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1) What are the main elements present in OPC?

The typical oxide composition of Ordinary Portland cement is shown in the table below:
CaO 60.0 67.0 63.0
"7.0 !#.0 !0.0
3.0 %.0 6.0
0.# ' 6.0 3.0
()O 0.# ' *.0 ".#
0.3 ' ".! ".0
!.0 ' 3.# !.0
The raw materials containin) these oxides are 1sed for the prod1ction of Portland
cement. 2t sho1ld howe3er be mentioned that these are 41st the typical compositions5
these oxide compositions co1ld be 3ery well 3aried to prod1ce cements of di6erent
properties for speci7c 1ses.
) What are the main !"mp"#n$s present in OPC?
(ain compo1nds present in Ordinary Portland Cement are:
C"mp"#n$ O%i$e !"mp"siti"n A&&re'iati"n
A'(. %-
Tricalci1m ilicate 3CaO. iO
8icalci1m silicate !CaO. iO
Tricalci1m $l1minate 3CaO. $l
$ "0.%
* CaO. $l
$& 9."0
)) What is the $i*eren!e &et+een OPC, PPC - P.C?
Ordinary Portland Cement: ' OPC is prod1ced by 7nely )rindin) OPC clin+er obtained
from the cement +ilns. This cement on hydration prod1ces C'': )el5 which pro3ides
cementation property5 alon) with Ca,O:0
5 which does not pro3ide any stren)th5 rather it
ca1ses f1rther problems of leachin) in concrete.

Portland Po;;olana Cement: ' PPC is prod1ced by inter')rindin) OPC clin+er alon) with
some po;;olanic material li+e <y ash. This cement also prod1ces on hydration5 C'': )el
alon) with Ca,O:0
5 which f1rther reacts with the po;;olanic material to prod1ce more
amo1nt of C'': )el5 which pro3ides additional cementation and th1s increases the
o3erall stren)th and red1ces Ca,O:0

Calcium Silicates + Water C-S-H gel
+ Ca(OH)
Calcium Silicates + Water C-S-H gel +
Portland la) Cement:' PC is obtained by mixin) Portland cement clin+er5 )yps1m and
)ran1lated blast f1rnace sla) in s1itable proportions and )rindin) the mixt1re to )et a
thoro1)h and intimate mixt1re between the constit1ents. The res1ltant prod1ct is a
cement which has physical properties similar to OPC. 2t has low heat of hydration and is
relati3ely better resistant to chlorides and hence can be 1sed for marine wor+s.
3) I4 the elemental !"mp"siti"n is a'aila&le, h"+ +e !an !al!#late !"mp"#n$
=y 1sin) followin) e>1ations5 s1))ested by =o)1e5 we can calc1late percenta)e of main
compo1nds from the percenta)e of elemental composition.
5) What is the r"le "4 C
A in the h6$rati"n pr"!ess?
The reaction of C
$ with water is 3ery >1ic+ and 3iolent5 and leads to immediate
sti6enin) of paste5 +nown as fash set. The hydration prod1ct formed is tricalcium
aluminate hydrate,C
$ . 6 : C
This reaction re>1ires m1ch more water than that re>1ired for the
hydration of silicates. This ca1ses shorta)e of water and there is incomplete hydration of
silicates. To pre3ent this Gypsum,CaO
O0 is added to cement clin+er. ?yps1m
reacts with C
$ to form insol1ble calcium sulphaluminate ,3Cao.$l
b1t e3ent1ally tricalcium aluminate hydrate,C
0 is formed.
7) 1ist the !"mp"#n$s present in !ement a!!"r$in( t" their !"ntri&#ti"n t"+ar$s
heat (enerati"n.
The contrib1tion to heat )eneration in ,cal@)0 by di6erent compo1nds at di6erent times
is as shown:'
8) Dis!#ss the man#4a!t#rin( "4 !ement #sin( $r6 pr"!ess. Ill#strate 6"#r ans+er
+ith s!hemati! $ia(rams.
Compound At 3 days At 90 days At 13 years
S "# $%& $22
S $2 &2 "'
( 2$2 !$$ !2&
() *' '# $%2
S + &,%-(CaO) . -,*%(SiO
) . *,-2((l
) . $,&!()e
) .
S + 2,#-(SiO
) . %,-"&(C
( + 2,*"((l
) . $,*'()e
2n the dry process of man1fact1rin) of cement the raw materials are cr1shed and fed
in the correct proportions into a )rindin) mill5 where they are dried and red1ced in
si;e to a 7ne powder.
The dry powder5 called raw meal5 is then p1mped into a blendin) silo and 7nal
ad41stment is made in the proportions of the material.
Aaw meal ha3in) moist1re content abo1t !B is passed thro1)h a pre'heater5 1s1ally
of a s1spension type,i.e. the raw meal particles are s1spended in the risin)
)ases0.:ere the raw meal is heated to abo1t %00CC before bein) fed into the +iln.
2n the +iln p1l3eri;ed coal is blown by an air blast at the lower end where the
temperat1re reaches abo1t "*00CC.The mass ,raw meal0 then f1ses into balls5 3'!#
mm in diameter +nown as clin+er.
On exit from the +iln the clin+er is cooled and the heat bein) 1sed to the pre'heat of
the comb1stion air.
The cool clin+er which is characteristically blac+ and hard is inter)ro1nd with )yps1m
in order to pre3ent the <ash set of cement. ?rindin) is done in a ball mill consistin) of
se3eral compartments with pro)ressi3ely smaller steal balls.
The cement dischar)ed by the mill is passed thro1)h a separator5 7ne particles bein)
remo3ed to the stora)e silo by an air c1rrent while the coarser particles are passed
thro1)h the mill once a)ain.
9) What is the a$'anta(e "4 $r6 pr"!ess "'er +et pr"!ess in man#4a!t#rin(
8ry process has the followin) ad3anta)es o3er wet process:'
2n the wet process5 the sl1rry contains 3#'#0B water whereas in dry process materials
are already in dry state. Th1s5 the ob3io1s disad3anta)e of wet process was that when
the sl1rry was introd1ced into the +iln5 a lar)e amo1nt of extra f1el is 1sed in
e3aporatin) the water.
2n a wet process5 the material is in the +iln for ! to 3 ho1rs. This time is red1ced to "
to ! ho1rs for a dry process. ome new heat exchan)es only re>1ire !0 min1tes. Th1s
the dry process re>1ires si)ni7cantly lesser f1el compared to the wet process.
Ra+ :eal .il"
1ime .t"ne,
;all :ill
;all :ill
R"tar6 <iln
Ra+ :eal Pre-
Cement .il"
Clin=er C""ler
D1antity of coal re>1ired to prod1ce " Ton of cement is only abo1t "00 +) in case of
dry process compared to 3#0 +) for wet process.
>) Dis!#ss ten t6pes "4 !ement in$i!atin( their !"mp"siti"ns, !"$al pr"'isi"ns
an$ #sa(e.
