Emission cuts vs India
2. [Act 2] Climate funding
1. CF#1: Global environment facility (GEF)
2. CF#2: National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF)
3. Fodder: Climate finance problems
3. [Act 3] India specific
1. #1: National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
2. #2: Environment clearance problem
3. #3: Assertion reasoning: Market vs Environment
4. Appendix
1. #1: Desi Liquor Solar subsidies =Anti-WTO, says USA
2. #2: Ecuador oil drilling in Yasuni Park
3. #3: Tar balls
[Act 1] MDG, SDG, Kyoto Agreements
Economic survey ch12: sustainable Development and climate change.
As such chapter has hardly any new topics. Most of the stuff is fodder and bolbachhan.
#1: Millennium Development goals (MDG)
Who? UN General assembly
When? Framed in 2000. (but targets calculation done based on 1990 levels)
deadline 2015
8/8/2014 Mrunal Economic Survey Ch12: Sustainable Development, MDG
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MDG has 8 goals and 18 targets
GOAL TARGET DESCRIPTION
1.povertyhunger
1. reduce BPL junta by 50%
2. reduce hungry people by 50%
2.edu 3. all boys & girls complete primary education
3. genderequality 4.Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education
4.child
5. reduce child mortality by 2/3
rd
5.mother
6. Reduce MMR by 3/4
th
(75%)
6.disease
7. halt HIV/AIDS spread
8. halt malaria etc.
7.SustainbleDevelopment
9. integrate sustainable Development into national policies, reverse
environment loss
10.junta without access to water-sanitation : reduce their # by 50%
11. Improve life of at least 10 crore slum dwellers.
8.partnership
12. reform training, financial system, good governance etc.
13.needs of LDC countries
14. needs of small island and land locked countries
15. debt problem of developing countries
16. youth productive work
17. affordable drugs with help of pharma cos.
18. new ICT technology with help of private cos.
MDG & India
Data taken from Economic Survey 2013, page 218
Indicator MDG target Indiaslikelyachievement
1.Poverty. BPL earning <1$/day
23.9% BPL
earning <1$
20.74
2A.Edu. Net enrollment ratio2B.Literacy rate
(15-24 years)
100% 100%
3A. Gender parity index(boys to girls in
primary edu)
1 1
50 23.1
8/8/2014 Mrunal Economic Survey Ch12: Sustainable Development, MDG
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3B. share of women in non-agri. employment
4A. under five mortality rate (1000 live
births)
42 50
4B. IMR (1000 live births) 27 41
5A. MMR (1 lakh live births) 109 139
5C. births attended by skilled personnel 100% 62%
6.Halt HIV & other disease
no projectionsgiven in
survey
7A.households with water access
94%(Urban) 79%
(Rural)
98%(U) 96%(R)
7B. households without sanitation access 16%(U) 47%(R) 12%(U) 61%(R)
Overall Indias performance on MDG deadline (2015)
India can achieve these by 2015 cannot achieve these by 2015
1. Poverty reduction
2. households with water access
3. Gender parity, universal primary education
4. under five mortality rate (With some
effort)
5. MMR
6. share of women in non-
agri.employment
7. birth attended by skilled personnel
8. sanitation
Budget 2014 on sustainable Development
Re-affirmed global commitment to develop new set of Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs) when the MDG expires in 2015.
Outlined Indias performance on sustainable development viz.
1. 12th FYP gave prominent focus to Sustainable development.
2. Since 90s till now, India has reduced its Carbon dioxide emission by 20% (per unit of
GDP)
3. 12% of our energy comes from renewable sources. (23 Gigawatts).
4. National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) and State Action Plans on Climate
Change (SAPCCs.) have been development.
#2: Sustainable Development goals (SDG)
2015: millennium Development goals will expire.
Therefore, under RIO+20 summit, the leaders had decided to enact new Sustainable
development goals (SDG)
UN general assembly has setup 30 member group to design SDG.
Proposed focus area under SDG (fodder for mains/Essay)
1. poverty eradication
2. food security and nutrition
3. health and population dynamics
4. education
5. gender equality and women
empowerment
6. water and sanitation
7. energy
8. employment
9. sustainable cities and human settlements
10. sustainable production and consumption
11. means of implementation
What is sustainable Development?
Development which meets the needs of current generations without compromising the
8/8/2014 Mrunal Economic Survey Ch12: Sustainable Development, MDG
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ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Burtland commission on World Commission on Environment and Development (1987)
gave above definition.
This has been asked in MCQ- who gave definition, therefore need to remember.
