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Debian

GNU/Linux

Debian GNU/Linux
Copyright 2004 2013 Debian
Debian GNU/Linux 7.0 (wheezy)
32-bit PC (i386). ,
Debian.
: , i386
,
wheezy.
debian-installer (http://www.debian.org/devel/debian-installer/).
.

; /
GNU.
: . F.


Debian GNU/Linux 7.0 i386 .................................................................................. x
1. Debian ................................................................................................... 1
1.1. Debian? ............................................................................................................. 1
1.2. GNU/Linux? ..................................................................................................... 2
1.3. Debian GNU/Linux? ......................................................................................... 3
1.4. Debian GNU/kFreeBSD?.................................................................................. 4
1.5. Debian ............................................................................................................. 4
1.6. ........................................................... 4
1.7. ........................................................................................... 5
1.8. ..................................................... 5
2. ........................................................................................................... 7
2.1. ..................................................................................... 7
2.1.1. ........................................................................ 7
2.1.2. , ............ 8
2.1.2.1. ........................................................................ 8
2.1.2.2. - (I/O)....................................................................... 9
2.1.3. ............................................................................................................... 9
2.1.4. ....................................................................................... 9
2.1.5. ........................................................................................ 9
2.1.6. ............................................................ 10
2.1.6.1. .......................................................... 10
2.1.7. ................................................................................................. 10
2.1.8. ........................................................................... 11
2.1.9. ................................................................ 11
2.2. , ................................................ 11
2.3. GNU/Linux ........................... 12
2.3.1. 12
2.4. ................................................................................................ 13
2.4.1. CD-ROM/DVD-ROM ........................................................................................... 13
2.4.2. USB............................................................................................. 13
2.4.3. ...................................................................................................................... 14
2.4.4. ..................................................................................................... 14
2.4.5. Un*x GNU..................................................................................... 14
2.4.6. ............................................................. 14
2.5. .................................................... 15
3. Debian GNU/Linux ................................................................................ 16
3.1. ............................................................................................ 16
3.2. !............................................................. 17
3.3. , ........................................................................... 18
3.3.1. .................................................................................................... 18
3.3.1.1. ................................................................... 18
3.3.1.2. ................................................................ 18
3.3.2. .............................................. 18
3.3.3. ..................................................... 19
3.3.3.1. Live-
20
3.3.4. ................................................................................................... 20
3.4. ........................................ 21

iii

3.5. - ....................................................... 22
3.6.
23
3.6.1. BIOS ........................................................................... 23
3.6.2. ..................................................................... 24
3.6.3. , ............................... 24
4. .......................................................................... 26
4.1. CD/DVD-ROM Debian GNU/Linux .......................................... 26
4.2. - Debian.......................................................... 26
4.2.1. ................................................................... 26
4.3. USB ......................................... 27
4.3.1. USB CD DVD ....... 27
4.3.2. USB ................................ 28
4.3.3. USB .... 28
4.3.3.1. USB .............................................................. 28
4.3.3.2. ....................................... 29
4.4. ............................................... 30
4.4.1. Linux LILO GRUB
30
4.4.2. DOS loadlin
30
4.5. TFTP................................................................ 31
4.5.1. DHCP ................................................................................. 31
4.5.1.1. PXE DHCP ......................... 32
4.5.2. BOOTP ............................................................................... 33
4.5.3. TFTP ................................................................................. 33
4.5.4. TFTP TFTP .................................. 34
4.6. .......................................................................................... 34
4.6.1. Debian ... 34
5. ............................................................................................. 35
5.1. 32-bit PC ................................................................ 35
5.1.1. CD-ROM ........................................................................................... 35
5.1.2. Windows ......................................................................................... 35
5.1.3. DOS loadlin................................................................ 36
5.1.4. Linux LILO GRUB ........................................... 36
5.1.5. USB ........................................................................ 37
5.1.6. TFTP ............................................................................................... 37
5.1.6.1. PXE .......... 37
5.1.6.2. BootROM .................................................... 38
5.1.6.3. Etherboot................................................................................................... 38
5.1.7. .................................................................................................... 38
5.2. ..................................................................................................... 39
5.2.1. USB- ......................................................................................... 39
5.2.2. , ................. 40
5.2.3. ......................................................................................... 40
5.2.4. ........................................................................... 40
5.2.5. ................................................................................ 41
5.2.6. .................................................................... 41
5.2.7. ................................................................................................... 41
5.2.8. .................................. 41
5.3. ...................................................................................................... 41

iv

5.3.1. Boot console .......................................................................................................... 42


5.3.2. Debian .................................................... 42
5.3.3. ................. 46
5.3.4. ............................................................. 47
5.3.5. ...................................................... 47
5.4. ............................................................... 48
5.4.1. CD-ROM........................................................................................ 48
5.4.1.1. ..................................................................................... 48
5.4.1.2. ................................. 48
5.4.2. .......................................................................................... 50
5.4.3. ......................................................................................... 50
5.4.4. 32-bit PC................................. 50
5.4.4.1. PCMCIA ........................... 51
5.4.5. ............................................. 51
5.4.6. ......................................................... 51
5.4.7. ..................................................... 51
6. Debian............................................................. 53
6.1. ........................................................................... 53
6.2. ...................................................................................................... 54
6.3. ............................................................................. 56
6.3.1. Debian ........................ 57
6.3.1.1. /
57
6.3.1.2. ........................................................ 58
6.3.1.3. ................................................................................ 59
6.3.1.4. ISO Debian ............................. 59
6.3.1.5. ...................................................................................... 60
6.3.1.5.1. ........................................... 60
6.3.1.5.2. ......................................................... 60
6.3.1.5.3. IPv4 IPv6................................................................................... 60
6.3.1.6. ................................................ 61
6.3.2. ............................................................ 61
6.3.2.1. (root).................................... 61
6.3.2.2. ......................... 62
6.3.3. ....................................... 62
6.3.3.1. ........................................... 62
6.3.3.2. ..................................................................... 63
6.3.3.3. ................................................................................ 65
6.3.3.4. Multidisk ( RAID).................... 66
6.3.3.5. (LVM)............................. 70
6.3.3.6. ........................................................ 71
6.3.4. ............................................................................. 74
6.3.5. .......................... 75
6.3.5.1. apt ......................................................................................... 75
6.3.5.1.1. CD DVD ..................... 76
6.3.5.1.2. - ............. 76
6.3.5.1.3. - ............................ 77
6.3.5.2. .............................. 78
6.3.6. .......................................... 79
6.3.6.1. ................................................. 79
6.3.6.2. Grub ........... 79

6.3.6.3. LILO ........... 80


6.3.6.4. ........................................ 80
6.3.7. ...................................................................................... 81
6.3.7.1. .......................................................... 81
6.3.7.2. .......................................................................... 81
6.3.8. .......................................................................................... 81
6.3.8.1. ...................................................... 81
6.3.8.2.
82
6.3.9. .............................................................................................. 82
6.4. ................................................................ 84
6.4.1. ........................................................................................ 85
6.4.2. ................................................. 85
7. Debian ............................................... 87
7.1. ............................................................................................................... 87
7.2. .......................................................................... 87
7.2.1. dm-crypt ................................................................................................................ 87
7.2.2. loop-AES ............................................................................................................... 88
7.2.3. ...................................................................................... 88
7.3. ................................................................................................................ 89
8. ......................................................................... 91
8.1. .................................................................................................... 91
8.2. Unix ................................................................................................. 91
8.3. Debian............................................................... 91
8.3.1. Debian ........................................................... 91
8.3.2. Debian ............................. 92
8.3.3. ................................................................ 92
8.3.4. cron............................................................................. 92
8.4. ................................................................................................................... 93
8.5. ............................................................................................................ 93
8.5.1. ....................................................... 94
8.5.2. ............................................................................ 94
8.5.3. Exim4 .................................................. 95
8.6. ........................................................................................................ 96
8.6.1. .............................................................................. 96
8.7. ................................................................... 97
A. ................................................................................. 99
A.1. ......................................................................................... 99
A.2. ................................................................................. 99
A.2.1. CDROM ........................................................................................... 99
A.2.2. USB ....................................................................... 99
A.2.3. .............................................................................................. 100
A.2.4. ............................................................................ 100
A.3. ...................................................................................................................... 100
A.4. .......................................................................... 102
A.5. . . . ........................................................................................................... 102

vi

B. ...................................... 103
B.1. ........................................................................................................................ 103
B.1.1. ....................................................... 103
B.1.2. .................................................................................................... 104
B.2. ............................................................ 104
B.2.1. ................................................................................. 104
B.2.2. ...................... 105
B.2.3. ................................................................................. 106
B.2.4. .................................................... 107
B.2.5. DHCP
108
B.3. ............................................................................................. 109
B.4. ( wheezy) ............................................................... 110
B.4.1. .................................................................................................... 110
B.4.2. ................................................................................................ 111
B.4.3. .............................................................................................. 113
B.4.4. -........................................................................... 113
B.4.5. ............................................................................ 113
B.4.6. .......................................................... 114
B.4.7. .............................................................................................. 115
B.4.7.1. ................................................................................ 115
B.4.7.2. RAID ................................................... 117
B.4.7.3. ............................................ 118
B.4.8. .......................................................................... 118
B.4.9. Apt.................................................................................................. 119
B.4.10. ............................................................................................... 119
B.4.11. .................................................................................. 120
B.4.12. ................................................................................. 121
B.4.13. ................................................................. 121
B.5. ..................................................................................... 122
B.5.1. ........................... 122
B.5.2.
122
B.5.3. ....................... 123
C. Debian .................................................................................................. 125
C.1. Debian ................................................................. 125
C.2. .................................................................................................. 125
C.3. .............................................................................. 127
C.4. Linux............................................................................................. 128
C.5. Debian .................................................................................. 128
C.5.1. 32-bit PC ................................................................................... 129
D. ....................................................................................................................................... 131
D.1. Linux ......................................................................................................... 131
D.1.1. ............................................................................................. 132
D.2. , .................................................. 133
D.3. Debian GNU/Linux Unix/Linux ............................................ 134
D.3.1. .......................................................................................................... 134
D.3.2. debootstrap.................................................................................... 135
D.3.3. debootstrap .......................................................................................... 136
D.3.4. .......................................................................... 136
D.3.4.1. ............................................................. 136

vii

D.3.4.2. .................................................................... 137


D.3.4.3. ................................................................ 138
D.3.4.4. ................................................................................... 138
D.3.4.5. Apt ..................................................................................... 140
D.3.4.6. .............................. 140
D.3.5. ............................................................................................... 140
D.3.6. .............................................................. 141
D.3.7. : SSH ............................. 141
D.3.8. ................................................................................... 142
D.4. Debian GNU/Linux Parallel Line IP (PLIP) .................................... 142
D.4.1. ....................................................................................................... 142
D.4.2. ..................................................................................... 143
D.4.3. .................................................................................... 143
D.5. Debian GNU/Linux PPP Ethernet (PPPoE) .... 144
D.6. ............................................ 145
D.6.1. ... 146
E. .................................................................................................................... 147
E.1. ....................................................................................................... 147
E.2. ............................................................. 147
E.3. , ............... 147
E.4. ........................................................................................................... 148
F. GNU General Public License .................................................................................................... 149
F.1. Preamble........................................................................................................................... 149
F.2. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE............................................................................. 149
F.3. How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs........................................................ 153

viii


3-1. , ................................................. 18
3-2. ...................................................... 21

ix

Debian GNU/Linux 7.0 i386


, Debian. ,
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(http://www.debian.org/ports/kfreebsd/)
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(http://www.debian.org/distrib/).

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(http://www.debian.org/releases/wheezy/)

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(http://www.debian.org/releases/wheezy/i386/).

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10

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13

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14

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2.5.

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15

3. Debian
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16

3. Debian GNU/Linux
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.
, ,
.
, , ,
, - ,
Debian GNU/Linux ,
.
X ,
debian-installer, , . X
Window System .

3.2. !
, , .
,
, Debian
GNU/Linux. , ,
. ,
, ; ;
,
.
.
.
- , ,
, .

17

3. Debian GNU/Linux
,
, ,
,
.

3.3. ,
3.3.1.
3.3.1.1.
, ,
Debian wheezy
(http://www.debian.org/releases/wheezy//installmanual).

3.3.1.2.

.

- Debian (http://wiki.debian.org/Hardware)

3.3.2.

.
.
:

, .

BIOS. ,
.
. Delete F2,
.
, , , BIOS.

"" Windows.

,
.
.

.
.

18

3. Debian GNU/Linux
3-1. ,

.
.
IDE (. PATA), SATA SCSI.
.
.
,
.

/
.

/ .

3.3.3.
Linux. ,
Linux . , Linux
.
Linux, ,
- , /
. /
; ,
,
,
.
. ,

, .
, ,
/. ,
,
, , , /,
, ,
,
.

USB

PCI/PCI-Express/ExpressCard .
USB/PCI/PCI-Express/ExpressCard
, , , ,
.
Linux
lsusb USB lspci -nn for

19

3. Debian GNU/Linux
PCI/PCI-Express/ExpressCard. , ,
, ,
1d6b:0001.
lsusb: Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root
hub, 1d6b 0002 .
lspci -nn Ethernet: 03:00.0 Ethernet controller [0200]: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168B PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller [10ec:8168]
(rev 06). , . . 10ec
8168 .
, : 04:00.0 VGA compatible controller [0300]: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI RV710 [Radeon HD 4350] [1002:954f].
Windows Windows
, VEN_,
DEV_.
Windows 7
, .
/, Linux driver
.
/ ,
, lsusb
lspci (RTL8111/RTL8168B RV710
).