Type of
Codal Pro3isions Esa)e
5 C
$5 C
peci7cation )i3en in : 2 !69:"9%9 ,33 ?rade
2 %""!:"9%9 ,*3 ?rade
2 "!!69:"9%7 ,#3 ?rade
&ineness: =laineFs air permeability test :
speci7c s1rface G !!#m
o1ndness: Ha Chatelier test : Ixpansion J
$1tocla3e test : Ixpansion J 0.%
ettin) Time: Kicat test : 2nitial ettin) Time
G 30 min
&inal ettin) Time J 600
Compressi3e tren)th,(in0:
33 ?rade *3 ?rade #3
7!L"hr : "6 (pa !3 (Pa
!7 (Pa
"6%L!hr : !! (pa 33 (Pa
37 (Pa
67!L*hr : 33 (pa *3 (Pa
#3 (Pa
$ny ?eneral type
of constr1ction
where no special
condition is
more C

and Hess
peci7cation )i3en in : 2 %0*":"990
&ineness: =laineFs air permeability test :
speci7c s1rface G 3!#m
o1ndness: Ha Chatelier test : Ixpansion J
$1tocla3e test : Ixpansion J 0.%
ettin) Time: Kicat test : 2nitial ettin) Time
G 30 min
&inal ettin) Time J 600
Compressi3e tren)th,(in0:
!*hrL30min1tes : "6 (pa
7!L"hr : !7 (pa
i0 2n prefabricated
ii0 Mhere formwor+
needs to be
remo3ed to 1se
ii0Aoad repair
i30Cold weather
concrete where
rapid hardenin)
red1ces chances of
frost action
sho1ld not
exceed !#
peci7cation )i3en in : 2 "!330:"9%%
&ineness: =laineFs air permeability test :
speci7c s1rface G !!#m
o1ndness: Ha Chatelier test : Ixpansion J
$1tocla3e test : Ixpansion J 0.%
ettin) Time: Kicat test : 2nitial ettin) Time
G 30 min
&inal ettin) Time J 600
Compressi3e tren)th,(in0:
7!L"hr : "0 (pa
"6%L!hr : "6 (pa
67!L*hr : 33 (pa
i0 1lphate attac+
accelerated by
contin1o1s wettin)
and dryin). 2n
ii0 Concrete 1sed in
constr1ction where
soil is infested with
iii0 2n sewa)e
treatment wor+
Type of
Codal Pro3isions Esa)e
d la)
$ mixt1re
of Portland
clin+er and
sla) which
is a waste
prod1ct in
ma+in) of
pi) iron.
peci7cation )i3en in : 2 *##:"9%9
&ineness: =laineFs air permeability test :
speci7c s1rface G !!#m
o1ndness: Ha Chatelier test : Ixpansion J
$1tocla3e test : Ixpansion J 0.%
ettin) Time: Kicat test : 2nitial ettin) Time
G 30 min
&inal ettin) Time J 600
Compressi3e tren)th,(in0:
7!L"hr : "6 (pa
"6%L!hr : !! (pa
67!L*hr : 33 (pa
How heat of
hydration so 1sed
in mass
n) a
mixt1re of
%0 to %# B
e sla)5 "0
to "#
peci7cation )i3en in : 2 6909:"990
&ineness: =laineFs air permeability test :
speci7c s1rface G *00m
o1ndness: Ha Chatelier test : Ixpansion J
$1tocla3e test : Ixpansion J 0.%
ettin) Time: Kicat test : 2nitial ettin) Time
G 30 min
&inal ettin) Time J 600
Compressi3e tren)th,(in0:
7!L"hr : "# (pa
"6%L!hr : !! (pa
67!L*hr : 30 (pa
i0 2n marine
ii0 Concrete 1sed in
constr1ction where
soil is infested with
iii0 2n sewa)e
treatment wor+.
and a
amo1nt of
content of
peci7cation )i3en in : 2 "!600:"9%9
&ineness: =laineFs air permeability test :
speci7c s1rface G 3!0m
o1ndness: Ha Chatelier test : Ixpansion J
$1tocla3e test : Ixpansion J 0.%
ettin) Time: Kicat test : 2nitial ettin) Time
G 30 min
&inal ettin) Time J 600
Compressi3e tren)th,(in0:
7!L"hr : "0 (pa
"6%L!hr : "6 (pa
67!L*hr : 3# (pa
(ass concretin).
Type of
Codal Pro3isions Esa)e
material is
mixed with
peci7cation )i3en in :
2 "*%9,Part"0:"99",<y ash based0
2 "*%9,Part!0:"99",calcined clay
&ineness: =laineFs air permeability test :
speci7c s1rface G 300m
o1ndness: Ha Chatelier test : Ixpansion J
$1tocla3e test : Ixpansion J 0.%
ettin) Time: Kicat test : 2nitial ettin) Time
G 30 min
&inal ettin) Time J 600
Compressi3e tren)th,(in0:
7!L"hr : "6 (pa
"6%L!hr : !! (pa
67!L*hr : 33 (pa
i0 Iconomical5
permeability5 Esed
&or hydra1lic
ii0 &or marine
iii0 (ass concretin)
for 8am etc.
with water
li+e oleic
peci7cation )i3en in : 2 %0*3:"99"
&ineness: =laineFs air permeability test :
speci7c s1rface G 3#0m
o1ndness: Ha Chatelier test : Ixpansion J
$1tocla3e test : Ixpansion J 0.%
ettin) Time: Kicat test : 2nitial ettin) Time
Esed when cement
to be stored for
lon) time.
acid etc.
&ilm )et
mixin) is
G 30 min
&inal ettin) Time J 600
Compressi3e tren)th,(in0:
7!L"hr : "#.69 (pa
"6%L!hr : !".#7 (pa
67!L*hr : 30.* (pa
Oil well
cement of
classes $5
=5 C5 85 I5
&5 ? and :5
shall be
of hydra1lic
peci7cation )i3en in : 2 %!!9:"9%6
&ineness: =laineFs air permeability test :
speci7c s1rface G !!#m
o1ndness: Ha Chatelier test : Ixpansion J
$1tocla3e test : Ixpansion J 0.%
ettin) Time: Kicat test : 2nitial ettin) Time
G 30 min
&inal ettin) Time J 600
Esed by the
petrole1m ind1stry
for cementin) )as
and oil'wells at hi)h
temperat1res and
press1res. l1rries
of s1ch cement
ha3e to remain
p1mpable at this
ele3ated temp and
press for a
s1Ncient len)th of
time and then
harden fairly
Type of
Codal Pro3isions Esa)e
The total
shall not be
less than
3! percent
by mass.
peci7cation )i3en in : 2 6*#!:"9%9
&ineness: =laineFs air permeability test :
speci7c s1rface G !!#m
o1ndness: Ha Chatelier test : Ixpansion J
ettin) Time: Kicat test : 2nitial ettin) Time
G 30 min
&inal ettin) Time J 600
Compressi3e tren)th,(in0:
!*hrL30 min1tes : 30 (pa
7!L"hr : 3# (pa
Mhere 3ery hi)h
rate of stren)th
de3elopment is
1?) 0"+ $" 6"# meas#re !"nsisten!6, settin( time, @neness an$ s"#n$ness "4
!ement? Ans+er in &rie4.
C"nsisten!6 testAP)
300 )m of cement is mixed with !#B water. The paste is 7lled in the mo1ld,*0 mm
hei)ht0 of KicatFs apparat1s. $nd the s1rface of the 7lled paste is smoothened and
le3elled. $ s>1are needle,"0mmO"0 mm0 attached to the pl1n)er is then lowered )ently
o3er the cement paste s1rface and is released >1ic+ly. The pl1n)er pierces the cement
paste. The readin) on the attached scale is recorded. Mhen the readin) is #'7 mm from
the bottom of the mo1ld5 the amo1nt of water added is the correct percenta)e of water
for normal consistency.
.ettin( /ime
$fter preparin) the cement paste by addin) 0.%# times then water re>1ired to )i3e a
paste of standard consistency the mo1ld is 7lled completely with the paste and placed
into the 3icat apparat1s. The test is cond1cted at room temperat1re of !7L!CC. 2nitial
settin) time is the time re>1ired for the needle of the apparat1s to reach the le3el of
#mm meas1red from the bottom of the mo1ld.
The cement is considered to be 7nally set when 1pon applyin) the needle )ently to the
s1rface of test bloc+5 the needle ma+es an impression5 b1t the attachment fails to do so.
