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Fluctuations in Chemical Systems/Ed. L. E. Reidel and W. C. Schieve.Austin; University of Texas Press, 1982.
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143


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L.
.

( L). ,


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( (7.2)).

.
:
,
169

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- .

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1893]
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.)

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[, 1943].)
( , . [, , 1972]),
,
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. [18, 37] ; -

, 4, 7 . .
170

:
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(
. ).
:

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.

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.

:

t -> t,
, .

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?
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[ , 1967]
77-
().
,
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.
50 60
( .
10_6 ).

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,
171

,
[ ,
1911],
-
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(7.6),
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,

. 7.2. 100
, 50 (
) 100 ( ). (
, 1967.)


.
,
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?


?
:
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*). ,
*) ,
,
.
172

t = tit
= 210 ti. ;
t = t = 2f0,
.
,
0 U

, t 210
.
, ,
, ..
,
. ,
-,
,
[ ., 1973] *).
, ,
2 =

J p dp dq > 0,;
2

(7-13)

.
(. (3.29) (3.31'))
:
Q = trp+p = 2 < w | p | ')+<' | | > =
71,71'

= 2 1 () | ) |2 +

2 I < | I ' Is =

'

= 2 ( )2 +
+ 2 ( )2, (7.14)
(. (3.31" )
trp = 2 < | ? > = I

(7-15)

< [ 1 >
(. 3.31")),
.
(7.13) (7.14)

,
. ,
* ) . . 7, 13, 14 , .
173

(7.14) ,
(7.15) ,
(
), .
.
, . 2,
.
,
, (7.14)?
, , . 7.3
( .
[ ., 1973J).
,

(!
,
).
0 1
.
,
,
. 7.3.



(. . 7.2), Q
.

t = t0.
. t = t0
.

, .
, Q (.
(7.14)), t0 210 Q
. t = 2t0
,
t = t0. ,

,
. ,
. Q t = t0
. t = t
:
( ),
Q.
- , 174

t = 0 t = f0 t0 210 (. . 7.2).
?
, , ,
, .
,
t = 0 t = 2f0.
- Q,
?
.
:
. ,
,
.
(
. 10).
,
,
. .


,
(7.13) (7.14). ,
.
,
( (2.13)) '
T T t ~ -jp(?*; =
<76)

(
).
(
(7.13)).
= jplnpdpdq

(7.16')

.
, ,
f
,
. , . 1,

175

, ,
. (
. [, 1973].)
, (7.16),
:
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.
,
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,
.

:
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, ,
.

, , .
[, 1978] ,
.
,
, (7.13).
,

Q = [~ (0)] [~ (0)] dp dq =

(0) [- (0)] dp pq = J" 2 (0) dp dq (7.17) .


( " (2.12) ,
L (. (2.13)). , Q
. Q
:
Q = j* (t) (t) dp dq ^ 0^

(7.18)

> 0.
176

(7.19)

(7.18) , ,
D (
):
d M / d t = D ^ 0.
(7.20)
(2.5) (2.13), (7.20)
= .

(7.21)

, (7.20)
, D 0
, 12 ,
. 12
:
dQ_ d e~iLtp (0) Me~iLtp (0) dp dq
dt dt

= i J e~<Ltp (0) (LM - ML) e~iLtp (0) dp dq =


= j e~iLtp (0) De-p (0 ) dpdq. (7.22)
,
(. . 2):
(0) == = const (7.23)
( ).
pit) = e~iL'p(0) = (0),
(7.24)
, ,

~=

(0) Dp (0) dp dq = 0.

(7.25)

, ('D)
.

(0) (7.25) ,
, .
, (7.25)
0.

(7.26)

(7.20) , D 0 12
. 177
12 .

. ,
,
: (
)
. ,
. (7.25)
, , Z)p(O) (0) = const
D,
.
,
! *).

, (7.13)
(
), (7.18)
, ,
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.

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,

(. . 2 3).
(7.17), ,
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*)
(2.12). , (2.12)
(.14)
(.15) .
178

L.
i(LM ML) = Z) ^ 0
(7.27)

.
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. 3.
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(
!).

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,
( t ta) X
. , t = t0 +
, Z
(. 7.4, ). , t = t0
X, * ) . . 10.
12*

179

, t = ta +
, Z. ,
. , , X.
:

, Y (. 7.4^6),

. 7.4. : )
X t = t 0
Z t = > f0; )
X ; ) ,
X ,
.

