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II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -¨¡-E¢√®Ωç 3 -W-Ø˛ 2006

Pranai: Are you going to meet Sekhar today?


Ééπ\úÕ È®çúø’ clauses:
(†’´¤y Ñ ®ÓV ¨Ïê-®˝†’ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¶-ûª’-Ø√o¢√?) 1) If he comes here= Åûª-E-éπ\-úÕéÀ´ÊÆh (If clause)
Vinai: If he is in town, I will meet him.
2) They will discuss the matter with him =
(Åûªúø’ Ü∞x Öçõ‰, ؈’ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ö«†’) Ç N≠æߪ’ç ¢√∞¡x-ûª-úÕûÓ îªJa-≤ƒh®Ω’. (Main clause)
Pranai: He is in town, ofcourse. He has been
b) If he walks fast, he will reach on time.
here since yesterday.
(Åûªúø’ Ü∞xØË ÖØ√oúø’. E†oöÀ †’ç* Ééπ\úË ÖØ√oúø’) (Åûªúø’ ûªy®Ωí¬ †úÕÊÆh, Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ îË®Ω’-èπ◊ç-ö«úø’)
Vinai: If I had known it, I would have met him
Éçü¿’™E È®çúø’ clauses.
1) If he walks fast Åûªúø’ ûªy®Ωí¬ †úÕÊÆh –
yesterday itself.
('If' clause)
(ÅC Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-Ææ’çõ‰ E†oØË éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-ØË-¢√-úÕE)
2) He will reach on time = 6) If only today were a holiday, I would take you Verb Combination: If clause - were/ past
Pranai: If you want to go, I will tell him you want
Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ îË®Ω’-èπ◊ç-ö«úø’ – (main clause) to him. doing word.
to see him.
°j È®çúø’ sentences ™†÷, main clause 7) If I could, I would. (îËߪ’-í∫-L-TûË, îË≤ƒh†’ = Main clause, would/ should/ could/ might.
(†’´¤y ¢Á∞«x-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰, Åûª-úÕûÓ †’´¤y éπ©’-Ææ’-
verbs: will discuss, will reach - Åçõ‰ ÉN îËߪ’-™‰†’, îËߪ’†’) a) If I were the CM, I would make you the
éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o-´E îÁ•’û√.)
future tense. 'If clause verbs - comes, walks 8) If you take me to him, I shall be grateful. Finance Minister.
Vinai: If you do that, I will be happy.
- present tense. (†’´y-ûªúÕ ü¿í∫_®Ωèπ◊ ††’o BÆæ’-èπ◊-¢Á-RûË, ؈’ éπ%ûª-Vc-úÕE) (؈’ É°æ¤púø’ CM Å®·ûË, (鬆’) E†’o Finance
(†’´yC îËÊÆh ؈’ ÆæçûÓ-≠œ-≤ƒh†’) É™«çöÀ verb combination Ö†o sentence îÁÊ°p Minister îË≤ƒh†’. (îËÊÆ Å´-鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’)
9) If my boss grants me leave, I will take you.
Pranai: I'll ofcourse. But if I were you, I would-
n't try to meet him.
N≠æߪ’ç ïJÍí Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC. (probable) (´÷ boss Ø√èπ◊ leave ÉÊÆh, E†’o BÆæ’èπ◊-¢Á-∞¡-û√) b) If he were here, I would consult him.
Sentence No.1 ™ Åûªúø’ ´îËa Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçD, Ééπ\úø Sentences No 1, 3, 8 and 9 É´Fo èπÿú≈ ¢√úÕ-éπ\úø É°æ¤púø’ ™‰úø’, Öçõ‰ consult îË≤ƒh†’.
(ØËØ√-°æE îË≤ƒh†’. é¬F F ≤ƒn†ç™ ؈’çõ‰
-Å-ûªúÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-ö«-EéÀ v°æߪ’-Aoç-’.) ¢√∞¡x-ûª-úÕûÓ îªJaçîË Å´-é¬-¨¡´‚ ÖçC. ´’†ç Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ îª÷Æœ† 'probable present' (îËÊÆ Å´-鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’)
Sentence No. 2 ™ Åûªúø’ ûªy®Ωí¬ †úø-´-†÷- situations- Åçõ‰ Ç sentences ûÁLÊ° N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ Look at sentence No 5:
Vinai: Why wouldn't you? (áçü¿’èπ◊?)