8e)ree of 7neness of cement is the meas1re of mean si;e of )rains in it.3 methods are
)enerally 1sed for testin) 7neness: ie3e (ethod5 =lains $ir Permeability (ethod5
Ma)ner T1rbidimeter (ethod. The last two methods meas1re the s1rface area of per
)ram of cement whereas the 7rst one meas1res percent resid1e by wei)ht.
o1ndness of cement may be tested by He'Chatelier (ethod or by $1tocla3e (ethod. 2n
He'Chatelier (ethod5 a mo1ld is prepared by mixin) "00 )ram of cement with o.7% times
the water re>1ired to )i3e a paste of standard consistency. (o1ld is co3ered with a )lass
sheet and s1bmer)ed in water at temperat1re of !7'3!CC.$fter !* ho1rs 5mo1ld is ta+en
o1t and the distance separatin) the indicator point is meas1red. $fter that mo1ld is
s1bmer)ed in the boiled water for 3 ho1rs. $fter remo3in) the mo1ld from water it is
cooled and the distance between the indicator points is meas1red a)ain. The di6erence
between the two meas1rements represents the 1nso1ndness of the cement. 2n a1tocla3e
test at 7rst /eat cement specimen of !#mm x !#mm x !#0mm placed inside a1tocla3e.
Temp of a1tocla3e shall be raised at s1ch a rate as will brin) the )a1)e press1re of the
steam to !." (Pa in " to "P h from the time the heat is t1rned on and maintained for 3
ho1rs. $fter that press1re is red1ced slowly and specimen is remo3ed and cooled.
Chan)e in len)th of the specimen is meas1red.
11) 0"+ the @neness "4 !ement a*e!ts the pr"perties "4 !"n!rete?
". The rate of hydration depends directly on the 7neness of the cement as 7ner cements
o6er )reater s1rface area for hydration to ta+e place5 and for rapid de3elopment of
stren)th5 hi)h 7neness is necessary. =1t hi)her rate of hydration means hi)her rate of
early heat e3ol1tion.
!. 2ncreasin) the 7neness of cement red1ces the amo1nt of bleedin) in concrete by
increasin) the water re>1irement of concrete.
3. The wor+ability of non'air'entrained concrete is increased by increasin) the cement
*. The !%'day compressi3e stren)th Q mod1l1s of elasticity of concrete5 with or witho1t
entrained air5 increases with an increase in cement 7neness. The di6erence in
compressi3e stren)th d1e to di6erence in 7neness of cement is considerably less at "
yearRs a)e.
#. The 7neness of cement in<1ences the dryin) shrin+a)e of concrete. Mhen the water
content is increased beca1se of 7neness5 the dryin) shrin+a)e is increased. :owe3er5 if
excessi3e bleedin) d1e to coarseness of the cement ta+es place5 a red1ction in the
dryin) shrin+a)e occ1rs.
6. The resistance of air'entrained concrete to deterioration ca1sed by free;in) and
thawin) decreases with an increase in cement 7neness. The same trend is noted with
non air'entrained concrete5 b1t to a lesser de)ree.
7. =oth air'entrained and non air'entrained concrete containin) "00 percent reacti3e
a))re)ate are detrimentally a6ected by increased expansion at all a)es by increases in
the 7neness of a hi)h'al+ali cement.
1) What $" 6"# mean &6 the term I/C? AInter4a!ial D"ne "4 !"n!rete) an$ $is!#ss
its e*e!t "n !"n!rete.
The cement particles in fresh concrete5 which are s1spended in the mix water5
cannot pac+ to)ether as eNciently when they are in the close 3icinity of a m1ch lar)er
solid ob4ect5 s1ch an a))re)ate particle. This is act1ally a )eneral phenomenon
associated with particle pac+in)5 +nown as the Swall e6ect.S 2n the case of concrete5
this is e6ect is ma)ni7ed by the shearin) stresses exerted on the cement paste by the
a))re)ate particles d1rin) mixin)5 which tend to ca1se the water to separate from the
cement particles. The res1lt is a narrow re)ion aro1nd the a))re)ate particles with
fewer cement particles5 and th1s more water. This is called the interfacial transition
;one5 abbre3iated 2TT.
The 2TT is a re)ion with a hi)her w@c5 and th1s a hi)her porosity5 than
the b1l+ paste. 2t is not 1niform5 b1t 3aries from point to point alon) each a))re)ate
particle. 2TT thic+ness will depend on the median si;e of the cement )rains5 and not
on the a))re)ate si;e. The median diameter of most cements in common 1se is
aro1nd "0'30 micrometers5 so this is typically the +ind of width one 7nds associated
with 2TTRs.
Efect of ITZ on concrete: The 2TT has important e6ects on the properties of
concrete5 beca1se it tends to act as the Swea+ lin+ in the chainS when compared to the
b1l+ cement paste and the a))re)ate particles. Th1s the lower stren)th and sti6ness
of the 2TT translate directly into lower stren)th and sti6ness 3al1es for concrete as
compared to cement paste. The total 3ol1me of 2TT in a concrete increases with the
total amo1nt of lar)e a))re)ate and with the a3era)e si;e of the a))re)ate5 which
explains why the stren)th is obser3ed to decrease with both of these parameters. The
2TT is also more permeable than the b1l+ paste5 d1e to its hi)her porosity. 2n most
concretes the 2TTs are lin+ed ,percolated05 creatin) a contin1o1s hi)h'permability
phase across the str1ct1re. $s a res1lt5 the permability of concrete can be "000 times
)reater than that of the p1re cement paste it contains. The d1rability of concrete is
in3ersely related to the permeability5 as most dama)e mechanisms in3ol3e the
di61sion of reacti3e ions into the concrete to attac+ either the cement paste or the
steel reinforcement.
1)) What is the r"le "4 +ater re$#!in( a$mi%t#re in !"n!rete? Dis!#ss the
!hemistr6 &ehin$ it. Name a 4e+ !"mmer!ial +ater re$#!in( a$mi%t#re in
The basic role of water red1cers is to de<occ1late the cement particles a))lomerated
to)ether and release the water tied 1p in these a))lomerations5 prod1cin) more <1id
paste at lower water contents. Th1s water red1cin) admixt1res red1ces water re>1ired
for a )i3en hi)her wor+ability.
The mode of action of water red1cin) admixt1res is'
The principal components of these admixt1res are s1rface acti3e a)ents. They )ets
adsorbed on cement particles impartin) ne)ati3e char)e to them which ca1ses
de<occ1lation d1e to rep1lsion between particles. Th1s dispersion of the cement
particles is stabili;ed. I3en air b1bbles are also repelled Q canFt )et adhered to cement
particles. The <occ1lated mass traps some water increasin) a3ailability of water for
hydration. The rep1lsi3e action increases s1rface area of cement a3ailable for initial
hydration. $s a res1lt early stren)th )ain in concrete is obser3ed d1e to )reater
expos1re of s1rface area.
13) 1ist ten imp"rtant a$mi%t#resEplasti!iDers !"mm"nl6 #se$ in !"nstr#!ti"n an$
$is!#ss their r"le in enhan!in( pr"perties "4 !"n!rete. :enti"n the $"ses "4
these a$mi%t#resEplasti!iDers "4 4e+ Ama% )-3) !"mpanies.
15) What is the $i*eren!e &et+een 0.C an$ 0PC?
0i(h Per4"rman!e C"n!rete 0i(h .tren(th C"n!rete
$C2 de7nes Uhi)h'performance
concreteF as a concrete meetin) special
combinations of performance and
1niformity re>1irements that cannot
always be achie3ed ro1tinely 1sin)
con3entional constit1ents and normal
mixin)5 placin)5 and c1rin) practice.
Concrete is de7ned as Uhi)h'
stren)th concreteF solely on the basis of
its compressi3e stren)th meas1red at a
)i3en a)e.
$ )reater de)ree of >1ality control is
re>1ired for the s1ccessf1l prod1ction of
hi)h'performance concrete.
Aelati3ely lesser de)ree of >1ality
control is re>1ired5 than that re>1ired for
$ :PC is not always a :C. $ :C is always a :PC.