What is Rio+20 summit?
1992: Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
2012: United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, in same place.
but since 20 years had lapsed between two summit, therefore, second summit called
RIO+20
For more details on RIO+20 and a mile long article click me.
#3: Kyoto and WARSAW
Kyoto protocol WARSAW summit
3
rd
conference under UNFCC (1997) 19
th
conference under UNFCC (2013)
Kyoto Protocol designed in this
conference.
It wants the Industrialized nations to
reduce their GHG emission by around
5.2% by 2012. (against 1990 levels)
Like-minded Developing countries wanted
NO LEGALLY BINDING commitment on
DEVELOPING countries.
Kyoto protocol expires in 2020
Decided to meet at Paris in 2015, to outline
post- what to do after Kyoto protocol expires
in 2020
three mechanisms
1. Carbon trading. 2013: India registered 115 project= highest by any country.
2. Clean Development mechanism
3. Joint implementation
two mechanisms
Loss and Damage mechanism
REDD+ mechanism- UK, Norway and USA gave funds.
more details click memore details click me

List of Greenhouse gases under Kyoto
1. Carbon dioxide (CO
2
);
2. Methane (CH
4
);
3. Nitrous oxide (N
2
O);
4. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs);
5. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs);
6. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF
6
)
Mug up above list for tricky MCQs which of the following is not a GHG?
Do read NCERT Chemistry class11 chapter 14: environmental chemistry.
#4: Fodder: Future agreements
Kyoto MDG
born in 1997 2000
8/8/2014 Mrunal Economic Survey Ch12: Sustainable Development, MDG
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expires in 2020 2015
Kyoto focus= industrialized
(developed) countries to cut
down their emission.
MDG focus= developing countries to improve human and
environment welfare.
But, in 2015: all countries
will have to pledge emission
cuts for the post 2020
period.
But in 2015: MDG will end. Therefore, global community
designing future sustainable development goals (SDGs),
according to Rio+20 mandate. Budget 2014, also affirmed this
commitment.
2014 is the last chance for all stakeholders to introspect to be able to wisely choose the
world they want post 2015.
Therefore future agreements: (1) post Kyoto agreement (2) SDG= these two will apply to
all countries- whether theyre developing, developed countries.
But applicability to all, should not amount to uniformity of application.
Per capita energy use in developing countries is hardly 25% of developed countries.
The bottom half of the world can do its bit but it cannot be expected to shoulder the bulk of
the worlds development, sustainability, and climate crisis burden.
In other words, first world countries should further reduce emission and send truckload of
donation to third world countries.
In other words, Global community must embed the principles of equity and CBDR in the
new agreements.
Developing countries should have the discretion to fulfill their domestic goals in
accordance with their national circumstances
Developing countries must be given their fair share of carbon and development space.
Global community must stop taking solace in limited progress and move to decisive action.
#5: Fodder: Emission cuts vs India
Points from Economic Survey, about Indias commitment towards climate change and
sustainable Development
India has not even utilized its fair share of the earths carbon space.
Between 1850 to 2010: Indias contribution to global emissions was only 2.7%, while that
of the USA was 27%
India lacks the resources to effectively respond to sustainability and climate challenges.
Weve not even achieved basic minimum standards of living for its entire population.
4 crore Indians dont have electricity in their homes
8 crore Indians still use firewood for cooking
We have to maintain a high economic growth for a large population
We have to provide urbanization and industrialization.
But mitigation and adaptation must continue.
Weve enacted a number of legislations on conservation of forests and ecosystems, waste
management, and pollution control.
We strongly believe that environmental conservation can go hand in hand with development
But while pursuing higher GDP, well keep sustainability at the core of Indias planning
process.
[Act 2] Climate funding
Only covering the climate funding mechanisms discussed in survey/budget.
CF#1: Global environment facility (GEF)
1991: started in the world bank
Provides funding for UNFCC, convention of biological diversity (CBD), Stockholm
convention on organic pollutants, Minamata convention on Mercury etc.
8/8/2014 Mrunal Economic Survey Ch12: Sustainable Development, MDG
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So far, India used ~5 cr dollars from GEF. And itself pledged 1.2 core $ in GEF-5.
India has used majority of GEF funding on mitigation projects ($4 cr), and only a small
fraction on adaptation projects.
Difference between two projects?
Adaptation Mitigation
post-measure pre-measure
Building sea walls to protect against sea rise
Reduce emission to prevent global
warming which leads to sea rise.
Having ambulance facilities in dangerous
highways/roads with curves and narrow lanes
Dont make dangerous roads in the first
place.
