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A PATTERN, PLAN, REPRESENTATION, OR

DESCRIPTION DESIGNED TO SHOW THE


STRUCTURE OR WORKING OF AN OBJECT,
SYSTEM, OR CONCEPT

A PHYSICAL
REPRESENTATION OF
SOME THINGS, FOR
EXAMPLE A BOLT OR THE
SOLAR SYSTEM

THE GEOMETRY OF THE
MODEL AND THE OBJECT
IT REPRESENTS ARE
OFTEN SIMILAR IN THE
SENSE THAT ONE IS A
RESCALING OF THE
OTHER
USES MATHEMATICAL
LANGUAGE TO DESCRIBE
THE BEHAVIOR OF A
SYSTEM

MATHEMATICAL MODELS
ARE USED IN THE
SCIENCE, ENGINEERING,
ECONOMICS ETC

DESCRIBES A SYSTEM BY
A SET OF VARIABLES AND
A SET OF EQUATIONS
THAT ESTABLISH
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
THE VARIABLES.
THEORETICAL
CONSTRUCT THAT
REPRESENTS ECONOMIC
PROCESSES BY A SET OF
VARIABLES AND A SET OF
LOGICAL AND
QUANTITATIVE
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN
THEM
COMPUTER GRAPHICS GENERALLY MEANS CREATION, STORAGE AND
MANIPULATION OF MODELS AND IMAGES


USER CONTROLS CONTENT, STRUCTURE, AND APPEARANCE OF OBJECTS AND THEIR
DISPLAYED IMAGES VIA RAPID VISUAL FEEDBACK
BASIC COMPONENTS OF AN INTERACTIVE GRAPHICS SYSTEM
INPUT (E.G., MOUSE, TABLET AND STYLUS, MULTI-TOUCH)
PROCESSING (AND STORAGE)
DISPLAY/OUTPUT (E.G., SCREEN, PAPER-BASED PRINTER, VIDEO RECORDER)

FIRST TRULY INTERACTIVE
GRAPHICS SYSTEM,
SKETCHPAD, WAS PIONEERED
AT MIT BY IVAN SUTHERLAND
FOR HIS 1963 PH.D. THESIS

NOTE USE OF A CRT MONITOR,
LIGHT PEN AND FUNCTION-KEY
PANEL.
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN
PRESENTATION GRAPHICS
COMPUTER ART
ENTERTAINMENT
EDUCATION AND TRAINING
VISUALIZATION
IMAGE PROCESSING
GRAPHICS USER INTERFACES
A MAJOR USE OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS IN DESIGN
PROCESSES, PARTICULARLY FOR ENGINEERING AND
ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEM; BUT ALMOST ALL PRODUCT ARE
NOW COMPUTER DESIGNED.

FOR SOME DESIGN APPLICATIONS, OBJECTS ARE FIRST
DISPLAYED IN A WIREFRAME OUTLINE FORM, WHICH SHOWS
THE OVERALL SHAPE AND INTERNAL FEATURES OF OBJECTS

CAD METHODS ARE NOW USED IN THE DESIGN OF:
BUILDINGS
AUTOMOBILES
AIRCRAFT
WATERCRAFT
SPACECRAFT
TEXTILES ETC
SOFTWARE PACKAGE
FOR CAD APPLICATIONS
TYPICALLY PROVIDE
THE DESIGNER WITH A
MULTI-WINDOW
ENVIRONMENT

ANIMATION ARE OFTEN
USED IN CAD
APPLICATIONS

ANIMATION IN VIRTUAL
REALITY ENVIRONMENT
ARE USED TO
DETERMINE HOW
SYSTEM OPERATORS
ARE AFFECTED BY
CERTAIN MOTION
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS
Presentation graphics used
to product illustrations for
reports or to generate 35-
mm slides or
transparencies for use with
projectors

Presentation graphics is
used to:
Statistical
Mathematical
Scientific
Economic data
Managerial report
Consumer information
bulletins
COMPUTER GRAPHICS
ARE WIDELY USED IN
BOTH FINE ART AND
COMMERCIAL ART
APPLICATIONS
FINE ART
ALLOWS ARTISTS TO
PAINT PICTURES ON
THE SCREEN OF A VIDEO
MONITOR
COMMERCIAL ART
LOGOS
PAGE LAYOUT
(COMBINING TEXT AND
GRAPHICS)
TV ADVERTISING SPOTS
MORPHING
COMPUTER GRAPHICS
ARE NOW COMMONLY
USED IN
MAKING MOTION
PICTURES,
MUSIC VIDEO,
TELEVISION SHOWS,
GAMES
MODELS OF PHYSICAL
SYSTEMS,
PHYSIOLOGICAL
SYSTEMS, POPULATION
TRENDS CAN HELP
TRAINEES TO
UNDERSTAND THE
OPERATION OF THE
SYSTEM
FOR SOME TRAINING
APPLICATIONS, SPECIAL
SYSTEMS ARE DESIGNED
SPECIAL SYSTEMS ARE
THE SIMULATORS FOR
PRACTICE SESSION OR
TRAINING OF SHIP
CAPTAINS, AIRCRAFT
PILOTS, AND AIR TRAFFIC
CONTROL PERSONNEL
PRODUCING GRAPHICAL
REPRESENTATION FOR
SCIENTIFIC, ENGINEERING, AND
MEDICAL DATA SETS AND
PROCESSES IS GENERALLY
REFERRED TO AS SCIENTIFIC
VISUALIZATION
THE TERM BUSINESS
VISUALIZATION IS USED IN
CONNECTION WITH DATA SETS
RELATED TO COMMERCE,
INDUSTRY, AND OTHER
NONSCIENTIFIC AREAS
VISUALIZATION TECHNIQUES
FOR ARCHITECTURE
DISTRIBUTION OF GALAXIES,
MARS RENDERINGS ETC.
VISUALIZATION OF CONFOCAL
MICROSCOPE DATA
MATHEMATICAL DATA
MEDICAL DATA
IMAGE PROCESSING APPLIES
TECHNIQUES TO MODIFY OR
INTERPRET EXISTING
PICTURES, SUCH AS
PHOTOGRAPHS AND TV SCANS.
MEDICINE USES THESE
TECHNIQUES TO MODEL AND
STUDY PHYSIC FUNCTIONS, TO
ARTIFICIAL LIMBS, AND TO PLAN
AND PRACTICE SURGERY
A MAJOR COMPONENT OF A
GRAPHICAL INTERFACE IS A
WINDOW MANAGER THAT
ALLOWS A USER TO DISPLAY
MULTI-WINDOW AREAS
INTERFACES ALSO DISPLAY
MENUS AND ICONS FOR FAST
SELECTION OF PROCESSING
OPTIONS OR PARAMETER
VALUES
AN ICON IS A GRAPHICAL
SYMBOL THAT IS DESIGNED TO
LOOK LIKE THE PROCESSING
OPTION IT REPRESENT