17) What is the $i*eren!e &et+een se(re(ati"n an$ &lee$in(? 0"+ !an +e !"ntr"l
se(re(ati"n, &lee$in( #sin( a$$iti'esEa$mi%t#resEplasti!iDers?
e)re)ation is de7ned as the separation of the constit1ent materials of concrete. There
is a considerable di6erence in the si;es and speci7c )ra3ities of the constit1ent
in)redients of concrete5 so there is a nat1ral tendency of the materials to fall apart.
e)re)ation may be of three types:
The coarse a))re)ate separatin) o1t or settlin) down from the rest of the mix.
The paste or matrix separatin) o1t from the rest of the material.
The water5 bein) of lowest speci7c )ra3ity5 separatin) o1t from the rest of the
Bleeding:' =leedin) is a partic1lar form of se)re)ation5 in which some of the water in
the mix tends to
rise to the s1rface of the freshly mixed concrete. This is ca1sed by the inability of the
solid constit1ents of the mix to hold all of the mixin) water when they settle
downwards5 water ha3in) the lowest speci7c )ra3ity of all the mix constit1ents.
$dditi3es s1ch as <y ash increase the e6ecti3e s1rface area of particles thereby red1cin)
the pores of concrete. Th1s chance of bleedin) )ets red1ced. $lso a3ailable water )ets
red1ced d1e to increase of s1rface area.
18) What is the $i*eren!e &et+een sel4-!"mpa!tin( !"n!rete an$ !"n'enti"nal
". elf'compactin) concrete is able to <ow and consolidate 1nder its own wei)ht and
completely 7lls the formwor+5 e3en in the presence of dense reinforcement5 witho1t the
need of any 3ibration5 whilst maintainin) homo)eneity. Con3entional concrete is one
which needs 3ibration for consolidation 1nder reinforcements.
!. CC has lower coarse a))re)ate contents to red1ce the friction between them and
therefore enhances the o3erall concrete <1idity
3. CC has hi)her amo1nts of sand Q cementitio1s materials incl1din) Portland cement
to f1rther increase <1idity as well as enhances its cohesi3eness and resistance to
se)re)ation and 3iscosity.
19) What are the $i*erent tests an$ !riteri"ns 4"r sel4-!"mpa!tin( !"n!rete?
1>) What is F6 ash !"n!rete?
&ly'ash concrete is a special type of concrete which is made 1p of PPC5 in which the
po;;olanic material 1sed is )ly-ash. &ly ash is a non'comb1sted by'prod1ct of coal'7red
power plants and is collected in the electrostatic precipitator. Mhen hi)h 3ol1mes of <y'
ash are 1sed in concrete ,displacin) more than !#B of the cement05 it creates a
stron)er5 more d1rable prod1ct and red1ces concreteFs bad en3ironmental impact
considerably. 81e to its stren)th and lower water content5 crac+in) is red1ced.
The nat1re of <y ash5 tiny spherically shaped particles that act as ball bearin)s5
ma+e it able to 7ll small 3oids and prod1ce denser concrete that re>1ires less water for
installation5 res1ltin) in water sa3in)s. 2ts density ma+es it less permeable to water in
7nished form5 protectin) reinforcin) steel and increasin) the concreteFs d1rability. $ble
to prod1ce more cementitio1s paste5 <y ash prod1ces a stron)er concrete. 2t also lowers
the heat of hydration5 in t1rn red1cin) shrin+a)e and thermal crac+in). Two types of <y
ash are )enerally 1sed: Class C <y ash5 which is typically li)ht or tan colored and is
prod1ced from b1rnin) li)nite or s1b'bit1mino1s coal5 and Class & <y ash5 which is dar+
)rey and is prod1ced from b1rnin) anthracite or bit1mino1s coal.
?) What are the a$'anta(es "4 F6 ash !"n!rete "'er !"n'enti"nal !"n!rete?
The ad3anta)es are listed below:'
Property measured Test method Material
Recommended values
(acceptance criterion)
&lowability @ &illin)
l1mp <ow Concrete
6#0 %00 mm
$3era)e <ow diameter
T#0 Concrete
! # sec
Time to <ow #00 mm
K f1nnel
Concrete @
6 "! sec
Time for emptyin) of f1nnel
Orimet (ortar
0 # sec
Time for emptyin) of apparat1s
Passin) ability
E box Concrete
0 30 mm
8i6erence in hei)hts in two limbs
H box Concrete
0.% ".0
Aatio of hei)hts at be)innin) and end of
V ' rin) Concrete
0 "0 mm
8i6erence in hei)hts at the be)innin)
and end of <ow
col1mn test
Concrete W 0.9# e)re)ation ratio
ie3e stability
# "#B sample passin) thro1)h # mm
Penetration test Concrete Penetration depth X % mm
The man1fact1re of &ly'ash concrete is less ener)y intensi3e5 and the raw material
1sed is cheaper. Th1s red1cin) the o3erall cost.
2n <y'ash concrete more )el is formed so the 1ltimate stren)th is hi)her than that
of a con3entional concrete.
The small particles of <y'ash help better pac+in)5 which red1ces the permeability
and increases d1rability.
&ly'ash concrete )enerates less heat of hydration5 as compared to con3entional
concrete5 so the chances of de3elopment of crac+s )et red1ced.
Mater re>1irement of <y'ash concrete is m1ch lesser than that of con3entional
&ly'ash concrete p1ts a waste material to )ood 1se5 and ca1ses fewer )lobal
warmin) problems.
1) What is @&er !"n!rete an$ a$'anta(es "4 it "'er !"n'enti"nal !"n!rete?
&iber'reinforced concrete ,&AC0 is concrete containin) 7bro1s material which increases
its str1ct1ral inte)rity. 2t contains short discrete 7bers that are 1niformly distrib1ted and
randomly oriented. &ibers incl1de steel 7bers5 )lass 7bers5 synthetic 7bers and nat1ral
7bers each of which lend 3aryin) properties to the concrete.
Their main p1rpose is to increase the ener)y absorption capacity and
to1)hness of the material5 b1t it also increases the tensile and <ex1ral stren)th of
concrete. There is considerable impro3ement in the post'crac+in) beha3ior of concretes
containin) 7bers. $ltho1)h the 1ltimate tensile stren)ths do not increase appreciably5
the tensile strains at r1pt1re do. Compared to plain concrete5 7ber'reinforced
concrete is m1ch to1)her and more resistant to impact.
The bene7ts pro3ided by &AC are listed below:'
Polypropylene and /ylon 7bers can:
2mpro3e mix cohesion5 impro3in) p1mpability o3er lon) distances.
2mpro3e free;e'thaw resistance.
2mpro3e resistance to explosi3e spallin) in case of a se3ere 7re.
2mpro3e impact resistance.
2ncrease resistance to plastic shrin+a)e d1rin) c1rin).
teel 7bers can:
2mpro3e str1ct1ral stren)th.
Aed1ce steel reinforcement re>1irements.
2mpro3e d1ctility.
Aed1ce crac+ widths and control the crac+ widths ti)htly5 th1s impro3in) d1rability.
2mpro3e impact and abrasionresistance.
2mpro3e free;e'thaw resistance.
) Dis!#ss p"st !ra!=in( &eha'i"#r "4 steel BRC. Ill#strate +ith (raph.
The 7ber'reinforced concrete composite will carry increasin) loads after the 7rst crac+in)
of the matrix if the p1ll'o1t resistance of the 7bers at the 7rst crac+ is )reater than the
load at 7rst crac+in). $t the crac+ed section5 the matrix does not resist any tension and
the 7bers carry the entire load ta+en by the composite. Mith an increasin) load on the
composite5 the 7bers will tend to transfer the additional stress to the matrix thro1)h
bond stresses. This process of m1ltiple crac+in) will contin1e 1ntil either 7bers fail or the
acc1m1lated local debondin) will lead to 7ber p1ll'o1t.
)) What is (e"-p"l6mer !"n!rete? Is it $i*erent 4r"m F6 ash !"n!rete?