, . 7.4, ,
X.
:

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:
,

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X,
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X.

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180

,
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182


:
, (3.17),
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).
, ,
(. . 3)

(3.36). ,
,
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L (.
(3.35) (3.36)) , ,
.

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L - . 3 (. (3.30)
(3.32))
.
L
. , , ,
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), L .
(3.17),

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,
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, ,

,
(
)
.
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.

(. (3.32)), (7.18)
Q = trp+Mp^0,

(8.1)"
183

( 8. 2)
dQ/dt ' 0.

,
.
, ( )
. ,
.

.
,
.
.
(8.1) ,

. . 3 ,
,
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- ,

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,
(7.18) (8.1)
. ,
(7.18) (8.1) ,
. - (7.7) . ,
,
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+. ,
(
). ,
= +,

(8.3)

-1

(
).
(8.3) (8.1)
(. (3.11) (3.34')),
= tr +,
184

(8.4)


| = -'.

(8.5)

, (8.4)
, (7.14)
. ,

,
(8.5).

(8.1).
. (8.4)
, ,
= tr 1 ,
(. ,
, ).
, , //-
(7.7),
. ,
, , Q.
, ,
Q, .
,

(. (8.5)).

, (8.1) (8.4) (
. [, ]).
.
(8.5), *)
(8.6)

- = -.

(8.7)


(. (3.13)). ,
,
, ,
*) ; (8.6) 1 . 4 . .
.
185

. ,
.
(3.36). (8.1)
:
Q ( f ) = tr pt(0)eiL'ife-iL'p(0) > 0,
(8.8)
= - tr pf (0) ciLti (ML - LM) e-iLtp (0) < 0.

(8.9)

(8.5),
,
( (8.9))
= - + (0)^(- + )-* '(0)<0. (8.10)

,
+ :
*(-+)>0.
(8.11)
,
,
(8.6), ,
L. ,

(3.11)
. ,
, .
,
<) = tr * = tr +.
(8.12)
,
.
, ,
.
. . 7 ,
(L t).
.
(),.
L.
,
, L L (.
(3.36) (3.40)). ,

= -1(-)]
186

(8.13).

,
tr + = tr {["L ) A ] \ ~ ' ) =
= tr {-'(-)] *A~l(L)}. (8.14)
,
[A-4-L)] + = A(D, A - 4 L ) = A t ( - L ) .
(8.15)

,
, .
L,
,
.
,
, .
,
.
,
.
.
() ().


(8.15),
*- *)
A4L)=A4-L).
(8.16)
(8.16) *-
, (*
L L,
). (8.15) , *-

*- . ,
(8.12)
( ,
L). , .

, *) ,
+1 1 .
(8.12)
+ ( L ) = -1 (L).
+ ,
,
.
187

.
(8.7).

L,
*- (
!) . L
(8.15) (8.16),
* = 1(_) = _ ( ^ ) )
(8.17)

(')* = .
(8.18)
*-.
! , *-,

L (. .
L L ) ,
(. . ->L ) .
, *-

= () + ().

(8.19)

, ,

. (8.11),
Q,

1>0.

(8.20)

.
,
(
),
,
. ,

| = ( + )

8 21)

( .

.


.
,
(8.21)
: 1S8

, L,
.
.
,

(,
, . .)*).
,
, .

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,
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(8.1),
L -
.
:
() -*
-*'
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,

.
. 10.
' ,

- . XIX .

. ,

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.

: ,
.
*) . (.14), (.15) . .
189


.

. ,
,
, (.
. 10 ).
.
,
,
,
(. . 3).
[, 1978]
, , -
. . 2,

.
, L
, , -
L
. ,
; L
, ,
(. . 2) ,
.
, - L
^ ,
: .
~HL, ] =-i(LT-TL) = i,
(8.22)
1 . ,
,
( . [,
1978],
). -
, L ,
, ,
i i d / d X ) .
,

, (8.22) 190


: , (3.2)
<7, ) q on Ponton 1 hi,
(8.23)
L
(. (2.12)). ,
,

T-+t,

(8.24)

(8.22).
, ,

, . 7.
,
,
. ( ,
, .)
(. 8.1, ). ,

. 8.1. . ( )
/ X 2 (),
.
( ) ,
, , (),
.