3.3.3.1.
Live-
Debian GNU/Linux
. (live system) , ,
,
, , CD DVD.
.

, , . .
.
, Debian GNU/Linux,
Debian.
. ,
RAM ,
RAM, -
.
,
. . . ,
,
,
( debian-installer).
Debian
Debian (http://www.debian.org/CD/live/).

20

3. Debian GNU/Linux

3.3.4.
(. . Ethernet
, /PPP ), ,

:

( ).

IP- .

IP- , .

, DNS (Domain Name Service) .

DHCP (Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol), , DHCP-
.
DSL (. .
) (
),
, , , DHCP .
, Windows
, ,
Debian GNU/Linux .
(WLAN/WiFi), :

ESSID ( ) .

WEP WPA/WPA2 ( ).

3.4.

, ,
.
, ,
. ,
, .

Pentium 4, 1 .
3-2.

21

3. Debian GNU/Linux

()

()

64

256

128

512

,
. , Debian
20 ( s390) 60 ( amd64).
, , ,
;
. D.2.

, ,
, GNOME KDE;
xfce4, icewm wmaker, .

, , .
, ,
: , . ,
.
, Debian GNU/Linux
. , /var
Debian ,
. dpkg ( )
40. apt-get . ,
200 /var ,
.

3.5. -
.
. , , ;
, .
(Windows 9x, Windows
NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7, OS/2, MacOS, Solaris, FreeBSD, . . . ) ,
Debian , . Debian
.
Windows Mac OS X.
Unix, . ,
Debian.

, , Windows
Disk Manager, fdisk DOS.
.

22

3. Debian GNU/Linux

.
. ,
.

, .
,
. ,
, ,
. FAT/FAT32 NTFS, DOS
Windows, debian-installer,
Windows 7 Disk Manager.
FAT NTFS
debian-installer , ,
.
debian-installer,
. ,
, , . . Debian GNU/Linux
debian-installer, ,
. debian-installer
Linux , , , ,
, ,
, , ,
.
,
Debian. Windows
Debian
.
,
.

3.6.

,
Debian. ,
, BIOS . BIOS
,
;
( ).

3.6.1. BIOS
BIOS ,
. ,
BIOS .
BIOS,

23

3. Debian GNU/Linux
. Delete F2,
. ,
, .

3.6.2.
BIOS
.
, CD/DVD-ROM USB,
USB USB.
PXE.
(CD/DVD ROM, USB,
) ,
.
BIOS
,
. , BIOS, ,
press F12 for boot menu .
, , F12, F11 F8.
BIOS, . .
USB,
.
BIOS
, BIOS,
, debian-installer, .
, BIOS .
debian-installer USB,
BIOS .
USB
,
BIOS USBharddisk USB stick USB ZIP USB
CDROM. , isohybrid CD/DVD USB (.
. 4.3.1), BIOS USB CDROM,
USB USB.
BIOS USB,
ISO. debian-installer
. 4.4 ISO-
USB .

3.6.3. ,

USB BIOS . PS/2,


USB,
(legacy)
BIOS ( ).

24

3. Debian GNU/Linux

BIOS Legacy keyboard emulation USB keyboard support.

25

4.

4.1. CD/DVD-ROM Debian


GNU/Linux
Debian GNU/Linux
CD/DVD-ROM Debian ( -
Debian (http://www.debian.org/CD/vendors/)). ,
CD/DVD-ROM - Debian ,
CD/DVD
( Debian GNU/Linux -
(http://www.debian.org/CD/) Debian CD FAQ (http://www.debian.org/CD/faq/)).
- Debian
CD-ROM ( ), . 5.
,
CD DVD-,
DVD CD.
, CD- , ,
CD;
CD
, .
If your machine doesnt support CD booting (only relevant on very old PC systems), but you do have
a CD set, you can use an alternative strategy such as hard disk, usb stick, net boot, or manually loading
the kernel from the CD to initially boot the system installer. The files you need for booting by another
means are also on the CD; the Debian network archive and CD folder organization are identical. So
when archive file paths are given below for particular files you need for booting, look for those files
in the same directories and subdirectories on your CD.
,
-.
If you dont have a CD set, then you will need to download the installer system files and place them
on the hard disk or usb stick or a connected computer so they can be used to boot the installer.

4.2. - Debian
( , , ) -
- Debian (http://www.debian.org/distrib/ftplist).
- Debian FTP ,
, .

4.2.1.

-
Debian

debian/dists/wheezy/main/installer-i386/current/images/

26

4.
(http://http.us.debian.org/debian/dists/wheezy/main/installer-i386/current/images)

MANIFEST
(http://http.us.debian.org/debian/dists/wheezy/main/installeri386/current/images/MANIFEST)

4.3.
USB
USB GNU/Linux
USB. USB
. , ,
usb-storage. USB- ,
/dev/sdX, X a-z. ,
USB dmesg.
.

, , !
USB. ,
- , , .

4.3.1. USB
CD DVD
Debian CD DVD USB;
USB. CD DVD
USB. , CD
DVD, . 4.1.
, USB, ,
mini.iso netboot ( ,
. 4.2.1).
CD DVD USB,
. , GNU/Linux, CD
DVD USB (
):
# cp debian.iso /dev/sdX
# sync

: CD DVD USB
. , , ,
.

27

4.
,
,
. , ,
.
FAT ,
. :
#
#
#
#
#

mount /dev/sdX2 /mnt


cd /mnt
tar zxvf /path/to/firmware.tar.gz
cd /
umount /mnt

mini.iso USB.
, .
USB .

4.3.2. USB

USB
CD. , USB
1 ( . 4.3.3).
"--" hd-media/boot.img.gz,
( ) , syslinux .
, , :
1 , USB .
USB ,
, .
, USB:
# zcat boot.img.gz > /dev/sdX

, USB (mount /dev/sdX /mnt),


FAT ISO- Debian (netinst
CD). (umount /mnt) .

4.3.3. USB

,
,
. , USB
, CD ISO.

28

4.

4.3.3.1. USB
,
.
: USB
FAT16, , , .
, cfdisk
FAT161, MBR
# install-mbr /dev/sdX

install-mbr Debian mbr. :

# mkdosfs /dev/sdX1

USB. mkdosfs
Debian dosfstools.

USB,
. (, lilo),
syslinux, FAT16
.
,
FAT.
syslinux FAT16 USB,
syslinux mtools
# syslinux /dev/sdX1

: .
syslinux.
ldlinux.sys, .

4.3.3.2.
(mount /dev/sdX1 /mnt),
:
vmlinuz

linux ( )

initrd.gz

( ramdisk)


. gtk.
, , syslinux
DOS (8.3).
, syslinux.cfg, , ,
( linux,
netboot):
1.

bootable.

29

4.
default vmlinuz
append initrd=initrd.gz

vga=788
. , .

, prompt 1.
hd-media, ISO
Debian2 . , USB (umount
/mnt).

4.4.

,
,
BIOS.
.
, , CD
.

4.4.1.
Linux LILO GRUB
linux
LILO GRUB.

, . RAMdisk
.
Debian
(, LILO
NTFS), , /boot/newinstall/.
vmlinuz

( )

initrd.gz

( ramdisk)

. 5.1.4.

2. netinst CD (. . 4.1). ,
. , netboot mini.iso .

30

4.

4.4.2.
DOS loadlin

DOS loadlin.
Debian CD c:\.
/install.386
/tools

( ramdisk)

( loadlin)

4.5. TFTP
,
TFTP.
.
TFTP , , DHCP .
BOOTP IP , IP-
. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
BOOTP.
DHCP.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
. ,
, .
SunOS 4.x, SunOS 5.x ( Solaris) GNU/Linux.
: Debian GNU/Linux tftpd-hpa.
syslinux , , .
atftpd.

4.5.1. DHCP
DHCP ISC dhcpd. Debian GNU/Linux
isc-dhcp-server.
( /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf):
option domain-name "example.com";
option domain-name-servers ns1.example.com;
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
server-name "servername";
subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {

31

4.
range 192.168.1.200 192.168.1.253;
option routers 192.168.1.1;
}
host clientname {
filename "/tftpboot.img";
server-name "servername";
next-server servername;
hardware ethernet 01:23:45:67:89:AB;
fixed-address 192.168.1.90;
}

servername,
DHCP, TFTP .
domain-name, . filename
, TFTP.
dhcpd,
/etc/init.d/isc-dhcp-server restart.

4.5.1.1. PXE DHCP


dhcp.conf, ,
(PXE) TFTP.
option domain-name "example.com";
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
allow booting;
allow bootp;
#
subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 192.168.1.200 192.168.1.253;
option broadcast-address 192.168.1.255;
# ,
# ( , )
option routers 192.168.1.1;
# dns
option domain-name-servers 192.168.1.3;
}
group {
next-server 192.168.1.3;
host tftpclient {
# tftp
hardware ethernet 00:10:DC:27:6C:15;
filename "pxelinux.0";
}
}

, PXE filename pxelinux.0


, ( . 4.5.4).

32

4.

4.5.2. BOOTP
GNU/Linux BOOTP . CMU bootpd. ,
DHCP ISC dhcpd. Debian GNU/Linux
bootp isc-dhcp-server .
CMU bootpd, -, (
) /etc/inetd.conf. Debian GNU/Linux
update-inetd --enable bootps, /etc/init.d/inetd
reload. BOOTP Debian, :
bootps

dgram

udp

wait

root

/usr/sbin/bootpd

bootpd -i -t 120

/etc/bootptab.
BSD printcap, termcap
disktab. bootptab. CMU bootpd
(MAC) . /etc/bootptab:
client:\
hd=/tftpboot:\
bf=tftpboot.img:\
ip=192.168.1.90:\
sm=255.255.255.0:\
sa=192.168.1.1:\
ha=0123456789AB:

, , ha,
. bf , TFTP;
. 4.5.4.
By contrast, setting up BOOTP with ISC dhcpd is really easy, because it treats BOOTP clients as
a moderately special case of DHCP clients. Some architectures require a complex configuration for
booting clients via BOOTP. If yours is one of those, read the section . 4.5.1. Otherwise you
will probably be able to get away with simply adding the allow bootp directive to the configuration block for the subnet containing the client in /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf, and restart dhcpd with
/etc/init.d/isc-dhcp-server restart.

4.5.3. TFTP
TFTP , - tftpd.
tftpd-hpa .
inetd,
. ,
.
: , TFTP- /tftpboot
. , Debian GNU/Linux ,
Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (http://www.pathname.com/fhs/). ,
tftpd-hpa /srv/tftp.
.

33

4.
, in.tftpd, Debian,
TFTP .
-v, .
;
.

4.5.4. TFTP TFTP

, TFTP . 4.2.1
tftpd. , tftpd
. ,
TFTP .
PXE, netboot/netboot.tar.gz.
tftpd. , dhcp
pxelinux.0 tftpd .

4.6.

. Debian: fai-quickstart
( ) Debian.
FAI (http://fai-project.org).

4.6.1.
Debian
Debian
.
, ,
.
,
, . B.

34

5.
5.1. 32-bit PC

(
), ,
.
"" (
) ,
.

: ,
. D.6.

5.1.1. CD-ROM
-
Debian. -
-, !
-,
- . 3.6.2,
.
, -
, .
CD ,
,
.
CD-ROM, ,
CD-ROM Debian . , ,
. ,
, CD-ROM.
. 5.4.

5.1.2. Windows
Windows,

CD-ROM/DVD-ROM USB,
. 4.1(. 4.3)

-
Debian
tools/win32-loader/stable/win32-loader.exe,

Windows

35

5.

CD-ROM DVD-ROM, ,
. Windows , USB,
, setup.exe.
, ,
Debian GNU/Linux.

5.1.3. DOS loadlin


DOS ( Windows).
.
CD, CDROM,
d:

, , (. 4.4.2),
, .
, ,
cd \install.386

,
gtk.
cd gtk

install.bat. .

5.1.4. Linux LILO GRUB



( . 4.4).
,
,
netboot/debian-installer/i386/initrd.gz

netboot/debian-installer/i386/linux.
, .
,
, hd-media/initrd.gz ,
CD ( DVD) (,
.iso).
CD/DVD .
LILO /etc/lilo.conf:

initrd.gz;

vmlinuz RAM .

36

5.
/etc/lilo.conf:
image=/boot/newinstall/vmlinuz
label=newinstall
initrd=/boot/newinstall/initrd.gz

initrd(4) lilo.conf(5).
lilo .
GRUB1 . menu.lst /boot/grub/
( /boot/boot/grub/) ,
(, /boot
):
title
root
kernel
initrd

New Install
(hd0,0)
/boot/newinstall/vmlinuz
/boot/newinstall/initrd.gz

GRUB2 . menu.lst
grub.cfg. :
menuentry New Install {
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root=(hd0,msdos1)
linux /boot/newinstall/vmlinuz
initrd /boot/newinstall/initrd.gz
}

GRUB LILO.

5.1.5. USB
, . 3.6.2 . 4.3.
USB USB .
, ,
boot:.
, Enter.

5.1.6. TFTP

TFTP (DHCP, RARP BOOTP).
. 4.5.
TFTP i386.

37

5.

