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Microwave Transmission

Microwave Range
MOST PRACTICAL RANGE ALCATEL MW RANGE Microwave range starts from .3Ghz to 300
Ghz FROM 1 GHz TO 100 GHz 7-8-13-15-18-23-25-28-38 GHz
ADVANTAGES OF MW
1. 2. 3.
1- COST EFFECTIVE. 2- SINGLE POINT MAINTENANCE. 3- QUICK DEPLOYMENT ACROSS RIVER
S AND MOUNTAINS.
TYPES OF LINKS
TYPES OF THE LINKS ACCORDING TO CAPACITY
PDH
PHYLESIOCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIRARCHY 4E1,16E1,64E1 Alcatel PDH(CM-PAK PROJECT). 4E1
,8E1,16E1,32E1.
SDH
SYHCRONOUS DIGITAL HIRARCHY STM-1,STM-4,STM16,STM-64. PRACTICALLY (Pakistan) USE
D STM-1 & XPIC(2STM-1)
PDH
AUDIO FREQUENCY =3.4 Khz SAMPLING RATE = 8Khz sample/sec BITS PER SAMPLE = 8 bit
s/sample
INTELIGIBILITY NOT DISTURBED TO AVOID ALISING ENOUGH QUANTIZATION LEVEL TO DESCR
IBE THE SIGNAL
DATA RATE = (8bits/sample )(8khz samples/sec)= 64kbps E0 = 64kbps E1 = (32 )(64K
bps) = 2.048 Mbps
(32 CHANNELS, FIRST USED FOR SYNCHRONISATION & 16TH SIGNALING)

E2 = (4)*E1 = 4 (2.048) = 8.448 Mbps E3 = (4)*E2 = 4(8.448) = 34.36 Mbps E4 = (4
)*E3 = 4( 34.36) = 139.264 Mbps.
SDH
DATA RATE
EQUILENT PDH 63E1 252E1 1008E1 4032E1
STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64
155.52 Mbps 4*155.52 = 622.08 Mbps 4*622.08 = 2.488 Gbps 4*2.488 = 9.953 Gbps
TYPES OF LINKS
1.2 TYPES OF THE LINKS ACCORDING TO CONFIGURATION
1+0 1+1

1+1 HST 1+1 SD 1+1 FD
(EQUIPMENT PROTECTION)
(EQUIPMENT + PATH PROTECTION +BEST METHOD TO MINIMIZE MULTIPATH INTERFERENCE.)

(CHANNEL PROTECTION)
TWIN PATH (NODAL SOLUTION)
LINK BUDGET

RF filter loss

IF filter loss
MW DISH GAINS

DISH GAIN DEPENDS UPON FREQUENCY AND SIZE AND DISH TYPE
RADIO MODEL
OUT PUT POWER
THE KEY IS SYSTEM GAIN
EMISSION DESIGNATAR
EMISSION DESIGNATAR
Emission designator
FREQUENCY CHANNELS

SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS 4E1


FREQUENCY
SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS 16E1

FREQUENCY
CAPACITY, MODULATION & BAND WIDTH

AS THE CAPACITY INCREASES WE HAVE TO INCREASE BANDWIDTH OR MODULATION SCHEME,

ITS DEPENDS UPON OUR CHOICE HOW TO SELECT BEST CHOICE.


MODULATION & BANDWIDTH
MODULATOR 100MB/s supposed that 100Mb/s data is carried by different level of th
e modulator 128QAM 64QAM 16QAM 8PSK 4PSK 2PSK
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
F0
+10
+20
+30
+40
+50
FREQUENCY (MHz)
LINK BUDGET
EIRP ( EFFECTIVE ISOTROPIC RADIATED POWER)
EIRP IS ACTUAL RF POWER MEASURED AS MEASURED IN THE MAIN LOOB.