CF#2: National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF)
Was created from a coal cess of 50 per ton.
Falls under public account of India (And not under Consolidated fund of India).
Budget 2014 increased coal cess to Rs.100 per tonne
>15k crore rupees spent from this fund on JNNURM Solar lights, wind power projects etc.
Fodder: Climate finance problems
Developed countries committed to providing US$ 100 billion per year to developing
countries by 2020.
But there is no comprehensive system for tracking climate finance
proliferation of funds, and lack of coordination
Developed countries providing Technological transfer instead of granting money
To reduce global temperature by 2 Degree in 2050, we need 44 trillion USD. No single
source will be sufficient for this amount.
Countries can raise more money via domestic resource mobilization (DRM). But that
depends on factors such as fiscal performance of the country, natural resource base, and
size of tax base etc.
We must explore new funds from South-South cooperation, and private finance.
[Act 3] India specific
#1: National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
The new economic survey itself shamelessly says Weve covered this topic in previous
economic survey. Therefore, time to shamelessly copy paste from previous summary, with
minor updates.
TIMELINE of NAPCC
2008 PM launched NAPCC.
2009 PM requested state govt. to prepare SAPCC. (State Action plan on climate change)
2014 26 states/UT submitted their SAPCC so far (as per economic survey)
Thanks to NAPCC, weve reduced the CO2 emission per GDP unit by 20%
8/8/2014 Mrunal Economic Survey Ch12: Sustainable Development, MDG
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Nehru Solar
2010: (Jawaharlal Nehru) National solar mission launched.
Under ministry of new and renewable energy
Targets by 2022
1. install 20GW solar power
2. 2 GW of off-grid Solar
3. 20 million sq. meter of solar thermal collector area
4. 20 million rural households to have solar lighting
mission will be implemented in 3 phases
Phase Till March
First 2013
Second 2017 [we are in second phase]
Third 2022
Other missions under NAPCC
2.Energy
National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE)
by 2015, help save about 5% of our annual energy consumption, and
nearly 100 million tonnes of carbon dioxide every year
via PAT and ESCert mechanism.
8/8/2014 Mrunal Economic Survey Ch12: Sustainable Development, MDG
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3.Water
National water mission.
increase water use efficiency by 20%
focus on over-exploited areas, integrated water Management, awareness
generation etc. fancy stuff
Finished pilot study on Godavari and Brahmani-Baitarani basin.
Water resource ministry got ADBs technical assistance.
4.Agro
National mission for sustainable agriculture.
to enhance agro productivity
to reduce agro vulnerability to weather, floods, draught etc.
New activities focusing on horticulture, increases fish production,
warehousing and seed processing.
5.Green
India (forest)
National mission for Green India
Plant additional 10 million ht. of forest lands, wastelands and community
lands.
6.Habitat
National mission on Sustainable Habitat
Energy-efficient buildings, sewage Management, urban planning,
transport, etc. six sub sector.
2009: Green Building norms made mandatory for the CPWD since 2009
2013: Energy Conservation Building Code 2007 made mandatory for new
as well as old buildings and incorporated in the Central Public Works
Department (CPWD)
7.Knowledge
National mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
to Identify challenges arising from climate change,
Promote knowledge development for health, demography, migration, and
livelihood of coastal communities.
8.Himalayan
Ecosystem
National mission for sustaining the Himalayan Eco System
To reduce climate impacts on the Himalayan glaciers
To promote community-based management of these ecosystems
#2: Environment clearance problem
Lengthy topic, only summarizing points from survey.
Why environmental clearance gets delayed?
Fragmented policy. Several government agencies with differing policy mandates.
State institutes have shortage of trained personnel, database, funds and infrastructure.
Reforms taken?
Environment ministry has relaxed general conditions relating to distance of project from
state boundaries.
If mining projects that have already obtained Environmental Clearance (EC) under EIA
Notification 2006, then they dont have to get another EC during mining license
Renewal.
8/8/2014 Mrunal Economic Survey Ch12: Sustainable Development, MDG
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Relaxed norms for Highway expansion projects.
As such Environment impact assessment work is classified into two categories:
Category A Category B
Need clearance from environment ministry Need clearance from state level agencies.

Reform taken: B category projects
further sub classified
B1 Need public hearing.
B2 Dont need public hearing anymore.
#3: Assertion reasoning: Market vs Environment
Ive shifted this topic from Chapter on Industries to this chapter, for continuity in revision. Lets
direct check assertion reasoning type:
Assertion Environmental degradation is the result of market failure
Reason Markets for environmental goods and services is non-existent in India.