5.1.6.1. PXE
, (NIC)
PXE. TFTP Intel.
BIOS .

5.1.6.2. BootROM
, (NIC) TFTP.

5.1.6.3. Etherboot
etherboot (http://www.etherboot.org)
(bootrom) TFTPboot.

5.1.7.
Debian
:
Installer boot menu
Install
Graphical install
Advanced options
>
Help
Install with speech synthesis
Press ENTER to boot or TAB to edit a menu entry

, Graphical install
. 64-
, .
Install Graphical install
() ; Install
Enter.
Advanced options ,
,
.
-
, Tab.
, .
( ) . Enter
;
, Esc.
Help, ,
.
, menu Enter.

38

5.
,
:
Press F1 for the help index, or ENTER to boot:

, Enter
,
.
. - ,
, ( install),
(, install fb=false).
: ,
. , ()
, ,
. Wikipedia
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keyboard_layout#United_States),
.

: , BIOS
,
; .
, ,
VGA .
Compaq integrated Lights Out (iLO) HP Integrated Remote Assistant
(IRA).
Esc
, ( ) H Enter
Help, . , , .
- ,
vga=normal fb=false,
.

5.2.
-,
, . USB-
( , USB-),


. ( )
, .

( . 5.1.7). ,
, QWERTY.

39

5.

5.2.1. USB-
USB- .
,
. Enter
. , brltty,
. brltty (http://www.mielke.cc/brltty/doc/drivers/).

5.2.2. ,

, ,
( ).
brltty= , , ,
brltty, .
- (.
BRLTTY
(http://www.mielke.cc/brltty/doc/Manual-BRLTTY/English/BRLTTY.html)).
,
, ttyS0,
USB- ttyUSB0.
(. BRLTTY
(http://www.mielke.cc/brltty/doc/Manual-BRLTTY/English/BRLTTY.html));

. ,
.
- brltty (http://www.mielke.cc/brltty/doc/drivers/).

5.2.3.

, netinst, CD, DVD netboot gtk.
s Enter.

.
( ) ,
( espeak).
. ,
CapsLock-6. CapsLock-5.
. , CapsLock-2. ,
CapsLock-1.
(http://www.linux-speakup.org/spkguide.txt).

5.2.4.

, netinst, CD, DVD
netboot gtk.
Graphical install.

40

5.
.
speakup.synth= , speakup,
.
(. (http://www.linux-speakup.org/spkguide.txt)).
,

.

5.2.5.
,
.
, -
vga=normal fb=false. ,
.

, h Enter.

5.2.6.
For users with low vision, the installer can use a high-contrast color theme that makes it more readable.
To enable it, append the theme=dark boot parameter.

5.2.7.
Debian
. . B.

5.2.8.

Debian (http://wiki.debian.org/accessibility).

5.3.
Linux,
, .
. ,
.
,
( ) , .
, . ,

41

5.
,
.
Linux BootPrompt HOWTO
(http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/BootPrompt-HOWTO.html),
.
.
. 5.4.

5.3.1. Boot console


,
.
(-) ,
, console= ,
, ttyS0.
You may need to specify parameters for the serial port, such as speed and parity, for instance
console=ttyS0,9600n8; other typical speeds may be 57600 or 115200.
,
, TERM= . ,
: linux, bterm, ansi,
vt102 dumb. debian-installer
vt102. , QEMU/KVM,
,
screen.
screen, vt102.

5.3.2. Debian
1,
.
,
.
, ()
. .
debconf/priority (priority)
.
priority=high. ,
,
. ,
.
priority=medium ,
.
priority=low (
expert). priority=critical,
1. (2.6.9 ) 32 32
.

42

5.

.
DEBIAN_FRONTEND
,
.
:
DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive
DEBIAN_FRONTEND=text
DEBIAN_FRONTEND=newt
DEBIAN_FRONTEND=gtk

DEBIAN_FRONTEND=newt.
DEBIAN_FRONTEND=text.

, newt text
. , ,
gtk.
BOOT_DEBUG
2
.
3
. (
.)
BOOT_DEBUG=0

.
BOOT_DEBUG=1

.
BOOT_DEBUG=2

.
BOOT_DEBUG=3


, .
.
INSTALL_MEDIA_DEV
,
Debian. , INSTALL_MEDIA_DEV=/dev/floppy/0
USB
.
.

43

5.
log_host
log_port

syslog .
, 514- syslog.
lowmem
lowmem
,
. 1 2. . 6.3.1.1.
noshell
tty2
tty3. ,
.
debian-installer/framebuffer (fb)

- . -
, vga=normal
fb=false. bterm bogl,
.
debian-installer/theme (theme)

(, ..). .
newt gtk dark,
.
theme=dark .
netcfg/disable_autoconfig
By default, the debian-installer automatically probes for network configuration via IPv6
autoconfiguration and DHCP. If the probe succeeds, you wont have a chance to review and
change the obtained settings. You can get to the manual network setup only in case the automatic
configuration fails.
If you have an IPv6 router or a DHCP server on your local network, but want
to avoid them because e.g. they give wrong answers, you can use the parameter
netcfg/disable_autoconfig=true to prevent any automatic configuration of the network
(neither v4 nor v6) and to enter the information manually.
hw-detect/start_pcmcia
false, PCMCIA,
. .
disk-detect/dmraid/enable (dmraid)
true, Serial ATA RAID (
ATA RAID, BIOS RAID -RAID) . ,
.
Debian Installer (http://wiki.debian.org/DebianInstaller/).

44

5.
preseed/url (url)
url
. . 4.6.
preseed/file (file)
.
. 4.6.
preseed/interactive
true ,
.
. , ,
,
. . B.5.2.
auto-install/enable (auto)
, ,
.
. B.2.3.
finish-install/keep-consoles

(VT1-VT6) /etc/inittab. true,
.
cdrom-detect/eject
, debian-installer
-, . ,
- .
, ,
-
. , slim-line caddy
.
false, ,
-
.
base-installer/install-recommends (recommends)
false,
,
.
, ,
,
.
.
.

45

5.
debian-installer/allow_unauthenticated

gpg. true
. : ,
.
rescue/enable
true ,
. . 8.7.

5.3.3.

,
, .
. B.2.2.
.
debian-installer/language (language)
debian-installer/country (country)
debian-installer/locale (locale)
, ,
.
locale.
. ,
locale=de_CH (
de_CH.UTF-8 ).
, .
, . locale

. : language=en country=DE locale=en_GB.UTF-8.
anna/choose_modules (modules)

, .
, openssh-client-udeb (
, scp) ppp-udeb
( PPPoE).
netcfg/disable_autoconfig
Set to true if you want to disable IPv6 autoconfiguration and DHCP and instead force static
network configuration.
mirror/protocol (protocol)
, http
- Debian, ftp
. ftp,

46

5.
. , ftp , .
tasksel:tasksel/first (tasks)
,
, kde-desktop.
. 6.3.5.2.

5.3.4.
,
.
- ,
.
, ,
,
.
.
, .

.
.
:
_ ._ =

,
. , 3Com
BNC () IRQ 10, :
3c509.xcvr=3 3c509.irq=10

5.3.5.
,
udev.
, . ,
.
,
.

:

/etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.local .

module_name.blacklist=yes.

, .
,
, .

47

5.

5.4.
5.4.1. CD-ROM
, CD-ROM,
CD-ROM. (
CD-ROM) CD-ROM
.
.
. .
,
.

CD-ROM , ,
.

CD-ROM,
CD-ROM .
DMA CD-ROM.

, . , ,
CD-ROM DVD,
CD-ROM.
CD-ROM, ,
, .

5.4.1.1.

CD-ROM ,
CD.

CD-ROM ,
(DMA).

5.4.1.2.
CD-ROM , .

, BIOS CD-ROM (,
), CD-ROM .

iso, , md5sum
MD5SUMS, , .
$ md5sum debian-testing-i386-netinst.iso
a20391b12f7ff22ef705cee4059c6b92 debian-testing-i386-netinst.iso

48

5.
, md5sum CD-ROM .
. CD-ROM ,
.
$ dd if=/dev/cdrom | \
> head -c stat --format=%s debian-testing-i386-netinst.iso | \
> md5sum
a20391b12f7ff22ef705cee4059c6b92 262668+0 records in
262668+0 records out
134486016 bytes (134 MB) copied, 97.474 seconds, 1.4 MB/s

CD-ROM,
. CD-ROM,
CD-ROM. CD-ROM
, , ,
. Linux.
,
(VT2) .

VT4 /var/log/syslog (
nano), .
dmesg.

dmesg , CD-ROM . ( ):
Probing IDE interface ide1...
hdc: TOSHIBA DVD-ROM SD-R6112, ATAPI CD/DVD-ROM drive
ide1 at 0x170-0x177,0x376 on irq 15
hdc: ATAPI 24X DVD-ROM DVD-R CD-R/RW drive, 2048kB Cache, UDMA(33)
Uniform CD-ROM driver Revision: 3.20

, , ,
CD-ROM, .
, ,
modprobe.

, CD-ROM
/dev/. , /dev/hdc.
/dev/cdroms/cdrom0.

mount , CD-ROM ; ,
:
$ mount /dev/hdc /cdrom

, .

, DMA:
$ cd /proc/ide/hdc
$ grep using_dma settings

49

5.
using_dma

rw

1 . , :
$ echo -n "using_dma:0"
>settings

, ,
CD-ROM.

,
CD-ROM .
CD-ROM.

5.4.2.
,
,
, . 5.3.
,
( . 2.2 . 6.4).

5.4.3.
, , ,
- , ,
,
. ,
, Linux,
(, live-CD).

dmesg
lspci
lsmod
amixer

5.4.4. 32-bit
PC
,
.
, , ,
, , ,

50

5.
, -.
, fb=false,
- . -
. . . 5.3.

5.4.4.1. PCMCIA
Dell ,
PCMCIA
. .
PCMCIA
, PCMCIA
hw-detect/start_pcmcia=false. PCMCIA,
, .
: .
,
. , Dell, ,
exclude port 0x800-0x8ff. ,
System resource settings section of the PCMCIA HOWTO
(http://pcmcia-cs.sourceforge.net/ftp/doc/PCMCIA-HOWTO-1.html#ss1.12). ,
, .

5.4.5.
cant find -
- not present, cant initialize -
this driver release
depends on - . .
,
. ,
,
, . ,
, . -
, . ,
,
( . 8.6).

5.4.6.
, ,
.

.
, .
, .
, , /var/log/
, /var/log/installer/ ,
.

51

5.

5.4.7.
, . ,
,
.
, Debian (BTS) . ,
, .
Debian ,
installation-report reportbug (aptitude install installation-report
reportbug), reportbug, . 8.5.2
reportbug installation-reports.

- installation-reports
<submit@bugs.debian.org>.
Package: installation-reports
Boot method: < ? CD? ? ?>
Image version: < url, >
Date: < >

Machine: < (, IBM Thinkpad R32)>


Processor:
Memory:
Partitions: < df -Tl; (raw)
lspci -knn lspci -nn:
Base System Installation Checklist:
[O] = OK, [E] = ( ), [ ] =
Initial boot:
Detect network card:
Configure network:
Detect CD:
Load installer modules:
Detect hard drives:
Partition hard drives:
Install base system:
Clock/timezone setup:
User/password setup:
Install tasks:
Install boot loader:
Overall install:

[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[

]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

Comments/Problems:
< , , .>

, ,
. , ,
.

52

6.
Debian
6.1.
Debian ,
.
, ,
. ,
.
,
() .
.
;
, , ,
.
, .
, , ,
- .
, ,
.
, .
Some of the defaults that the installer uses can be influenced by passing boot arguments when
debian-installer is started. If, for example, you wish to force static network configuration (IPv6
autoconfiguration and DHCP are used by default if available), you could add the boot parameter
netcfg/disable_autoconfig=true. See . 5.3.2 for available options.
, ,
, ,
.
, priority=medium.
,
.
expert ,
priority=low. debian-installer.
debian-installer
: .
, Graphical install .
.
. D.6.
. ,
. Tab
, Shift-Tab
.
,
. , ,
, ,

53

6. Debian
Pg-Up Pg-Down .
.
Enter.
. ,
,
F1.
.
, Alt-F4 ( Alt
F4);
Alt-F1.
/var/log/syslog.
/var/log/installer/syslog .
/var/log/
/var/log/installer/ ,
.

6.2.

.
. 6.3.
main-menu

, . main-menu
(medium) ,
( ), . ,
, ,
, ,
.
, Go Back,
.
localechooser

: , .
, .
, .
console-setup
,
.

hw-detect
,
, PCMCIA.

54

6. Debian
cdrom-detect
- Debian.
netcfg
,
.
iso-scan
ISO- ( .iso files) .
choose-mirror
- Debian.
, .
cdrom-checker
-.
, - .
lowmem

, debian-installer
( ).
anna
Anna APT. ,
- -.
user-setup
.
clock-setup
(UTC)
.
tzsetup
, .
partman
,
.
, ,
LVM.
Debian.
partitioner
, .
.

55

6. Debian
partconf
,
.
lvmcfg
LVM ( ).
mdcfg
RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks). RAID , IDE (-)
RAID- .
base-installer
,
Debian GNU/Linux .
apt-setup
apt, , ,
.
pkgsel
tasksel .
os-prober

bootloader-installer,
.

.
bootloader-installer
,
, Linux
-.

.
shell

.
save-logs
,
, ,
Debian
.

56

6. Debian

6.3.
.

. ,
.

6.3.1. Debian

, Debian
. debian-installer
. ,
, . .
debian-installer ,
,
. , debian-installer
, (,
,
-).
, debian-installer
. ,
(.. CD-ROM ).
,
.
debian-installer
. ,
, ,
. . . 6.4.

6.3.1.1. /

, debian-installer,
. ,
, , , Debian
GNU/Linux .
,
,
. ,
.
,
,
. .
,
, ,
.