1, . . ,
,
. , (; ) =
= (1,4; 2,3)
(0,4; 0,3).

(. .
):
(., ) -> (2, VzpKmod 1), 0 ^ < 72,
(, ) (2 1, V2( + l))(mod 1), 7 =3 3 1.
191

:
t 10 (, ),
t = t0 + ,
V2 X 2, ,
(. . 8.1, , ).

,
,
.
, . 7
:

.

:
< +.
,

. , ,
20, ,
,
20- .
(,
)
.
.

,
.
, .
.
. .
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,
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( -),
.
:
()

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).
,
, 192

' ,
, .
.
.
, , ,

. (8.5),

--,
(8.25)

--1().
(8.26)
, (L):
, L
(8.22).
L :
A(-)=A(-ZV
(8.27)
, *- ,
(8.15). ()
, (8.15)
A-,(L)=A(-L).
(8.28)
L ( L -> L),
.
. ,
,
(

).
,
( ,
), . 10 .
,

.


.
,
[ ., 1973].

193
t.13 ,

[ , 1977].
- ,
(
L),
0 V (. (2.35)).


Q, ,
P+Q = i , = \ Q = Q\ <? = (> = 0.
(8.29)

PH = 0, QH = V .

(8.30)

Q,
L (L z)~l.

= + Q + Q ^ + Q -A- Q.
(8.31)

*
L1

1
z ' PLP + (z) zi

(8.32)

(8.33)

Y(z) = -

() ,
).
- 0
,
(. . pit) t -*
-* ). ,
(
)

TV- 0,

*|?~Y(0)p0,

(8.34)

) ' z-* 0.
,
194.

)
), z*).
, (0)
.
,
, ,
0. V,

, , (2.33)
(L = 0) - ^-:
= + (?.
) ,
,
^(0) = 0

(8.35)

(., , [ , 1977]). (0)


, (8.35) ,
0

. ,
(. . 2)
0
(
), , 47(0)
.
)
,
. ,

Y ( z ) - z = 0.

(8.36)

.
,
(., , [
, 1977]).
(. ).
,

*) z 0
(--)
, ,
(. . 4, 12 . .
- * - 0 -*0),
13*

195

-
.
. ,
,

.

;

, (8.1),
:
,

. , , Q
.
Q
,

. ,

,

*).

,
. 8.2.
,
.

,
.
,
,
, [, 1975].

.
. 8.2.
(
),

. ,
. 1, ,
:
<r2> ~ Dt.
(8.37)
*) . . 9, 10 . .
196

, ,
, ,
(8.37).
, ,
,
~ V/D.

(8,38)

.
,
.
,
(
).
,
, .
,
(8.21),
.

,
, ' (z),

.
[ , 1978]),
, (8.1)

,
(4.30) [, , 1978].
, (8.21)

.

:
.
, ,
.
, ,
,

.

.
. ,

197




.
;

, (8.21)

(8.20).
,
, :

?

, . 3,
,
( ) .
. -

. (
) , .


, .
? ,
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:
(
),
(
).
? ,
(. 2.5
8.3).
, , ,
.
( )
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.
,

. ,
, ,
198

*- ,
(8.20).
:
*- ,
(8.20).
?

. 8.3. : )

; ) .

, . 3.

,
.
, ,
^
.
, .
, .
,
(. (3.35))
Lp = pH.
(8.39)
:
= 2[ + \.

(8.40)

L (,
,
L ).

(. (3.38))
<> = it = tr ( + ) = tr . (8.41)
L .
(8.7)
= \

(8.42)

, (8.20) ,
1??

, (8.41)
<> = 2^.

(8.43)

, Et
.
:

( (8.20)),
.

.
(. (3.16)),
(. (3.17))
#..
, .
-
:
(. (8.2)) .
,
*- ,
.
, 1978;
., 1978].
( ),
.
, ,
. 3,
(

). ,

!*).
: ,
, !
,
, . ,
? ,
,
, :
, ,

.
*) . . 15, 16 . ,

1979 .
.
, ,
, .
(1.10),

.
(
).

(4.20).

, . 1,
.
201

. . 6


.
,
h
, .
.

. ,
.
, ,
,
, .
(. . 3
D). ,
,

. [,
1969] :
, ,
,

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, . . ,
,
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.


?
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[
, 1972J.
, .
,
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, .