EIRP = 24 dbm 1.7 dbm + 46.4 dbm = 68.70 dbm


RECEIVER SENSITIVITY (RX THRESHOLD)
IS THE WEAKEST RF SIGNAL THAT A RADIO NEEDS RECEIVE TO DEMODULATE & DECODE A PAC
KET OF DATA WITHOUT ERRORS. IT DEPENDS UPON BER THRESHOLD , FREQUENCY BAND , MOD
ULATION SCHEME &. CAPACITY. IN THIS LINK BUDGET IT IS -85dBm.
THERMAL FADE MARGIN
(SYSTEM OPERATING MARGIN OR FADE MARGIN) FADE MARGIN= RX SIGNAL RECEIVER SENSITI
VITY = -28.35 dbm-(-85dbm) = 56.65 dbm.
LINK BUDGET
FREE SPACE LOSS
The Free Space Loss is predictable and given by the formula.
FSL = 92.4 + 20Log D + 20Log F FSL = Free Space Loss (dB) F D FSL = = Frequency
of transmission (GHz) = Distance between antennas (km).
23.52 +24.30+ 92.4 = 140.29
RX SIGNAL (dBm)
RX Signal = EIRP - FSL + RX Antenna Gain Coax Cable Loss RX Signal = 68.70dBm -1
40.29 + 46.4 dBi 1.7dBm = -26.86dbm BY INCLUDING REGIONAL EFFECTS (PATH DEPENDENT
LOSSES) RSL = -26.86 -1.46 = 28.32 dBm.
LINK BUDGET

What Is the Minimum SOM(FADE MARGIN) Needed?


Regarding the minimum SOM needed, there is no absolute answer to this question,
but the higher it is, the better.

Most agree that 20 dB or more is quite adequate. Some think as low as 14 dB is s


till good.
POLARIZATION
ORIENTATION OF ELECTRIC COMPANENT OF EM WAVE WITH RESPECT TO GROUND TYPES USED I
N MW LINKS HORIZONTAL VERTICAL
CHOICE CRITERIA : VERTICAL POLARIZATION IS PREFFERED BECAUSE IT IS LESS PRONE TO
NOISE & FADING, BUT TO AVOID INTERFERENCE WE ALSO USE HORIZONTAL POLARIZATION.
IDU LEDs & FUNCTIONS
.
LED's FUNCTIONS
ON
GREEN WHEN POWERED ON OUT DOOR UNIT WORKING
ODUW (
)
GREEN WHEN CARRYING TRAFFIC
RDI (REMOTE DEFECT INDICATION)
RED WHEN THERE IS ANY MINOR OR MAJOR ALARM ON FAR END
LDI
(LOCAL DEFECT INDICATION)
RED WHEN THERE IS ANY MINOR OR MAJOR ALARM ON NEAR END MINOR ALARMS MAJOR ALARMS
MIN (MINOR) RED MAJ (MAJOR) RED
LED's FUNCTIONS
EOW (ENGINEERING ORDER WIRE)
EOW IS COMMUNICATION PATH FOR VOICE OR DATA THIS IS TRI STSTE LED 1- GREEN 2- YE
LLOW 3- YELLOW BLINKING ENGINEERING ORDER WIRE FREE. ENGINEERING ORDER WIRE BUSY
. RECEVING A CALL
ATTD (ATTENDED)
YELLOW IT IS ON WHEN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BUTTON HAS BEEN PUSHED
IDU
MAIN IDU
IDU
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
AND TURN ON YELLOW LED.
(PUSH BUTTON)
THIS PUSH BUTTON IS USED FOR CALL .IT TURNS OFF LEDs MAJ/MIN
LAMP TEST
(PUSH BUTTON)
IT IS USED TO VERIFY THAT LEDS ARE WORKING PROPERLY OR NOT.

RESET
(PUSH BUTTON)
IT IS USED FOR THE RESET .
IDU
TPH (
TELEPHONE PORT RJ-11) EOW TELEPHONE RJ11 PORT.
OS (OPERATING SYSTEM)10/100 base-T
ETHERNET CRAFT TERMIAL ACCESS. TWO LEDs ON IT 1- GREEN ETHERNET LINK IS UP
RJ-45 PORT
2- ORANGE BLINKING
TX OR RX ACTIVITY
IND (DEBUG) FOR FACTORY USE ONLY
OS & IND BOTH ARE 10/100 base-T INTERFACE(100MBPS OR 10MBPS OVER TWISTED PAIR CA
BLE
ECT (EQUIPMENT CRAFT TEMINAL)
RS-232 INTERFACE
9 PIN D TYPE FEMALE CONNECTOR
IDU
8E1/DS1 (
37 PIN D-SUB FEMALE CONNECTOR)
1-8E1/DS1 TRIBUTRIES ACCESS.
ESC (ENGINEERING SERVICE CHANNEL) 15 PIN FEMALE CONNECTOR ALM (ALARM HOUSEKEEP
ING) NMS-G703
USED TO ACCESS NE WITH ADJACENT NE.