57

6. Debian

(64128).
,
.
. ,

.
, ,
-
( Out of memory VT4 syslog).
, ,
,
. ,
ext2 (
). ext2 ext3.

lowmem , ,
lowmem . 5.3.2.

6.3.1.2.
,
.
, .
,
. ,
.
( )

- Debian.

.
.
() ();
.
. ,
C . C
; ,
locales .
. ,
1, .
, ( ).
;
, .
,
, , .
, .
1.

: .

58

6. Debian
: ,
, .

,
,
2.
.
, ,
UTF-8.
,
, 3
; - ,
.

6.3.1.3.
.
, , ,
.
( kbd-config
).
Enter.

, .

6.3.1.4. ISO Debian


hd-media, ,
ISO- Debian,
. iso-scan.
iso-scan (,
), ,
, .iso ( .ISO, ).
,
( / .iso, /data/ .iso, /data/tmp/ .iso).
iso-, iso-scan ,
iso- Debian .
, iso-scan .
ISO- , iso-scan ,
.
.
2. , ,
( ).
3. , UTF-8,
, ISO 8859-1 ( - ) EUC-JP (
).

59

6. Debian
iso-scan ISO ,
(
.iso), debian-installer
, ( ).
Unix .

6.3.1.5.
,
, ,
, .
.
; interfaces(5).
6.3.1.5.1.
, debian-installer
. ,
,
.
. ,
, .
,
, , .
, .

6.3.1.5.2.
,
IP-, , , .

, ,
Wireless ESSID WEP WPA/WPA2. . 3.3.
: , , :
, IP-
IP- .
IP- .
. - ,
,
, /etc/network/interfaces.

6.3.1.5.3. IPv4 IPv6


Debian GNU/Linux 7.0 (Wheezy), debian-installer
IPv6 ( IPv4). IPv4 IPv6
( IPv4, IPv6 ).
IPv4 DHCP (
). IPv6
(stateless) NDP (

60

6. Debian
, DNS (RDNSS)),
DHCPv6
/ ( NDP,
DHCPv6).

6.3.1.6.

( NTP), .
, ,
.
.
, ,
, .
,
.

(UTC) .
-
, ,
.
1. :
. :
# dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

2. :
time/zone= .
, Europe/London UTC.
.

6.3.2.
,
root / .
.

6.3.2.1. (root)
root ,
. root
.
6
, .
root, .

61

6. Debian
,
.
- , root, .
root -,
.

6.3.2.2.
,
.
. root
.
? ,
root , root
. :
,
, .
Unix
, .
.
; , -
. , , .
,
adduser.

6.3.3.
,
debian-installer ,
- .
,
, , , ,
RAID, LVM .
, ,
. C.

. .
, .

6.3.3.1.
debian-installer .
,
.
, , ,
. ,

62

6. Debian
. . ,
, , ,
.
debconf; ,
.

,
.

(LVM)

RAID
RAID 0, 1, 4, 5, 6 10 .

Serial ATA RAID ( dmraid)


RAID BIOS RAID. Serial ATA RAID
.
(http://wiki.debian.org/DebianInstaller/SataRaid).

( )
(http://wiki.debian.org/DebianInstaller/MultipathSupport).

.

ext2, ext3, ext4


ext4;
/boot ext2.

jfs ( )

xfs ( )

reiserfs ( ; )
Reiser .
debconf,
partman-reiserfs.
.

qnx4
.
qnx4 .

FAT16, FAT32

NTFS ( )
NTFS .
NTFS .

63

6. Debian

6.3.3.2.
, :
( ),
(LVM) , LVM 4.
: LVM LVM .

LVM LVM c ,
;
,
. LVM
,
() .
LVM,
, .
(
),
.
: LVM LVM c ,
LVM, .

.
.

( , LVM
( )) , ,
. , , ,
.
, .
.
,
.
, ;
LVM ( ) .
, .
"" "", . C.
, . ,
.
1 ( ),
.

4. LVM 256- AES


dm-crypt .

64

6. Debian

600

/, swap

/home

500

/, /home, swap

/home,
/usr, /var /tmp

/, /home, /usr, /var, /tmp,

swap

LVM ( ),
/boot. ,
, LVM.
,
,
.
:
IDE1 master (hda) - 6.4 GB WDC AC36400L
#1 primary
16.4 MB B f ext2
/boot
#2 primary 551.0 MB
swap
swap
#3 primary
5.8 GB
ntfs
pri/log
8.2 MB
FREE SPACE
IDE1 slave (hdb) - 80.0 GB ST380021A
#1 primary
15.9 MB
ext3
#2 primary 996.0 MB
fat16
#3 primary
3.9 GB
xfs
#5 logical
6.0 GB
f ext3
#6 logical
1.0 GB
f ext3
#7 logical 498.8 MB
ext3
#8 logical 551.5 MB
swap
#9 logical
65.8 GB
ext2

/home
/
/var
swap

IDE, ;
.
, , , ,
( ). :
, , .
.
,
( ).
,

, .

6.3.3.3.
, ,
.
Debian.
, ,
(

65

6. Debian
). ,
.
, .
, (
) ( ).
, .
:, ,
, RAID,
LVM,
. , ;
, .
, . ,
:, ,
, RAID, LVM
.
. ,
partman.
, - ,
.
, . ,
, , :
, , . , ,
fat16, fat32, ext2, ext3 . ,
.
, , , :
( /) .
, partman
, .
partman ,
. ,
, , (, partman-ext3,
partman-xfs partman-lvm).
,
. ,
,
.

6.3.3.4. Multidisk ( RAID)


5 ,
mdcfg /
.
Multidisk ( , , RAID).
MD ,
.
5. , MD ,
, .

66

6. Debian
( partman ,
..).
MD .
:
RAID0
. RAID0
.
/, ,
( (),
).
, RAID0 .
RAID1
, .
( ) ,
. , . :
, ,
. : (
, RAID). :
,
, , ,
.
, ,
.
RAID5
, . RAID5

( RAID0). RAID0, RAID5
, .
( RAID4), ,
.
,
. RAID5 ,
. , ,
.
, RAID5 RAID1,
. ,
, RAID0 - .
RAID6
RAID5, , .
RAID6 .
RAID10
RAID10 ( RAID0) ( RAID1).
n ,

67

6. Debian
, .
n 2, .
n. RAID10
. (near)
.
. (far) .
, .
RAID10
.
:

RAID0



RAID

RAID1

RAID

RAID5


(

RAID
)

RAID6


(

RAID
)

RAID10


,


(
)

RAID, Software RAID HOWTO

68

6. Debian
(http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Software-RAID-HOWTO.html).
MD
RAID. ( partman ,
: RAID.)
: , .
, /boot,
(/) RAID. ( lilo
grub) ( !) RAID1, ,
,RAID5 / RAID1 /boot.

MD .
RAID ,
MD (/).
, , ,
.

, RAID partman.
(
RAID.) mdcfg MD
. MD ,
(, RAID1).
MD.

RAID0 RAID,
, MD.

RAID1 . -,
, MD.
, RAID ,
, .
, . .
, debian-installer
, .

RAID5 RAID1 ,
.

RAID6 RAID1 ,
.

RAID10 RAID1,
. debian-installer
. . .
n ( ), f ( ), o ( ).
. ,
, ,
.

69

6. Debian
MD . ,
200 MD, 100 ,
RAID0 ( 300
) (2 1 )
RAID1 ( 100 /home).
MD ,
mdcfg partman, MD
.

6.3.3.5. (LVM)

, , , ,
( ) ,
,
..

(LVM). , LVM
( LVM) (
), (
). , (, , )
.
, , 160 /home
, 300 ,
,
/home ,
460 . , , .
LVM HOWTO (http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO.html).
LVM debian-installer
partman -, (),
LVM. ,
: LVM.
partman,
(LVM). ,
( ) ,
LVM. LVM.
.
:

: LVM ,
..

70

6. Debian

: partman

,
.
partman,
, ( ).

6.3.3.6.
debian-installer . ,

,
. ,
.
.
,
, .
: /home,
, ,
. , ,
, . , /var,
, , /tmp,

. .
/boot, ,
.
: ,
,
. ,
.


. (,
, LVM RAID).
: .
.
debian-installer .
dm-crypt ( Linux,
LVM), loop-AES (,
Linux). ,
.

,
Device-mapper (dm-crypt). : ,
,
.

71

6. Debian
: aes
(),
. debian-installer
: aes, blowfish, serpent twofish.
, ,
, 2000 AES

21- .
: 256
.
. ,
.
.
IV : cbc-essiv:sha256
IV ,

. ,

.
, cbc-essiv:sha256
.

, .
:
.

6 ,
.


. :
,
. (,
, ,
.)
,

. ,
, suspend-to-disk
Linux, ( )
.
6. , LUKS
(http://code.google.com/p/cryptsetup/).

72

6. Debian
:
,
. ,
,
. ,
7.

:Loopback (loop-AES),
:
: AES256
loop-AES, dm-crypt,
, .
.
: Keyfile (GnuPG)
.
(GnuPG)

. , GnuPG,
,
( ).

.
:
.

,
.
. ,
, , ,
. .
,
. 8 ,
,
, -
(, , , ,
).
7. , ,
.

73

6. Debian

,
. ,
.
, , qwerty,
azerty.
.
,
.


, .
,
. :
, ,

( - , /dev/null ..).
.
,
, .
.
dm-crypt, loop-AES.
(sda2_crypt) - 115.1 Linux device-mapper
#1 115.1 GB F ext3
loopback (loop0) - 515.2 AES256 keyfile
#1 515.2 MB F ext3

,
- .
-
(sda2_crypt loop0 ) ,
. .

. 7.2.
, .

6.3.4.
,
, ,
. ,
.

tty4. , Alt-F4;
Alt-F1.

74

6. Debian
/
/var/log/syslog. ,
.
Linux.

. ,
.

, .

, ,
, .
: , ,
, . , ,
.

6.3.5.

, .

, ,
. ,
.

6.3.5.1. apt

apt-get apt8.
, , aptitude synaptic. ,
(
) . , aptitude
.
apt .
/etc/apt/sources.list.
.
If you are installing at default priority, the installer will largely take care of the configuration automatically, based on the installation method you are using and possibly using choices made earlier in
the installation. In most cases the installer will automatically add a security mirror and, if you are
installing the stable distribution, a mirror for the stable-updates service.
8. , , , dpkg. ,
. apt-get , dpkg
. CD, - . ,
, ,
.

75

6. Debian
If you are installing at a lower priority (e.g. in expert mode), you will be able to make more decisions
yourself. You can choose whether or not to use the security and/or stable-updates services, and you
can choose to add packages from the contrib and non-free sections of the archive.
6.3.5.1.1. CD DVD
CD DVD ,
, CD DVD .
CD DVD, , ,
, .
, : .
- (
) , ,
.
: CD ( DVD) .
, CD ,
CD-.
, CD
, .
3 8 CD,
-. DVD : DVD
, , DVD .
, (
GNOME) CD.
(KDE Xfce) CD-. DVD
.

CD DVD-,
CD/DVD . ,
CD DVD .
, .

6.3.5.1.2. -
: -
.
, .
CD DVD
CD/DVD, ,
. ,
,
.
CD- CD,
, ,
CD .
, ,
CD (
).

76

6. Debian
DVD ,
DVD. ,
CD-, .
- .
, ,
CD/DVD ,
, CD/DVD
.
: - ,
. CD/DVD,
. ,
, ,
1. , ,
2. , ,
3. CD/DVD,
4. whether any updated versions of packages included on the CDs or DVDs are available from a
mirror (either a regular package mirror, or a mirror for security or stable-updates).

Note that the last point means that, even if you choose not to use a network mirror, some packages
may still be downloaded from the Internet if there is a security or stable-updates update available for
them and those services have been configured.

6.3.5.1.3. -
-
( CD/DVD, netboot),
(, ,
) . ,
, .
A mirror can also be specified by hand by choosing enter information manually . You can then
specify a mirror host name and an optional port number. As of Wheezy, that actually has to be a URL
base, i.e. when specifying an IPv6 address, one has to add square brackets around it, for instance
[2001:db8::1].
IPv6 (, , ,
),
. IPv4,
IPv6. ,
.
IPv6,
.
ftp.ipv6.debian.org, , IPv6,
.
http.debian.net.
http.debian.net -, ,

.

77

6. Debian
, , IPv6,
, IPv6.

6.3.5.2.

. 52118
,
,
.
, ,
. , - ,
, ,
, - 9.
. D.2 .

. ,
.
.
:
/ .

: CD- KDE Xfce/LXDE,


GNOME.
. ,
debian-installer KDE GNOME
(. . B.4.10) desktop=kde
.
Xfce LXDE,
desktop=xfce desktop=lxde.
CD (netinst DVD)
. Advanced options
Alternative desktop environments.
, , ,
. CD ,
-,
CD-; KDE, Xfce LXDE
DVD .

,
. DNS-: bind9; : samba, nfs; : exim4,
9. ,
tasksel. , ( )
, aptitude.
- , aptitude
install , .

78

6. Debian
spamassassin, uw-imap; : cups; SQL: postgresql; -:
apache2.

.
, Linux Unix .
,
.
C,
tasksel , - ,
. ,

. ,
( ).
Continue. aptitude ,
. -
,
.
, , .
CD-ROM , CD-ROM,
.
, .
.
CD-ROM,
, , CD-ROM.
,
( );
, , .

6.3.6.
, ,
, .

6.3.6.1.

, .
,
,
Debian.
,
.