,
202

.
,
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:
1955 .
.

1940 1955 .

. ?
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.
Archives
des Sciences, .

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203

,
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(. . 2, 3, 7 8).
,
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204

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(. . 6),

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. 6)*).

-
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[, 1958, . 75]
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206

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*) .

. 10.
208

( )
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.

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209

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. ,
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L (. (8.22), . 10
). <>, <2>

<7> = trp+rp, <2> = tr +712.
(9.1)
,

.
(8.22),
( ~ If tr

~\ =

<= i tr [+ (LT TL) ~] = tr + = const. (9.2)



(9.2) .
dt = <KT>.

(9.3)



, t (. . 10).
:
,

.
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(. . 10 ). ,

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, 210

, , ( )
Tpix, v, t) = tp(x, v, t).
(9.4)

.
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(,

1685 . ,
)
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211

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212

(l +-+ t). ,
(
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t *-* t) , .
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213

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t -* +,
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. 10.
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215


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J In dii ( )
*} 1984 .
. 10 .

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217


t r ( p l n p ) ( ).

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218

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[, 1982].
(. . 207),

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.


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256

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258

(.7)

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269

= 2 .

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1979]).
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L (. (8.22)),

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Advances in Chemical Physics
1984 .) Q (. (8.29)),

:
= PLPp0 + PLQpc,:

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Pp *= p0 ,
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X(P + S)(z)) + ^ ( z ) .
(.)

, : &*{z) =
= (z QLQ)~lQ, 2D(z) = PLQP(z),
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( cm . (8.34)).

*) . . ,



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idtp 0 (t )

t
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264


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265

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U,
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1964]). I
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U*) = \.
(.13)

U, I/*>,
,
.

.
- I /+>
, (
, ) . - |&->
, .
, , ,
, |;+>,
, ,
1>, .

, ,
,
.
,

(, ,
): ,
, ,
,
. 268

, . 10,
. ,
-, .


.

6)

. .1. ) |&+>-. ) |&_>-.



(
).

(3.32) (


).

,

, - .

,
.

. (
)
( ) ,
.
,
, ,
,
.
- ,

. ,
269


.
, ,
|&+> (
, |&->,
).
,
-
(. (8.7)):
'' i(ALA ^hkk'h = 2 (cofe cofe.) | t\h> (&) |2,
(. 14)
t\h
, ^- (
, ).
(. 14) . , ,

. ,
(.9) L, )
, ,
.
, ,
,
,
.

,


. 3 ,

( )
, .

, ,
.
(. (3.17) (3.18)), ,
,
. ,
,
270

.
.

,
.

.
, ,
, ,
, ,
(., , . 2 7).
. 3 :
? , ,
,
50 ,

(. . 3).
,
, ,
,
.
(.
),
.
(. 161),
-
, ,
,

.

, ,


.
,


.
, ,

. ,

(.
, 8)
271


.
,
.
,
, [2]
.


,

(3.17)? , (.
(7.27); D )
0.

(.1)

D
. ,
D .
, ,
1, D] = 0.
(.2)
(.2)
.
, .
,
(.1) (.2), ,

(. . 8):
,
. ,
:
>0.
(.)

(.1) (.2),

iL

He~iMt\|> = i

[, ]_)5) =
= <, D\1>>. (.4)

, D
, eiMtDeriMt = D.
2

(.4) 0 t,
<~'|),
j)> <, //i|)> = t(\|), 7)>,

<, Hty> = <ij), 7)> + <e~iM!ty, ~1,, .(C.5)


t ^
> , <, /7> > <, 7)>.

, D = 0.

( [3])

.

, (.
? . 3
,
. 8), ,
, \ - 7.

(.6)

,
(.6),
, (.1) (.2),
, ,
:
= /(.
,
,


. ,

,
.
, -
.

() (.
. 3).
,

. . 3 ,
273

L, (. (3.35) (3.36))
Lp = [, ].
(.7)
,
,
, .


, L

:
0 +, L
.
(.
. 8),

i [ L , ] = D > , , D ] = ,
(.8)
.
,
(.
. 2).
:
1) ;
2) , .
,
-
, .
,
, :

.