Correct answer Both correct, R explains A.

Second A&R question
Assertion Environmental degradation is the result of market failure.
Reason Lack of well-defined property rights is one of the reasons for market failure.
Correct
answer
Both correct, but R doesnt explain A. (R explains what causes market failure but
doesnt explain how market failure causes environment degradation)

Third A&R question
Assertion
Governments price control and subsidies on fossil fuelAggravates the
achievement of environmental objectives.
Reason Such interventions create Market distortions.
Correct
answer
R right and explains A
More fodder:
Indian manufacturing technology puts a heavy stress on the environment- via intensive resource
and energy use.
Significant polluters result
Petro refine
Iron-Steel
Metallic mineral extraction
Fertilizer
Cement.
Small scale Foundries, brick making etc.
Resource depletion
Contamination of air, water and land
Biodiversity loss
Health hazards
Appendix
8/8/2014 Mrunal Economic Survey Ch12: Sustainable Development, MDG
http://mrunal.org/2014/08/economic-survey-ch12-sustainable-development-millennium-development-goals-mdg-sdg-napcc.html/print/ 10/11
some related topics in current affairs:
#1: Desi Liquor Solar subsidies =Anti-WTO, says USA
Under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, Government has made specific guidelines
for local sourcing i.e. some of the solar equipment must be procured from desi
companies only. also called Domestic content requirement (DCR)
So, indirectly the American (And any other foreign products) are eliminated from
competition.
America accuses India defends
Earlier India used to import thin solar films
from outside.
But in Nehru Solar mission (phase II), Indian
government specifically made guidelines that
thin solar films must be procured from desi
players
This is one type of non-tariff barrier = youre
violating WTO agreement.
In many states of USA, youre also doing
the same against our solar panels. So,
this is tit-for-tat.
As per WTOs Government Procurement
Agreement, you cannot discriminate between desi
vs foreign players while procuring goods/services
for government projects.
But weve not signed that stupid
agreement!
Youre running a vendetta to hurt American
businessmen.
We only want to protect Indian
businessmen.
In past weve even imposed anti-
dumping duty on Chinese and
Indonesian solar companies.
So far weve not impose such
duties on American businessman.
Our solar panels are of higher quality and cheaper
price than your bogus desi products.
On that logic, if we continue
buying everything American for
Government projects, then our
local industry will never develop,
because they wont make good
profits to invest in R&D. We must
attain self-reliance for energy
security.
So even if it means using public
money on expensive desi products-
thats fine.
Public money should not be used
to pay for imports- but to develop
domestic production capacity.
What happened next?
2014: USA complained to WTO. WTO asked both parties (India-US) to find a solution
through (informal) talks/consultation with 60 days deadline.
But talks did not lead to satisfactory outcome.
8/8/2014 Mrunal Economic Survey Ch12: Sustainable Development, MDG
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May 2014: USA asked to WTO form a dispute settlement panel and adjudicate this like a
court matter.
July 2014: onwards its just taarikh pe taarikh.
Aug 2014: US envoy on climate change meets our Environment minister. Only Lip service
on dispute. Their main agenda is to sign energy efficiency projects for those SMART
CITIES.
#2: Ecuador oil drilling in Yasuni Park
Amazon Rainforests= lungs of the world
Ecuador found large reserve of oil near Amazon basin Yasuni National Park.
Yasuni national park UNESCO Biosphere reserve. Has two primitive uncontacted tribes
(Kichwa and Waorani tribe)
Park has more biodiversity than entire North America
2007: Ecuador Government asked world to give money, in exchange of not drilling the oil
and harming environment.
So far, hardly 13 million$ received. Government wanted >3.5 billion$.
Therefore, Government decided to start oil drilling in Yasuni National park.
#3: Tar balls
Tar balls are lumps of petroleum
How are they formed? Oil spillage from tankers. Regular ships discharging burnt-oil into
sea.
This oil reacts with sea-water=> tar balls formed.
Tar balls were washed ashore during the pre- and post-monsoon period along the Konkan
belt Goa, Karwar in Karnataka and south Ratnagiri in Maharashtra.
Why problem? Tar balls harmful for marine organism. They have foul smell, sticky to walk
on=beach tourists decline.
URL to article: http://mrunal.org/2014/08/economic-survey-ch12-sustainable-development-
millennium-development-goals-mdg-sdg-napcc.html
Posted By Mrunal On 08/08/2014 @ 12:23 In the category Economy