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Converter Dependent Design ofInduction Machines inthe Power range below 1OMW

OliverDrubel

SIEMENS AG, Automation andDrivesLarge DrivesIndustry

Vogelweiherstr. 1-15,D 90441 Nuimberg,GERMANY, Oliver.Drubel@siemens.com

Abstract: Parasitic effects caused by static frequency

In cases like emergency breaks the complete overload

converters, like shaft voltages, insulation stress, additional capability is used. The control dynamic influences strongly

losses, harmonic torque ripple or noise may endanger the therolling stockquality.

reliable operation ofdrives orturbine shaftarrangements and The second case isatypical compressor orpump application.

diminishitslifetime.

The compressor or pump drives a fluid mechanic process.

The optimal designofthe converter depends mainly upon the This process can be controlled in different ways. Either the

driven process and the motor type. The converter size is compressor speed is adjusted or the volume flow has to be

given by the technical motor data. The chosen motor design controlled by valves. A third possibility is given by hard

depends onthedrivenprocess buton thechosen converter as switching ofcompletemotor pump lines. Conventional speed

well. Three main types of converters are applied to control with the application of slip couplings or slip ring

asynchronous machines in this power range. These three asynchronous machines cause strong losses and maintenance

types areanalysedinthelightoftheconvertercausedeffects.

costs. A reduction in motor speed implements a reduction in

Keywords:

Static frequency converter,

loadtorque as well, no special temperature limitation occurs shaft voltage, at lower speed operation. The process quality within fluid

asynchronous motors, harmonic torque ripple, additional mechanics does not imply high level control requirements.

losses,naturalfrequencies, insulationstress Often strong redundancy, loss and vibration limitations are

1IiNTRODUCTION

Recent developments in converter driven electrical machines

allow their

applications with an adequate return of

and more industrial areas. Cost

investment within more

effective converter designs meet a strong market interest

within the steel, aluminium and copper industry as well as

theneed for solutionswithhighefficiencies intheoiland gas

industry and in power plants. Three main types of

asynchronous machine drive applications can be found

withinthese industries:

1l. Constant torque with strong short time overload

defined,whichhavetobe fulfilledbythedrive,fig.2.

Power cell

I

capabilityand largefieldweakening area

 
  • 2. which

Torque

is

proportional

to the square of the

speed

  • 3. time overload applications with alternating

Short

phasesofoverload andno load

 

Transfortaer

The first case isthe most challenging for the drive

dynamic.

It is a standard applicationfor several drives within the

steel Fig.2: Medium voltageconverter PerfectHarmony

industry. Roll stands,

figt1, need to cope with short timeaniport tim

to

time.application.A

Onl

torque requirements, coilers or shears must be capable

acceleraeand

sop withn a shot

cae.The tidrkind of applicationisgivengbshort tim overlad

typical case could be a ponny motor for the

startup ofa gas turbine or thedrive ina testfacility.

In steel mills the stalling torque of the motor will often

determine the overall drive costs. The temperaturerisewithin

modular cooled motors is not cost determining in this

application.

High

speed asynchronous machines are mainly determined

by itsmax. power atmax. speed.Additionallythe constraints

andstop wthin

accelerte

due

to

the lateral natural

frequencies

ofthe drive have to be

fa

the

a horttme.caes.eriThe considered.

bsdriveluis appledoivnlydrn.tatu

A

low harmonic content will determine

machine size and by this the max. motor speed when the

amount of necessary shaft modifications is kept to a

minimum.

Groundingz concepts for converter caused shaft voltagzes

-2-

IICONVERTER TOPOLOGY andMOTOR FRAMES

One principle is all the same in this kind ofvoltage source

Different processes often determine different converter converter. The ac.gridvoltage istransformedto adcvoltage,

topologies. The voltage level ofthe main power electronics which ischopped involtageblocks ofdifferentwidthcausing

are of different or the elements are differently connected. harmonics atthevoltageterminals, fig.4.