. ,

~,
(.9)
At 2 .
, ,
,
(. . 2 ),
:
= ,
(.10)
274


: |> ||)> (. (3.30)).
,
.
(.10), (. . 2
), (.8)
:
i l H , A ) = D l > 0 , i [ D u A \ = c A \ (C.ll)
. ,
= 0, > 0 < 0, .
1. = 0.
, [, \ = Z), = 0.
(.10)
i l L , ] = = 0,
(.12)
, .
2. > 0.
Dt>0, HDuA]=cA2.

(.13)

,
.
Dt ,
, 2
D, , 0
(.10).

.
,
.
.
( )


.
,

.


(.
. 3).
, ,

275

,

.

(. . 3,
79).
,
,
. ,



.
,
.
,
(.

. 8).

) z -* 0 .


(. (8.34)).

. ,
,
,

,
.
D


. 9
.
, ,
,
(
) .
276

,
.
,
.
, ,
, ()
,

:
( ) .


(. . 9).

,
,
.
:
(, ,
),

?
:
,

.
,
- .

, .
,
,
,
.
, , ,
,
(. . 3). ,
. 3,

, ,
.
, .



277

. ,
, -, ,
. ,

.


h.
, [1],

[2].

. 8.
(. (3.35) ),
.
, F
A i X A z (. (G.9))
:
Fp { 1 X 2)
(D.1)


L = \ ( X / - / X ).

(D.2)


, .
,
,
( .
q , ,
). 11
(2.13) .


.


(
):
(D.3)
278

,
, ,
. i
,
.
,
: / )
, Q i ( d / d Q )
(. . 3).

Q
.
,
,

qon, .
, ,

.
?

. . [1].
,
:

Q

Q

,
: ,

Q Q. ,

.
,
Q, , ,
, .
279


,
<?, <,

[0a, q 0 J = % / i .
(D.4)
, ,
:
4(0 1 +

-(0/ + 1 ) ,

i
"jr (?on X I X Son) j ^ ( X/ I X P ou)'

(D-5)

(D.3)
(D.5)
.
,
:
Q ++ X/ + ZX qoa),
1 * *

^ z z ),

( X / + / X ),;
*

( Z I X ).


. , ,
(D.1),

++ i-j QQr <? Q + i ~2 Qp (D.7)
.
, ? ,
, , Q,
. , qou
, .
,

:

280

h
,
Q .

(-),
(D.7) ,
.

, h.
, ,
[3],

.
.

.
(D.5)
(D.7).
,
( X ).
-
,

,
.
,

,
(
,
, ,
).

,


.
:

.
,
h. ,
19 .

281

,

.
,

,
.
,

, .

(. . 9 ).
,
, ,
.
,

,
:
,
.
,
.

,

. ,
,
,
.

.
.

.
, .
.
,
,
. ,
. , ,


,
.

.
,
,
, .
,
,
.

. ,
.
19*

233

1.

. ,

.
N
. -
,
( 0 , t , ).
.

( )
6-
S B = (/?, ) [16, 17]
/(^, *) = 8($?-(0), lft{ae,t)dse -1. (n.i)
, X ( t ) .

*).
(
())

(.2)
(2.11) .
.
(.2)

( ).
(, t )

" (?', ", t),= {q, t) (q', t)

(.)

(.4)
(3.35); {

} .

*) .
.
= (2nft)3w.
284

(.2)
, (.4)

t);
q ( ..., - .
2.
. 0
.
f x i X o , t ) . ,
, . .
,
(<
>
)
/ ?.) t) = </]v (^\ t)}, ' (\ q",

t) = <>

(.5)

(.2), (.4)
.
: (.2),
(.4), ,
.
(.5)
,
.
, ,
.
,
,
-
. ()

,


[1719]. (.5)
(.2), (.4)
(. 4).
(.5)
,
.
3. .

:
6/w = / f N r N = ].

285

[16, 17]
</*(?,
*)> =
(2%) {95 85')fN{c8, t ) - J N ( % , t ) f W , t ),
<6(7 7

t) 6pjY (?2, <h, t ) y

= yNb (?i

(.6)

<h) Pn (?. f) Piv (?i, 7i, 0 (72, 7a, *)


(.7)


, (.7)

% - * 0.
(.)
,

f n m (t ) = J (7 1 q"x t ) (7 ) (7 ) y2N

(.8)

t y u ( q )
L.
fnm = f n m fnm
<5/ () ^fnlml { t ) y
{ ) fn ml ( ) . (.9)
1

(.6) (.8)


)
N(q', q", ) , (). , (.6)
/($?,):
(f N (a?,t)) 2 == f N

{se, t) - f N (%, ) > . (.)