NMS-V11
USED TO ACCESS NE WITH ADJACENT NE.
SCSI (SMALL COMPUTER SERIAL INTERFACE)
1+1 INTERCONNECTION
IDU
POWER OPTIONS
(3 PIN CONNECTOR)
20% (9.6) 20% (4.8) 20% (9.6)
THERE ARE THREE OPTIONS 12348 TO 24 VDC 48 TO 60 VDC 60 VDC
WHY WE USE NEGATIVE VOLTAGE ( e.g. -48VDC) ? TO MINIMIZE THE INTERNAL NOISE
IN VOLTAGE THE ELECTRON FLOW IS EQUIPMENT TO GROUND SO NOISE POSSIBILITY IS LESS
IN + VOLTAGE THE ELECTRON FLOW IS FROM GROUND TO EQUIPMENT SO NOISE POSSIBILITY
IS HIGH
COMMISSIONING
STARTING THE CRAFT TERMINAL
SUPERVISION ---------> START
COMMISSIONING
SHOW EQUIPMENT
COMMISSIONING
USER NAME = initial Password = initialing
commissioning
commissioning
POWER CONTROL METHODS RTPC (RTPC STANDS FOR RADIO TRANSMITTING POWER CONTROL A
TPC
(AUTOMATIC TRANSMITTING POWER CONTROL) IN THIS CONFIGURATION WE SELECT THRESHOLD
FOR THE POWER CONTROL ATPC MIN POWER ATPC MAX POWER RX THRESHOLD LEVEL 4 dbm 24
dbm -50 to-100 dbm
ATPC MAX VALUE DEPENDS UPON ACHIEVED RSL AND RX THRESHOLD LEVEL
MTPC
(MANUAL TRANSMITTING POWER CONTROL)
IN THIS POWER CONTROL METHOD THE TRANSMITTING POWER IS SET BY DEFAULT TO MAXIMUM
VALUE,IF WE WANT TO REDUCE TX POWER WE HAVE TO INTRODUCE ATTENEUATION IN IT.
ATPC SETTINGS
COMMISSIONING
SHIFTER & CF
SHIFTER & CENTRAL FREQUENCY(CF)

FOR EASY IDENTIFICATION 1&2 ARE CONSIDRED TO BE LOW AND 1P & 2P ARE HIGH SHIFTER
= HIGH FREQ LOW FREQ Unis of the above entries mhz

commissioning
STATUS CHECKING
RSL CHECKING
RSL CHECK
IF FREQUENCY
IF FREQUENCY (INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCE)
BAND SPECIFIC ( AM,FM, VESTEGIAL ,MW etc) & EQUIPMENT SPECFIC (Alcatel, NEC, HAR
RIS etc)
TWO MAJOR CLASSES
IF TX FREQUENCY IF RX FREQUENCY = 340 Mhz = 140 Mhz
&
IF TX FREQUENCY IF RX FREQUENCY = 850 Mhz = 450 Mhz
IF CABLE CHARACTERISTICS

IF TX FREQUENCY IF RX FREQUENCY
= 340 Mhz = 140 Mhz
CABLE IMPEDENCE = 50 Ohm MAXIMUM LENGTH = 300m
TNC CONNCETORS ARE USED AT EACH END.
MW DISH PARTS
REFLECTOR
CONVERGE THE INCOMMING WAVES TO FEED HORN & DIVERGE THE OUTGOING WAVES TO REFLEC
TOR .
FEEDHORN
THIS IS FEED MECHANISM.
SHROUDER
ALLIGN THE MISS ALIGN WAVES TO MINIMISE DIFFEREACTION & REFLECTION TO MINIMIZE T
HE INTEFERENCE.
RADOME
TO PROTECT THE REFLECTOR & FEED HORN AGAINST DUST, WATER etc.
ASSEMBLY
TO ATTACHE THE DISH WITH POLE.
HOW TO UPGRAD FLASH CARD