Converters are built as current source inverters or voltage 102

source inverters. Today's current source inverters like LCIs or cyclo converters are machine commutated and mainly applied to synchronous machines. The voltage source converters consist upon active power electronic switches,

fundamental(100%)

Pulsfrequencycomponents

which can inherently switch on and ofthe machine current. The converter topologies ofthe three main types
which can inherently
switch on and ofthe machine current.
The converter
topologies ofthe three main types ofvoltage
\
source converters are giveninfig.3.
1o1'
3rdharmonic
(common mode)
a)
b)
U_
=1costnf
components. On t
oha
nda
fund.......amental
nl
hlhar
Ul
Fig 4: Lin to neta votg
amnc
faM-ovre
\M\> AC - ~DO D-AC
|0
20
40
60
80
100
IT
c
consists,oHarminir
V~~~
V f - varable
U
i
Three-Ph
BI
weFig. 4:Line toneutral voltage h armonics ofa MV-converter
The termonal voltage of the motor consdsts of threemap n
b)
components. On the one hand a fundamental harmonic is
Fr-------q--
builte whichdrivesthe
motorwiththe
targetedfrequency
.
ll29tXI[l
The characteristic consists of higher uneven
ctl
hardonics as
A
w.frequencies T
the voltaefrg her harmonecs aSredoctly
I
X
AC PowNer
1lt 'I
coupled L
to thebase
frequency.
The second
strongcomponent
Voltagreabd let
is
given by the pulse
frequency. This flequency can be
Frequency
1
1
1
I
Drive-Is\olatn
Cl
vchosenbytheconverter descgner.The pulsefrequency can be
X
\ 11ltl 1
1
i
i
t
A
n
controlled within a broad
speed range independently
upon
ity 't7
the drive
speed. Last but not least a third
type
of
high
|T g
'l ~~~~~~~frequencies
in
the
voltage
form exists. These are
voltage
'
11 I
I
w
@'
H H;
1
tt
~~~peak
which can be
characterized best by a voltage surge.
fTal
I~~~
I gie
an ovrIe
of temIn infTluec oth
rfil>;t;§l1||iI~~~~voltage
characteristic
components
the
motor
on
3Trans0rormer
1
characteristic.
B
___;----
_
;
Table 1:Influenceofthevoltagecharacteristiconthemotor
Three-PhaseACPo
er
Effect
Higher
Harmonics
Surge
ConstanirVoltageEfet
Hgr
Hamnc
Sue
at
and
Frequency
harmonics
with
pulse voltage
c)
of
target frequency
peaks
Active Infeed
Inverter
frequency
_
_
_
LCM
AIM
ALM
mm
------_
AMS_
Stress
on Determinedby max. voltageamplitudes
r-l T LXl I11
ILI ,,qA1
L 1H,HHA
>
Insulation
l_l
lO n n l
* LmM
Additional
+
++
losses
__
| Shaft torque
++
+
u
ripple __
Uf =constant
V,f = vaia8ble
Noise
+
++
Shaft
Fig. 3: a) Medium voltage converter with medium voltage voltages
-
+
++
l_l

power electronic elements, three point control; b) Medium voltage converter with low voltage power electronic

++:strongeffect;-littleeffect

elements; c) low voltage converter with low voltage power The different influences will be investigated inthe following

electronic elements, with line connection module (LCM) chapters. Besidethe effects uponthemotor,which depend on

active interface module (AIM), active line module (ALM),

moomoul (MM)

the individual converter design, variable speed drives have to

be considered regarding

their rotor-dynamically behaviour.

Whereas low speed steel mill applications are relatively

uncritical, special focus has to be given to the mechanical

1466

-3-

motor design in case ofhigh speed asynchronous machines

A weak or stiffcouplingtothefoundation andthefoundation

of3000rpm and higher. In principle two main solutions can parameters itself has to be defined upon the individual

be applied.

project.

  • 1. The asynchronous machine is operated below the Beside the high speed motor frames special focus has to be firstcriticalspeed. given to the steelmill drive applications where the converter

  • 2. The asynchronous machine isoperatedovercritical. dependentdesignfeaturesare similar.

Table 2 gives an overview of typical performance data in case ofhighspeedasynchronous machines.

III SHAFT GROUNDING CONCEPTS

