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Chapter 8 The Enlightenment & Revolutions Study Guide

o While ALL vocabulary will not be matching on test or directly assessed, it is a part of many of the questions.
A strong knowledge of the terms is needed.
Concepts to Review
o Lesson 1 Scientific Revolution
Two inventions that made direct observation possible
Difference between Ptolemaic system and the Copernican system
Johannes Kepler
Nicolaus Copernicus
Group whose views he opposed
Similarities in Copernicuss, Keplers, and Galileos theories
Isaac Newton
Universal Law of Gravitation (what does it state)
What does it prove?
Women in Science
How did many publish their work in a dominated area?
Margaret Cavendishs Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy
Its purpose, content, etc.
Reception of it
Maria Winkleman
Rene Descartes
Father of
Starting point for his system of study
Discourse on Method (why did he approach it the way he did)
Francis Bacon
Reasoning used in his scientific method
Effect of new technologies and theories for the foundation of the Scientific Revolution
Scientific Method
What is it?
Why was it created?
o Lesson 2 The Enlightenment
John Locke
Tabula Rasa
View of the Universe
His encyclopedia (its purpose, content, etc.)
General Will
Social Contract
ideas incorporated into U.S. Constitution
Mary Wollstonecraft
Why she had these beliefs.
o Lesson 4 American Revolution
Stamp Act
Declaration of Independence
Influenced by
Declare the purpose of the people to do what
Articles of Confederation
Bill of Rights
European admiration of the Constitution, Bill of Rights, and American Revolution
Primary Documents on the Assessment
o Remember you must CITE evidence in your answer, not just guess or state your opinion.

o Things to consider
According to Locke, how does the mind acquire knowledge?
To what does Locke compare the mind?

o Things to consider
According to the passage, why do people form governments?
From whom do people receive their rights?
What gives people the right to abolish their government?

o Things to consider
What is Voltaire's main argument in this passage?
What particular historical periods might he have had in mind when he referred to the "want
of toleration during sixteen barbarous ages"?
Cite two examples of eras studied in previous chapters to support his claim.
o Who were the philosophes, and what impact have their ideas had on our modern-day lives?
o The Scientific Revolution changed the way people looked at the world. With its reliance on human
reasoning and its questioning of traditional ideas, this movement laid the foundation for the European
Enlightenment, which shaped religious, political and social thought. Use the information
presented in this chapter to explain the chapters Enduring Understanding statement: Intellectual
movements can affect all aspects of life, including politics, economics, and society.