.
.

79

6. Debian

6.3.6.2. Grub
i386 grub. Grub

.
, grub (MBR),
. ,
. grub.
grub, Go Back,
, , .

6.3.6.3. LILO
i386 LILO.
, DOS, Windows
OS/2. /usr/share/doc/lilo/,
; LILO mini-HOWTO
(http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/LILO.html).
: LILO
, . ,
, , GNU/Linux
GNU/Hurd .

debian-installer ,

LILO:
(MBR)
LILO .
Debian
, .
LILO , Debian
.

, LILO -
. .
/dev/hda /dev/sda.

Windows 9x ( DOS) ,
Windows 9x (MS-DOS)
fdisk /mbr MS-DOS ,
, - ,
Debian!

80

6. Debian

6.3.6.4.

, /
, (,
).
,
, /target/boot. ,
initrd; ,
, .
, / ,
/boot, /boot.

6.3.7.
Debian
. , debian-installer.

6.3.7.1.

(UTC). , ,
, ,
.

. , () Dos Windows,
. ,
UTC.
debian-installer
. UTC ,
, .

6.3.7.2.
(CD, , ),
.
Debian.

6.3.8.

, , -
.

81

6. Debian

6.3.8.1.
, ,
, /var/log/installer/
Debian.

, , .
,
.

6.3.8.2.


. ,
,
Alt-F210 ( Mac: Option-F2).
Alt-F1.
. D.6.1.
,
, .
Go Back .
, exit .
RAM Unix .
ls /bin /sbin /usr/bin
/usr/sbin help. Bourne ash
, .
nano.
/var/log.
: ,
, , , -
.

. ,

.

6.3.9.
network-console.
SSH.
, ,
10. : Alt F2
.

82

6. Debian
. (
. 4.6.)
,
. CD,
-
-
network-console: Continue installation
remotely using SSH.
SSH.

. .
installer
. (fingerprint) .
,
.
, Enter .
.
UTF-8,
. ,
,
-ascii .
:
$ ssh -l installer install_host

install_host IP- .
(fingerprint),
, .
: ssh ,
keep-alive. , , ,
. ,

.
(NAT) - .
, ,
.
, -o ServerAliveInterval=
ssh, ssh.
,
(, keep-alive
, ssh ),
.

:
, IP- , ssh
. , ,

83

6. Debian
. , ,
~/.ssh/known_hosts11 .

:Start menu Start


shell. , ,
.
, , - .
SSH
.

SSH, ,
, . ,
,
.

6.4.
. 2.2,
. ,
; - ,
.
, ,
debian-installer ,
. , debian-installer
.
,
(/lib/firmware) .
: ,
.
USB-
FAT. i386 amd64 MMC SD.

, , ,
,
.
debian-installer ,

.
debian-installer, , radeon, ,
,
. ,
11. : ssh-keygen -R
<_ |IP- >.

84

6. Debian
. , ,
, dmesg
.

6.4.1.
CD .
-
, , USB.
CD ,
http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/unofficial/non-free/cd-including-firmware/.

USB ( , ,
)
/firmware .
FAT, , ,
.
Tar- zip
:

http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/unofficial/non-free/firmware/

tar- zip-
.
tar-,
( non-free).
,
:

http://packages.debian.org/search?keywords=firmware

, .
, ,
.

6.4.2.
, ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, - .
, debian-installer
non-free
APT- sources.list.
.

85

6. Debian
,
, ,
() .
: ,
,
( )
.

86

7.
Debian
7.1.
- smoke test.
, ,
grub , , lilo.
Debian.
, ,
( ).
, . ,
- ,
Debian.
.
(. 8.7).
Debian Linux,
. ,
IRC #debian #debian-boot OFTC.
debian-user (http://www.debian.org/MailingLists/subscribe).
. 5.4.7.
,
, .
,
, .

7.2.

,
. dm-crypt loop-AES .

7.2.1. dm-crypt
, dm-crypt,
:
Starting early crypto disks... part_crypt(starting)
Enter LUKS passphrase:

, part
, sda2 md0. , , :
? /home? /var? ,
, ,
. ,

87

7. Debian
, . 6.3.3.6.
part_crypt ,
/etc/crypttab /etc/fstab .

. initramfs,
initrd . initrd,
initramfs-tools:
Begin: Mounting root file system... ...
Begin: Running /scripts/local-top ...
Enter LUKS passphrase:

( ).
, .

. . 7.2.3.
.

7.2.2. loop-AES
, loop-AES,
:
Checking loop-encrypted file systems.
Setting up /dev/loopX (/mountpoint)
Password:

( ).
, .

. . 7.2.3.
.

7.2.3.
-
, .
.

. ,
,
.

/home /srv.
. loop-AES :
# mount /_

88

7. Debian
Password:

, /_ (, /home).

.
dm-crypt . -
device mapper:
# /etc/init.d/cryptdisks start

/etc/crypttab
/dev
. ( ,
.)
:
# mount /_

If any volume holding noncritical system files could not be mounted (/usr or /var), the system should still boot and you should be able to mount the volumes manually like in the previous
case. However, you will also need to (re)start any services usually running in your default runlevel
because it is very likely that they were not started. The easiest way is to just reboot the computer.

7.3.
.
,
. .
, ,
. ,
. , .
/usr/share/doc/
(, Debian,
).
,
. , apt
apt-doc apt-howto.
, /usr/share/doc/ . Linux HOWTO
.gz /usr/share/doc/HOWTO/en-txt/.
dhelp /usr/share/doc/HTML/index.html
.

:
$ cd /usr/share/doc/
$ w3m .

89

7. Debian
w3m .
,
-. -
/usr/share/doc/ .
info man ,
. help,
.
--help .
,
| more , .
, ,
.

90

8.

8.1.
Debian GNU/Linux ,

. Debian GNU/Linux ,
/ . ,
,
( ) .
Ctrl-Alt-Del .
,
root : poweroff, halt
shutdown -h now; reboot.

8.2. Unix
Unix, , ,
- .
Debian (http://www.debian.org/doc/user-manuals#quick-reference). Unix FAQs
(http://www.faqs.org/faqs/unix-faq/)
UseNet.
Linux Unix. Linux Documentation Project (LDP)
(http://www.tldp.org/) HOWTO ,
Linux.
doc-linux-html (HTML ) doc-linux-text (ASCII ),
/usr/share/doc/HOWTO. LDP HOWTO
Debian.

8.3. Debian
Debian .
Linux, , Debian,
. ,
; Debian,
.

8.3.1. Debian
Debian. ,
.

91

8.
:

/usr

( /usr/local)

/var

( /var/local, )

/bin
/sbin
/lib

, /usr/bin/perl, , ,
perl, , .
, hold aptitude.
apt.
apt-get aptitude. ,
apt main, contrib non-free,
.

8.3.2.
Debian
,
Debian . ,
.
- Debian The Software Available for Debians Stable Release
(http://wiki.debian.org/DebianSoftware).

8.3.3.

update-alternatives. ,
update-alternatives.

8.3.4. cron

/etc, .
, cron ,
/etc/cron.{daily,weekly,monthly}. /etc/crontab
.
, : ()
(b) ,
/etc/crontab, , , /etc/cron.d/_.
, ,
, cron.

92

8.
, , cron
. .
cron(8), crontab(5) /usr/share/doc/cron/README.Debian.

8.4.
, ,
man info .
, /usr/share/doc. ,
/usr/share/doc/HOWTO /usr/share/doc/FAQ
. /usr/share/doc/debian/bug*.
, Debian,
/usr/share/doc/( )/README.Debian.
- Debian (http://www.debian.org/)
Debian. , Debian GNU/Linux FAQ (http://www.debian.org/doc/FAQ/)

Debian
(http://www.debian.org/doc/user-manuals#quick-reference).
Debian Debian
(http://www.debian.org/doc/ddp). Debian
Debian
(http://www.debian.org/MailingLists/subscribe). ,
Debian (http://lists.debian.org/),
Debian.
GNU/Linux Linux (http://www.tldp.org/).
HOWTO
GNU/Linux.

8.5.
(email) .
,
Debian,
.
. :
[Mail User Agent] (MUA) ,
. : [Mail Transfer Agent] (MTA)
. :
[Mail Delivery Agent] (MDA)
.
,
. ,
.
, Linux Unix MUA mutt.
Linux .
exim sendmail, MTA procmail
MDA.

93

8.
,
GNOME
evolution, KDE kmail Mozilla thunderbird ( Debian icedove1).
MUA, MTA MDA, (
) Linux.

8.5.1.

, , Debian GNU/Linux
MTA/MDA. ,
2,
() .
exim4 mutt (
). exim4 MTA/MDA,
, . ,
, ,
( root),
, 3.
/var/mail/_ .
mutt.

8.5.2.
, Debian
,
.
, exim4 ,
, .
.

(ISP) ,
exim4 .

( ).
, ,
. reportbug,
Debian. ,
exim4.
reportbug ,
reportbug --configure MTA.
1. thunderbird icedove .
.
2. : cron, quota, logcheck, aide, . . .
3. root /etc/aliases.
, , ,
root.

94

8.
SMTP,
.

8.5.3. Exim4
, ,
exim44:
# dpkg-reconfigure exim4-config

( ), ,
. ,
.
. ,
.
-
,
SMTP. ,
,
.
- (smarthost)
,
smarthost, . Smarthost
, ,
. ,
smarthost fetchmail.
, smarthost
ISP, ,
.
.
smarthost;
, , ,
. (,
) .

.

, , .
; ,

.
4.

, exim4 MTA/MDA.

95

8.
, ,

/etc/exim4. exim4
/usr/share/doc/exim4; README.Debian.gz
exim4 .
,
, ,
, .
ISP. ,
, .
MTA exim4,
/etc/email-addresses.

8.6.
? , ,
Debian, . , Debian
. , ,
. ,
:

, (,
high memory)

linux

8.6.1.
. .
Debian, :
fakeroot, kernel-package, linux-source-2.6 , , ,
( /usr/share/doc/kernel-package/README.gz ).
.deb , ,
, .deb
. ; /boot ,
System.map .
, Debian;
,

96

8.
. ,
, linux-source-2.6, kernel-package.
, kernel-package
/usr/share/doc/kernel-package. .
,
5. ,
3.2.0. ,
, tar xjf
/usr/src/linux-source-3.2.0.tar.bz2
linux-source-3.2.0.
. ,
X11, make xconfig, make menuconfig (
libncurses5-dev).
. - ,
( ,
, , Ethernet, SCSI-
). : ,
, ,
, . Kernel module loader Loadable module
support ( ). ,
Debian.
kernel-package.
make-kpkg clean.
: fakeroot make-kpkg --initrd --revision=custom.1.0
kernel_image. 1.0 ;
. ,
custom (, ).
.

dpkg -i
../linux-image-3.2.0- _custom.1.0_i386.deb.
, , 686,
. dpkg -i
. , System.map (
), /boot/config-3.2.0, .
,
. ,
.
: ,
, shutdown -r now.
Debian Debian Linux Kernel Handbook
(http://kernel-handbook.alioth.debian.org/). kernel-package
/usr/share/doc/kernel-package.

5. ,
.

97

8.

8.7.
- , ,
. ,
, ,
/sbin/init. ,
,
.
, rescue boot:,
rescue/enable=true .
, ,
, . ,
!
, ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
, . ,
RAID LVM.
,
,
. , GRUB
, grub-install (hd0).

.
,
.
, .
/target.
,
.
,
, ,
.
.

98

A.

Debian GNU/Linux wheezy 32-bit PC (i386)


debian-installer. ,
, .
, ,
.

A.1.
, . 5.4.7,
. ,
, debian-boot (debian-boot@lists.debian.org)
IRC- (#debian-boot OFTC).

A.2.
CD- debian-installer, debian-cd
Debian CD (http://www.debian.org/CD/).
. 4.1.

CD-. . 4.2.1 , - Debian.
,
.

A.2.1. CDROM
CD netinst wheezy debian-installer.
CD ,
netinst. ,
,
wheezy. CD-,
. .
CD.
CD, BIOS. . 3.6.1
, .

A.2.2. USB
USB . , USB Debian,
.

99

A.
USB CD
DVD, . ,
. - , Debian CD
isohybrid, CD USB
.
,
debian-installer, .
. 4.3.
BIOS USB, .
BIOS removable drive
USB-ZIP, USB .
. 5.1.5.

A.2.3.
debian-installer .
(netboot) .
debian-installer netboot/.

, PXE.
netboot/pxeboot.tar.gz /srv/tftp
tftp. DHCP pxelinux.0
. . 4.5.

A.2.4.
,
,
. hd-media/initrd.gz, hd-media/vmlinuz Debian
CD . , CD ,
.iso. linux initrd. . 5.1.4
, .

A.3.
. Enter ,
(
. 5.3).
.
Enter, .
, .
, .
.
, .

100

A.
, debian-installer
, CD, ,
USB ..

DHCP. DHCP,
.
.
,
. ,
,
.
.
, root ()
,
. root,
sudo,
.
.
(. . 6.3.3.2).
. ,
.
DOS Windows, ,
. ,

FAT NTFS, Debian;
.
,
. .
,
, .

/. . 6.3.3
; . C .
debian-installer ,
. .
, , , .
,
.
, apt.
.
, .
. 6.3.5.2.
.
,
.
GRUB, .
.

101

A.
debian-installer , . -
Enter
.
. . 7.
,
. 6.

A.4.
debian-installer, ,
.
reportbug (aptitude install reportbug), reportbug
. 8.5.2 reportbug installation-reports.
,
debian-installer. ,
, , , .
, ; ,
. 5.4.6.