Different measures can be applied in order to reduce shaft

Table2: Technical dataofhighspeed asynchronous solutions voltages of converter drives [1, 3, 4]. Modifications to the

ofthesame size, shaftheight 560mm

converter could be considered as well as appropriate shaft

Class

B

2-pole

utilization at

over-

3000rpm

critical

Ratedpower 3700 kW

Efficiency

97%

Speedrange 2800rpm-

 

3600rpm

Special

Converter

measures

standard

4-pole under 2-pole under grounding concepts. Concepts forindustrialdrivesare shown

critical

 

operation

6000kW

96.8%

0

rpm

-

3000 rpm

*

Converter

standard

*

Special

shaft

*

Special

bearings

critical

operation

in fig. 6. The kind ofshaftgrounding depends stronglyupon themachine sizeaswellas on itsapplication.

Ca. 3300 kW Low voltage drives ofup to 1000kW with random winding

96.6%

arrangements are supplied in general with IGBT converters.

0

rpm

3000 rpm

- Even though their fastvoltage rise, it is generally sufficient

to insulate the NDE-bearing. In case of medium voltage

*

Converter converters the voltage rise at the terminals is about 3 to 7

standard times larger. Those voltage rises dominantly influence the

*

*

Special

shaft

Special

bearings

shaft voltage, which has its origins in a circulating flux

around the shaft. A

circulating current loop including the

shaft would be the result and has to be interrupted. An

example is given in fig. 6.b. The drive side ofthe motor is

equipped with an insulated bearing. Additionally the

These data do not only show certain advantages incase ofa

4-polehigh,speedunder-critical design,butrevealas well,.

4-pole high speed under-critical design, but reveal as wel

that the under-critical solution will

find its end at about

coupling

reduce

.

towards the load is insulated as well. In order to

capacitive

caused

shaft voltagephenomena, the non

drv en spoelrudd

i

l

3000rpm-3600rpm, when an electromagnetic reasonable

solution with laminated rotors should be applied. Above

3000rpm overcritical 2-pole solutions according table 3 can

be found.

a)

_

Load

Insulatedcoupling

Mt

AA\

Table 3: Overcritical 2-pole solutions of asynchronous machines close to standard designs up to a machine

shaftheightof630mm

Speed

<3000rpm

range

Max.

3700kW

power

2100rpm- 2100rpm- <6000rpm

4300rpm

00p0mkW

48008rpm

3400pkW

.8MW

Load

Beside the machine design itselfa proper foundation design

is inevitable to allow for

appropriate safety limits towards

criticalnaturalfrequencies,fig.5./.

L)

  • ~- Shaftgrounding

Insulated bearing

Motor

Insulatedbearing

_

Shaft grounding

90

80

70

-

*-3. natural

1.naturalfrequency

frequency

--- 50 Hz excitation

-

* 2.naturalfrequency tolerance+15 %

----

---- tolerance-15%0

60

---

d)

Insulatedbearing

ET 40

30

20

10-

0

0

5

10

15 20 25

30

35 40 45

50 55 60

Foundation: frequencyundermountedcondition(1/s)

[12]

Fig 5:Natralfreueny dpenenton he ounatin,

Insulatedbearing

Fig.

6: Shaft

groundingconcepts

for converter driven

drives,

a) MV-converter, b) Tandem

drives with MV-converter, c)

MV-converterwithLV-cells, d)LV-Converter

65

Maximum shaft voltages occur in case ofconverter supplied

cc.turbogenerators,

are given in

bearings.

[5]. Design limits for this maximum cases

[5] for sleeve bearings and in [2] for ball

1467

IVINSULATION STRESS

-4-

VI HARMONIC TORQUE RIPPLE

The repetitive switching ofpower electronic elements within The torque at the motor shaftis calculated out ofthe change

frequency converters cause voltage peaks, which are beyond inthemagneticenergywiththerotorrotation [8].

the sinusoidal

voltage

maximum of the fundamental. This

may lead to increased electrical stress of the winding M(t,162)

aw

m 1

Ol1k

m -2.J1'1k

aVlk0

'i,k

I