?eopolymer is essentially a cement free concrete. 2t res1lts from the reaction of a
so1rce material that is rich in silica and al1mina with al+aline li>1id. Enli+e ordinary
portland@po;;olanic cements5 )eopolymers do not form calci1m'silicate'hydrates ,C:s0
for matrix formation and stren)th5 b1t 1tilise the polycondensation of silica and al1mina
prec1rsors to attain str1ct1ral stren)th.
&ollowin) materials are )enerally 1sed to prod1ce ?PCCs:
."#r!e materialG
&ly ash5
&ine a))re)ates and
Coarse a))re)ates
Catal6ti! liH#i$ s6stem AC1.)G 2t is an al+aline acti3ator sol1tion ,$$0 for ?PCC. 2t
is a combination of sol1tions of al+ali silicates and hydroxides5 besides distilled water.
The role of $$ is to acti3ate the )eopolymeric so1rce materials ,containin) i and $l0
s1ch as <y ash and ??=.
3) 0"+ the pr"perties "4 BA an$ CA a*e!t the stren(th an$ +"r=a&ilit6 "4
The properties of a))re)ate especially its shape and s1rface text1re e6ects the stren)th
of concrete in compression. 2t has been obser3ed that concrete made of smooth )ra3el
crac+ at lower stresses than ro1)h and an)1lar cr1shed roc+ probably beca1se
mechanical bond is in<1enced by the shape of coarse a))re)ate. Th1s a well )raded
a))re)ate with coarse sand can help in de3elopin) hi)her stren)th of concrete by
red1cin) porosity and increasin) mechanical bond between a))re)ates.
2f w@c ratio is +ept 1naltered then maxim1m si;e of a))re)ates5 its )radin)5 shape and
text1re mostly a6ects wor+ability. ome amo1nt of water is 1tili;ed in ma+in) the
a))re)ates sat1rated5 thereby lowerin) the a3ailable w@c ratio5 the 3al1e of coarse@7ne
a))re)ate ratio needs to be e3al1ated for )ettin) hi)hest wor+ability.
The condition of a))re)ates i.e.5 dry or sat1rated while mixin) also a6ect wor+ability.
&ine a))re)ate can hold 1pto "0B of moist1re which )ets released d1rin) mixin)
thereby increasin) wor+ability of the mix.
Aed1cin) a))re)ate@cement ratio and +eepin) w@c ratio wor+ability can be increased as
s1rface as solids,a))re)ate and cement0 decreases so that same amo1nt of water
increases wor+ability.
5) Dis!#ss in &rie4 re(ar$in( pr"perties "4 BA an$ CA. :enti"n I. !"$e pr"'isi"ns
an$ &rie4 $etail "4 the tests.
The properties of a))re)ates are
i0 i;e: a))re)ates ha3in) si;e more than *.7# mm are called coarse a))re)ates and
a))re)ates whose si;e is less than *.7# mm are +nown as 7ne a))re)ates.
ii0 hape: shape of a))re)ate is an important property. 2t a6ects wor+ability of concrete.
Coarse a))re)ates are classi7ed as
a0 Ao1nded
b0 2rre)1lar or partly ro1nded
c0 $n)1lar
d0 &la+y
iii0 Text1re: The relati3e de)ree to which s1rface of admixt1re are polished or d1ll5
smooth or ro1)h is called text1re. 1rface text1re are classi7ed as
a0 ?lassy
b0 mooth
c0 ?ran1lar
d0 Crystalline
e0 :oneycomb Q poro1s
i30 tren)th: it depends on the stren)th of parent roc+ to some extent. 2t is meas1red
by a))re)ate cr1shin) 3al1e. tren)th of a))re)ate refer to the load it can ta+e
before )ettin) cr1shed
30 To1)hness: the property of a))re)ate to resist s1dden shoc+ or impact is called
to1)hness. 2t is meas1red by a))re)ate impact 3al1e test.
3i0 :ardness: the property by which a))re)ates are able to resist the wear Q tear on
its s1rface is called hardness of a))re)ate. 2t is 1s1ally meas1red by Hos $n)eles
$brasion test.
3ii0 $bsorption Q (oist1re content: some a))re)ates are poro1s and absorpti3e which
will therefore e6ect the w@c ratio Q hence the wor+ability of concrete. The free
moist1re content of 7ne a))re)ate res1lt in b1l+in) of a))re)ate. 81e to b1l+in)
7ne a))re)ate shows more 3ol1me which if not ta+en proper care can res1lt in a
concrete mix which is 1nder'sanded and harsh.
Testin) of a))re)ates
i0 $s per 2 !3%6,Part20'"9635 tests are performed to determine the <a+iness index
and elon)ation index of a))re)ates. &la+iness index is the percenta)e by wt of
particles in it whose least dimension is less than 3@# th of their mean dimension.
Ilon)ation index is the percenta)e by wt of particles whose )reatest dimension is
)reater than ".% times their mean dimension. 2 code does not specify the linmit
of both test. &la+iness index is ta+en as the wt of the material passin) the 3ario1s
thic+ness )a1)e expressed as a percenta)e of the total wt of sample ta+en.
Ilon)ation index is ta+en as the total wt the material retained on the 3ario1s
len)th )a1)e expressed as a percenta)e of the total wt of the sample ta+en.
ii0 To determine stren)th of concrete a))re)ate cr1shin) 3al1e is determined. $
)rad1ally increasin) compressi3e load is applied on a))re)ate passin) "!.# mm 2
sie3e and retained on "0 mm 2 sie3e. The load is increased 1pto *0 tonnes in "0
mins and then released. The material is then sie3ed on !.# 2 sie3e and the ratio
of material passin) .36 mm 2 sie3e to the ori)inal wt of sample is called
a))re)ate cr1shin) 3al1e. $))re)ate cr1shin) 3al1e of more than *#B is not
s1ited for concrete wor+.
iii0 To determine resistance to s1dden shoc+ or impact a))re)ate impact test is
performed as per 2!3%6,part 2K0. The test sample is selected as abo3e. $fter
placin) the sample in the steel c1p the hammer wei)hin) "* +)s is allowed to fall
freely thro1)h a distance of 3%0 mm. $fter "# s1ch blow the whole of it is sie3ed
thro1)h !.36 mm 2 sie3e and the ratio of the wt of fraction passin) thro1)h the
!.36 mm sie3e to the total wt of sample )i3es the a))re)ate impact 3al1e. $
a))re)ate impact 3al1e )reater than *#B of the wt of a))re)ates sho1ld not be
1sed for concrete wor+.
i30 2 !3%6,part 2K0 co3ers two methods for determinin) abrasion 3al1e for
a))re)ates: 8e3alFs abrasion testin) Q Hos $n)eles abrasion testin) . the abrasi3e
char)e consists of cast iron or steel spheres approximately *% mm in dia Q
wei)hin) between 390 to **0 )m. $fter speci7ed no of re3ol1tions the material is
sie3ed on ".7 mm 2 sie3e. The Aatio of material passin) tro1)h ".7 mm 2 sie3e
to the ori)inal wt of sample is called abrasion 3al1e which sho1ld not be more
than "6B for concrete a))re)ates.
7) What is the "&Ie!ti'e "4 !"n!rete mi% $esi(n? What sh"#l$ &e the ri(ht
appr"a!h t" $esi(n a !"n!rete mi%?
The selection of mix proportion is simply the process of choosin) s1itable in)redient of
concrete and determinin) their relati3e >1antities with the ob4ect of prod1cin) as
economically as possible concrete of certain minim1m properties notable stren)th5
d1rability and re>1ired consistency. $lso wor+ability of the mix sho1ld be 1pto the mar+
to meet the re>1irement of placin) the concrete at the site.