´îª÷a, Ææé¬-™«-EéÀ îË®Ω’-éÓ-- ïJÍí Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC. If I had his power, I would help every one
Pranai: You are very hopeful of his help, but †÷-´îª’a. Sentence No 2 ™ situation, Imaginary past
I am afraid he is not the helping type. (ÅûªúÕ ¨¡éÀh Ø√èπ◊ -Öçõ‰ – É°æ¤púø’ – Ø√èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’; Öçõ‰,
É™« ïJ-ÍíC Ææ綵º´ç - DEo èπÿú≈ ´’†ç Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ îª÷¨»ç. ÉC Åçü¿-Jéà ≤ƒßª’ç îË≤ƒh. If clause verb - had - past
(ÅûªúÕ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç éÓÆæç †’´¤y î√™« Ǩ¡ûÓ (probable) 鬕öÀd °j Å®·-§Ú-®·† N≠æߪ’ç, ´÷®Ωa™‰ç, ÜJÍé ņ’- tense, main clause verb - would help.)
ÖØ√o´¤, é¬F Åûªúø’ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËÊÆ ®Ωéπç é¬ü¿’) È®çúø’ sentences ™E èπ◊çö«ç. É™«çöÀ sentences èπÿú≈ ´’†ç Éçûªèπ◊ eg: If he consulted me, I could advise him
Vinai: If I had his power, I would help every- situation, probable ´·çü¿’ îª÷Æœ ÖØ√oç.
one that came to me. present
(Åûªúø’ †Eo-°æ¤púø’ Ææçv°æ-Cç-îªúøç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË
Åçö«ç. ÉC Now, look at the sentences No 4, 5, 6 and 7 (–ÅC ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’) ؈-ûª-úÕéÀ Ææ©£æ… É´y-í∫-©†’. = Åûª†’
(Ø√éπ-ûªúÕèπ◊†oçûª ¨¡éÀh Öçõ‰ Ø√ ü¿í∫_-®Ω-éÌîËa v°æA- Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ lessons and notice the verbs in the 'if' clauses and
¢√-∞¡xèπÿ ØË-†’ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îË≤ƒh†’.) ™ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. M. SURESAN the main clauses in them.
††’o Ææçv°æ-Cç-îªúø÷, ؈’ Ææ©£æ… É´y†÷ ™‰†’.)
Sentence No 6
If today were a holiday - É-¢√y-∞¡ ÂÆ©´¤ ®Óï-®·ûË
(é¬E É¢√y∞¡ ÂÆ©´¤ é¬ü¿’.) I would take you to

If I could, I would him (ÅûªúÕ ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ BÆæ’-èπ◊-¢Á-∞¡û√.) = É¢√y∞¡ ÂÆ©´‹


é¬ü¿’, ؈’ E†o-ûªúÕ ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ BÆæ’èπ◊ ¢Á∞Ïx Å´-é¬-¨¡´‚
™‰ü¿’.
Sentence No 7
If I could, I would. ؈’ îËߪ’í∫-L-TûË (é¬F îËߪ’-
4) If I were you, I wouldn't try to meet him. (ØË-ØË
É™« îÁÊ°p sentences ™ verb combination. †’´y-®·ûË, Åûª-úÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ØË v°æߪ’ûªoç îËߪ’†’) ™‰†’), I would (îË≤ƒh†’– é¬E îËߪ’-™‰†’ 鬕öÀd îËÊÆ
If clause - Present tense, 5) If I had his power, I would help every one.
Å´-鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’)
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 165 Main clause - will/ shall/ can/ may ÅûªúÕ ¨¡éÀh Ø√èπ◊çõ‰, ؈ç-ü¿-Jéà ≤ƒßª’ç îË≤ƒh†’.
Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ É°æpöÀ °æJ-ÆœnA (present situation)
í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-†o-°æp-öÀéÃ, 'if' clause ™ 'could'
ÉC v°æÆæ’hûªç Ææ綵º´ç Ŵa. 鬕öÀd DEE prob- 6) If only today were a holiday, I would take you ¢√úøéπç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ.
able present Åçö«ç.
Pranai: If I didn't know him so well, I wouldn't to him. (É¢√y∞¡ ÂÆ©´¤ ®Óï-®·ûË, ؈’ E†o-ûªúÕ Å™«Íí main clause ™ would ®√´ôç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ:
Look at the following:
tell you all this. ü¿í∫_®Ωèπ◊ BÆæ’-Èé-∞Ïx-¢√-úÕØË) É°æ¤púø’ ÉC îª÷úøçúÕ:
a) If he had studied well, he would have
(ÅûªúÕ í∫’Jç* Ø√èπ◊ ¶«í¬ ûÁL-ߪ’-éπ-§ÚûË, 7) If I could, I would- îËߪ’-í∫-L-TûË, îË≤ƒh†’. Improbable Present:
passed.