insulation. In order to avoid costly voltage filters either a special converter design or adjusted motor winding and winding insulation are often applied. These allow for high efficiency, long insulation life times as well as high

reliability. A proper winding insulation can be only designed if the physical voltage phenomena in case of converter supplied The

2

1z2(

+-E

2 a=l

k=l ,

aiR,a

a

'a202

M2

ofone

62

Ml

a /2,a

'p62)

)a2

which revealsthe

- iR,a

torqueconsists

within

partMI,

drives arewellknown. Electricalmotors must beprotectedin in energy

the stator and of a second part M2,

(1)

change

which

threemain areas againstelectricalstresses.

depends upon the change inenergy withintherotor. The first

Within the end-winding region the phase to phase voltage part does not give any contribution to torque ripples ifno

Upp

occurs. In the active motor partthe winding isplaced in higher stator current harmonics exist. A more detailed

slots, so that the insulation must withstand the phase to analysis of equation (1) will lead to the following torque

ground voltage levels UP9. Last but not least motors

within parts in case of a

symmetric asynchronous

machine with

the considered power range consist ofmulti turn windings.

symmetrical phase shift between the individual stator and

Betweentwo windingturns avoltage Uturnexists.

rotor currents, equation (2). The torque components are

Whereas the individual voltage levels are clearlydefinedina basedupontheequations of[8,9].The equations in

[8,

9] are

direct on line sinusoidal suppliedmotor, specialeffects have based on sinusoidal supply, several harmonics occur due to

to be considered in case of converter supplied machines.

converter

Principally the maximum phase to phase voltage isgivenby determined

supply. Each torque component has to be

forthehigherharmonics fluxand currentaswell.

the D.C. converter circuit, but this voltage level may occur So theequations (2)containtwo furthersummations:

between phase and ground aswell. The electricalpotentialof

m

-

themotor doesnot need to be symmetrical,but isdetermined M21 (t,l2) - 2'2

by capacitivecouplings.

RF

UmlUm2 b b"

j( i-b

b)Y m

l

l

I,Um2

Another effect occurs due to switching of the electronic ei((b"SU.20el,U.2+bsUo1el,U1)t-(b"+b)Z2f2)

elements. The effectisshown infig.7.

125

75

0.

d

fferen

/\:

S

=

1

urns,((a

(b"+)z

2p

2p

1

mg-1,

g=0_,2

Ml,II(trA2)=-

-emZ2

2

2

Hi,

2)

Um1Uml U2 b b"

+b-*

j(b"+b)(l'uml I,U

",Um2

SUm29el,Um2 SUm9el,Um1)ti(b b)Z2f2)

>2

(b" - b)Z2 =g

E*lr

3

J\\ W~~~~~~2p'

=++

,-,

Fig.7:oltagebetweegwindin

capacitive effects i

thewindingareimportant,see[10].T

-0.5

0X5

1.5

2;5 PS 3.5

(t,A2=

(I, +

2

g2z2,

2

Je{ Z"j(v

J

UmlUm2 vv"

-

v W2,UlJR,Um2

tjm@

Fig.7:Voltagedifferencebetweenwindingturns,acc. [6]

ei (( SUm2Coel,Um 2+'SUm o el,Um1)t(V+V))A2)

z,

(Uv + U)= gZ2,

g =0,±1,±2,.

Due to steep fronted terminal voltages shorter than Ips

Z

t,

-

"

capacitiveeffectsinthewinding

main

voltage drop

are

important,see[10].The

M,(,)=2

S

-)=

g

UmEE

Iv Um,Ul2 RElm

)

yV

...

(2)

occurs within the first coil. If the

v1LU)t-(v

)

Z2

propagationtime islessthanthevoltagerisetime areflection e

takes place at the end ofthe firstcoil. This reflection causes (

the highest electrical stress withinthe inter-turn insulation to with:

be between the last two turns. Of cause the actual voltage

difference depends on the coil parameters [7]. In extreme

g = 0,1,±I2,

[flux,Icurrent,

o

frequency,m nr. ofphases,2pnr. ofpoles,

Znr. ofslots,b,v harmonics,68startanglebetweenstatorandrotor

cases the maximum electrical stress of the inter-turn

orderto

verifytheanalyticaltheorythecalculatedcurrents

compared

with the

higher

harmonics

by

a

different mathematical model.

ifrn

The comnarison

is

oprsni

method,

which

ahmtclmdl h

stepping

finite difference time