A.5. . . .
, Debian Debian .
, . 8.

102

B.

,
debian-installer .

, ,
http://www.debian.org/releases/wheezy/example-preseed.txt.

B.1.

.
, ,
.
.
, , .
( !)
.

B.1.1.
: initrd, .
initrd
, .
.

.

initrd

CD/DVD

netboot

hd-media (
usb-)

:
a. preseed/url

. initrd ,
.
CD CD . .
, , ,
( ,
, .
. B.2.2 .

103

B.
,
, auto.
,
(, , ),
.
,
. . B.2.3.

B.1.2.
debian-installer
, .
() ;
.

B.2.
-, .
.

usb-. CD DVD,
ISO .
initrd; debian-installer.
,
http://www.debian.org/releases/wheezy/example-preseed.txt.
, .

B.2.1.
initrd, , preseed.cfg
initrd.
.

.
,
(, syslinux.cfg) append
.
,
,
. syslinux timeout 1
syslinux.cfg.
, ,
.
md5sum, ,
, .

104

B.
:
- :
preseed/url=http://host/path/to/preseed.cfg
preseed/url/checksum=5da499872becccfeda2c4872f9171c3d
- CD:
preseed/file=/cdrom/preseed.cfg
preseed/file/checksum=5da499872becccfeda2c4872f9171c3d
- USB (
USB ):
preseed/file=/hd-media/preseed.cfg
preseed/file/checksum=5da499872becccfeda2c4872f9171c3d

, preseed/url url, preseed/file file,


preseed/file/checksum preseed-md5,
.

B.2.2.

,
,
.

, , .
.
, debian-installer,
//= ,
.
, 1,
, :// = . ,
debconf
.
, , .
,
?= =. . B.5.2.
, ,
, . ,
.
, preseed/url url. : tasks
tasksel:tasksel/first.
-- .
, --,
( ).
1. debconf ( ) , , ,
debconf. d-i.
, debconf
.

105

B.
(,
), .
: linux (2.6.9 )
32 32 ,
, . ,
. ( .)


, vga=normal, ,
.
: ,
.

B.2.3.
There are several features of Debian Installer that combine to allow fairly simple command lines at
the boot prompt to result in arbitrarily complex customized automatic installs.
This is enabled by using the Automated install boot choice, also called auto for some architectures or boot methods. In this section, auto is thus not a parameter, it means selecting that boot choice,
and appending the following boot parameters on the boot prompt. See . 5.1.7 for information on
how to add a boot parameter.
To illustrate this, here are some examples that can be used at the boot prompt:
auto url=autoserver

This relies on there being a DHCP server that will get the machine to the point where
autoserver can be resolved by DNS, perhaps after adding the local domain if that was
provided by DHCP. If this was done at a site where the domain is example.com, and they
have a reasonably sane DHCP setup, it would result in the preseed file being retrieved from
http://autoserver.example.com/d-i/wheezy/./preseed.cfg.

url
(d-i/wheezy/./preseed.cfg)

auto-install/defaultroot. wheezy,

,
. /./ ,
(
preseed/include preseed/run). URL (,
/) ,
. ,

, USB-,
-. ,
preseed/run /scripts/late_command.sh,
http://autoserver.example.com/d-i/wheezy/./scripts/late_command.sh.
DHCP DNS, ,
preseed.cfg, url, ,

106

B.
/./, ( / URL). ,
:
auto url=http://192.168.1.2/path/to/mypreseed.file

URL , http,
, , DHCP,
/ , .

, url, ,
debian-installer, ,
preseed/run . ,
, auto-install/classes classes.
:
auto url=example.com classes=class_A;class_B

classes, ,
.
, , ,
auto-install.
auto-install/style, .
, ,
<debian-boot@lists.debian.org>,
, , .
The auto boot choice is not yet defined on all arches. The same effect may be achieved by simply adding the two parameters auto=true priority=critical to the kernel command line. The
auto kernel parameter is an alias for auto-install/enable and setting it to true delays the locale and keyboard questions until after there has been a chance to preseed them, while priority is
an alias for debconf/priority and setting it to critical stops any questions with a lower priority
from being asked.
DHCP
: interface=auto netcfg/dhcp_timeout=60,
, DHCP
.
: ,
, (http://hands.com/d-i/).
,
, .

107

B.

B.2.4.
( auto)
. , ,
. , auto=true interface=eth0.
priority

debconf/priority

fb
language
country

debian-installer/framebuffer
debian-installer/language
debian-installer/country

locale
theme

debian-installer/locale
debian-installer/theme

auto
classes

auto-install/enable
auto-install/classes

url
domain

preseed/file
preseed/url
netcfg/get_domain

hostname
interface

netcfg/get_hostname
netcfg/choose_interface

protocol
suite

mirror/protocol
mirror/suite

modules
recommends

anna/choose_modules
base-installer/install-recommends

tasks
desktop
dmraid

tasksel:tasksel/first
tasksel:tasksel/desktop
disk-detect/dmraid/enable

keymap
preseed-md5

keyboard-configuration/xkb-keymap
preseed/file/checksum

B.2.5. DHCP

DHCP
, . DHCP . ,
, URL,
, ,
URL
. , dhcpd.conf ISC
DHCP (Debian isc-dhcp-server).
if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 3) = "d-i" {
filename "http://host/preseed.cfg";
}

, DHCP
"d-i", DHCP ,

108

B.
.
, .
DHCP
, , - Debian.
-,
. DHCP
Debian , .

B.3.

debconf-set-selections. :

<> < > < > <>

, .

(tab):
.

,
(\) . ;
.
/ .

debconf (),
, d-i; ,
, ,
debconf. debconf
, ,
d-i.

,
. , (, partman),
.

,
.

. B.4
.
, ,
debconf-get-selections debconf-utils,
debconf cdebconf :
$ debconf-get-selections --installer >
$ debconf-get-selections >>

109

B.
, ,
, -
.
: , ,
cdebconf /var/log/installer/cdebconf.
, ,
.
/var/log/installer
installation-report.

nano
/var/lib/cdebconf .
templates.dat , questions.dat
, .
,
debconf-set-selections -c preseed.cfg .

B.4. ( wheezy)
, ,
http://www.debian.org/releases/wheezy/example-preseed.txt.
, Intel x86.
, (,
)
debconf .
, Debian Installer, . 6.3.

B.4.1.
initrd.
, .
;
, debian-installer, .
,
, .
, locale=ru_RU .
,
, 2.
.
.
# , .
2. locale en_NL, ,
en_US.UTF-8. , , en_GB.UTF-8,
.

110

B.
d-i debian-installer/locale string en_US
# .
#d-i debian-installer/language string en
#d-i debian-installer/country string NL
#d-i debian-installer/locale string en_GB.UTF-8
# , .
#d-i localechooser/supported-locales multiselect en_US.UTF-8, nl_NL.UTF-8

( )
US.
.
;
dpkg-reconfigure keyboard-configuration.
# .
# keymap -- keyboard-configuration/xkb-keymap
d-i keymap select ru
# d-i keyboard-configuration/toggle select No toggling

keymap skip-config.
.

B.4.2.
, ,
. , CD
USB . ,
.

, interface=eth1.

( preseed/url), , ,
.
,
preseed/run :
kill-all-dhcp; netcfg

debconf .
# . cdrom
# , , ,
# .
#d-i netcfg/enable boolean false
# netcfg , .
# ,

111

B.
# .
d-i netcfg/choose_interface select auto
# :
#d-i netcfg/choose_interface select eth1
# (link) ( 3 ).
# .
#d-i netcfg/link_detection_timeout string 10
# dhcp
# , .
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_timeout string 60
#d-i netcfg/dhcpv6_timeout string 60
# ,
# .
#d-i netcfg/disable_autoconfig boolean true
# ,
# dhcp, .
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_failed note
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_options select Configure network manually
# .
#
# IPv4
#d-i netcfg/get_nameservers string 192.168.1.1
#d-i netcfg/get_ipaddress string 192.168.1.42
#d-i netcfg/get_netmask string 255.255.255.0
#d-i netcfg/get_gateway string 192.168.1.1
#d-i netcfg/confirm_static boolean true
# IPv6
#d-i netcfg/get_ipaddress string fc00::2
#d-i netcfg/get_netmask string ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff::
#d-i netcfg/get_gateway string fc00::1
#d-i netcfg/get_nameservers string fc00::1
#d-i netcfg/confirm_static boolean true
# , dhcp,
# , . ,
# , dhcp.
d-i netcfg/get_hostname string unassigned-hostname
d-i netcfg/get_domain string unassigned-domain
# , ,
# DHCP IP
# DNS,
# .
#d-i netcfg/hostname string somehost
# WEP.
d-i netcfg/wireless_wep string
# dhcp-,
# .
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_hostname string radish

112

B.

#
# ,
# . false,
# .
#d-i hw-detect/load_firmware boolean true

, netcfg ,
netcfg/get_netmask. , seen
. netcfg ,
netcfg/get_gateway. :
netcfg/get_gateway none, ,
.

B.4.3.
# ,
# network-console SSH. ,
# .
#d-i anna/choose_modules string network-console
#d-i network-console/authorized_keys_url string http://10.0.0.1/openssh-key
#d-i network-console/password password r00tme
#d-i network-console/password-again password r00tme

B.4.4. -

,
/etc/apt/sources.list -.
mirror/suite
.
mirror/udeb/suite
.
,
initrd, .
,
.
# ftp, mirror/country string .
#d-i mirror/protocol string ftp
d-i mirror/country string manual
d-i mirror/http/hostname string http.us.debian.org
d-i mirror/http/directory string /debian
d-i mirror/http/proxy string
# .
#d-i mirror/suite string testing
# ().
#d-i mirror/udeb/suite string testing

113

B.

B.4.5.

.
MD5.

, ,
. ,
MD5 , MD5
.

# (
# sudo).
#d-i passwd/root-login boolean false
# .
#d-i passwd/make-user boolean false
# ,
#d-i passwd/root-password password r00tme
#d-i passwd/root-password-again password r00tme
# MD5 .
#d-i passwd/root-password-crypted password [MD5 ]
# .
#d-i passwd/user-fullname string Debian User
#d-i passwd/username string debian
# ,
#d-i passwd/user-password password insecure
#d-i passwd/user-password-again password insecure
# MD5 .
#d-i passwd/user-password-crypted password [MD5 ]
# UID
# .
#d-i passwd/user-uid string 1010
# .
# -- .
#d-i passwd/user-default-groups string audio cdrom video

passwd/root-password-crypted
!. ,
.
, ,

(, SSH
sudo).
passwd/user-password-crypted

MD5 :
$ printf "r00tme" | mkpasswd -s -m md5

114

B.

B.4.6.
# , .
d-i clock-setup/utc boolean true
# $TZ;
# /usr/share/zoneinfo/.
d-i time/zone string US/Eastern
# , NTP
d-i clock-setup/ntp boolean true
# NTP. .
#d-i clock-setup/ntp-server string ntp.example.com

B.4.7.

; partman-auto.
.
,
.
RAID, LVM
,
.

.

partman-auto-recipe.txt

partman-auto-raid-recipe.txt debian-installer.
debian-installer (http://anonscm.debian.org/gitweb/?p=d-i/debianinstaller.git;a=tree;f=doc/devel). ,
.

.
, ,
.

B.4.7.1.
# ,
# .
# , partman-auto/method ().
#d-i partman-auto/init_automatically_partition select biggest_free
#
#
#
#
#

, .
,
,
-devfs ( ,
/dev/hda /dev/sda, /dev/discs/disc0/disc).

115

B.
# , SCSI/SATA:
#d-i partman-auto/disk string /dev/sda
# , .
# :
# - regular:
# - lvm: LVM
# - crypto: LVM
d-i partman-auto/method string lvm
# ,
# , LVM,
# . ...
d-i partman-lvm/device_remove_lvm boolean true
# RAID :
d-i partman-md/device_remove_md boolean true
# lvm .
d-i partman-lvm/confirm boolean true
d-i partman-lvm/confirm_nooverwrite boolean true
# :
# - atomic:
# - home:
/home
# - multi: /home, /usr, /var /tmp
d-i partman-auto/choose_recipe select atomic
# ...
# - d-i,
# .
#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe_file string /hd-media/recipe
# ,
# () . /boot
# , ,
# :
#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe string
#
boot-root ::
#
40 50 100 ext3
#
$primary{ } $bootable{ }
#
method{ format } format{ }
#
use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext3 }
#
mountpoint{ /boot }
#
.
#
500 10000 1000000000 ext3
#
method{ format } format{ }
#
use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext3 }
#
mountpoint{ / }
#
.
#
64 512 300% linux-swap
#
method{ swap } format{ }
#
.
#
#
#
#
#

\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\

partman-auto-recipe.txt,
debian-installer D-I.
,
,
.

116

B.
# partman
# , , .
d-i partman-partitioning/confirm_write_new_label boolean true
d-i partman/choose_partition select finish
d-i partman/confirm boolean true
d-i partman/confirm_nooverwrite boolean true

B.4.7.2. RAID
RAID.
RAID 0, 1, 5, 6 10, (degraded
arrays) .
RAID 1, grub
, . . B.4.11.

.
debian-installer.
( , )
. -- . /var/log/syslog.