. (.7)

:
(6piv

(qx q'x )? = (7',

t)

Pn (q', ?', ) > 0. (.11)

,
.
(.10), (.11) fN) pN
:
= Jp* (7, 7, *)% = ! (.12)
286

( )

t) = 0, 1, (<?, <7 , t)=0, 1.


(.13)
, (.6 ), (.7), (.9)



.

/, ^. ,
- .
4.

. . 3
,
.
- ,

t)
(.2) .
, - ,
(. . 3), -
,

. (.2)

^ + [Hf N ] = - [6 /jv] ^ 7* (?, t).

(.14)


,
l N {95, t),
, /jv.

^ + {HpN} = - {6 6 PJV} = I n (\ t).

(.15)


, (
)
/, p.v.

[17, 19, 20].
287

1. f N , pN
, .

,
, .
, . .
(1935)

. .

.

.
.
, ,

(18, 17].
(1928), [12,
21, 22], [20]

.



.

(
master equations)

.
2.

,
.
,
$6,
} N iS&, t), ,
.
)
.

.
(
), .
288

.

,

[19].
,

.

[22, 17].


.
: ,
; ,

.


[1315, 1719].
5.


. (.1)
6 - .


= (, ) [9, 13,
17. ,
Na (, t) = 2 ( x i a (t)),

f N a (X, t) dx = N a .
(.16)

dN n dN n dN n

a
M
dt + v-^+Fa (r,

dp

(.17)


.
(I I) F
:

= ~ 1 2 J' (I - ' I) N *) dx'* <8>

()
:

F (, 0 = (, t) + [vB (, f)].

(.19)

(.17)
:
rot =

+ jM = 0, div
= ,
1
dt dt
*
rot =

1
dt 1

div *

(.20)

4 (, t).


:
? (, t) = 2 f N a (z, t) dp,
a

jM(M) = 2eaJ vXa(r, p)dp.

(.21)

,
N a (z, t), , .
,

.
N , , , , ,
,
,
.
6.

.

(.1), (.16) .


- (X = (R, ), R
= ( { , ..., r N ), = (/?!, ..., p N )):
R^R,

(.22)
, , ,
,
. t -> t
.
2(t t a ) R 0 ,
,
290

(-= , Po)) , t t 0

Pt-t 0 ).
,
(.22),

R 0 , 0 .
, ( N)
(. . 9).
(.22) ( )
, -
X=(R, ) -> {R, ). ,
6 -
(.1) :
$ (,/>,) =/

(.23)


(.16)
:
N a (x, t) = N a (t, , t) = N a {, p, ).
(.24)

:
q M (, t) = q m (, -f); jM(r, t) = - f (, -1),
(.25)
(.17), (.19), (.20)

(, t) =(, -t), BM(r, t) BM(r, -t). (.26)



:
- F<f (, t) = F (, t).

(.27)


.
,
,
.
7. . . . 3
,
(.2)
/jt(Zo, fo)

f N {X, t). , (.22)
291

.
,

, , *) = /*(#, -, -t),
(.28)
, (.23), .

S(t) = -aJ In f N (X, t) f N (X, t)

(.29)

.

,
.
(. 5 . 4 [17]
[2 1 ]).

, ,
, ,
.
f N (X, t)
(.14).
,

.
( ) (. (.28))
, ) = /(, -)
(.30)

.

(.2)
(.17), (.18). (.2)
,

N a (x, t), F_a(r, t)
/f, /2, ... [2, 57].

(
). [5],
[6 ]
.


292

,
.
(.17), (.18)
N a , F a (r, t)
[4, 23]
dN. dN n

dN n

dtf + v-W + FM-^-O,

Fa = - ^1{\ - ' \) N b {x' ,t)d P '.

(.31)


(N a = n a fJ. (.17),
(.19), (.20)
N a
E(r, t) = , (, t) .

,
,
:
S(t) = -^ 1/ (, t) f a (, t) -^3 ,

(.32)

()

(.31).

.
, ,
:
fn(X, t) (
(LV-
f N (x, t))
/ ( _
N a (x, t)).
,
, (
) ,
(.31)
.

} n (X, t) ( ):
/ (

Nl

- 2 PNi t) = fi ( r u Pi, t), (.)