comparisonswithmeasurements

insulation can reach up to 30% of the phase to ground have been

voltagestep [6].

A similar effect isknown along cables between the converter

andhemtor.Norallythe mpednceof te cales

comnlete

cmlt

isdone with

a

In

has been verifiedby several

different to the motor. This will cause reflections as well.[1]Temciewchasbnivstgedsan8pl

Indeed the influence ofthe reflections on the motor terminal

voltage depends upon the cable length and the voltage rise

asynchronous

i

ie

machine. The comparison ofthe rotor currents

ihntbe4

time [6].

1468

-5-

Table 4: Comparison between analytical and numerical

calculatedrotorcurrents

c)

104

Rotor

Numerical FD

Analytical model

acc.

current

model

acc.

[8,9], Slots modelled with

frequency

[13]

carterfactor

  • 0.3 1580A

298

68A

596

596433A

894

140A

33A

1591 A

54A

97A

97A

142A

;Z 10

In principle the analytical theory foresees slotharmonics. In

case ofmagnetically closed stator slotsthe application ofthe

carter factor gives betterresults.

The verified analytical model to calculate the higher current

102

harmonics is applied to equations (1) and (2). The result is giveninFig. 8.

Fundamental

t

torcque

5thharmonic

Puls f equency bands

0

2000

4000

6000

Frequencyoftorqueripple(Hz)

Only those torque harmonics are shown, which may Fig.8: a) Harmonic ripple for MV converter, b) MV

influence the design of the shaft. Every torque below the converterwithlowvoltage cells,c)LV converter

shaftdamping isofno interest.Alltorque ripplesare beneath

10%ofthe fundamentaltorque independentupon the applied The low voltage and the MV-voltage converter with low

converter. Only those electrical torque ripples which meet voltage cells show mainly torqueripples atpulse frequencies.

one ofthe shaft line Eigen frequencies with the rotor placed The MV-voltage converter has more components, fig. 8 a).

attheoscillationlooprequirespecialconsiderationwithinthe Three main torque rippletypes exist. The thirdharmonic and

coupling design. Therefore the individual torques need to be synchronous torque are directly related to the fundamental.

applied on the mechanical shaft line system for an Torque ripples due to the pulse frequency are independent

appropriatedimensioning oftheshaftandcoupling [14].

a) 40104

- M=const

Synchronoustor

Synchronoustorques

cnst

0N

+

-2 103- _+

_________

+ ___________

+ __

&

H

-rortq-ue

o~ 102 amplitud

-l r1o0

102

3us -

fre

quency

caused

-

Harmonics:

I t-Frequency

fundamental

upon the converter speed. The later occur for the analysed

MV-converter

inthe range of550Hz to 800Hz and 900Hz to

voltagecells

1100Hz. In case ofthe MV-converter with low

ripples occur at multiples of 5 kHz and for the considered

lowvoltageconverter atmultiplesof2.5 kHz. They could be

adjusted

to the individual shaft line situation in extreme

cases. The third harmonic and the synchronous torques can

not be adjusted. Ifthe drive is not only operated for some

transient moments close to the

specific Eigen frequencies,

must occur

in

the

speed

either no torsional Eigen frequency

range

or their

amplitude

must be lower than the shaft line

\damping.

/

/'

No special

inverter influence has to be considered

voltage

cells. The

suppliedmotors

for the MV-converter with low

synchronoustorquerippleslikeinsinusoidal

Synchronoustorqueripple

-1 101 ollI

L

10

1015607

20

30

40 506070

Fundamental frequency (Hz)

are more dangerous. The motor can be regarded as a direct

on lineoperateddrivewithvariablegridfrequencies.

The calculation ofadditional losses is given in detail in [15,

16]. These can be calculated with the currents, which have

b) 105

104-

-_104_

M=const

e sO

e

z

2

Frequencyofpulsfrequency

causedtorque

/

E

-

103

z

~

8

Synchronoustorques