To desi)n a concrete mix of appropriate stren)th and d1rability and of re>1ired
wor+ability one need st1dy the property of concrete in detail with special emphasis on
the rheolo)ical beha3ior of concrete. The properties of admixt1re sho1ld be ta+en into
acco1nt to ascertain wor+ability. $lso w@c ratio sho1ld be controlled e6ecti3ely to )et the
maxim1m compressi3e stren)th for a 7xed a))re)ate@cement ratio. /ow' a'days
porosity of concrete is controlled in an e6ecti3e manner to control stren)th and
compactness of concrete. $lso comp1ter modelin) of the properties of constit1ents of
concrete sho1ld be made to controlledY and meas1re the properties of all the materials
to prod1ce more appropriate mixes.
8) What are the $i*erent meth"$s "4 !"n!rete mi% $esi(n (enerall6 #se$? What
are the a$'anta(es an$ $isa$'anta(es "4 these meth"$s? Pr"'i$e 6"#r
"pini"n re(ar$in( appli!a&ilit6 "4 these meth"$s in $i*erent sit#ati"ns.
The commonly 1sed methods of mix desi)n are
a0 Thw $C2 committee !"" method
b0 The 8OI method
c0 The 2ndian tandard recommended method ,as per 2 "0!6!'%!0
d0 (ix desihZ)n of p1mpable concrete
The $C2 committee !"" method
The ad3anta)es of this method are'
i0 2t ta+es into acco1nt the amo1nt of water content in a)).
ii0 The e6ects of an)1larilities of coarse a))re)ate is re<ected in the 3oid content5
th1s an)1lar coarse a))re)ate re>1ire more mortar than ro1nded a))re)ate.
iii02t ta+es into acco1nt the fact that a de7nite percenta)e of air remains
entrapped which is in3ersely proportional to the maxim1m a))re)ate si;e.
The 8OI method
This method can be 1sed for most p1rposes incl1din) road5 this method was
de3eloped by the department of en3ironment ,E.-.05 can be 1sed for p1mpable
The 2ndian tandard recommended method ,as per 2 "0!6!'%!0
The ad3anta)es of this method are:'
". =ased on statistical 3ariation5 the tar)et stren)th is 7xed on a conser3ati3e
!. Mater absorption of 7ne and coarse a))re)ate is ta+en into consideration.
3. 2t incorporates the stren)th of cement to e6ect the economy in mix desi)n.
The disad3anta)e of this method are:'
". /ow a days hi)h stren)th cement is a3ailable so the !% days stren)th
cate)ories sho1ld be re3iewed.
!. ?raph connectin) stren)th of cement and w@c ratio needs to be re'
3. The )raph connectin) !% days stren)th of cement and w@c ratio is to be
extended 1pto %0 (Pa for hi)h stren)th concrete.
*. $s per re3ised edition of 2 *#6'!000 the mix desi)n proced1re sho1ld be
based on de)ree of wor+ability expressed in terms of sl1mp instead of
compactin) factor. This res1lts in the chan)e of 3al1es in estimatin)
approximate sand and water content.
(ix desi)n for p1mpable concrete
$ concrete which can be p1shed thro1)h a pipe is called p1mpable concrete. 2t is
proportioned in s1ch a manner that its friction with the inner wall of the pipeline
does not become so hi)h to pre3ent its mo3ement at the press1re applied by the
p1mp. The content of 7nes is ad41sted to o6er at the inner line of the pipeline
1nder press1re from the p1mp the mix does not se)re)ate or bleed.
9) What is the $i*eren!e &et+een a l"+ m"$#l#s @&er an$ a hi(h m"$#l#s @&er
#se$ t" pr"$#!e BRC?
&ibre reinforced concrete is de7ned as a composite material consistin) of mixt1re of
cement5 mortar of concrete and discontin1o1s5 discrete5 and 1niformly dispersed
s1itable 7bre. 2ts properties lar)ely on the type of 7bre5 7bre )eometry5 7bre content5
orientation Q distrib1tion of 7bre5 mixin) and compaction techni>1es and si;e shape of
the a))re)ates.
The mod1l1s of elasticity of the matrix m1st be m1ch lower than that of 7bre for eNcient
stress transfer. How mod1l1s 7bre s1ch as nylon and polypropylene are therefore 1nli+ely
to )i3e stren)th impro3ement b1t they helps in the absorption of lar)e ener)y and
therefore impart )reater de)ree of to1)hness and resistance to impact. :i)h mod1l1s
7bre s1ch as steel5 )rass and carbon impart stren)th and sti6ness to te composite.
>) Dis!#ss the !han(e in &eha'i"#r "4 !"n!rete e%p"se$ t" $i*erent le'els "4
temperat#re #p t" 1???J!.
Ep to abo1t 300 CC5 the concrete 1nder)oes normal thermal expansion.
$bo3e that temperat1re5 shrin+a)e occ1rs d1e to water lossY howe3er5 the a))re)ate
contin1es expandin)5 which ca1ses internal stresses.
$t *#0'##0 CC the cement hydrate decomposes5 yieldin) calci1m oxide.
Ep to abo1t #00 CC5 the ma4or str1ct1ral chan)es are carbonatation and coarsenin) of
$t #73 CC5 >1art; 1nder)oes rapid expansion d1e to phase transition.
Calci1m carbonate decomposes at abo1t 600 CC.
Concrete exposed to 1p to "00 CC is normally considered as healthy. The parts of a
concrete str1ct1re that is exposed to temperat1res abo3e approximately 300 CC
,dependent of water@cement ratio0 will most li+ely )et a pin+ color. O3er approximately
600 CC the concrete will t1rn li)ht )rey5 and o3er approximately "000 CC it t1rns yellow'
brown. Es1ally5 pin+ colored concrete is considered as a dama)ed one that sho1ld be
)?) What is the &asi! reH#irement "4 Re4ra!t"r6 !"n!rete "r hi(h temperat#re
resistant !"n!rete?
Aefractory concrete made with hi)h al1mina cement has a )ood resistance to acid
attac+5 the chemical attac+ is increased by 7rin) at 900'"000CC. The concrete can be
bro1)ht 1p to ser3ice temperat1re as soon as it is hardened i.e. it does ha3e to be pre'
7red. Aefractory hi)h'al1mina cement can withstand a considerable thermal shoc+.
)1) What is !reep in !"n!rete?
Creep is de7ned as a time'dependent deformation 1nder a constant load. The
creep de3elops in a concrete rapidly at the be)innin) and )rad1ally decreases with time.
$pproximately 7#B of the 1ltimate creep in concrete occ1rs d1rin) the 7rst year. The
total deformation of a reinforced concrete specimen consists of the instantaneo1s
deformation5 shrin+a)e deformation5 and creep.
)) Dis!#ss 4e+ salient 4eat#res "4 !reep in !"n!rete. Ill#strate 6"#r ans+er +ith
"0 Ender normal conditions of loadin)5 the instantaneo1s strain recorded depends on the
speed of application of the load and th1s incl1des not only the elastic strain b1t also
some creep.
!0 2t is diNc1lt to di6erentiate acc1rately between the immediate elastic strain and early
creep5 b1t this is not of practical importance as it is the total strain ind1ced by the
application of load that matters.
30 2f the stress is remo3ed after some period of time5 there is an instantaneo1s reco3ery
of the elastic strain and then slower reco3ery of some of the creep5 b1t not all. 2f the
concrete is reloaded at some later date5 instantaneo1s and creep deformations de3elop
*0 Creep in concrete is a post'elastic phenomena. 2n practice5 dryin) shrin+a)e and
3iscoelastic beha3ior s1ch as creep 1s1ally ta+e place sim1ltaneo1sly. Considerin) the
3ario1s combination of loadin)5 restainin)5 and h1midity conditions5 the followin) terms
are de7ned:
2. Tr1e or =asic Creep is de7ned as the creep that occ1rs 1nder conditions that there is
no dryin) shrin+a)e or moist1re mo3ement between concrete and ambient en3ironment.
22. peci7c Creep: is de7ned as creep strain per 1nit of applied stress:
222. 8ryin) Creep: is the additional creep that occ1rs when the specimen 1nder load is
also dryin).