Ki

<N

293


.
(.31),
(.17), (.18),

(, ).

, . . ,
.
(.17),
(.18) (.31),
,
() .
, , . .
, ,
,
(.31) (.
[17-19]).
(.17), (.18)
(.31)

*). (.31)

, , .
,
(.31),
,

. ,

,
(.31)
.
, -
:
[24] (. . 15 [17]
13 . . [23]).
,
, (.31), .
, , *)

( ) .
294

(.):
, ,
,
.

. .
[5].
. [5]


.

(. [1315, 17191). _
N a /

Sja
dt + V

I (*> )

(.34)

(.31)
, ,
.
(.34)
.

, . .

(.35)
-
.
. . 4,
,
,
(.14), (.15)
f N , p N . , ,
(.34). ,
,
, ,
. . 10.
,
-
.
295

:
S {t)^Slf N ]

= -k^lnf N .f N ^ [ R . (.36)

,
. 17
, . .
8.

?

. (. 12 ).
.
: ,
; ...
,
, .

. 17 .
.
, . . [5]
....
,
,
,

f N (X,t).

,
, , . 24,
. ,

,
, .
(.34),
(.14), (.15).
,
, N
(17, 19].
,
. ,
.
,

, ,
.
296


.
, , ,
.
.

,
. 17.

.
9.
.
.
,

, ,

. ,
. .
.
,
.

.
.
() ~ /N ,
(
) .
, . .
. ,

.

.
,
..,

(. . 1 0 )
.'

(.34).

.
.
1. (.14)
20 .

297


(.).

(. . 10).
(.14)
.
. 2.

(. . 7).
[5, 17, 21].

. :

, ,
.
,
,
[5, 17],

[1719]:
, 1 ,
, I.


, 1 . ,

= < , 1

~]/<,

~ 1 > 1.

(.37)
* , 1, <
^ /.
10.
.
(.37)
.

, 1 [17].
,
(.34) .

.
.
.
298

.

,

.
[11, 26, 1719].

,
.

.
[17, 22].


. , . .
. . ,
.

.

[1 0 ],
[181.

,
'
,
(., , [27]).
.
.
. 9
. 1 IN
.

.
,
, .
,
,
.


,
: , ,
30

299

,
.
.

[17, 18, 28-37, 41, 42].
11. . -.
( -
, , )
== 1 ~L 2 /D.
.
: L
, D .
( > ,
< )
,
2D

(6 6ra)M>f!co z ,21,4
w + D2k
i
<6 6 )>==013/2'

(.38)



( < , >).

,

. ,
( ) V IV,
{D!) 5 / 2 ( )3/2).
, V,
8n v .

[17, 43]
(8n v )l

<(6 ')2)

_1

__

I 1 (VD) 00 [V I w !

(In (
~1(

0)

^-; (.39)
1 <( 6n v) 2 > < < .

(.40)

(.39) -,
(.40) 300

. , (
)
.
,

n v > .
12.
- .
. ,
, -
: ,
/", (
(.17), (.18)),

.

.
.



.
, (
),
. , ,
.

. . 3

.
:
-
.
(.15) .


O f n ()

dt

2 "V

= In (t)-

(.41)

[18, 17].
/ = 0 /
.

(.9).
.
301

- [16, 17]:

(S/m6/ m V =%haA n m n

(.42)
' 'n

:
1

' () =

^^^
S. ( + )

m1 1 ()

(fm fn)i -*-0. (.4)

(.42)
. f(t)
(.41). /
. (.42)
:
Im ^^ () cth 2 ^;. (.44)

,

, '

.
1.
, ,
.
2. 0
.
1 < ~ < . ( ,
/).

: < xUcT/'h, ).
0 ,
,
.
. , ,
,
.
.
, :

(

.
302

, (.42)(.44)
1 /N, , , -
.
,
, , .
(.42), (.44)

. .
1. (.44) ,


- [17,
18,
37-40].
2.

,
,
[17, 44].



,
.


,
.
3. (.42)
,
,
[19, 171.
,
,
. - (
)) .
, ,
.

.
. .
4. , ,

-. ,

(.39), (.40).
303

[43].

:
( % = 2

= 2 <(5)2>, = (.45)

"fu, , ((8) 2 }
-
>'1)
,
, ,
. .
-
[17, 181.
,
-

.
: .
. , .
13.