~~~~~ripple

ripplefrequency

freqUenCy

0;

been determined during the torque determination. The

additional losses can be neglected in case ofaMV with LV-

cells. They cause an additional temperature increase of 5-

15K in case of the standard MV-converter design and for

LV-converters. Even strongertemperature effects may occur

due to the speed depending ventilation. This has to be

103 _

consideredespeciallyincase ofconstanttorquedrives.

VIII CONVERTER PROVEN MOTOR DESIGN

H-

Z

Pulsefrequencytorqueamplitude

Different

important

motor

parts

have been

investigated

and

described,whichmay bethereason fordamages

ofthemotor

12

H

102

10

101

---------

------j-----_

- Synchronoustorquerippleamplitude

-

or

shaft line in case of an inappropriate motor design. The

endangerment of the motor depends upon the terminal

voltage

characteristic and of the current harmonics. In

the

~~~~~~~~~~~consideredpower

range mainly voltage source converters are

10

20

3

4

067

applied andhavebeen considered. Table 5 gives an overview

Fundamenalfrequncy (Hz)over

the converter advantages and the necessary measures to

themotor forthe differentvoltage source converters.

1469

-6-

Table 5: Converter advantages and motor design forvoltage

source converters

LV converter

MV converter

MV converter

VI REFERENCE

[1] Link P. J.: "Minimizing Electric Bearing Currents in ASD

Systems",

IEEEIndustryApplicationMagazine,July/August 1999,pp. 55-66.

Measure

Insulation

Temp. incr. at typerating

Stand./Impr. Improved

ClassF

ClassF

Shaftvoltages Insulated

Shaft

NDE-bearing grounding,

Electrical

design

Mechanical

Acc.

and

speed

torque

variation

Converter

insulated

bearings,

bearing,

coupling

Acc.

and

speed

torque

variation

Converter

withLV cells

Standard

ClassB

Standard

[2]

[3]

Mutze A.:

University

"Bearing Currents in Inverter-Fed AC-Motors, Dissertation

of

Darmstadt,

23.1.2004.

Hausberg V., Seinsch H. 0.: "Kapazitive Lagerspannungen und

Strome bei umrichtergespeisten Induktionsmaschinen", Electrical Engineering(82),pp. 153-162,2000. [4] Hausberg V., Seinsch H. O.: "KapazitiveLagerspannungenund Strome bei umrichtergespeisten Induktionsmaschinen", Electrical Engineering

(82),pp. 153-162,2000.

O.,

Hobelsberger

M.

[5] Drubel

"Mediumfrequency

shaft

voltages

in

large

frequency converter driven electrical machines", Electrical Engineering

(89),pp.29-40,2006

Acc. speed and [6] Bauer K., Kaufhold M., Wang H.:"High Voltage Motor Winding

torquevariation

Standard

Insulation for High Power Adjustable Speed Drives Fed by IGBT- Converter",Insucon,HurrogateMai 1998

[7] Guardado J.L., Carrillo V., Cornick K. J.: ,Calculation of Interturn

shaftdesign

Mechanical

vibration

Noise

Individual

advantages

Motor

time

time

life

Converter

complexity

Motor compl.

Converter

redundancy

margin

Design

to

speed range

Ca. +10db

±

+

+

±

margin

Design

to

speed range

Ca.+lOdb

±

+

±

Voltages inMachine Windings During Switching Transients

Terminals",

IEEE

Transactions on

Energy Conversion,

Design

Mechanical Dein toon

to

Nol, March 1995,pp.87-94

Measured

Vol.10,

speed range

[8] Oberretl K.: "Parasitare synchrone Dreh- und Pendelmomente in

Standard

Asynchronmotoren,

Eisensattigung

-

EinfluB

Teil

I:

von

Ausgleichsvorgangen

und

Stationarer Zustand",

Electrical

Engineering (AfE) (77),pp.179-190, 1994

+

[9] Oberretl

K.:

"Allgemeine

Oberfeldtheorie

fur

ein-

und

-

++

++

Berucksichtigung

Nutoffnungen - Teil

dreiphasige

Asynchron-

der mehrfachen

und Linearmotoren mit

Ankerruckwirkung

Kafig

und

unter der

I: Theorieund Berechnungsverfahren ", Electrical