# "raid".
#d-i partman-auto/method string raid
# . ,
# , .
#d-i partman-auto/disk string /dev/sda /dev/sdb
# .
#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe string \
#
multiraid ::
\
#
1000 5000 4000 raid
\
#
$primary{ } method{ raid }
\
#
.
\
#
64 512 300% raid
\
#
method{ raid }
\
#
.
\
#
500 10000 1000000000 raid
\
#
method{ raid }
\
#
.
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

,
RAID.
. RAID 0, 1, 5, 6 10;
"#".
:
<raidtype> <devcount> <sparecount> <fstype> <mountpoint> \
<devices> <sparedevices>

#d-i partman-auto-raid/recipe string \


#
1 2 0 ext3 /
\
#
/dev/sda1#/dev/sdb1
\

117

B.
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

.
1 2 0 swap /dev/sda5#/dev/sdb5
.
0 2 0 ext3 /home
/dev/sda6#/dev/sdb6
.

\
\
\
\
\
\

# partman-auto-raid-recipe.txt,
# debian-installer D-I.
# partman , .
d-i partman-md/confirm boolean true
d-i partman-partitioning/confirm_write_new_label boolean true
d-i partman/choose_partition select finish
d-i partman/confirm boolean true
d-i partman/confirm_nooverwrite boolean true

B.4.7.3.
,
(UUID);
, . UUID-
, , ,
,
.
, UUID.
, LVM,
, UUID-.

- ,
, .
, ,
USB-, ,
.

# , UUID,
# "traditional",
# "label", ,
# UUID-.
#d-i partman/mount_style select uuid

B.4.8.
, , .
.

118

B.
# APT .
#
# ,
# .
#d-i base-installer/install-recommends boolean false
# () ; none,
# .
#d-i base-installer/kernel/image string linux-image-486

B.4.9. Apt
/etc/apt/sources.list

. () .
# You can choose to install non-free and contrib software.
#d-i apt-setup/non-free boolean true
#d-i apt-setup/contrib boolean true
# Uncomment this if you dont want to use a network mirror.
#d-i apt-setup/use_mirror boolean false
# Select which update services to use; define the mirrors to be used.
# Values shown below are the normal defaults.
#d-i apt-setup/services-select multiselect security, updates
#d-i apt-setup/security_host string security.debian.org
# Additional repositories, local[0-9] available
#d-i apt-setup/local0/repository string \
#
http://local.server/debian stable main
#d-i apt-setup/local0/comment string local server
# Enable deb-src lines
#d-i apt-setup/local0/source boolean true
# URL to the public key of the local repository; you must provide a key or
# apt will complain about the unauthenticated repository and so the
# sources.list line will be left commented out
#d-i apt-setup/local0/key string http://local.server/key
# By default the installer requires that repositories be authenticated
# using a known gpg key. This setting can be used to disable that
# authentication. Warning: Insecure, not recommended.
#d-i debian-installer/allow_unauthenticated boolean true

B.4.10.
.
:
standard ( )
desktop
gnome-desktop ( gnome)
kde-desktop ( kde)

119

B.
web-server (-)
print-server ( )
dns-server (DNS-)
file-server ( )
mail-server ( )
sql-database ( SQL)
laptop ( )

-
. standard.
,
, pkgsel/include.

, .
#tasksel tasksel/first multiselect standard, web-server
# ,
# kde xfce gnome .
#tasksel tasksel/desktop multiselect kde, xfce
#
#d-i pkgsel/include string openssh-server build-essential
# debootstrap.
# : none, safe-upgrade, full-upgrade
#d-i pkgsel/upgrade select none
#
# .
# ,
# CD.
#popularity-contest popularity-contest/participate boolean false

B.4.11.
# Grub ( x86).
# lilo, :
#d-i grub-installer/skip boolean true
# lilo
# , :
#d-i lilo-installer/skip boolean true

# ; , grub
# MBR,
# .
d-i grub-installer/only_debian boolean true
# grub-installer MBR,
# , ,
# .
d-i grub-installer/with_other_os boolean true

120

B.

# , mbr,
# :
#d-i grub-installer/only_debian boolean false
#d-i grub-installer/with_other_os boolean false
#d-i grub-installer/bootdev string (hd0,0)
# grub :
#d-i grub-installer/bootdev string (hd0,0) (hd1,0) (hd2,0)
# :
#d-i grub-installer/bootdev string /dev/sda
# grub
#d-i grub-installer/password password r00tme
#d-i grub-installer/password-again password r00tme
# MD5, . grub-md5-crypt(8).
#d-i grub-installer/password-crypted password [MD5 ]
# ,
# (
# ).
# : , ,
# .
#d-i debian-installer/add-kernel-opts string nousb

MD5 grub grub-md5-crypt


. B.4.5.

B.4.12.
#
# (VT1-VT6) /etc/inittab.
# , .
#d-i finish-install/keep-consoles boolean true
# , .
d-i finish-install/reboot_in_progress note
# CD , .
#d-i cdrom-detect/eject boolean false
# ,
# .
#d-i debian-installer/exit/halt boolean true
# , .
#d-i debian-installer/exit/poweroff boolean true

B.4.13.
#
#
#
#

, -
,
. , .
, ,

121

B.
# , :
#
debconf-get-selections --installer
>
#
debconf-get-selections
>
>

B.5.
B.5.1.



.
#
#
#
#
#
#

d-i .

.
! ,
,
.

# ,
# .
#d-i preseed/early_command string anna-install --udeb
# .
#
# , (
# preseed/early_command).
#d-i partman/early_command \
#
string debconf-set partman-auto/disk "$(list-devices disk | head -n1)"
# ,
# /target. chroot /target
# ,
# apt-install in-target
# .
#d-i preseed/late_command string apt-install zsh; in-target chsh -s /bin/zsh

B.5.2.

,
.
seen false .
d-i foo/bar string value
d-i foo/bar seen false

122

B.

,
preseed/interactive=true .
.
, d-i ,
. ,
, . .
. B.2.2.

,
?=,
foo/bar ?=value ( owner :foo/bar ?=value). ,
, ,
.
,
DEBCONF_DEBUG=5. T debconf

.

B.5.3.

.
, , ,
. , ,
, .
# , ;
# . , ,
# preseed/include. ,
# ,
# , .
#d-i preseed/include string x.cfg
#
# .
# md5sums; md5sums ,
# .
#d-i preseed/include/checksum string 5da499872becccfeda2c4872f9171c3d
#
# , .
#d-i preseed/include_command \
#
string if [ "hostname" = bob ]; then echo bob.cfg; fi
# -- .
# , , debconf-set
# debconf.
# ,
# , ,
# , .
#d-i preseed/run string foo.sh

123

B.
initrd ,
, preseed/url .
, .
,
, , , preseed/early
: , .

124

C. Debian
C.1. Debian
, GNU/Linux .
, , .
, ,
. (swap) ,

. Linux ,
. Linux
, .
GNU/Linux .
,
. . -
, . , (
, ) . ,
.
. ,
GNU/Linux .
.
, ,
. , , ,
. /var/mail
,
.

, , .
,
- .
, , ,
- . ,
?

C.2.
Debian GNU/Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
(http://www.pathname.com/fhs/) .

. /.
, Debian :

bin

boot

125

C. Debian

dev

etc

home

lib

media

mnt

proc


( 2.4 2.6)

root

run

Run-time variable data

sbin

sys


( 2.6)

tmp

usr

var

srv

opt

.
, -,
.
.

/ /etc, /bin,
/sbin, /lib /dev, . ,
150250 .

/usr : (/usr/bin) ,
(/usr/lib), (/usr/share/doc) .
. 500
. ,
.
46 .

/var : ,
, -, , ..
,
.
, Debian, , 2 3
/var .
( , ,

126

C. Debian
, X, ...), 300500 .
,
30 40 .

/tmp : .
40100 .
, CD/DVD
/tmp .
, /tmp
.

/home : ,
.
.
100 ,
.
, (, MP3,
) .

C.3.
, Debian ,
/ ( ) ,
. , 6 , ext3.
ext2 ,
.

/usr, /var, /tmp /home , /.
/usr/local,
, Debian.
,
/var/mail. , /tmp 2050 .
, , ,
/home . ,
, .

Multi Disk HOWTO
(http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Multi-Disk-HOWTO.html).
, ,
.
.
,
. , 16 .
, .
10000 256 ,
( ) .
32- (m68k PowerPC)
2 . .
, , ,
,

127

C. Debian
( ) , , SCSI IDE.
,
.
: 32 1.7
IDE /dev/hda. 500
/dev/hda1, 32 /dev/hda3 1.2 Linux
/dev/hda2.
, ,
; . D.2.

C.4. Linux
Linux
.
Linux. :

/dev/fd0.

/dev/fd1.

SCSI ( SCSI ID) /dev/sda.

SCSI ( SCSI ID) /dev/sdb .

SCSI CD-ROM /dev/scd0, /dev/sr0.

IDE /dev/hda.

IDE /dev/hdb.

/dev/hdc
/dev/hdd . IDE
, .

: sda1
sda2 SCSI .
. , 2- SCSI ,
SCSI 2, SCSI 4. ( 2) sda,
sdb. sda 3 , sda1, sda2 sda3.
sdb .
, SCSI ( , ),
.
; , / .
Linux 1 4.
, IDE /dev/hda1.
5,
/dev/hda5. , ,
, .
SCSI IDE.

128

C. Debian

C.5. Debian

Debian
. , .
partman
Debian.
, ( format Windows) .
fdisk
Linux, .
, FreeBSD.
,
fdisk . Linux+FreeBSD HOWTO
(http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Linux+FreeBSD-2.html)
cfdisk
,
.
, cfdisk FreeBSD, ,
.
,
( ).
VT2, .
.

C.5.1. 32-bit PC
, , DOS Windows,
, ,
Debian.
FAT NTFS;
.
PC BIOS .
,
. , BIOS 199498 , , BIOS
. Linux
HOWTO (http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Partition/),
, .
PC.
, . ,
.
, .
60 ; ,
.

129

C. Debian
Linux 255 SCSI (3 ,
252 ), 63 IDE (3 , 60
). , Debian GNU/Linux
20 ,
20, .
IDE LBA ,
( ),
(, ) 1024
(, 524 BIOS ).
BIOS 199598 ( ),
Enhanced Disk Drive Support Specification. Lilo, Linux ,
Debian mbr, BIOS
. BIOS int 0x13
, . ,
, ,
1023- . Linux, BIOS ,
, Linux BIOS
.
,
, BIOS; LBA (
) CHS (Large).
HOWTO
(http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Large-Disk-HOWTO.html).
, BIOS
,
1024- .
(2550
) , ,
.
/boot, Linux.
,
LBA CHS, BIOS
.

130

D.
D.1. Linux
Linux /dev .
. Unix ,
.
, ( Linux),
. ,
. .

fd0

fd1

hda

IDE / CD-ROM
IDE ()

hdb

IDE / CD-ROM
IDE ()

hdc

IDE / CD-ROM
IDE ()

hdd

IDE / CD-ROM
IDE ()

hda1


IDE

hdd15


IDE

sda

SCSI SCSI ID
(.. 0)

sdb

SCSI
SCSI ID (.. 1)

sdc

SCSI
SCSI ID (.. 2)

sda1


SCSI

sdd10


SCSI

sr0

SCSI CD-ROM SCSI ID

sr1

SCSI CD-ROM
SCSI ID

ttyS0

0, COM1
MS-DOS

131

D.

ttyS1

1, COM2
MS-DOS

psaux

PS/2

gpmdata

-,
GPM ()

cdrom

CD-ROM

mouse

null

, ,

zero

D.1.1.
Linux ( gpm)
X window. , gpm X-.
/dev/input/mice .
gpm exps2, X ExplorerPS/2.
/etc/gpm.conf
/etc/X11/xorg.conf.
, .
,
, ,
1,
. Linux,
:

psmouse

PS/2 (
)

usbhid

USB (
)

sermouse

logibm

,
Logitech

1. , , 9 ;
8- , 6-
PS/2 4- ADB.

132

D.

inport

, ATI
Microsoft InPort

, modconf (
) kernel/drivers/input/mouse.

D.2. ,

amd64 2.6,
604 .
432 .
: ,
. ,
, , . ,
.

,
tasksel. aptitude. ,
,
, ,
.
GNOME,
,
CD ,
(. . 6.3.5.2).
,
.
/usr /lib,
() /var.


()


()


()

4326

804

3236

KDE

2349

826

3175

Xfce

1781

566

2347

LXDE

1521

495

2016

315

98

413

22

27


GNOME (
)

133

D.


()


()


()

238

75

313

DNS-

128

27

155

84

33

117

SQL

39

48

SSH-

:
a.
. ,
.
, tasksel
, .
; 350
.

D.3. Debian GNU/Linux


Unix/Linux
, Debian GNU/Linux
Unix Linux ,
ncurses, .
HOWTO , Debian
GNU/Linux Redhat, Mandriva SUSE.
*nix .
$ , , #
, Debian chroot.
Debian, ,
( ) .
Debian GNU/Linux (zero downtime). ,
.
: , , , ,
,
Debian Linux , .
, ,
. ,
. / .

134

D.

D.3.1.
*nix ,
, (swap).
432 1521 ,
X ( ,
GNOME KDE).
. ,
ext3 /dev/hda6 ( ):
# mke2fs -j /dev/hda6

ext2, -j.
( ):

# mkswap /dev/hda5
# sync
# swapon /dev/hda5

/mnt/debinst ( ,
(/) ).
.
# mkdir /mnt/debinst
# mount /dev/hda6 /mnt/debinst

: (, /usr)
, ,
.

D.3.2. debootstrap
, Debian
Debian debootstrap.
wget ar, /bin/sh
Unix/Linux2. wget ar, ,
debootstrap.
.
.deb:
# mkdir work
# cd work

debootstrap Debian (,
, ). debootstrap .deb
2.