Check the flash card version. if the flash card is of version 2.0.2 or 2.0.3 the
n up gradation is required. CD of the required version. Insert the CD & make the
path. After up gradation activate the upgraded version.
HOW TO UPGRAD FLASH CARD
Abnormal Condition List
This option enables you to check if there is any loopback or TX Mute activation.
Abnormal Condition List
This option enables you to check if there is any loopback or TX Mute activation.
TX MUTE
This option helps you to avoid interference during Alignment of new link in the
congested environment. Also used during alignment of SD links and XPIC links.
EVENT LOG
Event log is very useful for the links which flactuates during night hours,at th
at time you are not on the site and you want to know the reason of fluctuations
.
EVENT LOG
EVENT LOG
Loop Back
RF LOOP BACK
BY RF LOOP BACK YOU CAN CHECK YOUR HARDWARE (IDU,ODU,IF CABLE,CONNECTORS),THAT T
HEY ARE WORKING PROPERLY
TRIBUTRY LOOP BACK
BY TRIBUTRY LOOP BACK WE CAN PERFORM BIT ERROR RATE TEST .
SAVE CURRENT CONFIGURATION
MIB MANAGEMENT MIB INCLUDES ALL THE SYSTEM INFORMATION EXCEPT ROUTING CONFIGURA
TION
DATA,BECAUSE IT IS CONSIDERED TO BE UNIQUE FOR EACH LINK.
BACK UP 17
BY using this option we can save NE configuration on CT( craft terminal) Write
the suitable filename then click on confirm Backup to make the Back up on CT.
RESTORE & ACTIVATE

SELECT ONE OF THE BACK UP PRESS Confirm Restore


By pressing the Reset previous configuration will be cancelled & new is applied.
To activate new configuration click MIB Click activate
RESET BY SOFTWARE
YOU CAN RESET NE FROM THIS OPTION.
BIT ERROR RATE THRESHOLD
BER = ERRORS/TOTAL NUMBER OF BITS
EB (Error Block) A block in which one or more bits are in error. ES (Error Secon
d) A second during which an error block (EB) occurs. SES (Severely Error Second)
Any second which contains more than 30% error Blocks.

BBE (Background block error) An error block which is not part of SES. UAS (Unava
ilable seconds) Unavailable time begins after 10 consecutive SES.
PERFORMANCE
SES EXPLANATION
EQUIPMENT ALARM
Alarm Replaceable Unit Problem
Problem on a replaceable Unit Replace the Unit
Alarm Replaceable Unit Type Mismatch
Mismatch between the installed unit and its software configuration change the so
ftware according to unit specs or change the unit.
Alarm Internal communication problem
connection b/w odu & idu is lost
Alarm Version Mismatch
Mismatch between the CT software version and the equipment software version Down
load the new software version.
.
RADIO ALARM
Cable LOS
Problem on the IDU/ODU link cable or on the ODU itself.
Check the cable (disconnected, loose connection, cut, short circuited, defective
connector etc) If the alarm remains, change the ODU.
Incompatible Frequency
Frequency configuration setting incompatible with the ODU specs Adjust the frequ
ency setting with the ODU frequency range or change the ODU.
Incompatible PTx
(ODU) Output power out of range
Tx fail
(ODU) Transmitter failure Replace the ODU
RADIO ALARM
Mod fail
(ODU) modulator failure Replace the ODU
Loss of frame & Rx fail
(ODU) Loss of incoming frame at the antenna level. Check the received level. Che
ck the remote station Tx path first. Check the local station Rx path. Check the
antennas alignment & connection to ODU. Replace defective hardware part if any.
High / Low BER
High / Low Bit Error Rate at Rx side.
Check the received level. Check the remote transmit path and the local receive p
ath (Soft configuration and hardware.Investigate any frequency interference. Rep
lace defective hardware part if any.