2K. Creep CoeNcient: is de7ned as the ratio of creep strain to elastic coeNcient.

))) What is shrin=a(e "4 !"n!rete? 0"+ !an 6"# !"ntr"l shrin=a(e "4 !"n!rete?
hrin+a)e of concrete is the time'dependent strain meas1red in an 1nloaded and
1nrestrained specimen at constant temperat1re. 2t can be classi7ed as'
,a0 Plastic hrin+a)e
hrin+a)e of this type manifests itself soon after the concrete is placed in the forms
while the concrete is still in the plastic state. Hoss of water by e3aporation from the
s1rface of concrete or by the absorption by a))re)ate or s1b)rade5 is belie3ed to be
the reasons of plastic shrin+a)e. The loss of water res1lts in the red1ction of 3ol1me.
The a))re)ate particles or the reinforcement comes in the way of s1bsidence d1e to
which crac+s may appear at the s1rface or internally aro1nd the a))re)ate or
,b0 8ryin) hrin+a)e
Ender dryin) conditions5 the )el water is lost pro)ressi3ely o3er a lon) time5 as lon)
as the concrete is +ept in dryin) conditions. Cement paste shrin+s more than mortar
and mortar shrin+s more than concrete.
,c0 $1to)eneo1s hrin+a)e
$1to)eneo1s shrin+a)e is the conse>1ence of withdrawl of water from the capillary
pores by the anhydro1s cement particles. (ost of the anhydro1s shrin+a)e ta+es
place at the early a)e of hydration of cement.
,d0 Carbonation hrin+a)e
Carbonation shrin+a)e is probably ca1sed by the dissol1tion of crystals of calci1m
hydroxide and deposition of calci1m carbonate in its place. $s the new prod1ct is less
in 3ol1me than the prod1ct replaced5 shrin+a)e ta+es place.
Plastic shrin+a)e can be red1ced mainly by pre3entin) the rapid loss of water from
s1rface. This can be done by co3erin) the s1rface with polyethylene sheetin)
immediately on 7nishin) operationY by fo) spray that +eeps the s1rface moist.
)3) What are the pre!a#ti"ns that nee$ t" &e ta=en $#rin( mass !"n!retin( t"
a'"i$ h#(e heat "4 h6$rati"n?
Concrete can be precooled by 1sin) chilled batch water5 s1bstit1tin) ice for a
portion of the batch water5 or by li>1id nitro)en in4ection into the fresh concrete. 2f
si)ni7cant precoolin) is re>1ired5 internal coolin) pipes can be 1sed to red1ce the
amo1nt of precoolin). econd5 the concrete s1rface will li+ely also need to be ins1lated.
2ns1lation is needed to limit the temperat1re di6erence between the center and s1rface
so that thermal crac+in) is pre3ented or minimi;ed. One or two layers of concrete
ins1latin) blan+ets are often 1sed.
)5) What is the r"le "4 (6ps#m in !ement?
?yps1m is the set retarder for Ordinary Portland Cement ,OPC0. Mitho1t )yps1m5 )ro1nd
clin+er exhibits <ash settin) in a few min1tes5 d1e to the rapid hydration of calci1m
al1minates to form calci1m al1minate hydrate ,C$:0. =y this exothermic reaction the
matrix )ets sti6ened. The C$:5 th1s formed5 does not contrib1te for stren)th of the
matrix and5 moreo3er5 hampers the hydration of calci1m silicate. Chemical reaction in
the absence of )yps1m:
81e to aNnity of C
$ with O
5 al1minate tends to react with s1lphate and in this process
reaction of C
$ with water )et pre3ented. Eltimately5 )yps1m was identi7ed as the most
e6ecti3e form of s1lphate to control hydration reactions of C
$ that incidentally res1lted
in better wor+ability for a lon)er d1ration.
Chemical reaction in the presence of )yps1m is )i3en below:
)7) What is an ettrin(ite?
Ittrin)ite is a hydro1s calci1m al1mini1m s1lfate mineral with form1la:
O. The prismatic crystals are typically colo1rless5 t1rnin)
white on partial dehydration.Ittrin)ite is formed in hydration process of cement after the
reaction of calci1m s1lphate with tricalci1m al1minate.
ome properties of this material are:
8ensity: ".77 )@cm
Transparency: Transparent.
)8) 0"+ !an +e meas#re the am"#nt "4 mi!r"-p"res an$ siDe "4 ma%im#m
$iameter "4 p"re #sin( a s"phisti!ate$ ta&le?
(erc1ry porosimetry is a powerf1l techni>1e 1tili;ed for the e3al1ation of
porosity5 pore si;e distrib1tion5 and pore 3ol1me ,amon) others0 to characteri;e a wide
3ariety of solid and powder materials. The techni>1e in3ol3es the intr1sion of a non'
wettin) li>1id ,often merc1ry0 at hi)h press1re into a material thro1)h the 1se of a
porosimeter. The pore si;e can be determined based on the external press1re needed to
force the li>1id into a pore a)ainst the opposin) force of the li>1idRs s1rface tension.
The instr1ment5 +nown as a porosimeter5 employs a press1ri;ed chamber to force
merc1ry to intr1de into the 3oids in concrete. $s press1re is applied5 merc1ry 7lls the
lar)er pores 7rst. $s press1re increases5 the 7llin) proceeds to smaller and smaller
pores. =oth the inter'particle pores ,between the indi3id1al particles0 and the intra'
particle pores ,within the particle itself0 can be characteri;ed 1sin) this techni>1e.
$ force balance e>1ation +nown as Mashb1rnRs e>1ation for the abo3e material
ha3in) cylindrical pores is )i3en as:
Z press1re of li>1id
Z press1re of )as
Z s1rface tension of li>1id
Z contact an)le of intr1sion li>1id
Z pore diameter
)9) Dis!#ss XRDEEDX :eth"$ t" #n$erstan$ the !"mp"siti"n.
['ray defraction ,[A80 or Iner)y'dispersi3e ['ray spectroscopy ,I8[0 is an
analytical techni>1e 1sed for the elemental analysis or chemical characteri;ation of a
sample. 2t relies on the in3esti)ation of an interaction of some so1rce of ['ray excitation
and a sample. 2ts characteri;ation capabilities are d1e in lar)e part to the f1ndamental
principle that each element has a 1ni>1e atomic str1ct1re allowin) 1ni>1e set of pea+s
on its ['ray spectr1m. To stim1late the emission of characteristic ['rays from a
specimen5 a hi)h'ener)y beam of char)ed particles s1ch as electrons or protons5 or a
beam of ['rays5 is foc1sed into the sample bein) st1died. $t rest5 an atom within the
sample contains )ro1nd state ,or 1nexcited0 electrons in discrete ener)y le3els or
electron shells bo1nd to the n1cle1s. The incident beam may excite an electron in an
inner shell5 e4ectin) it from the shell while creatin) an electron hole where the electron
was. $n electron from an o1ter5 hi)her'ener)y shell then 7lls the hole5 and the di6erence
in ener)y between the hi)her'ener)y shell and the lower ener)y shell may be released in
the form of an ['ray. The n1mber and ener)y of the ['rays emitted from a specimen can
be meas1red by an ener)y'dispersi3e spectrometer. $s the ener)y of the ['rays are
characteristic of the di6erence in ener)y between the two shells5 and of the atomic
str1ct1re of the element from which they were emitted5 this allows the elemental
composition of the specimen to be meas1red.
)>) Dis!#ss KAl=ali-a((re(ate Rea!ti"nL. 0"+ !an 6"# !"ntr"l KAl=ali-a((re(ate
The mixin) water t1rns to be a stron)ly ca1stic sol1tion d1e to sol1bility of
al+alies from the cement. The ca1stic sol1tion attac+s reacti3e silica of a))re)ate to
form al+ali'silica )el of 1nlimited swellin) type. Contin1o1s )rowth of silica )el exerts
stron) osmotic press1re to ca1se pattern crac+in) partic1larly in thin section li+e
pa3ement. This phenomenon res1lts in loss of stren)th and elasticity.