GNU sed, grep, tar gzip.

135

D.
(http://ftp.debian.org/debian/pool/main/d/debootstrap/),
.
(root).
# ar -x debootstrap_0.X.X_all.deb
# cd /
# zcat /full-path-to-work/work/data.tar.gz | tar xv

D.3.3. debootstrap
debootstrap .
http.us.debian.org/debian -
Debian, .
http://www.debian.org/mirror/list.
- wheezy Debian GNU/Linux, /cdrom,
URL file http URL: file:/cdrom/debian/
ARCH : amd64, armel, armhf,
i386, ia64, mips, mipsel, powerpc, s390, s390x sparc.
# /usr/sbin/debootstrap --arch ARCH wheezy \
/mnt/debinst http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian

D.3.4.
Now youve got a real Debian system, though rather lean, on disk. chroot into it:
# LANG=C.UTF-8 chroot /mnt/debinst /bin/bash

After chrooting you may need to set the terminal definition to be compatible with the Debian base
system, for example:
# export TERM=xterm-color

Depending on the value of TERM, you may have to install the ncurses-term package to get support
for it.

D.3.4.1.
/dev/ .
.
; : a) ,
; ) ;
) (, udev)
.

136

D.
:

makedev
( chroot)
#
#
#
#

apt-get install makedev


mount none /proc -t proc
cd /dev
MAKEDEV generic

MAKEDEV

/dev /dev
; , postinst
,

D.3.4.2.
/etc/fstab.
# editor /etc/fstab

, :
# /etc/fstab: .
#
# . .


/dev/XXX
/
ext3
defaults
0
1
/dev/XXX
/boot
ext3
ro,nosuid,nodev
0
2
/dev/XXX
proc

none
/proc

swap
proc

0
0

0
0

/dev/fd0
/dev/cdrom

/media/floppy auto
noauto,rw,sync,user,exec 0
/media/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro,user,exec
0

0
0

/dev/XXX
/dev/XXX
/dev/XXX
/dev/XXX

/tmp
/var
/usr
/home

2
2
2
2

ext3
ext3
ext3
ext3

sw
defaults

rw,nosuid,nodev
rw,nosuid,nodev
rw,nodev
rw,nosuid,nodev

0
0
0
0

mount -a ,
/etc/fstab, :
# mount /path

# : mount /usr

Debian /media,
/ . ,
. :
# cd /media

137

D.
#
#
#
#

mkdir cdrom0
ln -s cdrom0 cdrom
cd /
ln -s media/cdrom

proc ,
/proc. mount -a, ,
, proc :
# mount -t proc proc /proc

ls /proc , . ,
proc chroot:
# mount -t proc proc /mnt/debinst/proc

D.3.4.3.
Setting the third line of the file /etc/adjtime to UTC or LOCAL determines whether the
system will interpret the hardware clock as being set to UTC respective local time. The following
command allows you to set that.
# editor /etc/adjtime

Here is a sample:
0.0 0 0.0
0
UTC

The following command allows you to choose your timezone.


# dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

D.3.4.4.
, /etc/network/interfaces, /etc/resolv.conf,
/etc/hostname /etc/hosts.
# editor /etc/network/interfaces

/usr/share/doc/ifupdown/examples:

######################################################################

138

D.
# /etc/network/interfaces -- configuration file for ifup(8), ifdown(8)
# See the interfaces(5) manpage for information on what options are
# available.
######################################################################
# We always want the loopback interface.
#
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
# To use dhcp:
#
# auto eth0
# iface eth0 inet dhcp
# An example static IP setup: (broadcast and gateway are optional)
#
# auto eth0
# iface eth0 inet static
#
address 192.168.0.42
#
network 192.168.0.0
#
netmask 255.255.255.0
#
broadcast 192.168.0.255
#
gateway 192.168.0.1

Enter your nameserver(s) and search directives in /etc/resolv.conf:


# editor /etc/resolv.conf

A simple example /etc/resolv.conf:


search hqdom.local
nameserver 10.1.1.36
nameserver 192.168.9.100

DNS-() search /etc/resolv.conf:


# editor /etc/resolv.conf

/etc/resolv.conf:
search hqdom.local
nameserver 10.1.1.36
nameserver 192.168.9.100

( 2 63 ):
# echo DebianHostName > /etc/hostname

/etc/hosts IPv6:
127.0.0.1 localhost
127.0.1.1 DebianHostName

139

D.

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts


::1
ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
ff02::3 ip6-allhosts

,
/etc/modules .

(eth0, eth1 ..) .

D.3.4.5. Apt
Debootstrap /etc/apt/sources.list,
. ,
, :
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian wheezy main
deb http://security.debian.org/ wheezy/updates main
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ wheezy/updates main

aptitude update .

D.3.4.6.
, , .
locales . UTF8 .
# aptitude install locales
# dpkg-reconfigure locales

( ):
# aptitude install console-setup
# dpkg-reconfigure keyboard-configuration

, , chroot,
.

140

D.

D.3.5.
, Linux
. :
# apt-cache search linux-image

, .
# aptitude install linux-image-arch-etc

D.3.6.
Debian GNU/Linux ,
. , debootstrap
, aptitude
Debian chroot, .
info grub man lilo.conf .
, Debian,
Debian grub2 grub.cfg
lilo.conf. lilo.conf
. , lilo
(, lilo.conf, ,
).
grub2 :
# aptitude install grub-pc
# grub-install /dev/hda
# update-grub

grub2 ( MBR hda).


/boot/grub/grub.cfg.
, , /dev/hda .
grub2, .
/etc/lilo.conf :
boot=/dev/hda6
root=/dev/hda6
install=menu
delay=20
lba32
image=/vmlinuz
initrd=/initrd.img
label=Debian

141

D.

D.3.7. : SSH

, .
, SSH
root:
# aptitude install ssh
# passwd

D.3.8.
, .
,
:
# tasksel install standard

, aptitude .

/var/cache/apt/archives/. :
# aptitude clean

D.4. Debian GNU/Linux Parallel Line


IP (PLIP)
Debian GNU/Linux
Ethernet, - -
( - ). -
, - Debian (, ).
, , PLIP
(ppp0).
IP- 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.2 PLIP
(
).
PLIP ,
( . 7).
, BIOS (IO base address IRQ)
. : io=0x378, irq=7.

142

D.

D.4.1.

, , Debian.

; . 2.4.

, , ,
.

- DB-25. PLIPInstall-HOWTO (http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/PLIP-Install-HOWTO.html).

D.4.2.
,
ppp0.
#!/bin/sh
# We remove running modules from kernel to avoid conflicts and to
# reconfigure them manually.
modprobe -r lp parport_pc
modprobe parport_pc io=0x378 irq=7
modprobe plip
# Configure the plip interface (plip0 for me, see dmesg | grep plip)
ifconfig plip0 192.168.0.2 pointopoint 192.168.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.255 up
# Configure gateway
modprobe iptable_nat
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o ppp0 -j MASQUERADE
echo 1
> /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

D.4.3.
.
; expert.
, . ,
io irq
parport_pc, :
expert parport_pc.io=0x378 parport_pc.irq=7

, .
1. CD
plip-modules; PLIP
.

143

D.
2.

,
. , debian-installer
plip, .
, ,
.

/ ,
. plip.

3.

DHCP:

IP-: 192.168.0.1

PPP: 192.168.0.2

DNS-: (
/etc/resolv.conf)

D.5. Debian GNU/Linux


PPP Ethernet (PPPoE)
PPP Ethernet (PPPoE)
(ADSL )
.
PPPoE, .
.
PPPoE , ,
( . 7).
PPPoE
CD-ROM/DVD.
(, netboot).
PPPoE
. .

modules=ppp-udeb3.
, PPPoE (ppp-udeb)
.

( ,
; 4).


Ethernet.

3. , , . . 5.1.7
4. ppp-udeb .
( ),
ppp-udeb, modules .

144

D.

PPPoE.
PPPoE ( PPPoE)
Ethernet.
, .
- .
;
, PPPoE-
.

,
( PPPoE).


PPPoE. , PPPoE

( ).
- , ,

PPPoE-.

D.6.


, 32-bit PC.
, ,
, .
,
.
, ,
newt. , ,
, .
CD
.
.
Advanced options.
installgui, expertgui rescuegui
, Help .
, .
mini ISO-5, , , .

.
:
, : 140MB. ,
newt.
5.

mini ISO - Debian, . 4.2.

netboot/gtk/mini.iso.

145

D.
80MB,
,
.
.

D.6.1.

,
,
.
, ,
. (,
), + -.
(, ), -,
Continue ; enter ,
Continue.
, .
F1.
, y Ctrl,
X Window System. , VT2 (
), : Ctrl- Alt-F2.
VT5,
Alt-F5 .

146

E.
E.1.
debian-installer Sarge,
c boot-floppies
Woody,
Debian, Progeny,
GPL 2003 .
DocBook XML.

docbook-xml docbook-xsl.
,
XML, (entities)
(profiling attributes). ,
. XML-
, -
.

E.2.
,
installation-guide.
reportbug
Debian (http://bugs.debian.org/).
(http://bugs.debian.org/installation-guide),
- . ,
<XXXX @bugs.debian.org>,
XXXX .
DocBook XML
. SVN-
(http://anonscm.debian.org/viewvc/d-i/). DocBook,
: ,
. DocBook HTML,
, . debian-boot (
) . , SVN,
README (http://anonscm.debian.org/viewvc/d-i/README?view=co),
.

debian-installer,
<debian-boot@lists.debian.org>.
Debian (http://www.debian.org/MailingLists/subscribe) ,
. (http://lists.debian.org/) .

147

E.

E.3. ,

, (Bruce Perens),
(Sven Rudolph), (Igor Grobman), (James
Treacy) (Adam Di Carlo). (Sebastian) "
".
(Miroslav Kure) debian-installer
Sarge. (Frans Pop)
Etch, Lenny Squeeze.
Debian .
(Michael Schmitz) ( m68k),
(Frank Neumann) ( Amiga
(http://www.informatik.uni-oldenburg.de/~amigo/debian_inst.html)), (Arto Astala),
(Eric Delaunay), (Ben Collins) (
SPARC), (Tapio Lehtonen) (Stphane Bortzmeyer)
. (Pascal Le Bail)
USB- .
HOWTO
(Jim Mintha) (URL ), Debian FAQ
(http://www.debian.org/doc/FAQ/), Linux/m68k FAQ (http://www.linux-m68k.org/faq/faq.html),
FAQ Linux SPARC (http://www.ultralinux.org/faq.html), Linux/Alpha FAQ
(http://linux.iol.unh.edu/linux/alpha/faq/) .
.
chroot (. D.3) ,
. (Karsten M. Self).
plip (. D.4)
PLIP-Install-HOWTO (http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/PLIP-Install-HOWTO.html),
(Gilles Lamiral).

E.4.
.

148

F. GNU General Public License


Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

F.1. Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By
contrast, the gnu General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change
free software to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies
to most of the Free Software Foundations software and to any other program whose authors commit
to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the gnu Library General
Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses
are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge
for this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can
change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these
things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to
ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the
recipients all the rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source
code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2) offer you this license which
gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each authors protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone understands that
there is no warranty for this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on,
we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced
by others will not reflect on the original authors reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to avoid the danger
that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for
everyones free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.

F.2. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE


TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION

149

F. GNU General Public License


0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright
holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below, refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program
or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter,
translation is included without limitation in the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as
"you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are
outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been
made by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Programs source code as you receive it, in
any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and
to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer
warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work
based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section
1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a. You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files
and the date of any change.
b. You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is
derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
parties under the terms of this License.
c. If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it,
when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty
(or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the
Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement, your work based
on the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are
not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them
as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions
for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote
it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely
by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective
works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a
work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other
work under the scope of this License.

150

F. GNU General Public License


3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code
or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the
following:
a. Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software
interchange; or,
b. Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a
charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete machinereadable copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1
and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
c. Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source
code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received
the program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b
above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For
an executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus
any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of
the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need not include anything
that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler,
kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself
accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place,
then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of
the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object
code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided
under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have
received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long
as such parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else
grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions
are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the
Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so,
and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or works based on
it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject
to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients exercise
of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this
License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason
(not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions
of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program
at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by

151

F. GNU General Public License


all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy
both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the
balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims
or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of
the free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many people
have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in
reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is
willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of
this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by
copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may
add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is
permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the
limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public
License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Each version is given a distinguishing version
number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later
version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any
later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by
the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions
for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of
our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO
WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE
LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS
AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE
PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME
THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL AND COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING
BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR
LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO

152

F. GNU General Public License


OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY
HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

F.3. How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs


If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the
best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under
these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each
source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
"copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
one line to give the programs name and a brief idea of what it does.
Copyright (C) year name of author

This program is
modify it under
as published by
of the License,

free software; you can redistribute it and/or


the terms of the GNU General Public License
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,


but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive
mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
Gnomovision comes with absolutely no warranty; for details
type show w. This is free software, and you are welcome
to redistribute it under certain conditions; type show c
for details.

The hypothetical commands show w and show c should show the appropriate parts of the General
Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be called something other than show w and
show c; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a
"copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the
program Gnomovision (which makes passes at compilers) written
by James Hacker.

153

F. GNU General Public License

signature of Ty Coon, 1 April 1989

Ty Coon, President of Vice

This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs.
If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary
applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public
License instead of this License.

154