Engineering(AfE)(76),pp.111-120, 1993 [1O]Kaufhold M.; Schafer K., Bauer K., Rossmann M: "Medium and high

power drive systems; Requirements and suitability proof for winding

insulation systems". Proceedings INSUCON

2006,

p.

86-92,

Converter

++

Converter++++++

++

ynami c

1)The noise depends upon so many factors, that the 10db are rough values

over an average of different types. Individual types may be louder;

++ strongadvantage;

[1I]Kaufhold

Birmingham, May

M.;

2006

Schafer

Winding Insulation and their Interface phenomena as a challenge on

K.,

Bauer

K.,

Bethge

A.,

Risse

J.:

"Stator

demands", design and diagnostic. IEEE Trans. on Electrical Insulation,

April2002

[12] Werner, U; Binder. A.: Rotordynamische Auslegung von uberkritisch

Table 3 reveals different advantages in case ofthe different

converter design. The individual plant situation will

determine the most advantageous one. In steel mills

the

converter dynamic is one of the most important evaluation

criteria, whereas in the oil and gas industry some processes

havetobe implementedwithahighredundancy.

V CONCLUSIONS

betriebenen Asynchronmaschinen unter Berucksichtigung der

Fundamentsteifigkeit, VDE/VDI Tagung: Elektrisch-mechanische

[13]

Antriebssysteme '06,Boblingen,Germany,2006,pp.533-546

Drubel

0,

Gantenbein

R,

Izquierdo

A,

Klocke

M:

"Current flow and

losses in brushless exciters with polygon-connected windings and dc-

rectifiers", Electrical Engineering, DOI 10.1007/s00202-006-0053-z,

2007

[14] Kulig T S:"Uber

die Auswirkungen von Storfallen in elektrischen

auf

Kraftwerksturbosatzen", Habilitations

Energieubertragungsnetzen

schriftFernuniversitatHagen, 1987

[15] Lancarotte M, De

Penteado A: ,,Estimation of Core Losses under

Different converter designs strongly influence the individual Sinusoidal or Non-Sinusoidal Induction by Analysis of Magnetization

appropriate converter proven motor design. Electrical

machnes an b genrall adatedto fttothe on snusodal

machines can be generally adapted to fitto the non sinusoidal

  • 2001 Rate", IEEE Transaction on Energy Conversion, Vol. 16, No. 2, June

[16] Joksimovic G, Binder A`: Additional no-load losses in inverter fed

converter supply as well as to the individual driven process.

high-speed cage induction motors", Electrical Engineering, (86), pp.

Steel mill applications request generally a high end drive system with a main challenge towards the electromagnetic

motor design and control speed

of the converter. Those

implemented fast switching

power electronics and their

105-116,2004

control requires special insulation, shaft grounding, bearing

insulation and high end flux utilization of the motor. MV-

converters with low voltage cell design cause terminal

voltages close to the sinusoidal ideal form. This kind of

converter allows a motor design, which has to take care

mechanically and electricallyfortheprocess itself,butwhich

does not need to consider additional measures to cope

with a

convertertypical terminal supply. Motor designs are

foreseen

to handle variable speed drives up to 3000rpm under-criticalcovre drive

Oliver

born

PhD

Drubel(Mr

1993)

was

inl4lttebr, Germ

at the

an y,eeie

of

University

Dortmund. After a

placement

with ALSTOM Switzerland,

where he has been responsible

for the electrical

turbogenerators,

with

design

of

Dr. Drubel's is

SIEMENS in Ntimnberg,

now. Hisspecial interests arein

o

n

inductrion

or overcritical and up to 6000rpm with an overcritical

drve

fo.nusra

machine design, which is strongly based upon the long term apliaios

standard design experience. Special machines are developed

to operateup to 15000rpm with anoutput of7MW.

1470