. .

(.1).
\ X)
. () = 1,

5 = A j 1(/)-/"< = 0.

(.46)


, ,
, .

/? /.

, , ,
/ (.14),

[17, 19].
304

, (.29),
(.36) .
(.36) .
-

.

,
, , . .
*
J
\Hf N (X,t)--------const,
(.47)
V
J'
(2%)


[17, 21].
f N (x, t)
/ (, t).
, ,
. ,
(. . 3),
.

.
S 0
" /.,
/, /"

-4 J <(W> T N

< 5 -

(.48)

,
.

.
. :

,
,
.
,
, . .
,
.
.
305

14. .
. , . ,

.


. ,
,
, ,

.
>>,

.
,


[8 , 46-48].


,

[4953].

,
, .
[17]

, . .

, [5456]

.
[54]
,


.
[55]
.
:
,
.
f(E, ),
.
306



.
,

S, >

S2 >

(11.49)

[551
: ,
,
. ^-.

[561 (.
[56])
.


.

(5-^) = ^()2 >>0,

(.50)

.


.
. 24 [171
-83
( 1983 .). ,
[56],

(, 1983, [56]).
,
,
.
1984 . [61]. . 141, 142
:
..., ...

. ,
,
.
307

, , [62],

[51]
( )
( )
. ,
.
15.

. ,
, '


, .

. -
.
,

= /2 + U(, t),
,
2

==

" rF(t).

(.51)

/ (.1)
= (, , ).

[57, 58, 1719]
/ (, , , t) =

\ ( + ~ 2 , t +
(2 ) 4 *

1 1
(2%
, t -^) exp [iQE iyp]
dy dQ.

(.52)
V, ,
/, (. . 1).

dv dp
1.
(, t)'= J / (, , , t)~dE; j* / (, , t) ~
(2nt)
(.53)

(, t), i|)*(r",f"), ,
308


/(, , , t):
/
\! +

] dp'dE' exp [iy (' ~ )

, it +

1 0 (' )] U (-Tv.-i*e)-a(r + 4
+ -) /(,
/"-(

/ + 2 |(2)4 d P

dE

1 0 (' )] U [-**-
+

(.54)
~)~

Pl*Y(P
) + +

0).

%, t +
(.55)

/ (, ', <, -

, . .
/(, , ),
.
[57]

.


,
(.51) F ( t ) = 0. (.54), (.55)
[57]

9/ (, , t ) , d f M

2d f M

+ - 5 ------------------------------------

dt

Ef (, , t)

_
2

2 \\

+ - f

Ar f

, (.56)
g

.
/
(.57)


.
(.56).

(.56)
(. [581).
, ,
.
9

(.54), (.55)

df K * df M
dt ' V dr

dU (, t) df x _^dU (r, t) df M
dr dp 1 dt dE

(.58)
(.59)

Ef (r, p, E, t)=( + U (r, t)) f (r, p, E, t).


/(, , , t) = /(, , t)8(E 2 /2 U(r, t)). (.60)


f(r, , t) (.58)
.
, ,
(.58), (.59) (, , )

dr
dp
dt ~V dt ~

0U (, t) dE dU{r,t)
dr , dt ~ dt

I11-151)

, ,
:
E(t)= V ^+U(r,t).

(.62)

,
(.59),
/(, , , ),
(.58) .
16.

.
(.54), (.55) ( (.58), (.59))
.

7, /<+).

, , ,


.

7, 7<+) : 7
,
, 7(+>
310

. , (
= 8 n m f n)
/(f) (.41).


(). ,
- :
E n fn (f) = Enfn jr 2
k

<6 /*8 > = E n f n + +).


(.63)

(.41), (.63)
8 , 1 0 . 10 [19].

.
.

[59, 60],
[18, 59J.

. .
17.
.
,
,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
. 17: ,

,
. ,
,
,
.
,
,
- ,
,
.
,
(. 216) . : ,
,
,
.
311


. ,
, ,



.

,

.

.

.
.


1-9
Allen . . Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US, 1976, v. 73(3), p. 665.
Allen P. M., Deneubourg J. L., Sanglier M., Boon F., de Palma A..
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. . .
.: , 1979 (
) .
. . . .: , 1980 (
).
. , . II. .: , 1972, . 647656.
.-. . .: , 1981.
. .
.: , 1979.


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