$l+ali a))re)ate reaction can be controlled by:
a0election of non'reacti3e a))re)ates.
b0=y 1se of low al+ali cement5
c0=y the 1se of correcti3e admixt1re s1ch as po;;olanas.
d0=y controllin) 3oid space in concrete
e0=y controllin) moist1re condition and temperat1re.

3?) What $" 6"# mean &6 rhe"l"(i!al pr"perties "4 !"n!rete? What is a
31) What $" 6"# mean &6 M$#ra&ilit6 "4 !"n!reteN? Dis!#ss +ith e%amples "4 a!i$
atta!=, !ar&"nate atta!=.
81rability of concrete is de7ned as its ability to resist weatherin) action5 chemical
attac+5 abrasion5 or any other process of deterioration to maintain its ori)inal form5
>1ality5 and ser3iceability when exposed to its intended ser3ice en3ironment.
$cid attac+:
(ost acid sol1tions will slowly or rapidly disinte)rate portland cement concrete
dependin) 1pon the type and concentration of acid. (ost 31lnerable part of cement
hydrate is Ca,O:0
b1t C'': )el can also be attac+ed. Concrete can be attac+ed by
water of p: 3al1e less than 6.#5 b1t attac+ is se3ere when p: 3al1e is less than #.#. $s
the attac+ proceeds5 all cementitio1s materials leached away to)ether with any
carbonate a))re)ate. 2f acids are able to reach the reinforcin) steel thro1)h crac+s5
corrosion can occ1r.
Carbonate attac+:
Carbonation of concrete is a process by which CO
from the air penetrates into
concrete and reacts with calci1m hydroxide to form calci1m carbonates. Aate of
carbonation depends 1pon se3eral factors li+e relati3e h1midity5 )rade of concrete5
permeability of concrete etc. The hi)hest rate of carbonation occ1rs at a relati3e
h1midity of between #0 to 70 percent.

3) What is lea!hin( "4 !"n!rete? Dis!#ss +ith an e%ample pr"'i$in( emphasis "n
Mhen water <ows thro1)h crac+s present in concrete5 water may dissol3e 3ario1s
minerals present in the hardened cement paste or in the a))re)ates5 if the sol1tion is
1nsat1rated with respect to them. 8issol3ed ions5 s1ch as calci1m ,Ca!.05 are leached
o1t and transported in sol1tion some distance. 2f the physico'chemical conditions
pre3ailin) in the seepin) water e3ol3e with distance alon) the water path and water
becomes s1persat1rated with respect to certain minerals5 they can f1rther precipitate5
ma+in) deposits or e\orescences inside the crac+s5 or at the concrete o1ter s1rface.
This process can ca1se the self'healin) of fract1res in partic1lar conditions.
3)) What is the e*e!t "4 +ater 'ap"#r press#re insi$e the p"res "4 !"n!rete 4"r
!"n!rete s#&Ie!te$ t" hi(h temperat#re?
There is always some amo1nt of moist1re entrapped within the 3oids of concrete.
?enerally these interstitial 3oids of concrete are interconnected. 2n concretes s1b4ected
to hi)h temperat1re5 this water )ets e3aporated5 which ca1ses an increase in 3ol1me
and also the 3apo1r press1re. Thro1)h the interconnected 3oids this 3apo1r press1re
mo3es to di6erent portions of concrete and )ets dissipated. This is +nown as Umoist1re
=1t if we 1se 7ner additi3es li+e <y ash and silica f1me in the concrete5 the 3oids
decrease to a 3ery low amo1nt and are no lon)er interconnected. This pre3ents the
moist1re mo3ement5 and res1lts in the increase in tremendo1s 3apo1r press1re at a
sin)le point. This press1re )ets dissipated s1ddenly ca1sin) a bi) explosion.
33) 0"+ t" assess $#ra&ilit6 "4 !"n!rete &6 M4ra!t#re ener(6 appr"a!hN?
35) 0"+ !an 6"# relate 4ra!t#re ener(6 !"n!rete +ith $#!tilit6 "4 !"n!rete
37) Dis!#ss &eam test relatin( assessment "4 4ra!t#rin( ener(6.
38) What $" 6"# mean &6 Mp"r"sit6 an$ s"rpti'it6N "4 !"n!rete?
orpti3ity is a meas1re of how >1ic+ly concrete will draw water in by capillary
action with no press1re head. This is a sensiti3e meas1rement method. orpti3ity can
sometimes be estimated from absorption or 3ol1me of permeable 3oids b1t other
parameters may ne)ate this.
39) What $" 6"# mean &6 (el-spa!e rati"?
The )el'space ratio is the ratio of the 3ol1me of solid prod1cts of hydration to the space
a3ailable for these hydration prod1cts.
Het5 CZwei)ht of cement in )m.
KZpeci7c 3ol1me of cement in ml@)m. Z0.3"9
wZwater cement ratio
$ss1min) "ml of cement on hydration prod1ces !.06ml of )el5
Kol1me of )elZC x .3"9 x !.06 Z0.6#7C
pace a3ailableZ0.3"9C.w.C
?el'space ratio after complete hydrationZ0.6#7@ ,0.3"9.w0
$ hi)her )el'space ratio red1ces the porosity and therefore increases the stren)th of
concrete. $ hi)her water'cement ratio decreases the )el'space ratio increasin) the
porosity thereby decreasin) the stren)th of concrete.
Power and =rown yard established relationship between )el'space ratio and stren)th.
Mhere5 Ztren)th of concrete and rZ)el'space ratio
3>) What $" 6"# mean &6 se!"n$ar6 h6$rati"n "4 PPC?
Portland cement prod1ces calci1m silicate hydrate )el and lime by the process of
hydration. This hydration process is +nown as primary hydration.
Primary :ydration Aeaction:
PPC is a Portland cement blended with po;;olana. Po;;olana is a siliceo1s or siliceo1s
and al1mino1s material5 which in itself possesses little or no cementin) property. =1t in
7nely di3ided form and in the presence of moist1re5 it chemically reacts with lime
,liberated by Portland cement0 at ordinary temperat1res to form compo1nds possessin)
cementitio1s properties. This process is termed as secondary hydration of PPC.
econdary :ydration Aeaction:
5?) What is p"l6mer !"n!rete?
Concrete which 1ses polymers to s1pplement or replace cement as a binder is termed as
polymer concrete. 2n polymer concrete5 thermosettin) resins are 1sed as the principal
polymer component d1e to their hi)h thermal stability and resistance to a wide 3ariety
of chemicals. Polymer concrete is also composed of a))re)ates that incl1de silica5
>1art;5 )ranite5 limestone5 and other hi)h >1ality material. The a))re)ate m1st be of
)ood >1ality5 free of d1st and other debris5 and dry. &ail1re of these criteria can red1ce
the bond stren)th between the polymer binder and the a))re)ate.
$d3anta)es of polymer concrete incl1de:
a0 Aapid c1rin) at ambient temperat1res
b0 :i)h tensile5 <ex1ral5 and compressi3e stren)ths
c0 ?ood adhesion to most s1rfaces
d0 ?ood lon)'term d1rability with respect to free;e and thaw cycles
e0 How permeability to water and a))ressi3e sol1tions
f0 ?ood chemical resistance
)0 ?ood resistance a)ainst corrosion
h0 Hi)htwei)ht ,8ensityZ!!60 +)@m
ome safety iss1es arise o1t of the 1se of polymer concrete. The monomers can be
3olatile5 comb1stible5 and toxic. 2nitiators5 which are 1sed as catalysts5 are comb1stible
and harmf1l to h1man s+in. Polymer concretes also cost si)ni7cantly more than
con3entional concrete.