FéÀ-ü¿çû√ îÁ°æp†’)
b) If he had come here, I would have told him of it
°j Ø√©’í∫’ sentences èπÿú≈ v°æÆæ’hûªç ï®Ω-í∫E 'If' clause - verb - were/ Past Doing Word,
Vinai: Thank you. Then I won't go to him. But °æ†’-©†’ ûÁ©’-°æ¤-û√®·. Åçü¿’-éπE Ñ sentences Main clause verb - would/ should/ could/
unfortunately he is the only man who a) Å®Ωnç: ¢√úø’ ¶«í¬ îªCN Öçõ‰, (îªü¿-´-™‰ü¿’), pass
ÅßË’u-¢√úË (pass Å´-™‰ü¿’) ™E situation †’, improbable present (ï®Ω-í∫E might.
can help me. v°æÆæ’hûªç) Åçö«ç. ÉC ûÁ©’í∫’™ Å®Ω’ü¿’. Åçü¿’-
(Å®·ûË Øˆ-ûªúÕ ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ ¢Á∞¡x†’. ü¿’®Ω-ü¿%-≠d-´æ -¨»ûª’h Ñ situation, í∫û√-EC (past) ïJ-TçC. ïJ-T-§Ú- éπE ûªy®Ωí¬ English conversation ™éÀ ®√ü¿’. Now Practise the following aloud in English
®·çC. ÅC Éçéπ ´÷®Ωü¿’, ´’†ç ÜJÍé ņ’- Raghu:
Ø√èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’çîËߪ’-í∫-©-¢√úø’ ûªØÌ-éπ\úË.)
èπ◊çö«ç– Å™« Å®· Öçõ‰, É™« Å®· -Öç-ô’ç-ü¿E. é¬F English ™ î√™« frequent í¬ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. ©éπ~ tù‰ í∫†éπ É°æ¤p-úÕ-éπ\úø Öçõ‰ ´’†ç ÅûªúÕE
Pranai: I know another friend of mine who can Åçü¿’-éπE Spoken English éÀC -î√™« ´·êuç. Ææçv°æ-C≤ƒhç.
help you. If only today were a holiday, I b) Å®Ωnç: Åûª-E-éπ\-úÕéÀ ´*a Öçõ‰, ØËF N≠æߪ’ç
´’Sx í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓçúÕ. Ñ sentences ™ N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ Ram: Å´¤†’. Ñ N≠æߪ’ç Åûª-úÕéÀ ûÁLÊÆh ¢ÁçôØË
would take you to him. Can't you wait ÅûªúÕéÀ îÁÊ°p-¢√-úÕE (Åûªúø’ ®√™‰ü¿’, ؈’ îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’)–
till tomorrow. ÉC èπÿú≈ past. ´’†ç ´÷®Ωa-™‰-EC. É°æ¤púø’ (present ™) ï®Ω-í∫-EN. ´≤ƒh-úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ.
Raghu: Å®·ûË Åûª-úÕéÀ F cellûÓ phone îÁ®·u.
Ñ È®çúø’ situations, ´’†ç Ü£œ«ç--èπ◊ØË í∫ûªç– Sentence 4: If I were you = ؈’ †’´y-®·ûË
(Ø√éÀçéÓ ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’-úø’-Ø√oúø’. Fèπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-í∫- Ram: Ø√èπ◊ cell Öçõ‰, F ü¿í∫_-®Ω-èπ◊- ®√†’éπü∆?
Imaginary past Åçö«ç. (É°æ¤púø’)– ؈’ †’´y-´úøç ï®Ω-í∫-ü¿’-í∫ü∆– ؈’ †’´y-
©-¢√úø’. É¢√y∞¡ ÂÆ©´¤ ®Óï-®·ûË E†’o ؈-ûªúÕ Raghu: F cell à¢Á’içC?
ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ BÆæ’-Èé-∞Ïx-¢√-úÕØË. Í®°æöÀ´®Ωèπ◊ Çí∫-™‰¢√?) Ñ È®çúø’ (probable present, imaginary past) ®·† °æJ-Æœn-A™, I wouldn't try to meet him =
Ram: ÅC §Ú®·çC.
Vinai: If I could, I would, but the matter is situations ûÁLÊ° sentences †’ Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ Åûª-úÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ØË v°æߪ’ûªoç îËߪ’†’.
lessons ™ N¨¡-ü¿çí¬ N´-Jçî√ç éπü∆. Raghu: ÉC ´‚úÓ cell †’´¤y §ÚíÌ-ô’d-éÓ-´ôç.
urgent. If you take me to him today, 1) ÉC present situation Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéà 'If' clause ™
Now look at the following sentences from were ®√´ôç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ.
†’´¤y ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ Öçõ‰, cells §Ú´¤ éπü∆?
I shall be grateful.
the dialogue between Pranai and Vinai: Ram: v°æߪ’-Ao-≤ƒh†’.
(ÇÍí °æJ-ÆœnûË Öçõ‰/- Ç-í∫-í∫-L-TûË Çí∫’-û√†’. é¬F 2) 'I' singular Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéÃ, plural verb were ¢√úøôç
î√™« urgent. †’Oy-®ÓV ††o-ûªúÕ ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ 1) If he is in town, I will meet him. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. (N’í∫û√ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x I was Åçö«ç) Answer
(Probable present)
BÆæ’èπ◊¢ÁRûË, ؈’ Fèπ◊ éπ%ûª-Vc-úÕí¬ Öçö«.) v°æÆæ’hûªç ï®Ω-í∫E °æEE îÁÊ°p-ô°æ¤púø’ á°æ¤púø÷, 'If' Raghu: If Laxman were here, we would consult
Pranai: Ok. Let me see. If my boss grants me 2) If I had known it, I would have met him yes- clause™, were é¬F, past doing word (came, him.
leave, I will take you. terday itself
went, sang, tried ™«çöÀ verbs) ´≤ƒh®·. Ram: If he knew about this, he would imme-
(Å®·ûË îª÷≤ƒh. ´÷ boss Ø√èπ◊ leave ÉÊÆh, (ÅC ûÁL-Ææ’çõ‰, E†oØË éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ØË¢√úÕo– Imaginary eg: a) If I were CM = ØËE-°æ¤púø’ CM Å®·ûË, diately come here.
past)
E†’o BÆæ’-èπ◊-¢Á-∞¡û√.) (ØËE-°æ¤púø’ CM ÅßË’u Å´-é¬-¨¡¢Ë’ ™‰ü¿’) Raghu: Call him over your cell then.
éÌçûª-鬩ç éÀçü¿ô ´’†ç Conditional Clauses 3) If you want to go, I will tell him you want to
b) If she were here. (Ç¢Á’ É°æ¤p-úÕ-éπ\úø ™‰ü¿’/ ÖçúË O-™‰xü¿’) Ram: If I had my cell, I wouldn't come to you.
see him.
Raghu: What's happened to your cell?
îªJaçî√ç, í∫’®Ω’hçC éπü∆. àüÁjØ√ ≠æ®Ω-ûª’†’ ûÁLÊ°
clause conditional clause éπü∆. ´’†ç (†’´¤y ¢Á∞«x-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰, Ç N≠æߪ’ç Åûª-úÕûÓ îÁ§ƒh– c) If I bought a car = (ØËE-°æ¤púø’ car éÌçõ‰– éÌØË
Ram: I have lost it.
Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ È®çúø’ ®Ω鬩 conditional clauses Probable present) °æJ-ÆœnA é¬ü¿’.)
´’Sx í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓçúÕ. É™«çöÀ situations ™– Raghu: This is the third cell you have lost. If
îª÷¨»ç. ¢√öÀ examples. 4) If I were you, I wouldn't try to meet him.
you were careful, you wouldn't lose
a) If he comes here, they will discuss the mat- (؈’ †’´y-®·ûË, Åûª-úÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ v°æߪ’- N≠æߪ’ç v°æÆæ’hûªç (present) Å®·Ø√, If clause
them.
ter with him. Aoç-’) ™, past doing ¢√úøû√ç/ subject, singular
Ram: I will try.
(Åûª-E-éπ\-úÕéÀ ´ÊÆh, ¢√-∞«xN≠æߪ’ç Åûª-úÕûÓ îªJa-≤ƒh®Ω’.) 5) If I had his power, I would help every one. Å®·Ø√ èπÿú≈, were ¢√úøû√ç.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm