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ib al-'Abl,as al--Mursr, and his Myetioal Thought
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,bii-.l.'Abb_ al-Mur.II
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.l Study ot Some Aspeot'. His M;ys't1oa1 'l'ho\lght
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Sobh1 Mina BotroB
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A Theai . submitted'to
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the Faou1ty ot Oraduate StudieB and ot MoOil1
> in Fulftlment of tor
the Degr!8. ot Kaster ot Arts
in Studiea
Montreal t Qu.ebeo
1976
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Sobhi Mina' Botro,s' 1977 \
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The writer or thesie wiahes his
to the- Institut6- of IalarAie Studies and to
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the.e who make thi. work possible. Special aok-
however, is due to Dr. Hermann Landolt, pre--
feasor ct Islamie Mystieism at the Institute, for his eon-

stant guidanqe, his construotive and'his aoade-
\, mio sup\8rvision, withot whieh this thesia weuld' not have
seen the dawn of light.
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S.M.BotroB
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Name
Title
Abltract
: Sobhi M'ina Botros
z Ab &1-' AbbA. al-Mur.t 1 A Stud;r o't Ali'p'eot a ot
hil M;ratical Th6ught.
Department: lilstitte of l,slamic Studies

Degree ' 1 of Arta
AbU al-'Abbaa a prominent poai'ion
in Egypt_as a great myatic/of the aeventh qentury A.H.(13th cent.
A.D.), and he still livea on in the minds of people as a
'saint and a worker of mi,racles, no attempt has, up ti'll "now, beell'
made ta analyze-, his Henoe this stndy whioh attempts
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ta preent aspeots of this la1nt 's oonoept"', oto analyze tWemt'
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and eitner ta trace th.ID, "henwer possible, to 'the.1r' origins in
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writinga of preo.dins myatio., or to,point ot their originality.
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A8 tar a8 'the place ot Ab al-' Abb&s al-Murs1 in the
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division of mysticiBlll into ,schools Jar thought 1a oonoerned, thia .
atudy.ifeho"s that hs lIlay sat'ely be oonaldsred aa'-a 't'aithtul
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" ot the "ola trend that \0 adhere to the Qor 'in and the
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lelamie traclitional -1- and ruls., rath!,r. than r1.k oondemnation
for AD1 enrellia.
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Abstract
NOIi _. s Sobhi Mina Botros 'i.
Titre 1 Ab al-'Ab'bis al-Murarz Une 'tude de
de sa pen.'e myatique
, D6partement: L'Institut, des Etuda Islamique.
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Bien qu' Ab Abb&. al-Mur.r ai t une 1 poa'i tion
pr'dominante en Egypte ccmme grand mystique du VIla' A.H.
(XIIIe -et bien qu'il vive encore dana la
pena'. du peuple comm. un aaint et un taiseur de miracles. aucun
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,.8eai n.!... 't' tait, juaqu '1 pr'.ent. dan. le but d'anal;yaer .e.
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pens'e. M1atiques. D'oa cette 'tude qui easaie de pr'.enter quelques
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. aspeota dea conoepts 4e ce la1nt, de les &aalyaer, de retraper,
autant que poasible, leur origine daD. les 'crita des mystiques 1
"pa 's, et de mcntrer leur original1t'.
Quant a. l place;IqU' Ab al-'Abbas al-Mursr occupe dans la'
division g6D4rale de mystioisme des 'ooles de pena'., cette 'tude
montre qu'il' et -raut de le consid'rer un-
du trait olas.ique & choisi d'adh'rer BU' Qor'&n et aux voie.
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et islamiques traditionnelles, plut8t que de risquer dt
Itre condamn' pour quelqu' eX'tr'mi8llle capricieux. ,
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CONTENTS,
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1. INTRODUCTION l
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II. INTRODUCING ABU AL-'ABBAs 10
III. THE AO'l'KmTICITY OP AB AL-' AL-MURSf.... 18
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IV. THE SPIRlTUAL-utICATION OP ABfJ At-'ABBAs
AL-MURSr 27
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V. SONE ASPEcTS OP ABU AL-' ABBAS AL-MURS' s
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MYSTICAL THOUGHT 36
1- Saints and Sainthood
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- 1 (Awli,a' and )d1&yah) 36
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The Pole 'and POleehip ,
_ (Qutb and Qntb&ftiyyah) 65
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3- The Seeker
(Al-MurJd) 78
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BIBLIoaRAPHY 94
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1. INTROWC'1'10N
!he ohoioe ot ib al-'Abbae .l-Mur.r ae the topio ot thie thesi'
was Ilot: a haphazard one on the part of the wri t.r ba.t wal rather the
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ot pereonal oUrioltty. Being Egyptian by'birtb, md hanng spent ..
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of: my lite in Alexandria, where Ab al-'Abbas beoue a great myat1c
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maater,i 1 could not help hearing the Bhaykh's Dame and spoten
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about r,verentlyby people of different ,levela of education and
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Moreover, the annivar'a&ry (!'Jl&wiid) 'Of Ab al-'Abbas 'AB,
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and 1e, oelebrat',d with such pomp and fanfare, with BO
people attendiDg, that 1 felt iDtrigued by the power and influence'that
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the ahaykh Itill exerciled even a!ter the pasBage of some even centur;iea
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lince he paBsed awa'l. AlthouSh _ a tollower of the Christian latth,
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the tual and my.tic&! halo aurrounding Ab a1-' Abbil, and the shaykh' a
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lIiraouloua interventions. md ao!.s, aven aner his death, aroused rq
ait y even mqre. Bence this attempt at .acquiring an underlltanding ot thia '
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great man, which is b,. 11.0 meana cOlllprehensive nor 90mplete, at .as
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far aB his thougnta are Ho"ever, I1Dce aD anal1tical discussion
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ot-the mystioal' ide as fnd ooncepta of Ab al-'Abhis ha. never been done
betora, and s1nge a tull inolusion of 'all this saint '1 th_ta mipt
require hundreds ot paps to :tendld to 'make this thesis '
repre.lntative and coherent rather than comprehensive SAd inconaiatnt.
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, atudy of Ab al-tAbbis, and ot sOlIIe of his myBtica1 thought t
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W&S not an e.al one, tor fhe 8h&7kh himse1t did not write aDy books, ,
tollowing in thia attitude the ateps ot 'hi. _ecealor Abii a1-11aa&l1 &l-
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ShadhUr<l) who used- to .al, "11' book" are rAT COrApanions.,,(2) Moreover,
aome ot the manuaoriptl that l kncw exiated in Egypt and contained re-
- - ' tereneea to A' al-'Abbas vere impos.ible to pt hold ot when, l tr1ed to
eonsult the. tor the aiple, but truatratinl, rea.en that a1l
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,put aRy in ... ..te place tor teU' ot having the. damaged in olte ny or
ADother as ot the' .tate of' w8r between and Israel.
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,However, l in the book La:ta'i't tI M&Zl'&qib al-Shaykh
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Abr al- 1 Abbas al-MuraI wa Shaykhihi bT Taj al-Mn ibn' Ata'
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Auib al-5akandarr, (3) .mple material to torm a reasonably cle.r idea
about Ab al-'Abbil, and to be able to present hill to the reader in an
academicallT org&n1zed tashion. '!'he importance ot th,1,a primarT source
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ariaes trOll the tact that the author, l'br\ tAta' Allah, was cne ot the
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two leading disciples ot Abu al-tAbbas al-Mursl, th' other being,_
y&qt (known also &!. al-'Arabf aner Qod'a 'arsh)(4)

who vas the aame tille Ab al-'Abbts 80n-in-law. It we add to this
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the tact that t aner the death ot AlN. al-'Abbas, 1= 'Ata' Allah blcame
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the disoiple ot yiqt
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we ma1 cOI1clude that the material
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included in the book Lata'it al-M1n&n may be conaidered a8 doubly authen-
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tic, tor Ibn f.lta' Allah must have had a 100d oppcrtunity not on11 to

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/ listen ta Ab al'Abb&a hillselt, but al80 to have the thoughts ot the
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probably repeated. revieved, and may bI discusaed md clarU'ied
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br yiqit al-Habailhl. (S.. cl1ag1"U on pace 4)

JDother 1mport8Dt point that 8hould be mentioned about Ibn 'lta'

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'11&11 tha't he R. not Just an ignorant disoiple who to1lowed and
believed in AbU al-tAbbA. blindl,-. On the contrar,-. he wa.a a man ot
tame .d know1edge. a juriaprudent well-veraad in I8lamie,
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('ulm who \been f\111 ot about
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the str ways in general and about Ab al-'Aboas in partioular

Hovever, when he deoided to keep an open mind and go see the Bh-.ykh, he
wa. .0 intl:uenoed bi the .haykh 1. ward. that he turned int 0 one of hi a
olo.en . ( 5)
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In ot the relai11D.hiP 'betveen Abu al-'Abbas- and Ibn
'Ata' AllAh, the latter ta Lata'if lDay 'be oODsidered an honeat .

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and objeoti ve report ot the viewa t'of Abu 1.1-' Abbas for the reason that
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the author did not try in any vay:to overglority hia 8haykh nOr to ascribe
to him nything that waa not witnessed to by himself or/and by other
eminent people. S01lletimea, however, Ibn 'Ata' All&h adopted aD apologetio

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attitude vhen a view ot Ab al-'Abbas was in direot oontra.t to the
commQn Stf beliet. A good example of'thia 1a what he ottered by way,ot
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justifioation for his .haykh's, and al-5h8dhilr
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a, attitude t'toward8
waring rich olothe.. drinldng oold and eating delicioua tood,
that there was no harm in doing that 80 -long &8 it W&B coupled
wi th thanJd'u.lnea. to ( 6)
On the whole, l telt that the book ot Ibn 'Ata' .ulAh could be taken

aa an acceptable and relira'ble aource for the ot AlN al-'Abbas,
especially 1.8 it vas reoognized aa BUch by important people on the sti

well aa by others academio811y interested in the Sh8dhilr sohool
ot thought.
!Rother important primary source that helped bring out and o1arity
the ... &Ild attitudes ot Abii al-'tbb&a' Durrat &l-:ABrir va
Tuhfat al-A'brar by KuhUllllad ibn Ab! al-QiailD .. t DOwn ibn
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Who li ved in the tiret Paf ot the eighth oentury A.B. (l4th
cent. '.D.)(7) aIld' about wholl no real information could be gleaned. ":1
. took thi. book ... a one to Lata'if al-Minan Binee it
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wuly w1 th Abi al-BanDt-al-sbldhilt ud mentions Ab! 1.1-' Abbls, in a
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separate ohapt.r, as the most 'important disoipie, and 1ater the suocessor
and heir, of al-5hdhilr. This book ditters trom al-Minan in one '

important point that iI f'ound valuable to my S'tudy: While the author of'
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Lata'it al-IUnan sot Ms material and information directly trOll Ab al-
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'AbbAs &l-Mur.r, Ibn al-5abb&gh obtained his trOID Ab a1-'Aza'im M&dr
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ibn Sultan,(S) the diaoipl. and of Ab al-Basan al-Shidh'uf,


and trom Ab Abd-All8h Muhammad t known aa Sharaf al-nin, the son ot

,a1-Habashr.(9) The ditterent sourcea ot theBe two books (aee

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diagram below) helped me compare the repor:t;s of the two authorB and
ascertain the genuineness ot material included.
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AbU a1-' Abb&s
MBdi '\

Ibn ' Ata' All&h Sharaf al-Din
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(Lata'if' al-ll1nan)

Ibn al-5ao'biBh

(Du.rrat al-Asrar) ,.
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The other books that l used as sources of intormation, about .l'o &1-
'Abbas are a11 secondary ones which drew, tor their matarial, mainly
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upon the two above-mentioned prillary sources. Theae secondary aources
are al1 lIentioned in the bibliography, but on1y sOllle of them are referred
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to in the tooinotea, tor the aimple reaBon only contained
quotationa trom th. tvo prim&ry sources wit signiticant or oritioa1
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additions. Those books referred to _ay be cl&ssit1ed into tour
1- The of 'Atrf'-al-Drn al-'Sa'adat al-Yari ,r, and of"'Abd-al-
Wahhab al-Sha 'rani; 2- the book of Hasan al-5andbr, of Ahnaad Husayn al-

Disy8:wi t and cf Dr. 'Abd.-al-Halrm 14ahmd; 3- the book ot Dr. zaJcI
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Mubirak, ot Dr. '.ur Satr and of Dr.' t,A,bd. ... Jlahmd;
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4- ot'R.A.Nioholson, or I.Goldziher, and of J.S.T.rimingham.
The til-st category includes books that were wri tten by actual Strs
who praotical on path. and who
practising adherents to the Sh8dhi11 school of thought, malte their
. writings, their being only a seoond hjd.. report ,a
( veritied ,support to the authentici ty of their material.
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'!'he second "category includes books that deal me4,nly wi th, the lite
and thou:gb.t ot Ab al-'Abbis al-Mursr. The moat important of thes8 books
is undoubtedly \iasan al-Sandbr's al-',A,bb8is al-Mursr wa Masjiduhu
bi-al-rskandari:yya.h, pUblished in 1944- Although the parts of
the book that contain material about Ab al-'Abbas are mere reproductions
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ot their counterpa.rts in Lata'if al-Minm without 'any, attempt at 8'tudying,
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or analyzing'hem, yet this book haB aspects that the two
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-- others in this category. do -not share. ,it uses for l'eterenoes titty
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books including Lata'if al-Minan excluding Durrat al-Asrar wa Tuhfat

al-Abrar. Second, and .of' greater' i'mportance, it researches every s1nafle
name of a11 the people and locations it ln i1;, which_ .spect liaS
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ot great value to the s'tudy lUldertaken in this As for the two
other books, i.e. J.b 8J.-Mursr in 1965 A.D.) ,
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by Ahmad lb.sayn al-Disyawi, and al-'Arit bi-Allah AbU al-'Abbas aJ,-Kurai
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(published 1972 .l.D:') by Dr: enougb. to ]
say that t 'aside .. tro", their attempts at giving 'a general ide a to the reader
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about' !trsm, 'the material thei ia . direct t though .selective
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oOPY o! the same oontained in Lata'it al-Minan. Theretore, the three

book. in 10hia category did not help in 8Zly vay towards the analy"tical
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atudy of the myatioal thought ot AlN al-' Abbas that appears in thie
thea1a.
The th1rd catecory include.< three bookl that cont&1rl & comparative
lJtudy ot d1tt8rent .ohoole ot myatical thOUBbt. One ot the.e books in
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particular, nuely al-Adab al-8fr fI Miar 1'1 al-Qarn al-Sabi' al-Hijrr

'Alr safi Husayn (published in 1964 A.n.) vaa ot vAlue to thia th is
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in that the author oompared. tKougb brietly, the attitude. of the Sfr

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mastera 1n Ic1Pt in the aeventh century A.H. (13th cent. A.n.) tovard.
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oertain myatical ooncepta, "oh al the dual of man verns God.
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the unit Y or onenesa of existence (wahdat al-wujd). the oloak
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ot the lIhQkh (khirqah) eto. The Dlost important of 10heae maneJ:$ who
vere of Ab &1-' Abb&a al-Murar t are 'Umar i bu al-'arid ( 10)

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(d. 632 A.H. - 1234 A.n.). al-Sayyid al-Badarwi (d. 675 A.H. - 1276 A.D.),
-and Ibrh1m (d. 676 A.H. - 1277 A.D.). However, in spite ot
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the fact that sOlle 6t the thoughts of lb al-1Abb&a are 'included in th e
ll
books, ;rt again are anallzed or even' traced back to previous
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or contemporary masters.
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booka written by Weatern acholars. Theae booka deal with str concepts

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and orders and hav, &iven me some inaight aa regarda oertain pointa in
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my lItudy. eapeci,ally whu oompari80n of a1:t1 tudea vaa undertake. This
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lI&y be aeen in the ohapter ot thia paper which ia devotecl to _,801118 of
the'myatical concepta of AbU and where several lare
made to R.A.Nioholson'. &pd I.Ooldziher'a
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1- 'AlI ibn 'Abel-Allah ibn 'Abd-e.l-Jabbar ibn Tamrm Rurmuz ibn
Hatim ibn. ibn Iwt ilm l'sba' ibn warel i1m Battal ibn Idris Muhammad

ibli .! ibn HuhUllllacl ibn al-Hal&n ibn '411 ibn Ab! 'l'al1b (0.593-656 A.B.-
.. .,
A.D.) is known al al-Bhdhi1r atter the village ct, Sh8dhilah
in Ancther IItcr)' told about his tUle is that the a)'lch
aBked God why He c81led him al-ShBdhilr,and reoeived the divine &nawer
,
'that \he tUle al-Sh&dhclh li (exceptionally oZ" tor )/
that he WB 81ng1ed out tor God 's servioe and love. Be vas born
at the village ot in the tar wat and iravelled tar and vide
until he came to. 8ett1a down in Egypt where he tound.d the Shadhilr
Tarrqah (Rf, path, Bchool.ot thoUSht). He died in 656 A.B. (1258 A.D.)
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white on hi8 wa:t to Xaldtah. tOI' the holy pllgriup, and wu buried a1:
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HulDaytharab. on the Red Se. oout in the deaeri ot qdhib in UPPIIl'
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(Durrah pp. 23 tollowi:l'l8' , Lata'if: pp. 53 tollowing Il

Sha'raar: part 2 pp. 4 tolloW1ng)
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3- "b &1-' AbbiB Ahmad ibn Muhaaaad ibn 'Abd-al-JCarfm i lm
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tAta' All&h al-Judhmf al-SakaDdarI (d. 707 or 709 A.B. - 1307 or
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1309 A.D.) vae the devaut di8ciple ot Ab al-'Abb&8 al-MursI and the
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pl'OpagatoZ". ot hi8 teachinga both thrOUBh diBcouraing to his own disciples
- and by writing Lata'it al-Kinan in vhich he inoluded the myatical
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utt81'iup rmd thoupta ot "lN &1- t Abb. !le 1a"ote laeveral lII)'1Itioal booka
and. poe lion ot vhloh exiat The beet lalown ot the , &8id.
trOll al-JIin&Dt are al-Hilcam al-'Ata'nah, al-Tanvtr tI Isqat
J. .. .
at..llad.'bir, Taj al-'A,r. al-Hiwt' 11-'r&hdh1b al-Hut8, al .... a.rqa 11& al-
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Quda al-Abqa., ud al-'l'uhtah. When he died he vaa burfed at al-Qaratab.
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al-Sugbra (the 8IIal1 celllet81'Y) a.t the lIIountain of al-Muqattam on the
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outakirta ot Cairo, ..
(Sha 'riDi: part 2 p. 19
'Sandbl: pp.103 tolloWing)
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4- yiqit ibn 'Abd.-All8h al-Babaah! (born in al-Hab&ahah Ab1lleinia),
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knovn &1ao' aB al-'bahi artel' 'tihroile ('&rab) (el.707 or. 132 A.B. -\
1307 or 1331: A.D.) wa, th. di.iple anel 80n-in-lav of Abit al-'Abbis
,
'The latter had 'pred1ot.d hie birth anel, 1at.r OD, when yiqt
cu. to be hi. di.ciple, he hill to hi. daughter, Bahjali, yiqt
,
tieel in A1exuclria and hie grave still nanel. in the IIlO.qu. that o&l'rie.
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... hi. DAIlle ript be.ide that ot ahaykh Ab al-' AbbAs.
(Sha'ranr. part 2 18-19 & 1 Sandbr: pp. 114-115)
5- S.e here p. 23
6": Lata'it: 145

7- Durratapp. 4, 211
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8- Ab al-'Aza'im Sultan (d. 718 A.H. - 1318 A.D.) v .. the -
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disciple and .ervant cf A.bu a1-Bu&Il al-shadh11i WOIll he aooompinied

to r.eid. permanent11 in Egypt, leaving Se waa one ot the
sroup who vere vith al-Sh&dhi1r when the latter- died and waa buried at
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Humaytharah in the de rt ot '.Aydhab. Fol10wing this, he nayed Vith \
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Abu al-'Abba8 until"th. latter die4 and then returned to Tuni8. B. va.
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the o,other o(":.a.b tAbcl:-AlIBh ibn Su1\_ the 'tamous mnt
(walI) in ,TiiDia (died 8evera1 (18are befora his xidI)
. .. .
r(Lata'if: p. 72 & Durrat: pp. 22, 31, 179-180,-203)

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9- Durrat: 22
10- 'l1aa.r ibn Abr al-Haaan '1I.ibn RUBhd ibn 'Al! ibn al-Par id
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-as Ab Hats,

and aleo as Ab al-Q&aim) (576 or 566 556-632 A.B. -
1180 or 1170 or 1160-1234 A.n.) W&8 on8 ot th greateai St! poet.
in EQpt and W&8 ca11ed king ot lover. (Sultan al-cmhibbrD and Sultan
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a1:"'h1qrll). Be. d.1ed at 'th osque ot al-Ashar and wu barieel at al-
Qaratah (the oelleter)') on the side ot the IIlOWltain of al-Kuqattu on
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the out.tins of Cairo. '

(al-Adaba pp. 91-116') .
11- Ah.ad ibn. 'AlI ibn Ibrihrm al-HulI&1Jl! Ab al-'Abb& 'al-:BadawI
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A..H. - '1199-1276 A..) wa. barn ,at Pa. in al-*acUib. Sis
tather took the whole famil)" and moveel ta JCakkah, ln 603 A.H.
, A.D.) aner hea:ring' a in sleep. "hilll 't;, do
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Il
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Ahmad. Vi.ited Iraq. and. SFia, vent baok to Makkah, and in,obedieno.
. ,
to a divine voiee that repeatedl,. told hi. to 10 to Tud..tah (lalown
\ - .
nov .... Tanta) in 10wer Imt. :he went ther. in ,634 A.H. (1236 A.D.)
. . \ , ' , ,
md.. .pent hie tir.t twelve' 'OJl the roof ,ot the houlle ot'a lIhayth
oalled.. ibll Shahrt. Kan,. joined.. hill path (tarrer)' vhich wu,

ad .till ia, bOND aa al-&b
m
adi17 alter hi. UlM, or a1-Su:thinah
'. . .
aner the root (auth) ot 1'bD Shahrt la hou.e. AIIon, hill 1I0.t tuou.

tolloverl and admirera ,va. al-Zihir Brbars. ber,. up
- \ . -
to the prellet' a great anniveraary celebration (1I&1I11d..) Md.. a market
(aU'q) are he1d in Tanta where tbou8Mda ot p.ople oOlle trOll al1 over

Egypt to parti.oipate in the oelbration ud.. to pt '. ble ing.
'\
,r,
12- IbrihI'. ibn lbr al-llajd.. ibn Qur&1Bh ibn Muh_d (-633-676 A.B. -
. '.\. \"
1235-1277 ':.1...) coe. back in tamil,. tre. to ibn '.Ur
., '
i'bD I.br '!'&lib. Be vall:a great saint (rut)! at DeWt,',Id . hOlle tom,
. -
iD. Lowv EQpt. He ..rote a big. book, cal,led sl-Jawihir.. u.d.. .everal
pO.IIS that are very ditticult to und..erlltand altho&h acme judp that
1
the,. ... tendenoy towarda unit1 or ot exiStence, .. t
, - '. -
part 1 pp. 143-158 & al-A'lizaz part 1 p. 54)
1
8,
,\
'.
'\ .
..
j, '
, .1.
.'

. ,
.... "
.,
"
"
l ,"
11. A.B .u,..' AL-XURsf
- 1212-1287.
. 1
, .
1
SlUhab al-lin al-tAbb&. Abaa4 i ... \ 'UUr ibn "'Alt al-xhurajl
_ _ ' .' (1-a) _ (;1':-b)
al-Annri al-Murar vaa barn in 616 A.H. A.1).) at Murli,.ah . in
1;;
, t ' ..
Anclaluaia (al-Anclalu,) hi a 'Umar ibn' Al!. wu ,.' meroh-
ante It ia 'beUevecl that the tamil)' tree of !bIl al-'Abb&. "Int back'
to Qe ibrl Sa'cl, who wu the ruer (amIr) ot EQpt tOI' 'AlI ibrl
. .
!&li'b" and. to on. of)ke
Sa'd ibn ,'Ubdah al-AIll-i.(2)"hO val th. maat.r ot al-Ihuraj at the
, .
,
ti.1 ot -the Prophet. IAbi ha4 aD elcllr Ab
'A'bd-Allah ,al-Di'n 'acl the two '1I81d. to helJ their tath.r
in hi. tradl whioh required. a lot ot around.,
When AbI al-'A.bbU , etill a 'bo;y, it 1 111 that he ahoved .ar11
1'.ligioua and .pirit,.J. tlllclenoi whioh lat el', d.velopecl to make Mm
..
the grlat pole (qutb) that h. 0 ... to be. l'bD lAt;' Allih repori. that
. . " . ' . ,
/,
he once heard the abaykh say t-hat-, ... a boy, he. wu vith hi. tutor
, ,
vritiq on .late J. ...n approaohld hilD Mcl .ai4, "A /
o '
siri" doe. Dot " '!'he boi 'A.lN "11:
. '
1
, , 1
i. not .. JOU 01&1., l'ather. hl clo not blacka th. ot
, .
(Abi'it, '.1nC ftah 1.e. on.'. puri lit.) vith the blaome ot

.iD " .bide' ,ho. th tend.IDoi8., A"Di al-'AbbU ha4,
tor, a tUtor, a .&illt1l person who to have talcen ever1 opportunitl"
t Ilead. hi., pupil path to 004. !b retlZ'l'ea to '
.. " ..
, \ 1
1. ot .cluoatioD and. l\d.alc. bl :tU. i,lluB.t'ratlve
, '. :' ". . _' ,'" '.:. ( ;: :' :. ',"', ' l ,
st or,. Once, whil. ..U.ll a ... 11 'b91, 1 ''bit' al:-' .tbbil went ,to a
l , ).' ... (H
ph&lltOIa ,'111.- bie
" '\ .. nI, 1 (' \ 1 1 : '\ , t \, .. , - \) 'J ',oJ,,) \ t, 1 '. ' 1 \
'\ 1 ) j 'J 1) '> ,r l , ,. '\ )._! l ,
'1 '"', ": ,,', ,e.'" ""::,,,' ,,' .... '",.
'. .. \ - ... _ j ',1 "- ",,', "l'
cl .. _ Il \";') ,,'" 0::,1.,\" 4\,,;_1,," ,")' (' ',, ,
.. or l , \ j" d, ," :\ \' l' J,' ',.. .. 1 .. 1 : ... ( , 1 - 'r ,,'\ ! ...1 r 'j' ,'l" \0; Il ) ,
\

1
1
-11-
...'.. 1 \ ,
applUUlC' b.tore hi.'tutcr,' 'the 1att.r rlc.ivlcl hia vith vorcl. ot
- t
, t r'
'critic18m that'hl rlciil4 1n v.r'l tora. "0 vatchlr ot i .....
in voncllr .. JOU azoJ' 1OUl'.11t phantOll'\, "'1" 1011 to "(4)
At the ct tant7 toar (640 A.B. - 1242 A.D.), AlN a1-'Abb
, , ,
,
&OcclIIP_ied hi. tather, alonc 'vith the 'reat thl t1oll11;r, on a trip
b,- vith th. 1nt_t1011' ot p.rtorll1nl' the,hol, p11er1 ..... Untor-
,
, - -
iuatll" wh11 &111nl' clo to thl coallt ot Buna, ft norm bl." and
,
th.ir .ank takinl clown vi 1 t .oat ot, th. p .. '.pr. aboard.
AlN al-' Abb Uld hi. .1der broth.r ",rI th. ,on1, ... ber. ct the1r
. '
tu1l, to Mk. "cap'. Th. tvo h,a4ed. tor 'fi. whlrl thlt '
tor roae t1 ... (5)
Th, atorr ot th firn .... ting bltwe,n A'bii _d ,"Di al-
al-8hi4ll!, &l, &iV.1l bl Alli hi."lt,,(6) .ound.a,
l ,
I.tine aDc1 vu obviou.17. "'Mt 'to r.veal th. 1Il)'IIt1cal talents ot th. .
'twc, ,and to ahov that Alai ha4 1cme bien 4eniD.ct to 00011P1
- . , -
th. al1-1mportut po.Uion ot ,polI al-8h4hi1l'. 1!le lItory tll1.
t ot lIho invi tecl AlN Abb&. to 'aocOllPUl hi .. to .,. al-8h&dh11t
, -
Who, at the ti , h&c:l hi. r iclenol 1n a l1li*11 "OIqU'e (z&viyah) on thl
- '\' .
aountain ot Zacb.win. (
1
) AlthOUCh 1 Ab al-' Abb&a ha4 alr'ad7 h.ard. abOut
1 .. \
the _Plat ahaJkh. hl :Iverthlll f'Gid'cl to 004 tirat betor.
he pa1cl aD): vi.i t. ftat ... mpt, dreut in hi. that hl
iia'bed. to the top 'ot \ a acnmtau\ whwe . he, AV a ua there oii.d.
- l a crlen 010&11: vith loaeon on hi. rilht aDd. &DOther on 11:1' 1en.,
',' 1
.. - -
Wha 1ba. al-IAbbU lookecl up at the 118D, 1attlZ', Aid, '"1 the
IlUcce ot th1. al-Suia)," upo.a: wh1h AlM al.IAb"':' 'wote
, " _ , 4. .
,\ ! ) ...
, ' ) , .... ) ..
11; ,rro. hi, .le.p. '!'he aut .OmiBI, after' 'the aOl'Jl1n1' prqer. al-
, , L -, ...." .. .' 1
, \ _ - ..) \.. '!' 1 ' \ , , .,' , ,-, l ' , '_ \ '... J 1
-Ab .. , who _ft have,t.en hi. dr ... to atplf'7 '
'"" .. ,': -r 1 \". t " ''-,1_ -,\ ',,' ",
hia, ''t.o proollcl, w't' ,vith 'th. ,.a. 'who 'hacl Ua to
.' , : ' ,":: ,.", ::> ,li:,:: :) <jt'.: ,,\ 7;;'. ,': ;,;::',
"
1
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--......"..---------_:.:
\
-12-
vi.it &l-sh&4hU1. On arr1v1nl Ami a1-'A'bb&a wu nrpril;d to
.ee ever,.thinc .. h. h&4 n 1t in hi. dreu, ad. he .v..n &l-
I \ "t
a4clr1.ein, him' iD the .... warde, 1.e
l
"1 touncl. th IUco or
, ' '
_... '1 '
; ot th1. u ... " Abu. al-'Ab" cave DIli- and. line ... at a
qaln10A flooli al-8b4hilr, th. latt.r ..tcl., we. litte' up to
.. (rufi ''ta lI, i 7ft vel'l ,r.v.allcl. to' Ile) t.n 1IU'e ao."
l "
'!'h. oirowaIRUlO'. ader al-5h&dhUr ana. Ab a1-' AbbA.
<'110.,.'d Tini. to IQpt. ta have relatlcl. to tvo
1n01c1.lnt., on. ot whieh 1'_au3,ted in al-9hiclhUr lIaking a trip to Imt
bd'ore hi. tirlrt Il tinl with A'bU: al-'l'bb al ... ur.I, ad the other
MW the tinal .0 ot the iwO 8ha)'kh. iOI IQpt "'0 re.1d. "her. ptr-
, , .
lIIDentl;y. tar a. the tirB't vi.it to Egnt W&8 cOlleemed, li .....
, '.
'that ther. wu a eFtaiA judCe
'
(qidr) 'l'iil1. lb al-Q&.l.
1 ."4 '.
- .
1bn al-Barra' Who, driv8I1 j.alou. br the r .. lUld IUcoe,. ot
,
al-shidhilr, coaplained.' ta the .ouroh, Sultan .&.\Ri
, r
that a'man floo. the Vill.,. ot Sh&dhilah .lb al-!&au al-8h8dhU1),

who wu a thiet ot doDke)'ll, wu olaillin, te b!I ot honorable d.aeni,
i '. .
wa. loti ot people, and na thus oreaUnl t1'oubl,! in the
, 1
counir;y. Upon h.U'ins thla, the Sultan BWIIIIloneii the ahaykh. h84 hill
, 1. ,
"'" 1
"."-ed. bb7 a lNIIber ctf l,uruecl and 'r.l1giOU8 peopl and. tiDa1l7 aquittecl. .
\
hi. after ..tille IUJ" h. wu a l&int. JloveV8l', the judee
1 '
_ni on n'th' hi. corauatorial .ohell'. &pinet until the
latt.r decided, to CO to Jopt t lOing tr.o. ther. p.rtona
ihe ho11 pllsrilll&P. ,Later 011 ,-he return.d to 'l'n18, whlr. he lIDCl Abi
al-'Abb&.' had tbeir ,tirai " ... etinl, whioh t.l-8hidhilr 8&14,
"Iothu, back tG TWu:. thie 'JOUq
, 1
othlr that Pl'capted th. ..00n4 and final !love to
,
, "
1
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......
, "
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, .
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., \
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--13-
/ 1
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Eupt na iD the tora ot a vi.itation that al-shid.hilr laid. h. had,
, 1
in whioh Muh8llllad the Proph.t to have &pp.ar.d to him iD .l p /
. . -
hi. tb 1'0 to Igpt. (
9
)/ In al--shidhilf, .lb" al- 1
'Abb, ud. uveral otherl, und'Mook th. trip, 'tinall,- tO .nter
Ala.clr1a fro. th. veit at '_4 al-8awlrt. Th.r. 1l-Bh&4hilr
took up tor pU'lluent r'.iel.no. on. ot th. to_r. OD th. wall ot "
! " l
Al8XUd.ria(ll)whil. Ab al-'Abbis, pr'lUmably tollowiD&' the '1nstruc- .
tioDS ot hi .h&7kh, weDt to live iD Cairo. 1 Bovav.r, it i. Aiel that
,h. u el to 1'0 to Alezuciria nipt to attend. the P1h.rinc ot
&l-8hidhilr Ulcl to retUl'll the .... tQ, Cairo. ('12)
In 656 .t.K. (1258 .l.D.), al-8h&clh11r and. Alli .lob&., aoooa-
l " ,
niecl Dy other., varat OD their lut ,trip to perton the holl
pillZ'1map. 1t ..... that al-sbidhilr Jale" tbetorehU1cl that he vas
1 l ,
\ "-
SOinC to Ue OIL the "-1, tOI' he aakecl hi. oompBDion. to t&ke &long
, ri th th -& piokax. U1cl a Kav.l so .. to be ible to lN:ry whon.r
cliecl cluring th. trip. SiDos 'he had n.vtr llAd.e that requ"ri "tore,
1,t W&8 taten b,. th. other. to W BD in41oatiOl1 ot h1s approachiDg
, 1
the group VaJ acro the cl rt ot
, , ' 1-
'al-shidhill na 'aten .erlousl,. 111,' U14 'finall,. 41e4, at the' aall
l '
toVll ot _er. hl. ooapanion. bar1:ed hiil.(16) Hovev.r,

"
"
bet'or. the 8lIQkh diecl, h. ha4 a private converaatlcm ,vith .lbU al-
. ' ,
_ 11' ,j ......
'.lbbU, tollov1nl wh10h he tolel hia ooapan1ona tbat lm al",:,' .lbbaa

to ncoe.el hlll an.r hi. ellath, acl that he wu one of 004 '. pt.. "'\
(abw&b, ,ailLe. (11') , l' , t
, 1 .\
.lner ,the death or al-8hidliilr, A.b al-'Abbi. '.a;:cr-.,utation vent
!ri ;. :
, ' '. ,
t&J\ 1114 1I14e, peoiall,. in whlob ,h . took u' toI' permuent
, , ,
" , 1 - ;
re.ielenoe. Ever,- .... 1'.,. he 'Uae4 to 10 to C1ro, '''ere Ih diloour cl
, " t 1 1
ad at 1I0."'Ot. al-B&klaa. he Jeept
<IQ' ,
, .. \ (" (' 1
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"
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1 -14-
1
-a.t by al-sh&dhi1t, ot soins trOll tim. to tiaie to th. ao.qu'e ot
,
-AR ibn &1-'1. at &1_ru.t&t(19) wh.r. lUa diaoovae. wer.
at't.lUi.cl br th: ('Vi.,;;.J, aiDe. 'iiia). (20)
, AlRl al)"' Abbd 41.4 in lluaclria iD th. ( 1287
, ",
.l.D.) (684 or 685 .l.B. - 128'5 or 1286 A.D. ao04rcl1nS to ibn al-
, .
and buried outaide th. pte ot the .ea (Bib &l-
. . ,
Bahr)(22) 010 to th. clolle ot (Qubbat) A1thcqh
l"
hi. wu we11 Dawn ta the p.op1., 1I&D7 ot WOII viaitecl it tOI'
\ ' , .
bl'.8inS, no oOllnruotion W&8 rai d on it th. 706 A.B.
(1306 A.D.) who Zap .al-Dtn al-Qatt., the lea411lB auchant ot
.. ' -
. AluIIIlclr1a, viait.d it ad llad a tOllb, a dCII., acl a 1I0aque
" 1
.truot.d 011 ,he .it The nor7 1088(24) that ,al-Q&ttiD had OOD-
.. /
tracted alopecia (di' al.-tha'lab) whioh ollD.ed the 10 ot hi. ''be
\
and eJabron .le a ren1t t h. telt 80 'cl_gradecl that he .oulht "he
ad.v1c. ot won eve17 1 doctol' in IcYPt. lNt to no "Tail.
\ - -
At lut,. hariD heucl about the tOlib ot A'bIl al-'.lbbu, he vi.ited
1
\ it t1 and ,app.ed du-! trOll it to hi,. \
the etor7 8&78. hi. 'baard e78brw8 etarted. srowinc
srahM _l ...... t; luI4 the o_ .... oU .....
on lIhalkh 'a toa'b \ '
l ,
l ,
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lI'OO'DfO'l'ES
1 1 .... Tri"1iighama p. 49/ Il SaDdbra p. 411
1-b Murli:yah (Mureia). ene ot the l&1' ... r tOwn8 in Battel'll Andalulia;
\ ,
, '
val allo knoWll at that ti.e .. lier

p. 457)
. .
2- Sa'd ibll 'Ubi4ah 11:111 Harithah al-lhurajr. lmown .. .t'Di Thabit,
.. (. -
val ene ot the Prophlt' 1 oOIllP_ionl in al-Madinah. He be10npd to the
nobi11ty both period in and in
Ifi Ill ... Be 'waa the muter ot and .fier the cie.th of the'
Prophet he retu,.ed to cleolare alleCiance to Ab Bakr. Then" wh_ later 1
'''11&1' i'bD al-JOiatta'b reprilD&Dded bill tor thil, he left Arabia tor
.. \
al-8hl wtiere he d1ed in 14 1.B. (635 A.D. ).
(a1-1'laml part 3 p. 135)
l
4- Lata'itl P. 79" Sandbl: pp. 41-42

- r \ ' ..
5- SandUb 1 pp. '42-43 ",
6- Lata '1ft p. 58" Sand'br: p. 43 '
\
1- (the aoanta1D ot) Z&8hwaD lie. about th1rt1 aile. aouth-
,
ve8t ot 'TDil.
(lDc1.Brit. Vol. p. 145)
8- Darrat: pp.
9- p. 32 '"
,
10- Latatitl p. , Dunata p_ 135 Il S8Qd'bilp. 45

'ADcl (the pi11ar ot) i 80 oalle4 'Ot lt . aise
,
he1pt, .. on. ot a'bout tour hundred .11111ar that, nr-
... ' '.
r01mdecl lD4 Rpported. a t ple .cl .. poroh in the 10000thern pari. ot
UUlDvia'outaicle th. louthe1'D pte mo_ &1 Bib al-5idrah. In the
, '
rl1l11 ot Salih al-tin &l-An'bI. the other pillar. _l" rarred Dd
. .'
'1l1to th. I.a ... b100kiq obstacle. 111 the ""l' ot ':n 1 e1pa.
1
(al-Ihu:tat: part l p. ' "al-IalcaDdarinah: pp. 57-se, 160, 163,
\ -II
'
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12- 85 '., .a 'rlArl part 2 p. 13 , "
. ,
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,
,
13- Durrat: p. 179, 181
)
, #-
14 &, 15- Buma,tharah waa a aa11 ton l11ng in the deaert of 'Aydhab
'1
on Red Sea Cout in Upper Igypt. 'l'hroulh the i t aelf 1&1
\ ' "
the l'but. the Mu.1i. pllgrlm. followed for about two hundred
;year. (o. 450-660 .1.1. -1058 -1261 A.D.) floo. Q. on the River 1file
, .
to the 00&8t of the Red Sea. The throusb thi. cleaert usecl to
talce the pilgrill ev.nteen da1B to accomplish and 1t vaa a time ot 1
sreat attering tOI' thell, the d.aert wa8 extreIRe17 hot and eniire-
17 barr.n and wat.r1
(al-lhutat: part 1 p. 327)

1
16- Lata"if: p. 59 , Dln'rai: p. 180 , Sha'riDrl part 2 p. 4

, S&Dd.br: p.
,
11- Dunat: p. 180
1
18- The mo.que ot (Mujid) 'al-Hikill val 'quilt b7 al-Bild.. bi-AJar

U1in .1b 'ni x.nam. at a plac. callecl al-Miqass on the baDk of th.
. ,
Riv.r Hile. It 80me tille alter the 18&r 770 A.B. (1368
A..) bl Shus al-Dfn 'Abd-lll8h al ... iq ..... r, 1linia1i.r of lin, al-J.llhraf'
Sba'biD ilm ibn Xuh_ad. ibn Qal.aVD ..... a ,re.lt, th. moaque
IJ ..., ., ..
c .. e to be mOR b7 it., othe Il''', i.e. the 1I0.que (Jalli
t
) al-Kiqaa.r
th. milli.t.r.
(a1-1hutat: part 3 p. 201 A part 4 pp. 2, 65-66)
, ..
19- Th. mo.que ot (Ja..i 1) 'Amr ibn al-'''- wu 'built in the l'Iar
. '
21 1.B. ()41 k.n.) at the new17 eatab1iahed cit7 ot al-Pu8'tat. It
J
"va. the tirA lIOaque to be lN1lt in J:cypt aner the eab invasion
Ulcl vu mova .. al-Jiai' al-'Atlq (the Dciellt 1IO'.iue). !ij al-
, , '
JaVi' (th. croa ot .oaque.), ancl Jiai" 'Alir ibn al-'L. '!'hi.
. -
.oaque va. bailt in vith a directive reo.ivecl troa '-.r
iba al-Ihattib requ1rill8 1:bat a' mosque be lmilt for all the tri"..
1"' - f
to .eet in ancl pertora the Friel.,
"'" 1 -
,Part /4 pp. 4-5)
20- J)Qrratl 188 Saudbr: p. 49
-..
--
. p. 390
, hruat. part l p. 522 21- Sba 'rani 1 pan 2 p. 12
pai-t 1 P. 300
-' .
al-8ulukl pari.1 Sec. 3 p. 738
, '
193 '.
1
"
&J.-.l"l'" pan 1 p. '1.79 '
1
1
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1
"
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-
,.
o
22- BAb al-Bahr (the pte ot the .ea) n. the northerD pte 1n the
vall .urroun41ng and 1t overlooked the .ea at the
, -
harbour. Outeide thie sate, whioh vae aleo DOwn aB Bab labtum and
't, ' Il
!&b al-8:U.1lah, 1q the oe.et'ert mown a. Xaqb&ra't al-Mrn&v&1ll (the
oe.eter1 ot the two harboure) where llN al-'lbb&. &l-Murer va. bur1"d.
(al-llkanclazi'iyy&Ju pp. 160, 425, 433,'" 451)
23- Durratl p. 193 cl: sanfbr, p. ,50
24- Durrata p.194 cl: Sandbrl p. 116
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o

-18-
111. '1'HE AU'l'BlIM'ICITI OP ABU AL-'ABW
n dSI
\
:, "
The attellpt to prove the authenticit7 qf AbU al-IAbb&a k-Murar
a. a 8hould be pointed out, trOll "the very to be a ditticult
t: "
one, tor 1t Will be ba.ad, .. i. the ca.e wi th pole or .ome
taille and public &cceptance, upon what the pOle hilDaeIt cla1m8 to be,
he people, including hi8 tollowera and be h;a ahaykh,
im. Theretore, it is up to reader hilDaelt to tora, his
et 'aboUt the validit,. ot what the nen te" pu&graphs 1n-
)
olllcie, &lth
r
it i ,. dut y, as the writer ot thi. paper, to point
50
,out that AbQ <Al-II. b&a .till enjoys the reputation ot a miracle-worker
o
deapi t. the p ... ap t .everal centuries &t'ter hi. death, "hi ch state-
lient 18 merel,. rq OG opinion, hav1ng lived IIlOat of MY lite in the
city ot AluaDdria where the ahaykh lived, practi8ed, died, and vu
baried..
One ot the IlOai important people who wi tne88ed to the true 8&1nt-
lIhip and ot 'b al- 1 AbbA. vu undoubtedl,. hi. Bhaykh, AbU al-
. .-. .
Haau al-8h&dhih, _0 oho.e hi., or rather waa illapired to choose hill,

, .
&II hie 8Uco or. Th. reterenoe to 'inspiration', whioh II1gbt give ri
to the aurai.. that th. oboice )f Ab al-' .lbb&. wu a .. tter ot di vine
will, i. bu_ upoD the story ot' the, .tiret that took plac. bet-
,"" r
wen the tvo '8ba.7kha. ( 1) 4l-Mur.r .. ecl that hie .eetillB vi th &l-
: i
SbadhilI took he h&d r.ceiv.d perad ion thrOUCh
a dr ... to CO .ead. vi th the .... ting. B. alao olaimed that .. aoon aa
i
: 0
al-shid"b11r A" hi.f'he A1d that he tOUllCl in Ab al-'Abb&a 'th. BUco or
_ oa
ot thi. ti .. e '(khalItat a'l-suan) and that he had been revealed to
_ _
al-shMb111 t.n previouely. The whole st ory , whioh could. actull,.
1
haYe happenecl .. toU, to have "'.11 int.Jled. to eaaphaaize the
, ,
1
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,
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...
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authenticit;r ct .lbi al-'Abbia and the aoundneaa ct al-sh&dhilf
l

chcice of a 8Ucc aor.
ADo:ther a,.bolical nory, that rd.pt have be'n meant to serve \
. the' .... e 1 vu ,tolcl b" a lII8D cUled Ibalfl, a .aint li ved,
diecl,.and va. baried,at a place called N..hfl al-QaDitir.(2),ccording
. ..
o ,
to thi_ onoe hi,_
tioD8 betore SOing to pray, and theD took down Xhalrl
l
bow, vhich
.. " ' ,,"
waa h8llging on the wall', 8Ild atl"Wlg i t thrioe. When nalrl aeked bim
" ,
- -
who hi_ BUcoeilaor wu, al-Shidh1l'i that h. wu the one who
would cOlle into the hou.e, perton hi. ablution. in the a .. e W&J
. "bY and strine\ the ..... bov tbrioe. x.ter 011,
.the ahaykh!'8
c
hou.e but none ot thell did
o , "
.. t al-shdhilf that one of thell woulcl clo, until Ab al-'.lbb&.
[
tinalll vent tn, pvtoraed. hi. ablutiona in th. ume uzmv as al-
" . . , \
11ftecl hi. e18. to wkere the bov wu haDCinc, wed. nalIlt
' , , l
1 to haacl it to atrung it thr10e, ancl a&icl that the promis. or
. prediotion (ft 'cl) ot th . had beell tultillecl
' . A.ide trOll the tvo _torie., A"Di al-Baau-al-sh&cihilf u1Iecl ,to
. . . .'
Ab __ or' h:L8 &Ild his spiritual powera. He .' l
, .! . '
him to b the best of 'hi_ cOIlPwona, lUking hi. opiJlioll
, , .
cleaf everyoD.e al,lowing .lb; &1-' vith, and teacb the 1
at the mosque ot l-'Attiri'n
t3
)in tbe _e
.. . , ,'" ,
.
'trom the to Abi and
. (
to, his. other OOalp'aDiOD8 aa Well.' !hua, example, he tpld Zald al-Diu
<:> 1 1
..
. ,
r
"
D '
, \
".
\
. (5) _ _
al-Aevinf th",t a btclOuin lIipt 8'0 to Abu al-'Abbas and urinate on hi.
,
\ lege at th. begiDDizag ot th. el&)", bu.t th'D, b7 th. end ot th. ....
I!;J t
- -' - ..
da,., Aba. &1-' AbbU voulel have tln hi. tQ ,Qod" for AbU. Abbu ......
. .
th. perteot lIIaD (al-rajvl &1-kimil) to nOli Oocl had r.vI&1.d al1 th.
mnt. pan ucl pripnt, (6) 'ancl who h&cl all the had 8DCl
\
lIore. (7)
, .
B.tore prooeecU.ng to a r.Vi." ot the opiJon. ot othlr eainlnt
, .
plopl. about th. authelltioi ty ot AbU: al'" Abb&a, i t W be 1n ortllr
l ,
to ..top h.re tOI' a while to point out 8D 'importat illpl1oation that
. .
th. aboYe lattitucl. ot al-8hiclhilI might live l'i.e to in the .tD4. ot
1
- th. read.rl ot ,thi. the.ia,' Va. al-8hid
b
UI trJing tO lI&ke it olear
" l ,
.
that it vu Ab al-'lbbi. who wu the onl\ to suoceecl bill Del that h.
wu alloviag ot 110 oompetition? And it 10, who ni' th. ooap.titor?
.
Th' aZUNer to the.e que..ti01l. i. not ea8)' to 00.' up vith, tor no
...
cl1reot or even iBd.ireot ret,r'nol il 1I&cl. to tbis point. R01Nver, 1t
r "
...,. be woriihMhile to poiDt out that ther. vu & certain juri8pJ'Udent ,
aaid . Xakl D al-DtD \ ,al-Aaar. who rl.i4e4 in ,1Qpt
anel who joinR 'the ot Alli &l-Buan on 'the
, .
, .
",0 Jluh-ad. 'the hophn, ucl not to azq kh, for hiil spiritual
. ' ' \
ed.uoat:t.oD,(8) .. "ono, 1'bD'''A!;;' lattu! talkinr
llK . quo:tihg 01 the "orel. to' the.
, , l ,.
.. - t , Jo .. 1
_nt ,ot lIakliL al4n up ".&Jing tut, il1 truth h. di4 not
, 1 ( 1
f-:-';Abb&a, Ibn 1l1&h took the\ t., clenial to
, , " \
.eD ,aa adai ttuce ot th. gre.tl1.s. ot the abaykh and that the ,JDAD na
" ,
that 'he ticl bO" gx:eatne.a of lb
,/- .
, Bowewr, ita valu. to, lIlean t);Lat
" 'the 1IUl, who ot' the, oOllpaniona 'ot al-Sh8dhilt,

\ .. :::"; .. ,:;; ." . " .

;:.:
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U1d who, must have known AbU al- t Abb&a, rllinted the reputation ot
the ahayJeh and, III. bI, the prolpeot ot hil beoolling'al-shidhilf's

1.,. ea1nla:t plopll, 1.,loial17 in t,hl' neld ot .. , re-
tll'l'Il! to .llM al-'.lbb U 'he poli, a lII8Il ot kIlow1eclp, and the rial
noce 1101' ot al-8h&4hi1f. 'nb'y re1ated, in preot of opinion,
l'toriea that ehowel! the ho1inesa ot AlN a1-' .l'bai. and hi. out-
at_ding,'lIiraculO1l. po .... r One ot thele people, .l'b \ 'Abel-Allah ibn
Sul'taD, a aa1nt in Tnil _d the ot ,M8cif ibn Sultan, (10)
t'
reCO\U1ta that he ha4 tvo 1IIIl&l.1 jars tu1l ot honl,. that hl wntecl to
, -- - \ ';. ,
I.d to ,Abu in AllUlldria. BI aealecl thelll, vrote on th
that the,. vere tor .lbI al-'.l'bb&a, aDd thelll iJlto the le. ot
\
'!il, wh_ol the,. reachecl theil" deatination in a llliraauloui adner
to1d 'b7 T&qt al-Habuhl'. (11) !he latter Aid that he ad otherl
. . , .
.. -' \ \
verl vith .l'k al-' .l'b'bu ODe 4q, whlD th. latter aabd. th .. ta '
hi. to th. Ma at a place oalle4 al-8illUah (12) ill Alu-
, .
aDdria. 1Rl.a th.,. arrivecl 'there, tlle u&1kh cU.ppecl hi. haDd into 'the
. ), . (13)'
nter anG. pul1ecl out. two jara .ellt 'trOll TUnia
."' ,- - f (14)
Another airaouloua nor1 aa to1d bJ Najll &l-Din al-Iataban ,
1 \ 0
,
a rllident ot latkah. who wu' tolcl wh1:\le 1Il -'Irlia, that he voulcl lIeet
the pol. in !Dpt. On hil W&7 ta 'Bcnrt, ,hl vu '1nteroepte4 'b1 a Il'oup'
\ ,
ot !'artara tbok hill prilcmr, aca1llld hi. ot beiq a 111, tilcl
'\
hill up., an,d tha 'eat there diaou.eing vi th e&ch other whether Idl1
1 \
him or not. Al-IltahinI' &pat the ziipt- JDiaerab17, not beoauae he ae
. . ,
afraicl ot de.th but bee e he had 1ett hia oountry the
hope that he wou1cl lIeet wi th the l1l&I1 woU1cl g1 ve him lmow1edp ot
, ,
.. Ood,on11 to 'tind that hla goal wou1d. not be a'tt&1ned an'r a11. While
. .
J

( ,

. "
-22-
the ,thcrqht. vere pa inl' back _cl forth in hi. add" he ,.av
a JUIl, Vith a thiok baarcl ancl apparent clilDit,.. 00 .. to hill in'
, .
th. lUIm.r ot ha_ attaoldDI it. pre,.. Tbe IlIA u'u,ect hi .,...
lnc, "Oet up, 0 'Abd.-lllih, l .. the, Olle 'JOU. are .. et1DI."
, . \ '
1Irard.., lIben al-l.tallanr r.aohlcl Ja'p't _cl wut 'to "AlM al-"bb&.
. \
he l'eoo&Dilll.cl hi. &1 the uD who =t1ad. _4 uv.el hill. (15)
So .. e 1h&Jkh in Japt, oalle4 Jlub_1d. al-5anij, to14 l'bD
. . . '
,
'At.' Allih th. tol10w1ng .'tor7 al30ut hi. .ea'tiD&' vi th lb al:"

- ' ,
"b'ball' The vu one Ilipt .leapinl when he had. a e ..
in whioh h. heard. la.eon. tall hi. to llava 41ezandria b7
\ '
olnain p'ta, Bab, al-Sidrah 16) _el' to to tha tirn
oroharcl tb't oa tha 18n .i4e ot th. road.. ThI1"I h. woa.lcl
tiDd. a croup ot people. on. of vhOll voulcl be .i t'Uns acler the ,
, . l
l,' "
\ t.&11en paJJI-tr... The voio. iD the dre,'" allO .1Il-
ti d. 8OIII'thiq about & Vith a oto1e iD '
, ,
that aoevl1' aot mto it WORJ.d. \Je uta. !he !lut lIorDiDc. al- '
1 " .
s&nij 1.n 'b7 th. clelilDateel p.te, tound the oroh-
., .
&1"cl on th. 1en liele ot the road. aDCl entl1'ecl i t ,to t'id a
, .'
nUilber ot people 8ittiDg & oiro1 , Be lookecl in
.. arch ot th. talleet pal.a-tr.. when on. of th. people' 114c1.r cl
1 \ \ _
hi. 1&11111 that al1 the' tre vere tall It wu al-' AbbU
\
al"'uraf. neD al-Sarrij hi. ucl II&t !lM '.
. , ,
told hill abc"t hi_ ciloem and il1terpret.d, i t, 1&11D&' that he hi ...
, , \ ' ' ..
',.elt a. th. lIOaque "Dtlonecl 'bT th. lIJ8'teri01l8 voio.-. tbat ',the'
_ ' 'l"
oiro1 ... e.t hi. oompaDionl,ancl that enterecl'the
'i , 1 r
- ,
ad. th'il' oOlld.1tiOD. 'be 'the Ihqth -th.,. .
enclcl b7 that he ttiat nipt
.. r; \ , '\ \' \ \ ' , ' ,
, ;
, ,
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-23-
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Wh.D th. latt.r ottered towa1t torl hi. at the door ot hi. hou.e
or to leave i t open tor hiJll to, enter, AbQ al- 'lbb&. retal.e4 'aRinc
1
hi. to t p th. 400r look.4 addiDc'that .till h. would be able
. ' '
to' _t.r. At boa. that Dilht, al-8arraj va1t.' for th. ot
.. . ('
AlN al-' A'bb wozacl.riDc the whil. aDd _.0. h. woul' 00II., iD.
Th, _ap 10 aoh thiJt h.' cou14 .tad ,it
he l.ft th. hOUle, vent to the 111&11110"". R1bit &l-Wiitf, (11)
\ - \ .
. &IOeDded th. aiDarat. aDd., wh1le, pr&J1nc thare. he
,
... .. \ 1
A'bU: al-'.l'b'bU\ c:'0IH h11l, tloat1Dc iD the &11'_ !he
, .
, "
.... l' _ 1
cODCeal plaoe trOll ?" Ta whioh al-Barraj _.ver.4. "0 .ner.,
\ . .
l onl7 l could Dot .tand it an4 l waa frisbten.4_,,(18)
, .
'lb. \lple a'bout AlKl al-'Abb&. al..lur.r M7
tin4 uplit1catiOil 1A at Ibn 'Ata' .lllih "'111 CODCerD1q hi.
. " \
eND tirR- 4011'" aballt th. 84 hi. cOD quat 'bIll.t 1D
..
hia. Allih that, 'betor .... tiDg Al al-'l'bb,
, " . - ' .
h. ,ha4, be.D ODe ot tho .. who ditbelieYed .d'vell oppo.e4 the
, . '
Dot OD &cocnmt that ,,:ti.latter had "4 or
4 , \N.t oa11 beo... Abi al-t lbb&a, ad. other. \ lik. hilll, 01a1aed. .
thiap tbat th. uoteric 4.1ecl_
" '. ! ' .' ,
Jlovner, th1Ilt!D.r' to hia.elf that a IUD ot trut}1 (.&bib al-uqq)
l ' " , ......
, o. 0
1h00001d po ..... that apok. for hi. trathtulDe , h. .
4eoid.4: CO .. a A_ Be d.14, Uld. wh_ he h.ard 'AlN
. ). .' '
_' 1 1 .
al-tAbbu 41aoour OD topio" hi. II'1Dd. .'beo .... 0
aDCl b; hie 1IOM', that, h., 0 ...
1
to :tbat
t - - \ \
, ,'-', , '
'the ahqth aotuall7, drev upon.a locll.t' .e" ('bahr ilihr) _ ,of lalov-- '
(19) , \ _ " . . \ ',) ,,:, '
.
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1
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A .&1d. about th. holin... ad. . lD1r&C1ll.ou. "ver. ot
,
_ \ _ J )
AbU: al-' Abbas, lMt what 11&7 be ot int.r.n i. 'fo not., that th.
1
1Ih&1kh hill lt vu Bot lIOd..n in IiviBI :voio. to what h. hi lt
, , '
- ..
thouPt h. vu., JudliDl trOll hi. r.tlrlno to hi. lP1r1 tual
atatui. he obYioull7, had. 'a tira bel1.t h. ... av.n., vi th
POl.IIb1P(20) lUld. all the' spiritual pover.,1t 'Dt&11ed. '!'hu., h.
,
1&1d. .. veral 'U.... he had nlV.r bien vl11.d. trOID 00cl \ _cl
Bi. Prolme,. (21) ad. tbat ha4 'not IhAklD h_cll 'n th &DJOD' lm,,'
. ,
th. ot 004. (22) al-Shidhilt'. cl th, AbR al-' Abb&a
_d. that he vu th. CIll,. one alive to have the, Dowl ('1la)'
, " '
po d. 1,,. hi. that it'ih. 11-:.n.d. MD ('ului'"
- 1
.iIle. 'au.) ot Ira4 lIld. SJ.I'1& m.v what lq il' hi. bI&rel, the,.
" woulcl '00lIl to. 1t "orawl1DC belli ' (-Jh 1q
" .
Uld. all the vere at' &1 h. r.terred
tO1t, lUUler hi. oarpet .. ( ... .1.1 ... ).(2
5
)'
- -1
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....
Il
l'
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..... 1'" :


,,1 ,,.
l ;
, .
1- S.. ,p. 11-12
- ,
2- p. 11 '
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3- JU1" aoaqa. 01) apO'th.oa:r1 ) wu tirn
,l', _ '
ba.11t cm ot th. ot !rab
'1Dvu10D of B&fp\. took DUI. trOll th. ad.joiD.iC
, ,
mova u .$q &1.-' AttirIn (the ,rJcet ot ). 17 th. ,1

'bepDDiuC o.t th. 1'&t11114 1'.,iP .it ha4 'Moo plcl ucl .blQ'. The '
iD 479,1.1., (1086 1..) 1t vu r.p&1re4 1"; al .... J. B* Ua
'.l'b4:'ll1.ih ,&l-Juilr, AaIfr al..Jqiah (l.ader ot n1 ) tor
al-lh&lItah SiDe. eue to' . cnher
11_, al-Jw' "814 1ta erlliul Od. 'ftUa
, \
len' 11;. pnatip wha (th ..... oza) _cl al-Ju'
, . \
Pr1d.a7 Pl'IQ'V) ,_l'.' nopp. in 1 clur1DC 1'.1111 ot, th. 1
emmI AnU'b1 1&p 'ti .. ot al ... &:1r
Qal '80 rriurne4 the. to 11:. :
(I.l-I'_darinaha pp. 101,190-191,220-222) 0
,
'"
4- DuT.t, ,. 182
o t , , ,
, 5-' z.r al-DIA ila l'brihr. l'bD , .. lia
al-AniDI (620-691 .J.H. -' 1223-1291 1.D.) ... & '
taql"h in in Jpper 1. ,... to
.lluIMr1, . 'bec_ cOllP&1 ot .a1-8hidhl1r ud. Ul'l'ie4 hi.
.- l"
claqhter . lt a1 .. lr-. 4.&th Il.' 1Ii:th '.4l1Q al--.lbbU.
, (SUd.ibt., P.,,) , , ' , -
pl 70
7- Lat;'1tl p.,'70
, , . "
t
8-, Lat; 'it; p. li,' , c-

pRt 2 p. 1:3, ,
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10- Se. h . to"aot.'8 p . 8. ," .' ,",< "
I".J "" l '" ... , ,-" .. \ ,.','
_... \ 1 J' '. ... I"l .." ] _' l " , 1 rc
11- Se. her., tootO'l':4 p ... 8'" " ?"" " ",' ,,', :.1:
, ( \-, ..t}l/'",', \"',,'t4 \ \ J ... l, t _ " l' _
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":", ","
'/,< ..y: . :. .. /, M' l, 1.\ . "

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1
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thu. livinc th. DaM ot 'Bahr" (th -....of th. ob
ain
)
1 1
, ,
to that BOW'ftI', popula.r tl'adJ. tion had., th." _. uae
app1ie4 to th. l&ftvD ha.rboa.r ot u _11.
, (Al-4*lDdariJ7lhI ,. 452)
" , 1 J
, 13- Lata'it. p. 12 , DuTail pp. 185-186
_ ,
14- .1. al-DIza .l'bcl-&11ib Ua al-l.tllhiDt .. a Z'.lIiclat
. , .
- ot lakkah.. Later h. bec_ 0Il. ot th. oo.p.ioll. ot al-shMbi lr aDcl
ot .lbi ,al-'.lbb aner, th. de.th ot
-, pp. 575 "SlIUlbr. p. '115)
1
15- Lata'it. p., 73

latallit 1 p. 576
. ' '
, I&riait 1 pan 1 p. 521
.. '
al-Ird.a41 pp. 107-108
,
16- lib al-8idl-1b ('lb. pte ot tb. o.daI" tre.) vu on. ot fOU'
,
\ _ "1 _ , 1
.,t 111 wll anOQDtiJaC'Altxu4ri .. ,Xt th.
aDcl .. kDoVl b7 '''''l'al ether Il .... . Blib &1-8U.ju- (tb.
l' , , , '\
pt. of th. trH), BAb al-'AIId (th. pt. ot th. p111ar) after ,
'-
'AIIic1 al,-Suirr tbat jun _t.1d. it,--Ud ':aib (th.
pt. of th .,10'.) aftr 'th. OU'&ftDa tha't'ua.cl to pu. throqh ,
it 0&rZ71Ilc apio ..... , at_II" thiDp.
(.l1-IabD4arin, pp. '58,160.425,444,448) .
1 - - t . - -Y'_ -' t j
17- l1'bit al-WWt _' t'up 'b7 Shihib al-w.u .lbu '.11 "8\11'
r
1l1l AlM al-Pllt;a .... A_ al.-Pa41 al-tfitt (cl. 672 .l.B. - 1273
. .' . .
A..) ad. vu a P1.o" tor .. ,till, acl ,WOI'abiP."l'l, li Iloll
-.tl siviJ, to th &ft 'ot th., ',.a8q1l al-t.lbb&a al-ll,r.r.
, ,
pp. .
18- Lata'ifa p. 82 '
.. -
. 19- Lata'itt pp. 86-87
"
,
'\' 20- Se. he;' Chapt 'l', V. Seo. i pp. &5 t9110v1Il,.
! \ ,
, ' Lata 'itl p.' 71 ,
l 6 ,1 p. 520
, "
1
e


1 IV. '1'BI SPIII'l'UAt DJCA'l'IOI OP
;
JJI1 AL-' ABBIs AL-iIUIsf
, \
l
, 1
,.
,

,_ &1-'lb\ al-hr.r ad",t have _etl' borD "0 be th. k1nA
ot 12.01, ... wi "B 4 to 1Q. .nval other ho17 n, Jet h. 'al.o
"
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o_t
l
.. "0 hi. lhaPh. ,bi al-Baua al-8h
i4h
'Uf, *0 .e_ Ilot
1 ., .
to have let .. ohUloe O b1 vi "hou" revelJ,iq "0 hia .011. Oocll,
__ \ \ ' " l ", l,.
_ r
v111Cl0 !lN al 'Abbu hi elt hacl ftoh a protouncl te.lal ot
. " ." '"
titu4. aDcl r. ttor that h. alao.t alvara r.terre4
hi. t.lOhiap l&11DP "0 hi'a 1Il7'hiD&' to
" 1
\\ \
, --
. hiII.elt. Wh_ 011.0.' ... oa.. a r ...... 1t it, A'bil al-'lbbil
j' , ..." ,
_1I1IV.4 tht u .. lu hl' power to UT that-od. or 'Bi. Pl"oph.t,
01' h l. ... lt hI4 Ri4 thi. 01' tha". ." h. al1laJ8 1porec1 hia.elt
, , \
_cl ret.rio.cl to hi. ot poUt (l}. Be enD .0
l '
tar ait "0 .tri.". hi. 0WIl e1.OCIIl_o. to hi. 01&111 "ha" h. wu
Civen al-shiit):r
t
"cmu. (2) Althoach "hi. attUVAle cm th. pari
. -, '\
ot !lM al-t l'bb&a ai." 'III iat.rpret.4 .. ail apre 101l ot .iDe .. e
,
cra"1",,4e. ,.t it ooulcl &1.0 ..". HID .. u, .. pt CD hi. at
-
t"1zar ID uaapl. tor hi. OQllpWOD. _cl cl1.c1pl.. "0 tollo
, .
ao_ver. judciBI. tro. the word.. ot :A-.N al-'l'b'b 'h1 ... 1t, .. r.port-
- ,.....
ed. bT IlIIt 'lti
t
Al,li:ll. 'tJi ... 1. DO "bat ,al-8hidhilf oOD"ri'butecl
.. " . , , .'
aa.oh "0 hie apultual e4uoat1OJi .. en_OK 'b7- the 1MP1.
1 8011. th&t th. "Uiht hi. ,
, Olle' ;P;nclq .ve, ot ot B'lI'dia.
\ "" 1.',
! 'I' , J ' 'J ,"
al-sbi4h'"1f ad Alli al-'Ab'biJ ,lient to a rloaqu.e . al-QaJraWn where
l , " , t,"> 1 1
, ,
"h.,' .,." "la 1." :.ih. Deor ' , (lalla"" le lli 'th. IIOm- :
/':: .. 1 Il., l' ,: ',' r' " 1 ,
iIIc. ,&1-t ,.-ob&. 'tut the, P:ropllet
_ 1 :.. 1 t j c J '_ - ,( ,1 j ,', Y
who :.to14 hi. to olatb.a b'0Il '. (4.U.) .0 " ,
, ' ' / "r' '. ,.', -i',: >,' , .'. '-" : .' .,1 :'.:-:->".:.' r ."::."""<.: 1\'"
1 j. .. ' '. ' 1 l " ' .. - J
.. .' " l , ," .).\1, r': \' l \ 1 ,t: ...., ' .. \' _ \ . ... 1
__ 2.L ____ '., ______ ... !: __ ',;.;. . .. .t: 1 l,' 1/,
\ , c

."
'.'
l'
"
that h. lI1.t ree.l" Oocl '. &14 (ucl&cl), td'h ..,.r1 breath.
IIlCZU:1r1q what th. .'lIlt 'b7' "h1. alet'h.,!,'
, ,
vu that CJocl h 'bano. UPoIl n';" ,ro._ (ldalla' , , :,'
, l , :
'iDe. ,khil 'ah) the roba of ,love th. ro'be of' pori. '
(lI&'rttall),' tJi. ro'be of JUl1ticat101l (tawhlcl), ro'be of faith,
, <'
_ 4_ ' _ ' ,
(r .... ), aIld. the robe ot nrrad..r .cl r.a1patioll (1.1_). '!'he
, 1
Proph.t th_ vat on to' upl&1Jl tut he who lov.cl Oocl, el'1Ip1 .. el
\
, ' .
cl va. r.adJ te 11" aW&7 everl1;h11l11 that, h. who kil." Oocl
l
l ,
: l' ,. ,
HU. tt '''mh1Dc1 that h. who prot el th. ..a ot (whbad.a)
' ...
1 l', .
004 cl1el Ilot ut. BilL partller to' .J"'hillCl that he who _lieYecl
. - ,
iD ,CJOCl wu Ate eve"hila.' a4 that' h. who nn8llclerecl \
, .
lt ,to .CJocl ,1'ar'17 41.o_,eel Ria, bQt if he 41el tiao'be1 81.
\
h, woulel apoloai.' au. Qocl voulcl ace.pt ht. apolog_, Al-sbidh11r,
al vell al al-'A'bb&a who vU to h1a, thu.
l'toocl 1Iba __ Oo.d. _lIlt 'b7 the Qor'Ulio YV'" Md. oleUl.' J'OU
oloth (_ f .... 14/al--b4cl&tbir/4).(3)
.. '. 1 \
AIlOther 1 1IOJi that ,'lN al-'lb_ l'&l"Ilt trOll hi. Ih&Jkh
1
, , took plaq. 11h11, the 1;110 vve th_il' wq to Al,xlIDdria in
(1244 A.D.). _ , 1iDe a .ever. t1lbtll ' that he
, .
00\11cl Ilot _ar, AlM al""A'b'b WBt to al-sh,id
h
ilr who, lI8Il.iq
- ,
1 J " \
" what hi. wu fttteriDl. Miel, It() lb .... , Oocl O1.'eate4
, ' .
A4aa '11. 01ID haDd., Bi. to hia,
..." J"
hi. ,1. ih8ll ,
earth,D01 to d.epa4ef,.mqta)h1a iD 1D7 vq, .. t '0 oOllpl.te _cl '
, \ j 1. J '.' _
p.rt.ct ()'Uk' .el) hi ....... 11 before, h&4 '
l' '
'\ ' '" 1 ,
, J <, ,"
. broqbt' hia cloWll to earth whell B' laicl that Be would.
, : \ , .. \,' 1 \
_ have .. 011 .&rih, ji
t
il\ID' fi', 1
l ' ' " ,
2/ al-Ba4arah/30). Sillo. 004 414 1I0t, "hat 1IO\11el
J 1 -: _ , ' , " ) .. j I,
l
' '. 1 ., ' " ,
l " .. , 1 T' \
"
Il
1
1

, 1
1

,
,

be 1D th. 1 or 1Ja parati .. , thaD M'a cl.8Oent to .arth vu
'\ y J ,
ODe ot tiPit,. (briaah) _4 Den ot 4.ra4atlon (ihAUh). WheD
.&4 .. wu n111 h. tIOrlhipp.4 CJo4 D,. i4.nt1t1-
oat101l (ta'rrth theretOl"e Go4 "0\1&11" hi. to ..nh ",0
1
vorllh1p na thl'oqh 1apo8it1on (tatlrt), lad. *. th. tvo tora.
ot , .'. _', ,li. (tulD41nab)_re Mt111e4 1l hilll, he
1 .. 1 ... ,
d ene4 to ..,. a vio.rol (khalrtah). III your 0 ..... 10U too"
hariDI a rro .&du, had. 1W1' bel1DJ'l111g 111 th. 81Q' ot th.
ap1r1t (al.-rh) iD the paradJ. of 14.t11'1.oat10D (ta'rrt)',

_cl th_ J'OU vere broqbt clOVA tO the .arth ot the .o (al-
uta) to vorllh1p CJo4 thrOUCh 111p0.1t101l (taJclrt). Whell the tvo
tora. ot aa4' alaver7 ('ubd1n) fIl1til1.cl iD JOu,
,ou will th. cl ... rve to be Or
- 1
1 l ,
On. ot the 1 0il. that Ab al-"'bbi. 1e&n1t' trOll hi. 'ah&1kb 1
- 1
111&7 'be o.alclerecl _ iapol"tant directive aiDo. it Mt . "h.il'
att1 tucl. towarcla pol.'. attire, aD att1 tucle that 41:ttered fro.
1
maQ7 other Mualia (5)!h1. 1e oll troa a de.ire
- -
that ,bR &1-' Abbu oDe. had. of eatue rouch ancl wear111g
roup oloth Wh.1l al-8hidh1-1r'knell ot it, he.. t01d A'bii al-tAb'bia
.-
\
to DO" Cod, _4 tha to be .at h. lit.cl to be. Koreov.r.
.h .
shi4h11It a vaa that veariDg l'01lCh 'NOUlcl De _ atteap't
cm th. wearer. pari to ... hi ... cret azul path iD lite moVll to
.v.r1ODe, which .c) ... fora ot diahonelJt7.: udf untruth-
fIllD.... III w1 th the e of 'tllOlllht. al-8hhilr
u.ecl ,to ut Alli al-'Ab'bia to '0001 the _t.r 'bafore it,
for if he Gocl anar clriDkiDg V&l"II nter, Il't woulcl 'be doiDg
.0 vith aver.iOll, wh11., if he tha_cl CJocl aner c1riDkiDe cool
-
.ter. ever7 Ol'pD 1n hilD l(011l.d 'be r.IlpOllding vith thanktuln
'. (6) 1 -
, to 004.
1 J

.'
, '
, ,
A.bI al-' .bb&. r.o.i vecl hi. lall't 1 on iD 656 .l.B. (1258 A.D.)
1
,
juri 'lMtor. al-sha4bi1I ti.cl. Th. tllO, who ver. acoOllpaD1ecl 17
.enral oth.r., OD th.1r VI.7 to perton th. hol)" pi1sri..,..
A.i a aull toa to14 .llai al."Abb&.
..
about a dr ... that h. ha4. lt ..... that the v.ut that
h. vu 1&11iDC OD board. a ,11&11-1 boat a 111:01'11

b1,."'.4 th.l ver. about to a1Dk. Al-sbidM1I th.D
I
went to the'
, aiel. ot the 'boat Ulcl addr el th. ..a lI&11uc th&t if i t had bem
1 Il 1 \ 1
o
ord.r.el ta h.ar U4 OM7 hi .. th_ th. crac. (1I1IlJlah)' VO\llcl be,
,
004'., _t if it ha4 ,be_ orel.tee! , th.1l verdict
, .
(al-huJca) voulcl al,o be Ood.' Ravine utter.cl th vor4., th

aha1kh b.ard. th. lU U7. "Obedi.no., obecl1elloe (al-ta'ah)." '

, - 1 _
J.ft4tr r.latiDC thi. cb-... to Jo. al-'Ab'bill, ,,.h. croup trave11.el
e:ti1 th.,. l'8achecl the cl ... rt ot vhere l-shidhi1f cl1ed.
, .
, "\
- -
Po1101l1JS&' th. barial ot 1h. ahaP:h, .. :tRI al-'Abbu lIUi th. other.
\
r .... el th.ir jOlU'll.7 ftelLtul17 10 board & n&11-1 boat '
"
W)1e in a nora b1." ad the boat- wu about to
\ J 1 1
- ,
a ..... bering the 1e.aon h. 1.nt tr,oa al-shidhtlr, Ab al-'A'bb&.
ad.dr .... th. Ma .. hi. 1Ih&1kh ha4 clone iJl hi. dr ... vith th.
renl'\ that th .... quiet.el do_. (10) 1
\ ,
1 J ..
1 1IOIl. _cl l'l1clazLe. to hia di.oip1., acl lat.r hie BUCoe.sor, lbll
, 1
al-' Abb&., ...... tu have cODtri 'tnlted, IIUOh towarcl. the preparation
gel ec1uat10D ot th. latt.r. Bovever, ther. vu another e1 ent'
that llUat have p1apel _ equal11111portut l'ole iD the tonatioD
of &1-"'bb'. thoqht. !hi. vu ,u:,the tOril' ot specifie 'booka
. "
vh1ch, aB uplaiDecl ,ae10v, vere .,.01&1 to al-Bhiahilr .
ael Ah al-' 'bbis. .
\
, "II!I'o,.
Olle, ot th. 'lIOn iaportmt ot e, 'boota _ to have .eD
8
4 E
-31-
1 ,
"f1V, ( )
Dat. al-avli,.a' (Th al ot .t.) bl al-'l'1ra1dhf. 11 The
r .... on wh,. thi. 'book l' tait .. tO be ot apecial .ipifio8Z1C .,.
. ,
lie fcnmcl iD th. op1ll1oll ot al-8hi4hi1f ad. Ab 41-' Abbi. about th.
1
. ":thor ot th. book aDd. al.o iD th. oircun_o.. iD lihioh th. book
vu II8Ilt;ozaecl. '!'h. tvo 1IIla1th. ha4
d
a h1&b opiniOll ot al-'l1rll1d.hf
, ,', (12)
who" thel gloria.d Md. who.. warcla t vith th.ir tUllaoc.pt_ce,
mcl the book tt.elf va. onen read. &11cl di.ou cl ill al.:.sh8dh1lf'a
,
pther1np. The cirCUlet_O tbat aocOllp_ied. the _.t1on ot the
book .... alao to have at.ndecl to eaphaeize the Ipiri tual
value ot the book, _cl to relate it to the ep1ritual1'tl ot AlM &l-
'Ab ... 'l'b. nor7 CO'. that on. ot al-sb8dhilr'. oapu1oD., a
oeMain J.1M al-Haun vu vith the BhaJkh _d other. in
. '
Alexudr1a who lhat_ al ... ,,117&' ".. being re.a to all, tho.e
pr.au.t. Al-.Tarrrf look.cl aroaDd. ad DOt10.'" th&1i 'there,.. 8O.e-
on. Who hall D.i ther been vith the ren ot th_ wha th.7 had
1 : '
be.D OL their .,. up to th .... tiDe, DOl' ha4 he bea vith &l-
I l '
Shi.cu11 wh_ the7 &l"1"1ved. Ther.tore, h. turued to hi. D.1pbour
who lZLewer.el hi. inquir7 about th. 11&11 that. there vu 110 ODe there
the ua.al croup Who vve al1 lcDoVD to al-Jart'rr.
1siDg that hi. D.ipbour clic! lOt actuall1 e the .aD iD qU.atiOD.
al-Jarrrf 1I&1t8d unt11 the gather1ng cliaper.ed.' and ftIlt 'Vith hi.
1nqu1n '\0 &l-shidhilI who lD .. reel that it wu J.bQ al-'Abb&a .0
'o .. e eTVl Digbt 'to atted the cliaOU8810nl ad returned the ....
D1Ih'\ to (13-) Ifbe iDference that .1gbt be clraWlJ! rro. thia
nor,.1. that al-'Aboi. attend.ci the .e.t1np e1ther iD spirit, .-
'" '
01' in ao.. other .gr.cUloua tOl'll, that the book of al-Tirllidl
ailht have bea ot .,.oial spir1 tu&! .ipiftcac. to hia.
'!'h. other of illporluce to be aent101lecl, ,aca11l beou of
, ,
, ,
,
1

1
l
-32-
the cirOWInance. nrroWuu.DI 1t, i. ntab al-Maq1t b,. al":
littarrl
l4
) It that va. ollce in.Cairo at th.
r.nd_oe ot & o.naiA al-zatI al-Barraj _d .ORODe wu rea4inc
to th .. al"'ittarr. book. Wha ... bii al- ... bbU &!'t'ived al-shictbilr
iDVitecl h1a ta jOu in th. diaou ioll "Spaak, .,. BOIl,
ap., cd 10U vill 'nevar nop at'terWard..l" AbU: al- ... bb&a A78
that at that 1D0aellt he glvasi tempe ot the 8h&ykh. (15)
o
A' third book that Rat have beu ot ao ... iDtlllenoe on
al-'Abb&a 1. Qit al-Qulub by al-KakJd',(16)tor the
l
ah&1kh u.ed to
S8J', qllO'uDI,al-sbidhilr, that there vu (qit) in th.
and tbat people; ,acquired lipt (nr) tro. i t. ( 17) r-'
'!!l. thre. bOoka IIleJ1tioned vere not th. only one. that
,,. al-' Abb&- raid or r.terred to, but trOll the way they vere
tied. vith aertain hAppenings or siven special attntion, one 111&7
\
0
ot ... intluenoe CID. hia thoqht. Aaide trOll tbat, reteruce ahould
be ada to' a certain book, al-Ri '&,.ah by al-HArith al-lluhiaibr<18)

1Ihich J.bIl al-' ,bb&. said couid be ill tvo point 81 . the
tirai ta yorllhip Oocl with knowled.p ('ilm), and the second
Dever to he _ti.tiad vi th oD ... lt. S. even went 110 tar U Dot to
allov IlB "ti' .Allah to re-rea4 th. 'book. (19) 'lbe r ... on vh7 ,lN:
, \
al- ... 'bb&. a40ptecl tbie attitude i8 Aot 01.&1" ... he otter.d DO
, ,
uplmation 01" jutifioation to l'bD 'A.ta- .I.llih tor withholding hi.
. .
peraiasiOD. llOveftr, 011. or tlfO reterenoe. Mde b7 hi. to al-a&ri th

'.
llight indicate that .lb al-t.l'bb&s di4 not hold & hi&b
. '
, opinion ot hi.. 'or .-.ple, when 8011eone triecl to t.ai hi. by
otteriDe hia ... to04 to .at, h. turnecl &11&7 trOll i t lI&7iDc tut
- ,
whl1. al-!fi"th ,ha4 iD !'fnger ODe "in that . when h.
\ ,

...
-1
1.
e
r
O
' .
" .
"
, .
/
-33- "
,J,
)
..
" \
etrtohed out hi- luuld 'tor llUapioioua tood, he had lii%t1
veine that in the .... 'ftla.t one vein ot
al-Kuhibr'., aooordiq to AbU &l-'Ab&a, wu lleo Nr1.'tor hia, .
0 '
.' "
tor he had to have .011. v&7 that indicated" to hill. what wu ript"
ad. wr'ong ... he waa Ilot ooaaplete11"puritied trQII the (nafa)
. - \ (21) ,
and worldl1 de.iree and telldelloie. (hava), 8Ild thue oould Ilot
be talcen (qudwah) to be rOllond.br people.(22)
. .
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..
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t. -
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2- Lata'it:.p. 67

A S.e here p. 32
3- Lata'it: p. 56

. Rawdl p. 302

;- See here pp. 72-r3
-34-
,

,
Su'rcrl pari 2 p. 13
Sha'rcr: part 2 'p. 13
1la1"rat: p. 121
lIatah&t: p. 568

Durrat: p. ,135
, \ \
.'"
7- AkhaIIi or Ikbaf. ODe ot 1:h. olclen to._ ot Upper J:gp1:. It
vu tU01l. tOI' t'ta ad for th. u.iic prao't1ce.
1
ot u. people .lt pre .. t 1:t 1a l.ovn on1, .. Akb-t-,. haa l4at
,(, t 1
alaon al1 11:. tue cd glor7. uul hall 'baaae jun a ..al1
to_ ot .q1al irlponance. 0
(.ll-lhutat: part.1 .pp. 386-381) ,

,'"
i"
8- ... a aailiDc boat that .. aonnracteci of 'boucla af
woocl1:1ed. 'topther v1th 'tvine fit. th. fibr ot COOODU't u
,
.o.wla vere 'IlMel iD 1t. oOllatruct101l ad. 1t cOIlRi-nted a cr.at
,
'" -' ' \
\', ,
'.

,\.,'
,'\
\..
vu a lI'eat iD lhuriD. H. vu trOll '1'1%'11idb
. -
bec.a. ,ot hi. attitude towarcl. wi1iJah (wnt8Mp) ancl
DU.Wall. (pX'ophe07). Be lI&D7 book. lno1ud.iD tho.e" on
" .
trad.1 tion
(Qu..u,d'a p. ')8 , pp. 217-220 ,
. Al-Eavikibl part 2 pp. <l45-!46 '4; Al-A 'wu part 7 pp. 156-157)
12- Latatlfl

o
13- Latatitl p.85 -


14- Mull.-.d ibll 'Abel al-Jabb&r al-llittarr (4th OGt. A.Il. -'
' \
11 th O.". 1.D.) vu one ot the _eat nt! ...ter.. le i. ben
.'
mo_ u the _thOl" ot the book' ot .u ..... (.tation.).
\ \
\ (Sh&'rid'c part 1 pp. 175-176 - -bvkib. part 2 p. 53)
, ,
.f
Sba'riDrl part 2.p. 13
\
16- AlM ,ilib Jluhe-.d UII1 .'Alr il. 'Atinah al-BiritJd' al-llektr
., '.. ..
(cl. 386 A.B. _. 996 A.D.) .. lIA laCetio ael a taqi'h (juI'ira.elat).
\ . \
Be trave11ecl troaa hi a hou in al-Jabal and. cot hia t._ iD M.kM.
(Al-A.'lu, pari 7 pp. 159-160)
17- t.ta'itl P. 7T

18- 'AliD: Abd.-Al1ah al-a&ri th i la "ad &l-llul:1.i br (d. 243 A.I. -
o \.' - '
857 A.D.) vu a l1'eat .ri" who "'"' born il1 Balll".ah azul diecl in
. . -
Bach4i4. Bi. 1en hia a 1 .. ,. ot IIOl1e,. vhioh he refll cl
ev.n to t01loh and. 41ecl a poor IlIA. On. ot hia poeaten- booka ia,
ntab al-R1'iyah 1i-BuciWr 'Al1ib..
...... .
( Qgeh.f. 20-21 " pp.
Sha 'riDr 1 pari 1 p. 64 ,
.ll-A
t
1aJ part 2 pp. q\
part 1 pp. _ 218-219
.
,
Sh& triDI 1 pari 2 p. 18
'Sh& 'riDr: part 2 p. li!
part ,2 p. 3?3
.atlh&tt P. 512
, . .
" .
1 21-. ,\ . /" . '\ .
'. P. " ,? .. '" 'p. 15
;:;. t.'"
1 l ,."" / 1- 'II " , 1 '1- ! , .'
, : " '. ;.'. .,' ;_ "J \ , 1 .. .,.
f
. "
l '
, 1-

'-----.... /
r
( ,

-36- .
v. SOD ASPlIC'l'S OP AiIl AL- t mis ,AL-IIUllsf' s '
IYS'1'ICAL sue
. ,
(Avliz!' UA v:Lliph)
v.
o
'\l. ..
The cODcept ot, A:l.Dthoocl (wiliy) iD atl thoaPt hu
.- ' t> .,
, 'IL
be_ cUlCUl.e4 .. th.ori.ed. UpOI ... lIAIl7 well-aCNII. rqwtio. 1
l ' ,:1'--- .... ' "
ot cUtt.rut natiouli 111 ''fil th. oOllter 'the JIu.11a
a.1Dt. np8:rutval power. qc:l &8cribe to the. a vari.ty ot 1
lliracl vh:I.oh tall, acoor4iD to llDU 00lih.r qUcrU:DI Xu-
li. halio1ctB1ne, :ln tveDtl oatelO1"i that acluc:le t1nc:linc-
" ,
\ .
lon objeot., proclaoul the ch .. ot the t'cv ..... on. iD the
. lIP&Il ot- a --.lI to blood, wilc:l
uill&l. _d. 01& 11011., hav1Dg \he .arth tO,lel up tor th_,
- \ '
.
the abili t7 to t.. on var1ou. shap , to spe. 1IIUl7 laDSUP8,
to tl,. in the &tr, Md. to 1D0ve aountaiD At the head ot theH
oat.80ri , .... e source. al.o c1ai., e WDt. have the
power to th. cl.ad. back to lite. (
1
) .
. , ,
Detere revieviq the iel8&8/ ot .1-' A'bb&. al-llur.r about
. .
niDt. 'U1d. 1t 11&7 'be ot ,1Dt81'ell't to r.peat lier." *at
\ . \ ,
Ooliher' sap, that al1ihouch Ain1i1 are .ent1ec11D veral
p1ao.. ot the Qor ria as preteneel by Cod to al1 pt ' 1
o \
noth1Dg iDclioate. that they .r. aD,. 'm1Ch1iier thlD th ether
\"
. " \' '
_uIli _11e the,. ar. 81;'111 aaonpt the 11viD1. (2) Bven
" , , -' - - \. '.
'\. "
1
,\
, .
, ,
, " " '
. ,,"
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" .. f ... ,\
. - '" \
.1
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1
1
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1
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-37-
l '
. Rat, a orial, ucl ... tv.ll ot pu.ion .. othw _., to the
, 1
1 \
.;j . , \
ut.t that he 1I01'u4 no miracle., ha4 no at1oueno ou _tUl"e.
aDd 414 nOt kIlo,,' ... t hi44n' (al-ch&1b), u4 when uJcecl to
1101'11: Idracl h. bad. lN.t one u8Vl1'11 ".III 1 Ul7'hiDC bu.t a .. ,
an enV07'"(3)
1
'l'he qu.nion J1aturally &t1... &8 to what acnual1y prodUoecl
\
thi. dranic ohanp ot atti tucle ot Kual1ma towa:r4a their Kinta.
\ .1ooorting to 001cls1hw. wu _ch an 'l' b&n'1.r
.'P&r .. Ood tr" ear17 I.1u, (4) that bel1ever. D.ecl.cl
1
1\ th .. ancl the oE1pot.t Ooah.ad. lownr,
the.e -.diator., i.e. laillt., ooulcl not be vorker. ot II1racle.
\ .
ri thout hipeet .. tiator ot all, i... l_Id t .... 1DC
,. 1 . ,
, , ,
even Il'eater pever.. lello. t th. ot pro-
l , '.' <' '-.
pheof (DU_wah) in Ialu vu d ... loped acl the Prophet wu
plae4 th. ,ord'" ot .Urt (6) lIaD7 ,.:. attrilRlted
1
to hila an .. hil cleath, aa4 eva 4v1Dc hi. lite he vu ola1MCl to
ha .... hacl "ot "'t 1. hidcl_ (al-cb&7b)', (7) iIl .,1t. ot
\ .
the Proph.t 'a ot t'iu (8) "
1
Whatevir th. r .... on proph,07 (1l11_wah)' Del RiDthood
\ \ 1
. \
(v11&,ah.) 0'" to b clootriD iD. I.1wo thoqhi ul'
'th. tact r..tu. that th., hav. beoOll 0 wll-eatab11'mecl,"
\., t "'\
,.,,01al17 .... 1Iu.1i. 1Q'8t10., tbAt theu Yalicl1t7 1* tar le ,
\
1 .
'.)
if at al1, 411101& ed th, relationehip pre .... b17 UlCl ..
, 1
, 1
n,o'.'&1'ilt uina Ht_c th.lI. It 11&1 be' -.t thia point
.. , , ( \
-,
'to r,ter- to al-Baktm al.Jl'1rllidhr'a ooncepi a4 expl tiOJl' 'ot
\ ... .' a
.
am.
, l" '. ' J' JI"
ot the lI&iA "ut b7 Ala al-'Abb&. 'hla
, ,\ l, ,', , 1
. ,
\,' '" '-
" . ,/ "
'.
, '
- ) "
'.

\

( -
( :
\ ,
pred.ol or A_ ".l-BUIIl al-Shi.i1r U a IIlcl HUl. '
\ . '\ \ ' ..
ot _4 .. 1480. tOI', th.ir !h. tvo Sh4hllI ,
1Ihqkhl, acoOl'dJ.Dc to Ilfl' 'Ata' Alliat. u'tollecl al-'1'1ra14hI ad.

'h.lel hi. WON. 1A .n \ ,
To al-'l'1rlliclhI, il thl lCDJ..leq. ('ila) ot uplin-,
iD, thl ail lDCl mow1.Dc th ... cret. ot i. hiclcla (al-sha1b);
\ , '
" ,
the pll1ltratiq f\motlollin, '07 Qo4 t l
,\hiDp,(lO) lt th. leoh
\
a aplrlt (rh) tro. 004, acl 1D thi ........ beOOllI. .. atlY1
. .
to 'bI bellevlel 1Jl. tOI' lt. 1'1 j.o'\ 1 011. li a ot Oocl'I vorcl
\ 1
IIlcl h. who clOI' '0' 1. a h .. etl0. (11) BoWftr, th. propheol-ot
JhIh'.lct, aooorc11 .... to t);ll QkIl. 18 titter_t tra ot the
. , '
prloed1Jl prophnl in that' Ood. __ 'Icl al1' the part. ot proplalo7 .
- "
. \
, tor 1I1ah.-ec', llad.1 hi. h.art a oontainer tOI' 1 t, lDCl nuapt4 1 t
1
- vith Bi ... al. (12)
p
,'AI tOI' D1D.thood, al.Jl'11'111clhl" betw_ lt u.4
\ ..- -
prophlol '07 that in thl tirn OUI CJod. oontrol. the AiDt '.
, .
voN .. (ha4lth) 10h 'rlpre t 1dlate'ler 1. reve&lecl ot CIocl'. kIlow-
. -
1
-
1.,. to that : partlcalar ..mt. A I&1Dt be Ci ven Olle tJ111tc1 ot
, , \'
thl proph.01 or OILI ot lt, 'aacl the worcl. of
," , ; .
- '" 'J' ... i
a aa1I1t ia ... OOAl1clered. a 'U 1... th. OUI ot'
. \ '
" thl P'opbet t. apI'oh, ba.t hl U7 'fa4.1 iD lite' aDd. hi. ,r,j.ctiOll
, 1 j \ ,
titan.ai,to .. :'" " ','.'
1 t ",' '... \ c - \: <. \ ,', 1 \ \
- .- , ,: .-:t,bi .. al-'.tbbU _4 'hi . diaciple Il111.' Alliai to luWe ',"
,
, ,
'j.' /' .. ' ,,', "', , ,/: ;:' :"'" ) ;'1"."" j - 1 r "
tePt t&1thM17 to .' "
, >", ,', '" ,- ! ..: " p'" ( <,,' ' ..,'N , " , ... r .,L< .... , 1 .. ,.,",:j, ,,'
.uu,. tbt,-'''h.,.ftret ,- .' . c:'
,', :.,:c j\ : ) , .2" :,;;[.,1: :;'", ,;,,' .
_ ... :) ..... \ :('tl 0,"1," 1 .. .::r...... /r- t
\

1
, ,
,
l' ,
IOVO' ot th 10 Ob 1. oal7 a ot prophe07. 'l'b ... :- '
" l
, .."""
',_ _ ftIul Allah tba'"
, ',,' """""-
l1Cb,t ot MiAthoocl bu 1t. 'aotul ...,. ia, uul ... n.ot.,' th.
1., l
r" ,
l1lht ot Pl'opheo1, t.ld.oh the7 alao oall the 1I du rea11"7
. "
1 ,
al-lla!',tinah). lA th. IUt ....... "h' .
/ ' ,
lich' i. &1wp 1Ih:1n1DC, whnh .. 'b1 4q 01' bJ 'be1q
.... ( 1
... 117 th. _011 'at Dipt" the M1D"I' 111h" 1. ooattauou
" .
-u4 P'l"1IUut .. a relNI" ot, "h. ot '1I._e4 1. l1pt. (14)
, _' ,. - , 1
Th... M7 &1 th. h.1r., lA pari, ' ot thl
1 l' \
Prophn an .. 80'" 'Qoc1 w111e4' '1" tollo. ' C
1 1
10 that n ........ ,lIi&ht .... .... -c"
" 1
\ \-, l '" \
th. ctter-.oe .,._ PJooph." -' th. aaat. 1. that th.
, ,
( - \ 1 -
tir.. oalle4 "Cm. the people Vith 1I1111h" alo th. whol. ...ace
, - ' ' 1
," ,
Cl' 111 1011 (al-r1.&1.. - wb11e th. latt.r. -oall llpoD
, '\ .
l'

. \
____ _____ -0-'-"'"
1 1......:. ... r 'f -,' .1 re , \, '"''
, .. ,,-40-
- th. ooDtr01 ot IlO 'lI powv, 01' viil ezo.pIt tbai ot
, \ t
God. ( 18) III tht.' .... , II&1n'\, 40.. ha,. oZ'
d th lN" acnul1, wloOMa it, tor "' 11.,1, ... a ttAc the
OA. h. lona. De.th 'lM .. the mt.i..
,
t.n tOI' th. ,.-U10.t:LOD ot th. t,NthfUlU.a of IAiDt who,
a_ ct th :1.. '0 hi., 1000Ipt :1. t 01' rej.ot :L t thu.
rena11nC th. tNth 'b01a.t u.:1ntho04. -sbidh11r bu,. hi.
, " ,
Op:l.ll:l.OD UpOll the Qor 'wo ' tbat 11&111 - ,; alladhl'u
, '1
l1ict Ua la - ' aim:aa U-Allilu 1I1Il,4iD:I. al.:.c1 t ....
ta'nna" h laUltua "-
, .. \ l' '
Althoqh the .boY ..... Uon.ct t.n lIq,enable'co.on be-
l , - , ,-...
- .1:1. ... 1'.' to -reniai th. ,"lace ot "lAiDt .. oac ,th , ;ret th.
/' " . .
n"tv. ot u1Ilthoocl r,....ua & Nor." that Clocl taon.
, ' \ ' . .
'ta'All&h plalB. "hi. b7 U7:f.DC tbat ,OU' teoral vorlct :l.a
. -
, , ,
& 1IOrih1 plac. for th. 1-... 1&t10l of _oh & or.t. '!hv.tor.,
, ,
&1. aN a8O.'1I&I'1 t th ... , u a .'""1 ,1., fOl'
_aut" ... ,tl'UlUH' hM to, lM -.ne4" ad .... oret hM to,
iF " '
, ,
\ '
, "
l,
Il
1
, \
):
Il
..
1 < <
1
. ,
\ 1 l ,
to 004 ad.d.r -i M. l tru.torllecl
J9U lDto a 8&1At17 .lar (21) that lt 1.
ul17' CJocl who .... OD. _Ilt. ID a W&1. &1.-
.' '
ftl"ll1dhr' polDt. O1&t\ that U _at t".(22)th. AiDt '
belollP, lt 1. 'Gocl '.0 ..... h1II on.', (23)' Mel lVa 'th.
, -
.
'beUIV.r 'lZ.rt. hl lt l CJocl '. vap iD ord.r to tain & lenl
ot will a"'.r -'oe able to vill have to
I1t hi. cOIIpl.te iDa'bilitl betOre' 004 !nterter
Ul4 ,a AiJat. in. r.t ..
to th .ad" VIP. "..1'0 althcqtl."'..q elo U.
... ...' \ : - l' \
. '
.tllOn to l .. elt aDd M. h.ari. ,.t he OBll att&iD
a' atate ot rea41D to r.c.i". 004'. aerc7 (rahaah) which h,
'" .
\, ",11 have to watt 'tor utii CIod. h it or
.. 1
In k piDC vith thi ...... tl'eacl thoqh't ve t1Ilcl Ila 'Ati'
. . ,.
, '
Allih aD4 hi. .ppenin, tJi.' ri.v, i t i. iJl tact'
- " 0
-
ao4 that ..... e .. IlaiAt. ''!taeT nae 'lI;t ,in .0.. oue.,
have .. loq path ot U "".,..J .. tlOD,
1
Vitllclrawal trOll th, people, 'reiD1DC wi-th 004, cODoealiq tJi.ir
, .
. 4 ( .. 'ail) ud/ (ab_l)" th,lr ucetici. 1-
.' , . , " 1
(Rhd), ad pr ... ntDC 'th 00000e 'ot' 1Jl ol'd.er '
to .mun. (tami') to' allo"
.
to te 11014. Pollow1ll .,11"1 tual jOQrD'l :th .. t-
- 1


--------------,------
,f

-42-
1
BeoOlainc a iD 'th.: tillai i. th.retore a "
Itep that onll 00cl will. u4 t HOlNver, the. are tvo .. thocl.,
1 1{. 1 \
that QQcl r ort. to in takiq thi. ri.pl OD. il tbat He wa1t.
\ '
UJltil Hi., Pl"oapeotiv. u.int hu ooverecl, the lcme &reluou. path
antioDed. alloye batore Be t hi. to Hill to oOllter upon hi.
, 1
the ot aa1nthood, u4 the other i. that B. t th. 'beliw81", '"
or Bil OWll Vill and. oboiee, 41Jltotll to Hill Vithout va1tiq unt11
\ ' , '"
be bu prepar.d hi ... 't tOI' th. l'.o.ipt or RiDtho04. Ill' thi.
' .. a .. , _ 11&7 .&J,that there are- tvo t1l)e. ot ad
natvall;y tllO tn ot Il&iDt. '*011 al-Ti1"ll14h1 .000000iMa call.
A. \
1
- '- '
WDt. of Ood. 'a tl"Uth' (avli)'&' haqq Allah) Ul4 _nt. Oocl
. . .
(a1l11,&' llih),(27) ut IIOII8ti t!le (, ,(al-..htad)(28)
, \.' ,
01' ctiUPDt (al-ll\1jtahi4), aD4 ,th. 41r.otll t.a (al __
01" attracte (31) tiUereatiat .
the tVo t1P8. b7 explaizainl' hov a 1".cq.lI"at.d 01" I&:I.Ilt
hall' to tr.14 a clitlloult path 'ollaaret'-dp., tlllPtatioa.t
t'o 't1Dd 1a ed tut "'.,\
he i.. n1:\1 ... 'b1. to tilbt ott hi. a .... ti .... attl"ibut At \hi.
, -
'.aper,,U.oil eJmc n. help vh10b h. the ciwao. ot
Ail othe t1]t8 of 'Aint, th. t ... :'OI" _ .....
," ) Q _! ._\:"! \ 1,'.
"Olle, __ '" .. " nil1 _ a oo-.1!tD ("a1:l4), .
,.. "'- ,-, ... , \ ,j '). ,
h. 1. a _ ot cooct attribut , COocl ohazoaotv', "a4"'olear
\ , .. t , .. h \.., r .... \
ad i el.ot.4 lIl4 proteote4 (illhfan . Ood.." wba
, ,', .."'" ;',
,the u oome. tOI" _oh' a mu. to baoo '
,\ j 1 j"" 4 ) ;i':;l1"".:,,i-.1;; .. \
1. \ ... , 1) \.. .! ... '
tat_ up to 004, t!l_ l"et1l1"fte4, 0Ill.7 to reU1n tor 'iD Jocl'.
,l,
<
/ ko14 lD4 .. ; "'::, c,", :,", ,"",'"
,:. :.: \/ ;: 'J';": .: , ;, (, ;(.,:.,. ':: i.': ':" ,', .,'
) t" ,,..., \, ! l ,1 ........ ..... .... .f,L., .. \';. 1 ,1).0 ... \ ",:r ,i .11 " h j)l, If l"
",.\'t<-4(,. ..,fI 'r ""fI"'.l 1 r ...... ___ .. .. ... .. .. ...
1

" '
.'
1
.. '
"
.
-43-
l ,
'b1 1&Jiq, "Ood. bu voripper8 who cl,.d., (at'il IliDC. fi '1) B.
auihi,lat.4 vith Bi. 0_, *0.' attriba.t (anit .iDe. vaat) R.
, ' . .
Bi. OVll, u4 80 .. quid.4it70 or uo. (dhit) Re
,
amaih1lat.4 vith Bi. ovnI u4 B. !lad. th ,bear.r. _oh ot 81.
l , 1
or.t. a. th. OOIDon I&1at. ar. uable to hear. Tho ..
are th. ODe. who au: into "h. ..a ot quicld1 t1 (4hat), aDd. the
ot attr:l.'ba."e. (a1ti";.1II. a1tah) ... (35) 'l'hu. aha1kh

batw_ what ve Ml oall l.ct A1Dt., or th 11te,
\ ,
.
Oa.OIl. IIA1Dt. who 40 Dot' .ria. to th. ,lit.'. levaI Uld. 80 U'.
, '
actual11 ' .. 'b1. to hear' 'or 'baU' 004'. _oret Ilia 'Ati' Allih

ezpla1Da hi. ri.", iD thi. cODDectioll d.etai1, u4
,f 'l
'ta dolDc h. r.ter. to th. tvo tJ'P" or 1ev.1. ot aainthoocl ..
th. aall eainthood. _il _cl th. creat BaiDthoocl
Il l ' 1
(w:l.liJab laabri). the H1nthoocl ot fai th (al-lUa) acl th. aa1Dt-
, ,

(al-Ad.:i.qlA) aDd. th. A1Dthoocl ot the' tai thM (al-a1wdn),
'. - " " .
til. ot _d .. 'barhiA) ancl the
1
hiIl-thoocl ot u.cl (ahubid. .. 'aPa), th.' aaiDt-
1 hoocl tho.. the path 'or traV.11.ra (ailikIn) an4, th.
, - t 1 \
.aillthoOcl'ot tho taka cl1reotl7 to 004 l-j,.btn,).
' , ,1 , ", '
, ,41fivut DU" 'liftll b7 Ibm '.lti uiih' to th.:tVo t"e.
.. ,1 .,.. - 11 ,
'" thoqh,'tit'7 are 1v . il1 th ,
,}"lo ,.l'. 74:, A-: 1.".. '.. ___, - , ,.. 1 - i , t \,', ' ,
aplaiA.d ola:rln..et iIl '.ch etetail tbat :l.t" 18 n8O ",",o
l '
..
;:_ l ,\", ' _ " , '1'" _ - J J.J, :" 1:" t 1 , ...:
, to 'th.1!' oIl. b7- 011', ,l'ath';t" pau. lJ;r pair, .. ,,' .,: .. ', ':, '-: ,\ "
" < l ' l" l'} , l <1 ' '
. " " " .-aris1.Dgth_ al1 to",ber." l, ' , ""',',,. ','c:"
! , " ,",' " ' " .. .. 1 -
)' l ' j ,i ,': 4. , 1
c 1,., ....
, .
1
'l, ,1 r
,1 , ; 'l' , ...
, \.,j) " ,1\ J
'_ " ... ' '1 ,
". : J ,
, .
, ,
, "
,1 '
, ..
. l '
" ,
. \ .
, ,
-. ' . ,.
1 \ ""
'.':-. <.

, ..
, '
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Th. n.rn . two VOl tbat '1. ',lta' AllAh u... to qualU'7
. .
i.e. 'U:\tl. <..bra) and. 81'.at (lmwa)., tOI'
-- .
th .... lft. lDCl "_ote the 41tter ..oe iD leve1 MtveQ th. tllO
t1P8. 9t MiDt !he ftrn a.:iDtllooc1 1. ot tho.e 1Ibo 'betrlad.
,
CJo4 (wall 1&tav&lla Alliai) _do who are iDolwlld. 1za the Qor'Uo
ver.el 'allA ,..tavalla Alliha va ruUlahu va al1adhfna iu.D
tHaa hl.Da All&h1 huIIU &l-ch&lUNn (S/ai ... ;:t1dah/56). The
1
1. ot 'tho.e "hOll (Joel betri.4. (nil .lllih)
, AIl4 who are 1Dolud.ed iD the ver.e. Va hu .. ,atavaUa &l-.&l1hIna

(7!al-A
'
rit/196) .(36) It -7 be ot iIlterest to ber. that
,
al-'fina1dhI u ... the _e word. 'betriend' (vallp) wh_ reterrine
\0 .
to the I&1ni. ot 'the top level ot wnthood: "le (004) 'befr1endl
thl. tD. ot NiAt.,"(37) Ulcl that 'al-Qu.al1rf iIlterpret. the
, ,
word iIl two W&1I to give lt ,the .... euiDp reterrecl toI b7
IbD ti' Allih. (38)

... cOIUl 4eaipat1on ot IlIl 'Ata' AllAh iD "terring to

J ,
the two tJP8. ot NiAthooct, i.e. uinthoocl ot taitli (&l-rmiD)
""'
1Ild. ot cOIlti1'll&tin i. elabOrat4 \1pon br ooapariDS'
, '
taith, lIhiOh 1. III 8II81'1II10e tltoa darJme to li.t, 1Ii.th OoD-
tiNation (,..qlA), vldoh 1. bicher tblll t&:ltb iD tJ1at lt ,i. th.
, ' .
enabllabaeD.t of' kIlo"l .... (lniq1";r al-'U.) in th. heart.
\ ,
,&noth.' iIIpoM.t titter_ol 'Nt ..... fai th.. oontu.atlon ..
Il! r;
>' .lhowa l'bD .lta Allah 1. that the tirn 119 lie aooOllJNUliecl
e' \ '
, '"
, - \ 1 1 Il
b)' lnattntivenel!l. (p&tl&!l) vhil, the " .. cond. il' ,tr.e, trOll lt
for 'th.' .iapl. re&80n that '& A1nt in' .. nate ot oont1z..tlon :"",:,
'0 ' ," , 1
i. to, '&Del
... 0 '.... , , 1
:,':'.':' .. :',,' 'i, 'l" -
,'" 1 'J '. .r', e\ .' >' ,1, '" \ 'l (l, ... '\ >, " ',' ,
l' '.
'l'; .... r' Il"\,., l .. "',1 .. "
.. '., ' ,', ,: ,
_ r :l ... 1 l .. .. , ... \f/ y' .. <1 ..... "Vt , Il 1 1 \ j
,1

1
'"
.


, "
004'a rewa.rfl. b)' vorJdJa&' a4 aotiDC tOI' n. vith ailloerit,. aIlfl
\ ' ,
tru.tbtvJ,lLe , mil. .. u:t.at ot th. ..COILd. "'" et. lLoth1q \1\1.t
1
Ooc1'throqh amdb11atiOll (t"') trOll .... 1rJ't1li.nc othe than 004
lIDCl abicl1q or Na
'
DiPC (baqa') iD "'mh1q bl Goel. Bownr,
\ 1
1t i. Ilot to aohien amdJaila1i1oa oal:r,\ for thia H
, l '
b,. tho .. who -a n111 tHacUDc"the path (AU.tIn) a4
are 810111 Oll 'th. tirn lev.ls ot .aiathoocl. Ilz .lta' Alll
o
,
clar1fiel thi. poiDt fuoth.r b)' raterriDC to AlR al-Baea al-

" .
siaid'Ji li .0 .luciciat.4 the. caU.race b7 AJlC tbat \he 'becJ.D-
,. 1
.
Dar i ..... aa:lAt. ot the tirft tJPI. are tho vIlo oH,. iD
.... rJ'th1Jac b7, toraeJd.1lB ev.rJ'thiDg, vith the tbat Ood.
1
0.78 th .. iD ... l'J'thiPC b,. I(laI1iteatiDC n .. elt to th_ vithou.t
.... 1'7th1,DC. 10 that th.l' .e. JI1II clole to th .... lve. tha evw7-
thiDg. On th. othar had., the p'.at va:r' (tarrq kubri) 'belna to

ot IIalAt. who obe1 Oocl iD .., .. )"tlWag 'b7 penatiDg
ot ever7th.1nc uul pero.iviDg Qo4'. vtll in' vith th.
r lt that Oocl 0.78 th .. iD eveJ'11:hinB IlUiteft1n&' lt
,
to th_ iD ever7thluc. .0 tbat th.l' s.. Bia ... if Be ver. iD
r', (j - ,
, ) , \
ev.r7ULiq. ID--thil "1', the tirn 'MiDtS beCOll8
,1
boa. the,. nothinc vith CJo4.,
whil. th. lattarl reu.1D (,.abqi) iD. everJ'thiDc. Ul4 If) .a.
d iD """hiDC. Al-sliath
i
II OOllolwl that th. aeccaD4 t".
>
ot li acra oOllPlete (ai_) tha th. 'tirn. tor Oocl
\ ' "', - ,
haa DGt cr.at.ci __ (al-...l.akah) ua.pt' tbat a ...,. bI
- (,
... t't,' tut 'i.l 1Ih7"h. 80 .Inn." h1II .. l't ott (Chib) ftoa
" .... "t ' ,\, '1
the creat.ci WarlA ab_t. hiWlt b-o. Ro"
, - 'l' .. - '" 1,"/' ,1 ,. > ,.
" , .. .... "l' Il" \ '"
'1ft1', aap al .... d.o. not, 'ONat_'
,,' ,'" , J J /p ,f .. T' 1
'" ' - 1\ ')' .... ' .... -, \ .. : ,"
thiDCI .. nob 01" ,1 ... _ .. 1v. , ,a1 tci' ... "'t,,-, .. 0'" B.
, ,l' 1" / " .' r \ ..... ')'./ !. "1 1 \
\ _ .. "1. ,1 ..,. t
, \
,
,\ \ l, 1\' '... l " 'i' 1
. li:' , 1>, - "
!


" \
, 'Il
IUD1t.et. 1ia 11' iD tb (40)
Tb. l" ... cm wh7 IlID Ata' All&b. u... th. tOllZ"'th t ot vOrd..,

1 ' proot Md. mel_o. (4alfl _ barbAD), _cl Vi tll 1q aIUl
"'iDe (1Ihuh4 'va to litt ... t1ate 'Mt ... th. tvo tlPe,.
\ ,
preoed.1q paracr.aph. He 8&18 that Dot ine Cod. 1D evl"JthiDg
do Ilot that ile do Ilot Bi ... lt iD ..,.rJthinc.
'but rather that tho.-. who look do not have the abi11 t7 to penet-
rate throqh evv;yihiJc to .ee Bi. there. Aotual17 Ood 1. IlUiteat
\
iA n'mhiDc, *10h iAolude. ev .. that vb1ch II&T n. to oonoeal
Hia, Vith the obriou ... naption that 110 veil tlbatlOever eziat
. to bide 004 'rroa ... (41) Thi. ulUllPt10D i. e"117 ooarable
to the, worcla ot al"ittarrs " ... uI .... al1 411". lUine tix.dl7
UpoJl li. taoe, "'iDe JI1ra iD ever7thine le vu n1,le4 " (42)
Ganit7 of 004' .uif.n&U"" (43) th. foroibl.
oOllPUll1oll (qhvlnab) ot Bi. lil11t prey .. t the lipt ot Bi.
worlhipper. troa ... 1n, Bia t tar cr.at proxiai t7 (qurb) ute.
, =
011. unable to .ee th. prozillit7. Thi., aooo1'Cl1.q to ... bi al-a an

J
aaal,oCOU' to the .. 11 ot _* which p'0WII
!
atroupr the oloaer ODe draVl to lt. 101I1'0e, ucl whioh i. Dot
_lt aDJ' ".ore _en ODe enter. 'the hOU: whera the .uk t (44)
AbU al-'Abb uplain. the UIIe poiBt iD a ver.e that Qllbolical17
"1Iq'a1 "She (x,qli) Ilot 'Mo Olle oonoeale4 uaept _. ahe
litte4 her veil, 0 woader that i. oODoeal.ent.,,(45)
" \
'Dl. point abo\It Ilot .eeine or .eeiD, Ood. iD ev8J7\h1Dc tON',
,
&1 .. "1 .. 4 _l'ore, the 'bui. ot 41etiDct,1oa 'Mtveen the II&iJlt.
ot proot ud eri.clenoe (4alr1 va 1Ihca' 1_ mih oall

.r
, ,
t
r
,
'" '
"
-47-
the people ot oon.ieler&i1em &Dd' (ahl ,al-f'-:tib8r),',
,
.:nel tho of w1tD. .... ad ing (8huhd va n,aPa) whOIi h. oall.
people ot_er'cep'tion &Dd' 11l.ilht (l al-inibw). l'bD ....
..... !.... ...
1ha1 the .. t"', o} are reapeot1vell11lcluded
111 1he 1110 Qor Vlr.e.l S&-rlvlhim fr
1
al-itiq:1 wa '.
, \ 0
antua1hill hat1a ya1a'banaDa lahUlll lDIlahu al-haqq (41/FU Uat/53),

anel: Quli-Allihu thWlllD& dharhum 'fi khawih111l yal'&bina (6/aJ.-AIi 'a.;
" , .
91). .'!'he firl't type 1 .. that ot a saint who .. eeks Geel in the
orea1ed 1hillP lOillg trOll one evideC8i to another
111e long path ot aearoh in', hi s' ho17 qeRt. On
other 'hazul,' a u.int' of the doell .lot follov the .ue
Jlqng route, ''but 1. talc. to ciod. trOll Who.' he reoeives
, , .
r, .,.. J"
hi. lmovledp. Thu. the tirat saint 11&1' be called a traveller
, ,
, ,
Qr path-tread.er (.&l.1lt): ucl "th, other or
,
(ujclhiib), 1dlioh' the 'reaon whl Ibn 'J.'ti. J.ll&h use' \

hi. dellipa.tloa tflr the tvo level. ot l&inthoocl, i. e. the
.. l '
'-.
I&iIlthood. ot 1ho the -ad ot tho.e ten direct Il
""" '( 47); , , ' , \.'
to 004. J.b al-'Abb&. ottera, in h1. Ollll val, ,& olaritication 1
j \ ' -
Li ot the clitterenoe that exista betwein 'the tvo saint8 \thrOU&h
. '
1
giving two interpretl'.tions of the tradition: He who" bov. l'
1. .... ..
aelt, bao ... , hia Oocl. to hi., it .ean8 that he. who " "
, '
hi. aoul or' .elt (nat,a). 1\41 huad:lity, helpl.a.ees. ucl
, ,
poverty. ste to mow Ood. ,n'th Bi. Blor7 . abilit1'. anel riobneaa,
'-. -,. , , ", ,_ 0 '
whioh .ean that _,_iDe-. the .oul ia a
" J.' rrJ'... ' ' 0 .... '
thing, this thai createcl 11&1' well lead. &
, .J '\
traveller (.aiik) to The ... e trdi tiOn t .&78_ ,al-'
IV' ," '" Dt..-
\
' ", "
II&Y &180 he 1Iltll'preted. ill aother va,; 'he
W R' '. "'!, [ fJ J .' \ _
.oul (Ilata) ahon, b7 10 ihat he ha 'mead7 mow Oad..
" " .' ,
which .eU8 that mowing Oocl abd
1.
,
/
1
i
-!
. !
1

.'
1 \
''
.. ,
'l '.
,
"
, u
c
, . .
"
that th. I&1nt who il live thi. ldlld of Jalov11dCe, throup.,
"
1 ... .. .:r
beiDg t n dirlotl)' to God. ClOI' Ilot DI.d Ul)' eViClaoe or proot
, .'
.iI1CI ing aoa i, proof aOUlh.(49j
, 1 l' - '
, " : \
Betore _. tuMher vith our revi." ot the thouaht.
, --
- .. '-
ot Abu. al-tAb'biu about Aint. Uld wllthood, .1t 11&7 'be iD or4.er
at thi. stase to 11'011148 'Olle 01&t'1tloatiOD ot two pointa 1'&1.84.
, '
in the prev10ua parcraph. '!'he fuat ot the 1a a'bout the. Jalow-
,
th. I&1Dt reoeivla in ODe or Ulother d.pendiBc upon
o "
the type ot .aiDt he i.. In uPOUDd.iDg hi, vien OD abject t
. -. .. '
llRl al-tAbb&a dot. not -.ilo1t olear, whether hl that _
creat.d thillp (titinat') in thell,elve. can actual17 lead. to' &
\
movled.ge of Go4 or not, although this il vABUely 1l1plied. in his
tiret intlrpr.tation ot the previoualy 'oited tradition. Hovaver,.
"
, \
we 11&1' re&8Oll&b17 u.y \tut aillce his ,predeceslor i_ not ot that
, 'be11et he hi lt .q have '.eant the _.e thing al-shidhilr
\\
. .
apeak. about wha he VODd.er., how OD. OaD denl1e God b7 uI1ng
,
--what ia laiOtm (al-lla'&r1t) when what 1a lown 0" to be lalown
throup H111, and how one CUl Cletine Hill 'b1' sOllething when Bis
'le" fil
e'nateno: preoeded everJ'hiDC. (50) Thi . is almolt to
- ,
what al-IJ1ttai-r 1&71 when epeaJdng about the ... e point t "Letter
oumot intor;. of lt Bow ahoulcl1t ,.11 ot Ke (004)1"(5
1
)
, . , ./, (52)
. and: " Cu l in that 1dl1ch l have procluce41"
,
, , "
Bo_ver, al-shi4b'ill ada1ta that ,.0.et1118' crl.te4 thinp 11&7
\ t 1
lead one. to Ood.. in whioh lt ia 004 Billlselt who oOllters
upon ptt aml uQrlbes t'o'thelll ,thi. :t'rom ';1
whloh VI .y &eaU. tut lIe&D1 that. i 1; 1. aotUally
.. '10 _,
,God who tell. about tillaelt. Kore put, re al-
HittarI "1 am He\1;hat intorma to
\, Be willa."(5t)' llthoqh' and. J.b ule
___ ____ ' __ __ ' .. ;, ,',' .' ..... ' \" t . . ' .. # # j ,
, 1
_. \
,

J
\
\
\
.\
. ,
'Pleifie ten. to rt.r to thia t1P8 or knowle,dp or to thl
. '\ ' ',.
othlr __ "., ... dionlct betore, wh8r. th. u.1nt pt., dir.ct mOtl-
," r "
, \, r "
le. fl'oa 1q -th., to be r.t.rriDl' to "h' t"o
teN b7 al-!&ritbf eliniquilhe. blt n pttill8'
, ao_tect with Ooel ieletit7;.n, Geel (55'>
. '1'l1lI ..... 7"...".b7 .e b;y Ial&bial.I,
to reter, b7 the tirllt. to the lcnowlecl8e ot the
,.
. "
belienr_, Who pt 'to mow 004 tbrOUBh Hia ravour whioh 1I&k thelD
'. \,
able to r.copi.' Bi. as the ereator 'or everythinl, anel, 'b7 u.iDg
, . .
thl .ICODd., to 1""1' to the mowledge. ot tle 8lite (khawiall) to
, . ..
wh. Qod. iel_titi,. Hi ,lt 8Ild who 'ar. then give lmowledge ot
. \
throqh th.ir acquire4 l)Vl,d.p 'ot Goel. (56)
retera al.o to 'the .,cond. twe ot knowled.p iD a odnciae wrq
/'
. .
1I1.1i1111 "St&7 blterl Xe, _el thou ahal ta.' kDowl.dp and the
wrq ot
ft, oth,r point "bat clariticatiol1 i8 tut about the
on' ,ao trea4a th' ,Ath (.iltt) _el other who i8
directl)" to Ood. (u.jdhb). '!he titter_c. bet".en the two, which
actually li in th. wq th'7 Prt their lalovleclp, has )Jeln. u-
plained. betor.' (58) ancl M:t .... i el q\1otillg th vorel.
, .
\
\
ot al-liUarr 1 -Xt thoa. callen X,', vill __
1 oal1"to th." thou vilt COlle to'. 1,,"!J.ta' Allih, .,Ik-
. \ . ".
ig iraI" ah&1kh. ' &t th oond. 1.e. ujclhb,
doe. Ilot th' graduall,. th. fun
, ". \ .
one, l.e. the .alik, pta"t)7 treadiq th. lone path 004, aiioe
. '.,. , "
-. ,he i. to Ood. .ere he se,s cH:rect bowleclp
" l' (... , \ ' \
b7 vi tn."iDB BiID . Thi. ld.D4 ot tireat Jovlectp.1II&7 thua be
ot: path.-
,,' " 1 t'" ,\ '_, J \'
\1'.-.1.10 11&7 ,'be 0&1184. '-acCI':red.' or .
J Ir ., 1 '1 1 \
___________ ", t" l , '",' ' j
e,
1
o

l ' '

t 1
" mq 1 lie arpecl her., .. .id'. did, 'that the path-trea4er
" . ,

1. lIore experienoed. 111, wh&tever 1'8- ,
. ,
1a'te. 'ta 'the lem. ho17 p"'th (tarrq) 'tban 'the o'ther 1I&iJ1't who i.

Ilot tuli11ar "Uh 'the' path 0Il acoou't ot hi. 41reo't trllD8por't.'t1oll
. '
" 1
Ilot .. eu1'table a au1de tor 'the 00 .. 011 belieTer. &ad-d1.oiple.
, ' , - [
a. the p.'th-treader. (61) lm,. '.l'ti' .11lih rejeo't. 'th1. arSUMIl't

,OD 'the bae1e 'tha't 'the .t'tracted nillt ac'tual17 mon the p.'th
;'1"7 wel1, tOI', althoust he 1. flllAiJ 'ta 'travel U in DO 't1 .. ,
, " _ \ - . . i
th. who1e trip 1e revealecl 'to, hill, .Dd 'tha't 'the, on11 ditterenoe
"
bnwe. hi. acl -the 1. that the t1rft ia epared, the
'f , \ !
'trouble. aDCl ditt1oult1e. undeMata b7 t.he .econd aD the
.' \ (62)
.cl the long 'ti.e recirecl 'to 'tre&4 it. . ID a 11&7, thi eeu
to be .illi1ar to &1-'l'iI'llid.hl". opiD10n. about the two t3J)e. ot
l ,
o '
satnt., tOI' h. the onl doe. Dot autter
.. ......
th. o,t &8
. , '" .
an.r th. 8.O't ot at'trac't1on (jhbah) 00 ... a p,r1od ot 'ti.e
, f '
dur1Dg wh10h Gocl talce. oyer 'the 'teaohiDg acl eduoation 'or 'the
" \
...tnt be haa acquired the h1pest 1ev,1 ot lalo"l die. (64)
e wu't th. p.,th and,
, oOD .. 1 ... ta p.1de the .. dieo1pl,., but thi. point
'1 1
. beoome. olear ld14m 118 tiDd the lIh&Jkh The attract.d on.
1. attractecl ,ver7 lIt.tiOD (mawt1n) OD. hi. 1f&y to 'aOci, and
, ,0 0, ' ,.
1- . inforMd,' ot th.e uul .4. aoqu1llted vi th th ... (6,5)
ru. obriou.17 me that. the n1Dt 'kilo"" 01' 1.\aa4e
, .. , '
0 tO ever7' ..tep' ot .. th. PAth' a1 thonlh
, ,
. , \
treatl it CD hi. tOI' the attraction (jadhbah) al-J,l'irllidhf

'" . , " '
1 .." / \ 1-
,\ r. 1 ,,, " .. 1 1
: ,,\ J .. ,
-) " .
'.
\
:" (
-51-
e aWl": beCC". in tact .... 1'1 ct attr.cUon. tr_orU.Il1
the a&1nt Aoa on. nation to _other 8til he l' ...... 004. In
, ,
the ahaJkh'. Otm 1101'4 Ocel.t OVez' hi. (th &iDt'.) tran.-
portatlC1l, iD a aoaat, trOll kiqdoa to Id.qcloa (alk) v.p to the
ONner ot the kiDcdDm.(66)

\ ' ,
Bow that .oae torm ot 'hOUBht ha. be.n eatabll.hed
. ,
ie to 'the nature ot II&1nthood, lt. attaiDaent, lt. tvo diU.rent
, 1
, type., ad lt. UpOD art'. will, - -7 proo.ed to th.
, \
olU"lticatloD ot the que.Uon. ot the nece lt1 ot haviJlC mllt.
\ \
iD th18 vorld, ot their relationahlp vith U, azul' ap1n ot tht! \
1'01. b7 004 in al1 .thi
"- - .
IlIIl AU' Allah KYs that aner the de.th ot the fropet

1
Go4 willed it that others Should tollow .0 that Ocd' ........
. , " .
llilht be apread ever)"lhere. The.e ath.r. are, the .aint. who
iDher1t ad. tol1ov the ..tep. ot the Prophet, 8Ild. who.e 11_t.
_cl j,.:ruant ... 'a rerut ot the pena.n.ne ot
the 11cht ot 1Iub_ad.. '!'hu., the World, acoording to Abii"al-
- \. 1 (67)
'AbbAs, 1. DeveZ" vold ot aa1Dta -. a tact adIIitte4 bi al-T1raicDti -
.cl their nuaber 1. alva cOIlnu:t. '1'0 prove thi., AbI al-' Abb&a
fi ,. ,
QGr ver.e. Ka qatin av tm;ihi
na'tl bi-khriD a1Dba av althlih. (2/al-Baqarah/l06), ud
\' .' .
iAt.rpr.t. the (trOll &,ah "1".8 'r a1r.acl,> to __
, , .
aa1nt, thu. liviDe the ciuoted veN. the azdDg that. a aa1Jat 1.
'alwaya by anoth.r .who 11&7 be th.' '..... or ."en bett.r
___ 1 \
the tiret. . ,"
-Th. pr,.en"'\ot ln th.! world, to ,
\ .
1a ot 1orianoe bath to th. world acl to the, p.ople iD' .' ".,
. ," ,', , '." ',: r'
\ " ' J " -, , _:, \. '1 ,{,'\, .
lt. Pol' if' wu a ... ot , l .... 1 '
1 \' .. ," ...
. Jiu.ber, th. '1k7 wqulcl Ilot a4:tbe \.:;::,';,
1,I,t ' \ r ' \ ... ' ",' ',,;[' " .... .' '

,
i ,.
. \

.. -"",'
. .
. '",-"
-52- :
" .'
(69.> o;hl1'.'haD4, 1") th. 'li ...
, l , " " .. l,. ' ..., ','" 1
thl. wuI4 be .. a ,r',mu of '.,' 4.cft ... the
.aut., 1R:Lt 'to'
"'!Q.' 1 \ t ", { .
.. t 4I"itt. -+n .... "'. peop1.-.
\ ,\ \ l '"
, 1Wa41 ...... of 004 lIICl 11 .,. voal4 ... th ..... rriI&C ,"
\ , , . ' -,
- ot' haviDe '_Dt. tO th ... (70) BOwnu:, the' 'bui
, of t\e ,1' -to p14e, 'ad hel:'p
iD a, wa7 tut al-' J.bb&. ot 111' the 11lht, th.
!
/-;Qor'wo y.r ... , Qul. ,lWthibI' aabrlr ..t
l
; i1& 'ala, 'burrat1n
. " .
uaa va ,_ ittaba'ur (12/ti.t/l08). th-, W&7
(.abrl) ot the a&:1llta i. 17 i:lll1&ht (tali 'baIfratill), wbich

... a that the,. u.. theiZ' iD.ipt to .. lect a W&J' lUi table tOI'
\ -
.ach ot th.iZ' to110Vlr.(71)1Dcl not juat adopt 011. atud'arcl wv '
,/ ,
tOI' &11. ID cloin&" '0, AbU &1 ... J.b'b '&JI!; the,. ,d11 be to110wiDC
t
th. a'upl. nt br th. vho h-.d tOI' hi. oOllPADloza.
, , .
, i
oou.el. (wuiJi a1Jlg. vaa1J7.) \ -th&t clittvecl accord1hC to the
.. '
11&7 ot tach. -Thu" tOI' ezupi., he told CO _d
apen4 _cl l'wez" t'? tear that Qocl lIi&bt cl.cr ..... Hi. gin. to hi_,
. ,
tlh11. to tlho niltecl'to live &V&7 all h1,-'lIone,., the
- .
Prophet n.1cl that 1t lIO\llcl 'be 'better 'to leaYI hi. h.1r. rloh
. ..
tbaDto th 4epeDden' 'atheri.(13) \
.. .. , \ 1
1Il orcier to -.bI. the AiDt. to pert01'lll thlir fuatioD' iD
1 .. \
1 r r l "\.
a proper Oocl, tait.. t." vill 1
tollowiDg .ci bePzfb,. Qocl " . -
, :
!,
oho.en .&int
l
to the t'he' -.in" then, aoooriinc to 1111 '1 ' "
, 1 \ .".- , 1
_ _ _ l 1., / ,1 'J ' l .. l ' '.. ,
tAta' Allah, 1. olo'the4 iD' . 1I't7,(jali1.).._d. (babi'). '
( l ' ) (/ 1 , '1 ,"." < t f r ' , '
,,-1. 'ot th., >.'. -
" ," 1 l'. 1. " .... _: ," ,1.... 1 'r' 1 l" " .. '" ... ,' _ 1" < j
_to.,1n ,the, .:'.
J .. J 'JJ, ,
Ir I.'.J t',' .!,,_l\) .. \:\.' l, ,"; c
... 'n 1 r, r,'t' "ll
f
... .... ..
_' ...;;." _____ ' \ l' ,,1 J r _ '.: 1 .. , l' ,\ H ", . .. .... .l.'-I'-:<h' 'i: \' ... \ l.

-53-
"
, ,
Prophn 'a l (004) ha"., I*'\h te. (a.' l'
1 Il'''' ",
(th. haYe beeD td.th .
. , '
- \ ' ,
.e. '\h. people poll'\e aD4 obecU._t '\0 '\he II&1Dt '., unnoilou "
, .
aDcl '\JU. _jen" bcl .ve :1. p"eD 'b7
",' , \ \
;' lllll ' .. ti' 111ib 80 reter. '\0 hi. -&1kh AbD al'Abb U11DC
l , - '" l' ,
t_ t.t no OD. ..t vi th hi. uoept that ODe'. Ileart 'bo .. e O'Ivoori.
th teU'. ( 75) tor th. purpo.e o10thl&' the u.int
clour :1t i. t,o hi. iD the people'. heari. whioh
"
will then 'be 1Dir.4 vith love tor the .a1Dt. The .. tval outoOlie
" .
ot thi. i.: th.t vil-l tol101l the ll&int 1 cc to 004,
. 'be lve4 b7 Bia. (76) This .. aDCl' 8I18lUl14
appearuoe ot th. RiAt i. rehrre4 to b7 al-'1'1raidhl' who cl ....
\,
oribes it .. baviD&, the ep1.n4our ot c10 I1 to Qod (bah.' .1-
. '::\ ' .
qarbah) l' the 11pt ot) _j.n7 (nv th. Ave ot ell1nece
{haJb&'\ al-kibri"&')f '\he atta'bilit7 ot 41pi'\7 (un. al-n.qir).
. .
Be NP th.'\ lIQOILe ,looJd.nC at noh u4 .t the aark. ot
Ocell over.1sa'\7 UPOD hi. villr .... ber 004.(77)

(
\
, \'
.' ,
l '
"he people t. aQ".ptuoe ot th. Aint t. vor br ,t
, , '
arl ... troa truquil oonfieleno. (.akrnab,) -'''..ha'' .. par .. "e. '
, ',1\ \
..
tra Ood vi "h 11. .eoh U1Cl' elvell. the h.art II&k1q 1 t 'OOIl-
fid. th. utt.r_ b7 th. _nt. (79) b' tor al-lllttarI,
'!@ ,
,he e ot Ood. t. oriel' or PWII1_1on upoJl 1dl1oh 'he ponl0
J' 1
, \
(';rlt) or aa1Ilt .tart. to th. p.opl.. " It Be
oo.a:ncl. JOU ta in.truct th evata, iDnruct th ....... ' M(SO)
udl "When 'hou a1:ta1D.n the 11111t ot m9wled.p, 11: 1. 11l0Ullben1:
\ ' ,
on 1:hee 1:0 apeat ot 11:1 bd wait tOI' rq peni ion oOlloenille
" .. \
i t, 'hat 'thou apeak .e, acl rela1:e oonoern1llg .e, ad.
that 'hou .. n be one ot 117 .. bu.aciora." 8I1cll "It thou lPeak-
.n . ot Dowledp t 1Dd. r.la1:e.t i t, ad art ID .. 'bail ....
.
clor ot Jaiovlec:tcel .then movlec:tce occur. to thee, IDd thOu. oaet _
not rej8ct bec.ae 1'- to th, ... on. ot whOli
thou ctid.8t. ape&k, ucl vith Olle ot who 'oqu..a thou 414at r_e- 1
. lat (81) .
krille rrnal.cl'Hia ChOHIl llaint. to the people ud rivn
tl
fi

, .
.'
, ,
, , ".. \" .... l'
:'55-" "
',1 \
, '
, ,
1 n
, , '
pover. baok.4 11 Oocl Bi.elt. Al-tiraidJd', al.o .p.:. of, 004'.
" ' \
IRlpport of n. I&1ntl:UJlI' tut th.,. beco .. inv.at.4 vith the ""
.-J:... '
Ioyer.ica:t,. (_lta> ot Oocl nat 4.t ... tl tho .. "0' ilrt th .. ,
t' 1 1. J: .':'"
vith 1DuatioD _cl 1n.ip't (tirUah) , '_el the'
, ;" -
abilit7 to work Iraol (qat .1ne. All th. tOJlI\I ,,'
1
ueept tho.. ot th,. Gnou.. join in their prai , aDcl vIlo.vU"
, ,
. .
\ 1 _ _ ..
ara. the. il IItruot (1Urat) &114 .e.t. a'ba4 end. (n' al-khitiaah
, ... .
lOe. to h.ll). (83) aod. Hint., al-'1'1raidhI',
- . ,
&re l'W"d.d b7 the ot iJap.eoabilit1 cel (am'
"
al""i.ah) that 'barn al1 th. neptiv. aicl aDd. tend.noi

ot their .0111 tor 00d.1t it UPOD Bi 1t te curel
(,ahru.) th (85)-
. , ,
,
te.pin. vitI!' the a'boY.' thoupt., A'b al-'A.bbAs, &1 qucxted.
, b7 l'bD 'A.:_' .AllAh, 'a" ot th. Jd.zul ot nppori that Qod.
attord.1I1. RiDt Se A7I that the 11sht. 'o't 004'. are
, , '
not at'tflO'tecl b7 cornp$ t1 , 'tOI' the,. ar. Dot' Vith' r tOI' the
'ti C .. li,ne. vaqt), lN.t' vith .Del tor Ood., Ee.per ot th."
, . \
ti_ (Ill 'aqqi t (86) 1i.-t. are Md. atronpr
aDd bripter, b7 th. larta.". ot th. t1 , in th. lUI '11&7' ...
,. 1 1 r, .. > \ ! '
th. 1ipt o't the .t.r., il 'b,. 'th. darbe ot the -
, 1 " ..
nipt, 'vith th.
\ J .., \ 1 r 1
- ,
to the '_1.4 th. ,.&inti- el
.. ., ,_, , ':,.
th. . ,11b. ' <f ,." '
T '.,: - l :", ' .":) ,";' ;.f/ ,',,", >,., \' , ... ,;: \ " "-, " " '
,; '. '1 " " , 0" , l' ' , , "
,'! ' , .,'. ).,..J . : " '-:" ," ,"' . ,'.', .' t
;; 7. ., , :, ',rift
" Ir,,'l' : </(.' )( 1<,,\ <, ,11 < ..f' 1 . D
w' J ,. TI' ... ,- il' L ,j,
.... .r - ''Ji IJt 'lI'!' 1 <(J"'f ,,'" .,,'1 "\ ....... JI ',..1. \''j ......... \
J ! ..... 1). '::."" '';''','
/ ' , 'f :! ",'. t, '1. i!.-, ,', ,,, ' J ,
,
..... V ... P.J, ,'" .... \', l' , ' 1 .. ,,\ t '\1 't' t... " ... " '.'< .
l , " ,J," J ' :' {f' Il':'',' (Il ' ,,1 ,_
l ',J '/.':"1<i... 1 ...J.ti{, ... ,1" ';.\',\ ' 't)' p, ,}.!t"' " ' ,
../", IJ-! ,1 \'l:lJ .. j'\, ,f' ('
, : ,.". \ .. . .' .. ) l.-:. ... ;.. .,,:,,' . .. .. . .' ._
' ..
,<
.
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1
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\
\

\
.
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. -56-
, :
"" Ooel, 'who, hol48 81. a1n't. iD' hi&b .n , 40 Ilot 01111' '
l '
, ,
.. J. , \
... th .... tt.ot.4 'b7 'th. _table ti ... , _t h. &l.o prot.cta
, Il
(JMn) a4 'lQ.Pport. th .. (lUtU1r 1ab";') wh_ ,B. rn'.&1. -th ..
.' , 1
..:. " ,.'
to ot 'th. a pl'OV b7
'to 1;1... Proph.t t. worel., ae .lIII1t7 to aDJ'
. ,
ot X,. (004 '.) Aint. el.olar . var UpOD (saI l (Oocl) 4101are
war upon hi.). (89) melz WheD l (Ooel) love hi. l 'beoOlll' hia
hearille vith which he heara, 'hi. aight with whioh h hi.
banel vith which h. strike., ,&Ilel hia ,toot cm whioh h. walka; __ en
he aaka Xe, 1 Ci va. _el when h. talca. rarup in .a .. 1 Ci va hia
(90) Alli a..,.. "hat ia ".0 'beo th aint
. nrrenclv,. hia lt oompletel,. to 004 'and tiDda ntrioieDoi onl,.
, / 1 t
in Hia ael DO one el .. , inoludi De hi elt. iD ke.piq 'fi th
. .
004'. worcl.z Va au. ;ra1;awkkal 'ala .Al1ih1 ta-Jmwa hubub11.
. ' , .!
(65/l-'hJ.WY3). (9
1
.) In thi. reapeci;, the uiD't' 'beOome8 .W1ar
/.
to a oub,in the cave t a liaal z Vou1ct th. ,1eav. her
ottriq to Whoevlr wmt. to ki11 1t,(9
2
) AlR quot
, , \ .... 1
.everal Qor'1III1c vlr.e. that .p.ak ot 004-. proteotion (ri1iuh)
, ." > 1 \
ad support (iDti.ar) ot Bi. ain1i.z Va 'tia.& haqqa ' 'alQrl& DUI'U
,.. el>
. , .. ,
al-tlU"W1DrD& (30/al-a!47); Allihu nitnu 'allMbrD& 'iaua (2/&1:-
" , ,
,IIID& Allio "&Il-1-al1ublua UA
<. ! , ,
l
l ' " z:;" )' ',-' " >, " \',::', ' :' .",
"t
,.'
.'" -, ,
l '1 1
, \
'-51-
\
uiDt., iIL 1Ihloh 0_, aooor41Dc to -'lM &;l ... Abbi.,. 004 .te. out
'to the ,;z.ol1c-cloer.,. 'l'hi. Uo7 b41' 1 d1at

taldq th. ton ot cru.l t7 th. h.art, l'la ln
ot 111. e,., laok ot obedieDoe, ot .in., 01' wu1nl' ot
bis .-1'17, 01' 1 t be ponponed .inoe the duratioll O,t the
vol'14, iIL Ood.a vi."" i. Illort, -aDd, &1.0 beom.e the vor14 i.
oonai411'84 b1 (104 to be a place 1Ulvol'th1 ot Bi. pun1l1h11_t ot
.
Bi. eneadas, in the .... v&J aa it 1. Ilot a worth1 place tOI'
rewardinc Hi. on (94) menttoll. -">1n a
- 'J 1
11&1 what happea to tho.a who h&ra Ood. ,RiAt. b7 8&1iiag that
tha)" ue e'tnok (JUI'a') b)" Oocl, which action 111&7 be-conei4ered'
. l, 0
.imilAl' to t.ediate puniehJDent of AbU &1-' aucl aleo
.. at a ba4 end tn' wh10h 111&7 be to
Abi &1-' Ab .... '. 'poriponecl puniBhllent. (95) . \
, 1
004 t. reacn101l to vrc;mp clon . to Bi. HilLt. is Ilot the on17
Jt
... 1 J ,
ou that th. vroac-cloer hu to fac., for 'the Wl'OIlpcl eaint aleo
rnot. bIIlt in a oertain, W&7 that bet! t. the 01 ... or leval ot
AiDthoocl he beloDgII to. In thi. reepect, ";nts 11&7 be
" 1 1 .
lied. ilLto tov- oat8sor1e. 'accordinl' to thetr react10n to 1DjU-
\
t10 (9
6
)
'lb. tira oatelOr7 l;.clude. thos. who cura. and. ilLvoke
, ,
T
llpon th.1r beo_e. what 1. oo.1ttecl apilLllt th_
r ,
. ,
\ .
,"lIOVe. thelr' jo)" .. ooaPe1. 't'h._ to ,00ap1ain. thie 1DYG-,
, <) , . t " " ,
\ .. \ -- \
\ ' cation 1. Dot ,b7 Oocl 1. e'ridenoe4: 111 the Pr.ophet t. :." \
. BeRre: ot 'th., 'the bat : i t lDcl
, , ...... .. }
+8, DO are, .. >"
, '"' r 1 l' t..) '., 1 _ l ,1
1 1. ,,"i.' J, t l" .. , -' f " , t
that ",
" ' " ''-''-'''-'', ", \ , - ,," -, ,',,'.' ,,' ';
" ;,J,';:: ',"'" 1 ... 41,.; .. ,1,." 't"
... > 'l1 ... ?r .. :,,1 ::";;":.. .,,' (:,'1' J," \ ,,' l ,
, '1'" 1.t"l' l ,l.. , J t ., .. '"'1' 1 l i, A l'
, !:",:/' "' ;;': ;'. >" ::'::, ,, ... ':" .::,','. ',' ::,.' , ", ':;,,",.'
'1 1 \ "
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, Il
thl.' beCOli. 1apatiIDt it m.
Tb 00114 oatelOr,. ot .&1Dt. 1DOlucl tlio .. *Q, ,vba wronpcl,
1 1
apPiaf tor .ppon IDd i.D9ote Bi. valllAo. upon the
clolr., ba.t nDce the,. DOW that Oocl bon th eoret bd oODoealll
th. _tt.r to n. iD .eoret tollow1ng vorclB
.. '
i.Jl tiul Qor'aWaJIID yatawkkal 'Ali Alli ta-huva' haabuhu (65/
'.
al-'l'&liq/3). Ibn 'A.ta' All&h illustrate. thia point' by relatinl'
. . . '"
the nor,. ot a WOIl8ll whoa. lIole .eua ot matenuo. "-. the eas
ot .. a ohiot'D , __ hat ahl Aid. When atole her ohiotlD, ahe
ticl Dot CU'II' or iDvoke ev11 llpoD Ma. 'bI.1t ailent11 reterreci
.
:th. _tter to Ood.. 'rh. thiet .lev th. chioten lDd. pluckeci Ua
teathera only to tiDd., to hill dilll&&Y. that, th.,. grev'a11 over
'- ,
1
hi. tace. He tried' to reseve the. bQt oould Dot, and Deither
, ooulci Ulyone el he aoqht help tro., Wltil a Jevi. tolci ,
-hill th&t hi. -17 r_ecq 1&7 iD uJriDI' th .,.. ouae
" ' ,
Ma verbally ad iAYOt. ml llpoA hia. Th. thi.t th.D .'Dt 80 __ '
ODe to the WOMD to aat her queniona aIld .. lier aIlIV, 8ioh
'" 0
wall ciOD' 80 irritablY,that th. 1IOIIU1. ouraeci the tlliet pu:blicly. 1t
ODoe th. t,ath.ra tell troa the th1et'. taoe. '!'he rabbi, who V&8
,
, , 1 1 1
approach.c;t Iici at the WOIll&l1 had
ret.rr.d. the -.tter -to Oocl who .icied vi th and npported. h.r, -ba.t
wh.D ehe curaed th. thiet ah. 814.4 vith her.elt vith the re8Ul. t
-th&t th. t.a1her. tell ott trea :he tace. (99) l '"
, .
p -, ,
'!'he t!Uri cateaoZ7 iDolucie. tho.e, whell Vl"ODpd. do Dot
aur or iIrIoke' evil DOl' do they .ppeal to Ood tor ret'ribution.
1 .. l ,1 '\ 11 , ...
fteil" att1 hl." ia t,f l...... up to Ood. 80 1. their sol,
1 '\\ 1 l ' t". , ""- " '" '.
ChoiCM; Bo_"*,. the Mlbed- ot al1 are tho .. who Ml iIlto 'the
. the '1..,.1 ot the _il .erolM' Riat.
, ", " ,:,'. .'",', _, ,;', ;'1, ' ' .-' - ',' <,
." '\ 1) 1 { r!. l " A h' \, t'
\ r .... " l 1 "J ! ' r .-', " " 1 ,1 t ,,'
___ __ lL"_ _ ______ _
l'
e

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E
-------------------!, ..
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-59-
(lI1llcJ!qID rub..,a). fte,. are "ho.. who torii ve ad. hve "Bro;y

on'their vroag:4difi, .ad ev.n invOke upon the. a ble ing
i. tultilled. Al-8h'8d.hI tell. the nory ot Ibrihra i'bD Adhu, (100)
the Ibur..anr vaa &ake4 b;y a Bolelier the direo"ion to
populate4 10oal1t;y who, iD U18WV, poin"ed to
u '
,
the o ... "e17
e
Tht BOltier, thiDking that Ibribrll ne making fun ot
,
,.. l, c:;
gave hi. Roh a blov :tbat Ibribrll' e head t opell,. However,
the lat"er bowed dova a4 invited the Boldier to artrike again 8&y-
ing that his heed onen di80be,e4 Ood'<lOl) When the solelier later
reali,ed tut 1 t ..... the tuou. Mcetio he had II'truck, he beIlt
down, kiesecl hia teet U1d aale.4 tor torg1veneas. In allWU',
Ibribrm e&id that even at the "ille who the aoltier 11fte4 hia
, .
hUl4 to strike the tiret' blo", he hi.self' ftS a&king Oocl "0..
torgive hi IbribI'. realized "bat Gad vou1d redOlllpense hill ad
\1
punillh the other, thereto:te h. tel t ubuecl that he ehould cet
1004 trOll the aoltier, while the latter 1Ih0000d only pt levil
,
trOID hi (102)
"
,
It\
..

1 \

l'
;r
1- Go1dlihers Pp. 268-270
2- 00lclsiher: P. 259
3- 00lihvl p.

,
lich. 118tioas p. 131
A lich. Peraonal1t1s pp. 79-80

Qor tmu 17/al-Iara'/93
4- 00ldliher.: p. 255
t
i
5- Goldziher: p. 259
6- 00lds1hers p. 259
7- 00ldzihers pp. 259-261
8- Goldziher:p. 256
9- Lata'ifl p. 77

10- Ih&tml P. 342
11- lhatms p. 346
12- lhata, pp. 340-341
13- Ibatllt pp. 346-347
14- Lata'1t: P. 16

15- Lata'it: p.13
,
1-6- Lata'it: p. 14

17- Lata'1t: pp. 135,163

, '
,
Qor'u 7/al-A'r.t/187 ,188
11ch. PeraQllalityl p. 81
,
lich. Per80w1tYI p. 85 ,
Rich. JIJa1:ioa: p. 1129 .
Quahayrr: . p. 276

1
, 19- Lata'if: pp. 37-38

, Sha'rr, p,n 2 p. 12
,
."
21- lanqifs.p. 100 (Arabie Seo.) & p. 99 (lBgliah Sec.)
2 2- S.e here p. 42
. (,
\
, 2 3- p. 360
..
24- IU:t.: pp. 110, 332, 408,
,
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!OC"""'!kp"""""'Wi&4 __ -:n-___ .. ________ sa_cII: _ZlII!IWli __ ..-________ .'.
le
,
d
.
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f'
. -61-
.... ,
25- lChatll: Annex: pp.
464-465
26- Lata'if: p. 42
. .
"
27- Illatlli p.
117
28- Ibatllll p.
407
.
29- IIlatll: p.
415
1
\
Ibatllll
p. 406
, ,
31- Ibatms pp. 407, 416
32- Ihatll: pp. 124;' 127, 129,
, 1
33- IIlatll: pp. 133-135 .
34- Ihatm:- pp. 41:6-417
' .
(,
130, 364. 407
.
"

35- Lata'if': p._'24
, , Sha'rnIz part '2 p. 12

,
pp. 25-26--
37- Ehatll:
38- pp. 276
39- Lata'if': pp.- 2'5-30

40- Lati'if's p. 30

41- Lata'if: p. 32
..
l ,

r

42- Xaw8qif: 76 JArabic Sec.) &: p. 82 (EDglishcSec.) .
?-
43- Lata'if: p. 32
. t
' Sh'rani: part 2 p. 8


44- tata'if': 32
\,
narrat: p. 166 p. , .
.
'0 1 .
45-
0' 1 P
p. 32 , Darrat: p. 137
.,

46- Lata'if: pp. 3J.-32
, . -
..
..
47-\ Xalabidhrs Qf'. pe '161 the tvo terms (IIUl"Id) md
lJ , ..
'BOUg1it (amrid.) are ua.d ta' express, the .... express.cl
.....
h.re. . 't' .
l 48-, Lata'if': pp. 33-34 'Sba'rani: part 2 p. 12

49--tata'if': p.t33

50.:- Lata'if: p. 32

d' \
\
\ \
1.
/
-,-
, .
,
/
51- M,avaqit": p. 60 (Arabr Seo.) & p.I
'0
(EDgliah Seo.)
52- p. 151 (Arabio &: p.;136 (Engliah Seo.)
l ,.
Lata'dt: p. 33

54- lIawiq].t: . p. 60 (Arabio Seo.) cl p. 10 (EDglillh Seo.)
55- Q;t: 1 pp. 1!4-185
56- p.,79
51- Mawaqit: p. 217 (Arabio Sec.) &: p. 184 (English Sec.)
j
\, 58- See here p. 42 tollowing,
v
59- Maw&qi't: P.' 105 sec.) &: p.III03 (Eng1iah
60- tati'ifl>p. 33 0
... .., . , 0
61- See Jrajm al-DIn &l-Iubra as quoted in azmu ot JChatm
" "414 ot 8I1d
onll' be und.Maten b7 the one who haa trodden the path and
-JI>
no:t b7 the, attracted (majdhb).
62- tati'it: P. 140 '
'"

,,3':" !batll: pp. 406-407
64- Xhatau, pp. 407,- 409. 410, 415
65- Xhatlll: p. 416
66- Ihatlll: p,p.
..
, \
61- IChatlll: pp. 456
68-,Lati'if. p. 16

'1
s. Bujw{rr ... quoted in 'the .aamei of p. '464 0 i that the
'bl ing renlt1D, .&int.' pre.ence 1n the warld to-
,
pth.r with' the purit;y ot their lite 1ad to rain f&lling :hoora
'r'
\
,
the ak7, plante growing trOll the earth, etc.
, - ,
/
71': '" p. 13 , 'riDi 1 pari 2 p. ' . ,,..'!
72- Ab 'Abd-All&h 111il bD Rabb8h (d. 20 A.B. 640 A.D. )
, .. - ' ,
wu a ala"e bought and .then. freed b;y A.bU' Bakr.JHe ':1&8 the tir8't '
, (. one to p;ayer by cer_
o
, 0 :tap .. ) tor, the . ,:
P&r:t 'p. , . Al-A '1_1 pari' 2 'p. 49 r
y
!
i
1
\ 1
, '
-
... 'l.-- --r--r------ . -
-63-
(
73- tata'it: p. '13
, .
\
74- Traditiol'il TOH 6, p. 460
75- Lata'ifs p. 163

76- Lata'if: pp. 35-36
,1
\
77- lChatlll p. 457
78- Lata'it: p. Sba 'i'inl' 1 pari 2 p. 12
'. '
79- lChatlll pp. '347, 350
.r-
8a- p. 99 (Arabio Seo.), p. 98, (Eng11mh Sec.)
p. 218 (Arabie pp. Sec.)
-
82- MawiQit: p. 8 (Arabie Seo.), p. 32 (EDgliah Seo.)
83- natal p. 361
84- tehatau p. 329
85- JChatJlI p.
86- Lata'ita p. 18

87 ... Lata'it: p. 18 c , Sba'rani: puot 2 p. 12
J
88- Lat;tif; p.

o (
89- Tra4itiolU T9\l8 l, p. 44
90- Tl-adi tion: Tollle 1 t p. 406
, 91- Lata'1t: p. "19-20

1
Sha'rinI': part 2 p. 12'
1:) _.
94- tata'i!l'p.\2l

t \
. 97- Xhatllll p. 361
96- Lata'i!: p. 96

97- l;p. 424
"'-""
, .... .
98- Lata'it: p . 98

..
, 99- Lata'i!: pp. 498-99
\ .
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\
\
\
\
,-64-: \
, .
100- Ab IlIhiq Ibrhfm ibn !dbam ibn lanar al-Tamrllr al-Balkhr
, . . \
(d. 161 or 162 .l.B. - 777 or 778 .l.D. ) wu the SOD ot
Vealth7 kiDIII at Balkh(in Ehura.in. He pve up his vealth
and vor1dl7 po.ition af\.r hearing a divine voiee repriaan-
ding hill on hi .; ot lite ad Heame a tamous'
(QuIhQrI a pp. 13-14' , ,Su1..t1 pp. 27-38 ,
, --
Sha'ru1z part l, p. , a1-ravikib: part l, pp. 73-78 ,
al-A'l": part l, p.24 )
101- The atory Siven in'Quahayrr p.,13 diftere iD 80me detai1a.
\ \
Lata'ifs p. 99

'f
\ '
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,
.
. . \
...
(
,
1 1 t
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''*'') \
__________ - ..

2. The Pole and Pol.llhiE
-' \
(gutb and Qutbl1Rah)

\

ru. ..otion. ot ohapter live. that d.al. wi th the pole
\
(qutb) uu1 polellb1p. (Qutb8niiYah), i. aot ind.pendent ot the

previoua one about aaint. and eainlthood the two are
- '.
interrelate4. tor lt 1a aeoe .,ary to undera1iand the oonoept ot .
. .
\ 1 1 \
eaiathood in or der the tull aignitioanoe of poleship
in etr thoupt in pneral
l
and to Aln al-' AbbAs in
. .
pariioular. a1noe the pole i. oona1dered to be a e&int
'. l ' .. _
a level than tho.e m.ntioned .1noe it
.. \ Q
i .. pneral11 believecl that on11' oXle p,ole .7 eziat at any given \
"\...
. ,
i t beoo.ea appropriate to devote a aeparate aeotion to a
ot thia err oODoept.
, .
}fiohol.on, in hi. book, '!he Jlyatioa ot Ialam, retera to the
. \
pol. ahatkh aB "a ho17 .an ot r1p. ana protound
wAoa. l.aet 'word ia abeolut. law to hie di.Oi,1 (1)
Althoup tbia detinition tells ollly ot the, p9.1i1-ioaI-pos1iioD of
.
th. pole, 18t it 1e&4a the 11&1 to the other _d mor. ilDpOI":tut
fI"! ; , '
quent'on ot ho. thi. '&ll-illportut liaD ooae. to holcl' noh 8D
1aportut a eptri tual or p01111 ot viav .
- \
a raterenoa to Niohol.OD'. verda 1n th ..... book olaritie.
thi. point a. aay. that a pole bagins hie lI)'8tioal jouraey
t01l&1'48 'Vith that ieada to pas.ing la1l&1
" \
or (t_i,'). Thia '1N,0C?e.d.d by abiding (baqa' h
, . '
Wioh 111 ot muho04 :lDd pol., Md
.. '1 ,\ , "
the -"beoo a 'the ot 'th. 1 vera.. 80, that
. ,
. , .
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, ) ' ...
,,"' \
. \

1
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,,'
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ever,. point _cl liau,t r.achecl 'b7 incl1 riclual hwaan beiDp i G
" \
equall, clin_t trOll hie etation bu the 1"1.t to l\1i4.
\ .
. ,
other. ta 004 ' an4 h. i. a bl inl tho who invok:. hi.
, Il \' . .
&1cl, becau he compreha41 th. iDDat. oapaoiti ot &l1 MIl-
\
\ .
kiD4 He i. th. hori.cm ot l'Ver7 lqItioal ftation &Del tr_1- '
cend' the turih.et range ot exp.ri.nc. JOVll to e&ch grade ot
k.r
n
(2) What' i. impli.cl iD waret. i. that aDD.ihilatioD'
(rw
l
) i,' Dot the end. ot th apiritua1 JourD" .t it ta .
be tollovecl br abicl1q (baqi
l
) tOI" the pol. to attain polelhip
1 1
.
i8 ret.rr.4to .. pert.ot'maahoocl or perteotion vithiD
\
"-
the huazl_liait DDihilat10D, vIlioh 1. "a the
l ' .
,oul i. II'tr1ppecl ot all 1t. cleair.a, afteotions, gcl, interena,
, ' ,
, .0 that iD o ... will tOI". 1t.ell 1t\ aD objeot 0
1
. th. DiviDe will,n(3) 1. iD tact \a Jegative, ba.t n.c ,ar,. et ...
that prececl th. po.itive one ot abicliJlg or lit. iD Ood.. The
latter, _cl tiJlal n ... , re poleahip i. attain.d, "1e pollitiv.
ancl act1ve iD th eue tut he Who hu i1i not oDl, JUDi-
t- \ '-',,-
t.ata the Divine attribute. and. tc'tions hi elt to' ath.rs,
- -----
- ----- .
but main'taiDs a per8Oi1al relat10nahip ta the God. vith "hom he
, \ "
"
is one aad. who truaoencla hill. (
4
) . ,
Althouah al-Ti.i-.iclhI dOla .Ilot u .. th. worcl pol. (qutb)'when' - /
, . //
r.terriDS the top ret.rr4 in paracraph., //
". lD&7 ...... , vith re'erYation, that he lIe.s &laoet th. lIUlft /--<
. Il;'' ' .. al r'
ta al-Tirmidhr,' 1. ID at'tracteci ,oDe (Ujdhb).aI1Cl not/& traveller
_ \ ,J m _ 1"" .. \ \ ;,/; ! 1
or (.,&11k), ancl Iii. aain.thood. cani.' . th ... ,_,al of ! \
, ,.', 1'. , " -' ': " ;,
00c1. iD the AID_ "..,. .. KIIIIIII. '. pr'Opheo7 is BtaaPe4 'tlith 004 'a
,'(" " ... ..
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al. a. i. th. .... j, ot al1 Il&iDt. who hi. .. d.iation
(lIhati'ah) iD th. _ .; u poph.t. the cH.atio" ot
Iblb....4. (6) Be th. Who 1. utruned. vith a ot all ,\
. ,
Aint. uel .. ot th. latt.r.' natioll' u,' 1n.l., (1)
be.1el urine th. v.il tor hi. ott th. l'tatton. ot Jn'oph.tll,
rak., lina, _el (8) In spiie ot the :l.Jlp1i-
oation whioh ari rra ihi. t .speci.l1l trOll th. OOIl-
pari.oD bet":'c th1 anel lluhuaad. PrOPh.;, that there' '\
" . '
, ' ,
11&7 be one uul onll one ot hi. type, &l-'1'1rm.iclhr doe. Dot .H:1
01'&1'11 whether .&:I.nihood. ot th1. UIIl1 tucle 111&1 r.our at clitt.reut
, 1t1 ... or '1t happell. onl7 Once at all till'. u, tor' euip1
\
i. l'tatecl IDOn eaphat1oa1 1 b1 10.eODe 11k. Xoh1i" al-DlD 11m
, .
'Arabr. (9) .renoe du, to al-'l'1l'll1dh!"1
1 Il
ot the twc Arabie wor "khatu" and "khat1m", wh1ch he' uses in
. -oollD.ectiQll with proph.01 aD4' Prophet., the tirat to .eu. "the 1aBt
ot", 1Ihich 1IZ.I1g il. Ul4 th. HOOK "the Olle who st .. pa .
. or vhih h. KPport.,,(IO) althoup thi. ret'I"Dce may
,
, only larve to clarit1 \th. oocupi.d b1 llUoh a hilh 1eve1
/

saint Dot to iJldioat. the UatulptiOD ot"'a '.eal ot AIl-
, \ '\ \ ' -
\ oth.1' 1'eter_oe ia alllO du. 'to vorcla, .. qao1ied iD ,
the ,ot hi. Ilhat. al-AwliP' t "h. _d \ot vh10h he r,eier.
to . 't'hi. 1...r (i"') ot as 004'. cio CD earth (lm_ vihiclu
, . ' ' . \
1l1&hi ri' (11)"ln spite ot th., obviou. -'here
about a s.a1 ot aaiDts, al-'1'1rJaiclhr. cloes Dot .,e'olh: _ ....
\ , ':'
.ethe1" that leader ot aa:l.nt. ia just one At, ti.'!1 01'-' one 'at
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or the lut ot Rint.' '1. i.,. orier Jaere. Abu al-'AD'bu lIIke. it.
. ,. \ \
VeZ"7 olear that he 40.. neR Iharl the opinion that there CaD be
/ . l ,
onl, md he llAke. hi."po1At b7 ottering hi. 01lQ interpr,tat10n
'p
ot thi. Qor'am.c ver.e. Ii UDAkh IdA iJa10in av Ilu.ih& l1a'ti
l '
. ,
_-kh&)'l'in 1liDh& av (2/al-J.qarlhi1tQtl). Be interpret.
the vord i78h me. nint (walr); \ 10hul A71llg that & l&int ie
. \ . '"
al.....,. replaced br another *0 11&7 be the e u, or bitter
.' l 1 2 ' " ,
thM, the tirs't. (1 ) Sever&! .s8WDptions may be aWD trOll .
auch u, tor eumple, that the world i. never
.. '\ .' .
void ot Il&iDt., 10r tbat Abu. al-'Abball, h1maelt 1a not le in
f ,aainthood, or -.y ev. be better, thul h1s predecessor 'AbI al-
0'

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Bowever, what. the point 111 question
1 \. \ '
i. -tut' 10hia i. a clear ot- the 'a .;
rejeot101l ot the idea tht there could be, at one t1 .. a 8&1nt
who could be oOnaicler,l aa the .eal ot sainta in the a .. 11&7
aB the' aeal ot
"
! ,
!he ooncept Dt poleahip, &8 the h1ghe.t leVel o't aainthood,
. -
; aeeaui to the .... 100 u 100 almolR al1 the other
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R.t1 1IhaJk.h Bovevv, 110 11&1' be ot interellt 100 Dote here that
. ' , . . '
Ab al-'.lbb&a 'tr0lll hi. aha1kh 'AbU al-BaaUl al-sdbilr
: \. ,
, '
on a point tbat 100 the judplHDt ot a certa:1.Q action CIl
the part ot a eaint ; and wh,the thi. actioll dIDote. th. toP " ,
\, " ' '
leve1 ot i.e. ,pertectioll iteelt al-Jr
'
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juat & 10_1' level :\ut -&7 lead to the h1sileai one. The point
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, lA th.',att1tutl. .. , wh.n he torpvl
a ot 1t .. lt, ''but .llM .,
oAl': .. th. att1,.u4e pt ODe Who .bu a""&iDeci a 1",.1 ()t
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u.1Iathood. -.4 vu n111 GD hi. D7 to perteaUon. Se olar1t1e
. ' \'. -.
hi. poiDt 'b1 rlcoutiDc th. nor,: ot .8&'4, 0IlI ot Prophn '.
ten OOlllPWOIlI, who tal.e17 &OO11.ed 'b7 a VOUD ot tald.q
'- .' 1 1 _
po ..... 1on ot 'OIIIething troa her orchard. Sa 'd &dclr .... cl hiuelt
to Ood requel'tiDg tut Be 'b11nd the WOIII&D &Ild Jd.1l her J,t ahe _.
& liar. OOl1 .. entl,: the WOIUll 10n her e"'1Bht U1cl lat8l', while
\
ahe ..... valkiDI' 1n hel" Ih. tell 1I1to a _11 and lon her
lit,. .lai &1-' l'bai. uplain. that who Sa Id. 1nvolced. 004'.
'butioll uponothe wOllllA, he, d.id. DOt' do 1t becau e Wl'onp4 him
'\ .' -. .
pvaOD&l17 blt beCAUl.e abe.. *ona-d on. ot the a OOIlP&Il-
.. . '.' ,
iolia, i a of ,Ood.. In other 1IQ1'dl Sa'd ... not _
lua OD npt. :-t Qocl'" tOI', &ooorcliDl' to l'bi al-'Abb, wh.
.. aa:1nt 1. full,: puritie4 acl.deve10ped., md. ia an 'bJ
, OV81' th. peopl., he beOomel, Ood.""" no1"d that exactl God.
1'1gbt (14) '!'he ot the Sbidh11I 11&7 1'8Pl'elent
" .
aOl'e than .. 111gbt dittel'aoe ot opin10n, tOI' the nOl'7 ot 1b1l
ltlh_ M7 '" t&k.n a IUltenat1= ot azmih11at10n to 'Ilt Q
. ,
(tani') "'e CJod. acta in 'plac. of th. uJ.Dt d. W.ch ia nept1v.
. . \
111 it ,1da1l. th. of Sa'4 A7 be aeen, a. &
Il ' 1
ot 111 004. Mhere the .&int acta tOI' Ood &!ld 1Ih10h"
18 (15) point, III 'l'et":
.. , \ l " ' "'l j :: <
.r.noe to &1"'tttar-t' i. Il (004) " .. the. Jq,
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'lintea_t, 1 will' ute tv W1'ath a par:t. ot rq 1f'l'&thl thou v:l.rl t
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n01 lie ..ro1M 10warcla' -i.t.l1o." , nol' toWa.rdl ADJ
.... 1 ) < '" ., ,j _ i,' 6.
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'00ncenere"(16) ands " ltthou art not Whan l (004)
'am &ngr7, thou a:ri not aine, nor l thina."(i7)
\
About tha point. wbiob rai , that the pole i.
1
one ot tbo.a trueportad tiraot17 to (Jod (majdhb) _d not a path-
1 ....
_
tread.ar (.i1ik), no in41oat:1on ie tbera iD. the vord. ot Abu al-
1 Ab... that he ehU'a. th. .,ama opinion. Conver.ery wa find hiia
, , \ 1
8&1inc that a .., set ,hi. kDowledse and education hi.
"\ '- . .
pradeo or who reoopi.a. hill .. hi. epiritual' BUooa or ('khalrtah)
\ ' 1
a. in,hie own o .. e with al-sh8dh:nr. Bowever, ha al.o. sqa ,that it
happene .olleti that CJod trallpOMe (1&jdhib) one ot hi 1"-
\
, .
v_te ('abd) to Hi. or brin .. hi. tOlthar vith the Prophet
'M_ad, :iD whiob oa.a 'the tr&lleported pol. {. Dot indabted to
e
. ' '
., tor hi. mowleclp or pole.hip lNt on17 to Ood Bill lt'
1 ( ) -
. 18 '. - -
o:r to 111. Theretore. in the opinlon ot Abu &1:-' Abbi.s,
\
.. pole i 'b7 -Ocd trOll rADk ot' whather thel'
,
be or 4ira01;17 transported.' In epite ot thi. ditt.r-
1 ODC. OP1Jl1011, lM al-'l'l: .... 1dhr
ah-ing attitude tha par.:1ocl' ot Wa1ttng, that ia
. '
\
devoted to tha pole t. t1r1al education, batora t,. &Otll&l attain-.
. . l', ,
,( .
ment. ,ot pole.hiPe rater. tbia .. the one
tollowing th. &et oUttraction (jadhbah) and aq8 during it

tw. OY.r tha aduoation ot Bi. aaint who enela up b1 ra &Ching
th. hih.et leval ot 'b-tor al-sh8dhir- al:'"
" ,
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'1'
place bet",an tha. when th. tiret 11&8 pol. Uld the 1,atter still &
!' , , _, ...... ,.J r..! J J ,_
fo110_r:: .. uked fAb. '0;;' old ,he wu at ,th
... ! ,{, \' < f } 1
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tille. the 1a'tttr .. that 'il. vu ot
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.. , al-sbidh11r laid that he would have to nit ten yearl lIore,
1
i.e. until he'W&II tort7. 'to inherit th. riate ot absolute taith
. .
1 " (20)
(liddrq1nah, i.e. p01eBh1p) aner h1ID. The .wa1t1ng per10d
. \
in thi.' incident wae .et to cover ten y8ar .nd to end the
.
ace ot. tort)' follonng the example, ot Xuhammaci who attained thel
state ot propheoy (nub\1wwah) Th1. reterence to 'the \
lia11azoity the Prophet 's attainment propheo1 anli the' \
pole'. ot polelhip ia alao made by
.. entiona that Xuhamm4d 'a period ot waiting, that Ood. devoted to

"
hi. 'accompliehment 8I1d education the' Prophet attained the
of prophe07 (nub\1wah), R8 ten '18
erl
(22),
Raving dillCU8-.ed the nature md the of' pole8hip,
there raMiDa a te. pointa ot intereri that ahould be"'llantioned.
,
'A,ccording to al-t Abb&a and al-stt8dhilr, the pole does not have
to belcmg to a oertain nationality or 'f'amily in order to beco ...
\
'!'hui aJ.,-'AbbU "OIIr pa th (tarrqah) 18 attributed naUher
, ' . .
\ -;
\ to the ort'entala' (lIUhar1qah) lior to the 'occidentala (magharibah) 0
- 1
b\1t to one trOll one up to al-Ha88l1 ibn 'Alr ibn AbI' 'l&l.ib who vas

the tiret 6t pole .... ( 23) Theae worda of' the have tvo illlPort-
ut aspecta that be streaaed.: one ia tbat poleahip started
'. - 1
vith" 1bD 'AlI illD Abr 'l'il.:i.b, ud the -ether 1a that it 1a
" >' - , '\. "
purel,. a aatter ot apiri.tu&l. 1Dheritaace wh10h, lIeUl. that U1On. _
il .11gib1e to become a pol 'rhe re&8on vh7 "l, taken to
, .
- l '
.be the tiret pole i . explainecl b7.Dr. 'AlI s&d' Hu8&1B .. ate.-1nc
" 0
. .
trOll the idea that aince l-Ha._ relinquiahed the Caliphate, that
. '1 .
1
, ' , .. (
wa. oonl14ered to be the coterio sucoe.a1on or leadership eJ.-
o
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lditiat.J. , .. ..
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or polellhip. (24). 'Aa tir the spiritual
, ". 1 1
iDheritanoe ot pol'ellhip. that hu nothing to do witlJ, speoifio'
, '
nationa or tuail1.a, a cler uample of it '11&7 be in the"
tact "hat ther vu no relationahiJ) betveen AlM 'al-'A)2b and.
his pre4ece or baroDd that ot pole Abd diaoiple. ADother,eViclenoe
\
, 0
1. oyen in the tolloviDc alllbo11oal !l'tory that l'bD 'Ata' AllAh
, .
11&711' va. r,latecl to him b1 &11 un1dent1ti.d fr1end: A man of
knowleclge 8Il4 lOodne.. ..", &8 U' he vere in the ... 11 oe t'.r7
ai-ftlhri) (25) where people were &88embled aIld look-

1nB up at the a1q. 'l'hen he he&l"d 1I0lleone 8&)" that A.b al...fta.u

, al-shidhilr wu cOlline 40m trom the alq and that Ab.l al-'AbbAlI
'.
waa k1nc r.a47 tor hi. ahaJ,kh's upon bill. ije lookecl
,
up toI .ee al-sh8ahi lr, who _. olathecl in White, de.cend
''-.
\
Aba al-'Abb&. Ud. 1nto ehill the he&d.
'rhe IUD theR volee up. (26 . "
'rhe sPiritual iDherituoe ot poleehip &8 cone.ired b1. A'b
..
and oarri with" it an aspect in whih the
tvo 8h&1kh dittered trOll MD1 other _rr Thi. aapect,' which

.
OODcerns the pole '. oloat (ldlirqall), 1. set out clearly in ail
epieode 'hMd, (27)' "'oonte.por';1' ot
, Co ... "
AbU: al-'Abb&. al-llar.r. It 1:a eaid that al-BadawI'. ,polellhip
, . ,
019a1t wu :the olle dotal froa OIle.ahqth t"other
- "
... ag _ in lb to .... ; orisi-
ul11 receivlCl 1t 'floOll' Para41se (ain al-Jumah). ( 8) Thi
ahon that the pole, hi.
, ,
troa & previoue Olle, Ma.elt b7 puttilg 011
. ,
SOM &ri1ale ot 'clothing th&\IJlo other 'par.on bv." &' pale 111&7' have . ,
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on. Thi. at,titud. va. not aclopi.d b,. th. two Shidhilt pole. who
had no polellhip oloale to hud down to th.1r wCOS I'II and whc
actuall,. dre.s.d well and beautitully in direct oont-
rut to aau,- oth.r btr. who.. aiti tud. in thi. .
. ) . ,,.. ,
verl explieitly pr nt.d bl in'hi.
.
AbU al.ftaaan al-shadhilr .ummarized hi. vi,vein tev verdll
. "
that he u d. b1 vay of r.apon.e and. advice to Ab\ &1-' Ab'b&a al-
, ,
lur.I, who had gone to biat barbering ln hi. hear't th. thoupt
!
that h. would .,t food and dr s in rough clothe.. 11-
II&1d, "0 Alfti ad be
(
30') , ,
A fUrther, and lIore .ipitlc8llt claritication' ot tbi.
. .
ot II&Y be tound in th. tolloving storie. teld bl Ab
&l-'Abb and r.por"ted b,- IbD 'Ata' lllihs

'"' < Once a poor ...D (taql"r, i stf, myBtic, saint) .nt to

- -
AlN al.ftuaD al-8hadhili aDd, tincling hill dressed in rich and
, . .'
. .
....-
.ott elath , aa1d ... lav. ot Geel could not .be el8d in that
kind ot dr.... In anawer, lr tel t the roqhn.s. ot the
" .. 1
)
au'. cloth UlCl lIaid that the,. onl,. .erved to indicat. the -man 'II
neee! tor th. p.op1.. whi1. 0'& cloih 1I&d. i t clev
to everyons that he .. no in n cl ot anything tro. th Ibn
'Ata' Allih' that t. cir abould not -reveal on. 'I!

. ..cr.t 1 othervi.. cme. iri tua! path wou.ld. not be pnuin. but
,
onl,.:- a ... tter ot prete '. ('31)
..
Th oond storT AbR al-'Abbas gOing $0 al-Magbrib wh.re
. .
h. vas .ent b,- al 11 to ".et .. mnt (walr) th.ra. When h.
arr1 v.d th.re, Abt al-'lbbi. vas. eurpri d to "bat 'th. u1nt
, .
in qu.stion reaicl.d iJl ... _j.siio hou aAd va .dr d. :ln th.
"
. "
,", -74-
tinest ot olothe.. Hi, surpriae waa at the worda ot the
aaint who, albeit .0 richly hqu d and olad, Ab al-
l '
'Abb&a to return to hi ..... ter al-5hidhUr and to .. hill hov
long th. latter wauld be preoooupied Vith jhe warld, and when
hi. d ire tor it would stop. Hovever. the mysiary waa oleared
. ' ,.
wh.n al-shdhilr wept on hearing th. eatnt'. worda admitting
that he vaa not'ooapletely rree trOll VOrldly deaire He tur-
ther explained to Ali al-' Abb&s that, Gad had washed the saint' 8
heart trOll the world which Re 'plac.d into the mnt t. hand and
on hi. outward app.arance.(32)
. .
1
1 last point of inter.st 'about the pole 1. what Bicholson
refera to &8 the pole matntaining na'peraonal re1ationBhip to the
Ood. -vith who. 18 one.,,(33) Thia and peraonal rlation-
.. '1 1 il .,
ship m&7 be 1IWIIIII&r1zed in the fev 18t aignitioant warda ot al-
'l'irmidhr who 8&ylll that th. pole reaaina the hold
, .
ot poel, (34). wh';e vi II&Y natural11, that Ood addre.aes His
saint directly or hill to .ee Him, alth? thi. addrea8
and e1ng Bill 'he, aa they probably are, 0I11y aot a ot
.
divine Vi.itation. It ""1 a180 happen, when th.
_ pole 1a iD God '. ho1d., that he meet. and the Prophet
or- Gad' B IIDgel. and exohazlge. ward. vi th them. A good example of
, 0
, .
thi. relationip and. contact 1a the whcle book ot al-llaviqit b7
,
al-Bittazor who ba.a. all hi. Arewa.nta upon a direct adelrea. 'tro..
(]od toohill. Another eiample 1a the reterenoe. and stori.s givn
in al-Tirldhr'a Xhatm al-&"11'; about seeing, apeaJdng vith, and,
J \ \ '
in one oa.e, even xi .. ing the ot Prophat. (35) &1-
. .
Abb and al-5h&dhilr vere ditterent in thie oODDeotion.


,
.

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1111111 l'IIUI ,I;_Lilklllc.,a_U.1111 '1 '171_'
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.-75-
, .
Thus the tirst s,.ys that he. has neve7;" ahalten hand. wi th anyone
'1
with the Prophet, and that 11e has never been veiled f'rC?m
.'
God and Hi. Al-Sh8dhilr himself &l-
, , .
'Abbas's latter olaim since Ab al-'Abb&. penetrated
, ,
\
(paf'adha) to God. .he was' never veilad troll Bim, _4 aven he
the' veil he would not tind it.(36) 'The beat
<J
about this direct rlationahip,are.g1ven by al-Sh&dhilr who refers
, .
,to his with th and, more importantly,
1 .1 ' l
to his rceiv1,na direct answars trOll God Rimselt in 'to .
his olaiming these came to him b7 w.,.
a voi'oe J.hatit) that' spoke toohim in 'wa.ketulness
.... ) o' , 1 ','
and' aleep'. -. .' , .
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-76-
,. t".' ...
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1,\, Bich. p. 32 '
2- Hiob. JI1ati08: pp. 164-165. ..J

,1
3- Hioh. p. 24
, .
4-0 Hich. Per80D&lit11 p. 26
,
5- Illatlll: pp. 342,421
...
6- natlll: lP. 421-422
. , '
1- Ihatlil: 'aDDax: p. 458
\
,"
. ,
. lhatllli 368
9- Khatll1
\
aDDax: p. 479
-
10- IChatlll: 'pp. 341-342 'T
l ' ,
lhtlllt Pp'. ,451-458
. 12- Lata'itr
, ;
16

13- See here p.
59
14- Lata'1ti pp. 99-101
\

.
, .. 0
La:ta'it: p. 25 cl: See...bere pp. 65-66

16- Mav&q!flJ p. 8 (Arabio SecJ} , ,p. 32 Sec.)
""
. , .
11- p. (Arabio Seo.), p. 146 (EDg1iah Se,o.)
, Sba 'ranr 1 part 2 p. 1'3
19- See, her. p. 50
20- Durrat '; p. , ,CS' \ "
i\n.tll- pp. 360, t
22- lhatlll: pp. 410, 411
, ,
23- Lata'it: -pp. 67.75,77
' , o \' r _
'" '
\,

<17 Q
' 24- Al-Mab: pp. 35,'43-44' (quotlng &l-suyii Ta.'Y1d al-
. .
haqrqah a1-'alinab p. 70, a D&r &l-Kutub (Cairo, EgJpt)
. .
Ifo 3016 'l'aaawwut wa akh1&q .dIniyyah.) ,
\ .' '\ \;
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, '
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, \
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-77-
. "
l' .
25- Ai-Qaritah al-llUlhri (the 1iDal1 'oellleter1) wu Olle ot two
J' .. /' _
oe.eteriea in Cairo, the other 'bein, a1o.Qartah al-b.'bra
('the,l"'., big, or major oe.eter7). Tbe wu 8ttuatecl
on the .ide ot the lIodntain ot a1-1uqattam on th. outakirta
Cl " \
, ot Cairo the aeoond. 1a7 in But Cairo next to the
re.idential area. '
'0
(J.l-Ibutat: part 4 p. 311)

. "
26- Lati'it: pp. 8t-82

Sea here f'ootnot. No pp. 8-9
'28- Al-Adab: p. 40 (quotin, in hi.
Ir bOok al-Jaw8hir rr al-niabah \11& al-km-a..at al-
AlllaadiJ'1" Curo, 1277 A.B. 1860 p. 26.)

- l '
29- Qt: part 1 520-534, 527
30- Lata'it: p.e 145
"
.

\
\
\-
3"1- Lata'it: p. 145
'
,
-
Sha'rr: -part 2 p. 16 . \
)2- .Lat.'it: pp. 164-165-
. . . \.
"
))- lioh. Peraona1it71 p. 26
34- Khat.: pp. 416-417
c , ..
35- Khat.: pp. 16, 25,
.
36- Latatit: p. .

!I
37- Durrat: pp. 32, 33, 38, 138, 142-143, 145,,187. 195
pp. 56, 65, > "', 1 ;Bla'ranI: part 2 pp.
Il: Ifatahat: p. 568
.
,
. 38- Durrat: pp. 28,
146, 165, 166, 174. 175 l
"',. ..
" .
Lata'it: p. 63
"

\
cl: Sha ;riAts pari '2 pp. 6, 1
1
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3. The Seeker. , ,
..
,.
.
, Baving dillCU ecI, in the previou. tvo .ection. of thi.
, ,
chapt el' , eaint. and aa1nthood, IIld pole. 'and pOle8hip, ii may'
be appropriate at thi. etage to etate that lt 'ia only
1 ./
that' a11 the pr0l'heta and meaaengera of, Ood. 1I8re orda1n,d to be'
..
in the world for one Purpoae vhich ft. to guid.e people to . Ood. \ 0 '- '
1 - 1 ,
, .'
They did not exist in th worl!i for their ol,lD SOoi but, tOI' Ithe
pocl and pidaDce of the people. Bence, i t tollon. onll natur-
, .
al11 that p.ople called aaiDta 8114 pole. have duti .
. .
to' pertol'1lt one t,oVU'd. th lv.a as hUJUD _iDp, aM. _other
\, , \1 ...
. . \
tovarda their ,tello1l men in their oapacity of BUoC?e.aors;.ot, f
.
ba.t 'Dot .[u&l. to, th. prOPl1eta. The.e ;"0 dutiea ha,.,. bee1
pointecl out, in puaiDg, in the previoua &8
ve"nt of azmihilation (faDi') or '* riate Uld' n.ga-
<l
t'i vi ty wh.r. Oocl take. complete cmtrol of his llaint,' aD &Chi.-
nment tha-t fultils the ta dut7 towarda lf J ad the
........ ,., " \ '\
passin, on to the- .econd -'ace 'ot' ('baqi t) or a, atat'e of
poa1tivitl where the Noint sot. t01flU'cla people vlle at th.
\
t1 .. hi. pvaonal. relationllhip v1 th Oocl with.
"
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. "
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<r
..
"
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'\
not tr.ad th. pth all b7 hill lt. It 'a."'", .. that mon ntr
'\
are ot th. opinion thai no t.r 0&11: paih vith-
'out th. SDidaDo ot a pol. Whoa h.
\ 0 l ,
upr 'thia .'.t elha1iioal11 -71A1
. '
\
'tut a" ' 1' h... to h&ve th. l\I1c1uoe ot a pol., othvwi.. he
\ .
. \
will r:Lever BUoeeeci, or worae nill, he Will only, have t)1e" devil
, 0 t , ('
tor Ab alJ.-'Abbi. ,al-flvsf to titt.red trOll \
,
.. .
"
, ceneral attitude in one aapeo" for althoup 'he au.et have
. believed in th. illlPortlDce of the pole'. pidlDoe to a .eaker
'J)n -the path, rinoe at le&at he him lf prfrviou.l,. be.n suic1ed '
. " . , .
br ',.et he held ,the opinion that aOlleti.ea a aervlDi
. ' "
J ,
of Oocl ia truaportecl directly to Him or topther with .
, ' '\
(
2) , \
the.Prophet Muhammad, in whioh o&le suoh a person la not exact-
f" \-
. /.. , ,",'"
17 a path:..tr.ader aD4 is not in ne.a. ot a spiri tuk -guide, for
" ' '" \ '
, .
l ,
Go4 haa taUD over hi. \
Olle ot the tr&41t101la a4ereci to br,lIost pol , 'betors 8D7 .
. ...
ia eftabliahcl betveell' a pol., 'a oertain aeeker,
'- \
.a. tor . pole tab. &Dy step towa:rcl, aco.ptiDC a ker .. one
.:. iii> t \ J \ ,'"" ,.
hi. followera 8Ild. ttiDg hi. on the pth he i. tO lollov to be
, ..' , ' '\
with CJocl, i. that the "ekef bu to WOV, to 1004
, \ " .
- Kualil b1 beinr 11811 .... 1' .. ' in" *' a tzi\ae Adh.rent to,o the
.. - .' 1
(al-k11ab) ua4 to th. trad1tional. l.lwo rule. '(al-a,um). A1-
=,' tlte or thia ....... oqt Oocl \ ;
_.t. ot n. by eqing that il1' order to avoid CJocl 'a ,
- 1 J ... "Ir 1
. , .
P\IIlithlllent one h8 to "1&7 hold on the SUnna i'.n thy th.orl ad
, " "_,1 ' , ,
praCtice, ,.Al-lla.kld", &l80 point b1
, l.. ....... J , ' 1 t '. ... ...
conc1e.lllC,'t.'.ifr. iillo IRr';' ... adopt
,,)/ t ' '/.
'1 l .. 1- " ,
, 0li0\ \ , .. r ," (, 1 l 1 r.... \ r
.. . l'. '\1 '( '. 1 ... .:..; f
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...
1
. "'". .",
..,' ". ....
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'11 .... that ... th. (4) Ud. III
\ ' :'
tbe ot the ,
line_ tarir) who al .. na4 that the,. 'neval' thoUh- ilJl- -
. :/ ' l' >.1, 1 .....
'I ' , ,t. ...
pire4 by thair he&MI utilthel vera mppor1id bl8Y14enee drawn
!l'CIl the Qor' .la tOI' it
would. be u.el to 'reter to & elria1D p&p or qUotatien in his

Risilah to show that he va. a llUpporier ct the viewpoint t
/ ' ,
but i t i. enough' to Bq that' in hi., rlvia" ot al1 tho.e -str
, '\ . . .
IUner. he ,iDqlucle4 in hi. boS)k, he.rep.ate41y stre ed theil'
0,
adherace to thl Qor 'iD md th,e t.l .. io rul.. (al-ki tib al-
, "
\ 1 '. ,
.llM &1-' Abl?i. al-Kurf tept thtu.ll1 to the .8Ile tradi tion-
al wq ot &dberin, to th. principle. ot I.l .. Md, aeide trom hi. .
J..
,
.ii kilo_ oompetrao, etelllllling trOll al-Qor 'm -
_. 1
-4 th. tratitiOllal I.lamie he never 1ett
l '
-1 douDt iD th ..baA. ot 111. M' to thil tact. The
to110nng two 'euap1e. are given to 11.iuetrate thil attitu.cle
, . , f _
to abow how de.oDstrated hi. in.practice.
, . ,
'.lbd-.llAh al-Iltahanr: (7) a lI10dic ot 'fakkab,

o
ODoe told l'ba 'At. Allih that bltor. le.ring tOI' Alexallc1ria he wu
.... - 1 1
, innra.c1i1d)7 hie 0& lIhaPl'L th&t, ' iD. : eue '.t tha pole thel'a,
h. Dot prq'vith the -lait.r behind' Tharetore,
.et al-'.l'bb&. al-Murlr it wae tille tOI' the pra:vv. '
, 1 \>" " ,
lajll al-Din Doticld'that,it he prayed where he waa he would bave
'" _ <1 ') l , ' " 1 .. " D t
1] <J l If " .. 00) ,"" _ j '..
hi_. for ;he to
1 order :the -tor., (.&l-
, r ',,, , 1 .. t
1 .... ', l ',' \, f .,
he turaeci '-
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/ tacinl tha ancl Vu about to Bian pr&1iDg when AlN' al-
,\ .'
, 'b'bU st oppecl hil1 .a1;ing, "lf 0 , aod cloe. \ not
" 4
approve ot Mything
that goe. al_lIUNlah.,,(8)
/
'l'he ,.oolUi illurirative 8tor;y i. giva. bT IbIl AllAh

quating a CVt&i1l SulQII i'bD al-Bikh1. Who that ol1oe
p " , t
h,e invitecl AlR al-'AlI'" to hi. place ad., the two were-
, /
, - '
aatinl vatel' .. alon, Sul..,.an all1ced Ab about a llUoh
, e
.
taltecl about man who around followecl b7 larse multit-
- \ ...
ude. ot people ca.rryinl bamler. but who did. not attend th. Priday
1
pr&1er. At tha Ileri:tion ot thi. 1D&Il, ib.i al-'Abbia beo .. e up.et, .
" 'i -1 1 0 _
- 8'ttppecl, u4 Rid that i1" .. he that Sul&1UD _
"" - , "'. -
'would.: a_about noh' a. peraon he woUld not have acoepted. }..
, . '" - ,
, .
iJlvitation" tor he .. , oOl1aidered hiA a ot objectionabl
. . '
non-Illllllic act. Nll ",
_ "'f ...- \ JI , "
al-'nb&a &1-llur.r ha4 " cmain Oode that he alwqe ,
tolloweel iD eleaJ.1Dg vith :tho *0 'loup" pidaDce OD the
, . ' ".,..
.
Se 'believed that -a -.eekar, who to .e, di4 with
, , ... '
hi. eapm s 'atl_. Th.retore he never aaked hill to .wai t -nOr
____ 1 ; 'f \,:-"
.. delecl their aeetiDg .. tor ,&a:
7
re .. on, tor ,he va. ot the opiiii. - "
.. .
th&t ""li lead ta -tlu 01 ..
becOlliDg (10) .0Hover, n,ver
.... r, <J \ '" '" 1
Y follo_r._ "ono. he aco.Pt_ th .. aa, a1i&J'&wa,. tt:0 .
f '. ( ,.. 1 1 - ':1 t /' ..
f other allap:h. COI1verae17 , he pve the. the h.clolD ek' "!J' "
' - " --f-,''':Ir),l"
" - :OoapU7 ot other., if thei"c)" .. v1.eh"cl, , quoti)lc in :40ing ,hi.
1 ..> ," .. [ - 1
.,' """ preeleoe.sor ,al4hi&ilr u 'd., ,hi. ' "Eeep
i
, '
\, "
_ l '11.,. ::. ... 1 \ v .._" / ''''', _ (
:: 'jA'1 1 70 to ''lb, ot otJ1ers . '
. & ":thah mille, "," l . ' ,
. .
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-\ .'... ... t- ',. J \ ,.. ,1 , 1
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-.. 1., /'.il. ,\ f; 'J..ft',' h ,,'. ,. 1 1
... .:' , ! ....h:,1:i}: 1 _ ,1' ":.i'tl)',!, J'A ,
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\ 1 -' '/II ...
Aaide trOll hi. , t.rs V1thout de1&7, lU1d Ilot
l , \'j' ' (, :
":?'
D.,,11 a4Ialtted eter, Ilor .an olcl 011',' to live M. vor1d-
1 .. , fi If, .(
"" 1/1 ..
".... to let "., Ud. tha wh_ th. lipt. ot lI'&Oe
'. ' . '\ .
. ,. (al-tainnah) ,1I1to hi. h. live up ,wor1cl
ot hi. OWA, rre. will. ("12) ID hi. wOrde, .. 'Not.cl 'by Ibr& 'Ati'
, . .
\ Allah, "Whu 'w acb
OllPU7
& .erchant, ve do DOt- tell hi- tO"
up hi. :d"'I'j01n. :u., or & '"' do tell 'hill tL...J
give up Ms ad job us, 01".& ot lowledp, w do .1
Dot tell hi. te live p whai h. ad jotn ua. le acc.pt
o
. '
aB. Ooci h&II illide hi. ad. whatever hu beeD
. \ .
hi. thrOCh lls, vill CCII' to 'hill. TIl Prophet '8
. , aing. , hib) -
" _ .v '.
ad he to14 tc ,Ms trade 'Dor, &
\ f
MD to pv. up hte ran t 'but h. apPl"ov.d.ot the1r worldlJ' oecu- .
. .
1
pattona (ubib, aiDe: the. to Aar Cod. in theu.-
pU'1I1l1t."(13) Ibn Allah relate.his ezperience wi'th

o
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,,' , 11
,
.,' '\', 0
'b ,UlCl the, lAD t9 10 0Il cioing
J r \1
,0,
, " "
vbat Oocl had. hi. cio/ a. \ the w&-s ot
. .
tul ti4 Dot li. iD ablmdoDUc _rth1n8 unt11 Ood B1 .... 1t had.
, "
'II' ' n,
01'4&111_ it. Wb. 1_ "t:" Allib h.arcl th word., he 1.ft
. '. '
th .ba1kh 'fOrk had JUd. hila (15)
. "
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00
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11.,' , 1
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t,
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' ....... :.. ;.--" , '
1I'OO'l'II0'l'BS
"
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2- 67."., ,2
l ',' '
3-'laWq1t, 'p. 22 (Arutc Sec.). 42 (lDcl1ah Sec.) "
- \
4- Q\1'ti 1 pp. 291-298
l ,
5- p. 335
. 6- La_a'its p. 88'\

7- Se'here Ne 14 p. 26
.
8- Lata'its p. 74

" .
,
9- Lata'ifl p. ,75
...

10- Lata'ifs p.104
,
Sb&'riAIc part 2 p. 14' ..

)
,11- Lata 'itl p. 104 Sha'rAur,
pari 2p
14
.
,
y
'li: Darra.tl p. 143
\
13- La i 11ta p.' 83, . ",
, .
12:z:t:i
l
itl Pli '104 . '. . '
1 . 1. tm. ct. the o14e.i toVlli iD Upper o!Qpt at one

ti.e, it wu .conaiclere4 to be one ot the creat e ri,' in the
1
1
.1
. ,
area. lluali. opilpi u.cl to stop '&'ti q;. be-tore crouiD&' .
,-- . -., .
the da.ert ot,'A7dhab on 'tiheir 'tiothe le4 S coaat.
, '
(Al-l1tatl part 1 pp. 327 J 381)

15- Lat;lit, p. 81

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1
VI. CORCLUSICIf
.
, .
A'bl al-'Abbi. 1t lat. 8&Y., wa.
o
a _tF ..-tU' ot ,.tu1t. ainoU'itj. auth.tio1t7. ad. ,rencnm.

,.llthoqh 1t 11 cU.tt1oul" to "ter h1a to uq eo1t1o .ohool ot
1t 1" 1a\at all tea8tbl., "0 tinde till't1not
. .
aohoql., '18't' 1" ll&7 well he pO 1ble, aCad..lIl1oal17 ap.aking, to
1
oonai4er hi. u & 'ol".1oa1' ad'. 1Ib.o followe6 'in the atep. ot
fi"
the ... jor1t7 ot hia prec1eoe or. on .the path. 'L1ke the., he 414
. .
. '
Ilot 10 tci-an," obj.ot1opbl. extr .... ei,ther in hi. bal1.tl; hi.
" ...
. ,
or hi. ot lite" adhered. ta th"
Qor'in th. talwo rule. and ways
Honver, .lbii Abb&a md \ hia ahaykh beiore hill d1tt.red
trOll fAIZq' pre
ecJ
1nc _tr llUter. on veral poin". that ,lUke ot
1 (). i),
the ShadbIlf p,.th a dist1not one ..one "he ntI gr:'OUpl. Por .x ....
l " ., ,
, ple. the tvo did. Ilot ... ,1" undatcir7 upon. n7 aetik."
(IINl"rd) to have a ah. as hi. guiele, for 'believeel' that, '. .".
. '
Qod'B1maelt might inBPire a a.eker in a direot or
topthr v1th n.' Prophet. vh1ch cu. lter would. Ilot, b
i
incl.bted to' 8D7 auter tor hi. kIlovlqe but' cml7 God ad th.
PropbJ. ('1) Doth.r i. th ... 'tvo Sh'i4h11r, pol ...... r.
, , ,', l ,', .
11.0", Inlpport.ra ot the .nitr 010_ (Wrqah)' DOr :ot .. u1ng roulh
'. ' .- , .
0 ' l' 1 :: '" ,il
f the th.,. ver. uaual1t weli...cSr d, tor .
"'" th:i ,.. 01' th. on17,
,"" -"
to attfact the ot the people &Del ta incl1cate 10"- ne.4 .'
'. " ,,' (2) - " '.
, ...... ..
" ,
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"
'11

, . -
'4
..
. -86-
,
,
.. .
On. ot th. point. that oould':lI&k A'bii al-'Abba. all
hi lt in the il that "h. be" .....
lou1 (nat.) and the (rih). Tti1s point not to
,. "
, b7 'the lIha1kh :ln a oleq. cut -7 .but '.. upr.s.e4 i,n a loac poe .. (
3
)
. - .
, ". 0 ,\. 1
that, t. be!DC 'ta. lODPR Md .. olt importat piece ot ,oom-

position b7 Ab Al-'Abbas, did not r.eeive 1ta 4,. as
regard. explaaation, analysia, and interpr.tatioD either the,
\
pr1maryor the loure.s that in any W&7 to Ab
, .. ..
al-'Abbia. Even the book 'by Dr. 'Air sifi Hula;yn whicb il clevotecl'
" , " 1
to -n: literatve 1 the aeventh eenturf A.H. -in BGP'\., and whioh
'Jf " ..
0111111q' :it! poe,8 and prOIe doe. nM
.. - j.
atte.pt ai .&118il of- the po 111 'apit ot U. repeated
"
r.t,"no. to" 1't.,(4) Th. re"011 this inexplicable

,
oould have 'been -the lIhioh if"t De ,drawn rro. th.
1
--po..,. that th. loul 11&7 be oOll .. 8iI1.red to be than the
.. ,..-_ .... ---. )', ')"
( spirit (r). '!'hi. iIlterred oODcept bd. Dever beeJl held b7 &Dl.
\
_ 0 ,
Iha,kh beton Ab al-'A.bD&. and, siDoe its iJDportance iD lilht
ia ot value 1 th!1 paper the! ShMtlilr & n.u.t'1 ot
J D '"
the poe. ucl. lIli&t :lt tmplie. 10. live in the f'olloy.1ng parlCl"aph .
The tiret; tOur l'iDe. ot th. poe. &1'. a 8Ia&l";Y ot oertain
" ,..' ., .
! ." ... .. ., ,
that .i hava bean inoluded in a po d br an
, ... "
- '_ 1
inquirer to, .1_ al-'Abbia. Th ... pouta are, 'ho" the lIOUl (natl)
1
, 1
an4 MD tl ph,..10&l boq (badan) hav. ooa. to ... oo1at. vith
Il '. .- .... -. 1,-
1 , '''. <".. .. ,
ho!_th. hall ,btoome to,.,. '. ,(al-"..
, ...... ) ,:, ho" it ,hu to tO- the ott 1t.
- , ,. 1 ., \, " ... ,
. tiUh Or _C> :",0 the . that 1t oompla1D8 ot rotteD-
;w) , ... , .'... 1"1 , .. '. '
,It f... 1 j 1 1
De ( 'at_hi how 1"- .:haa 'beoome ,ao
o
degradecl' lt:'lip tbe
, - '. ','., . ,B,": " .,,': .. >" ,,', -' .. : ' '::,:;, .
, . ' /)
r.
, /tt'''' IljI. , "
.f_,
..,
" .
\ ----...,...
, .
.
" \
,'.
. .

1
..
, -

",
.'

'. -87-
, ..
lmowledge ('1'1.) tel dillt1qui8h between bad (qubh) ad 100d
\
(haun); .at it. lIotive. are tut make 1t aMl'al.11 lean to-

, ,
ward., ,ad' tall into, the darkne dr criet driven b,1t. W
, ,
'" .J 'r .
lun (ahahwab), u4 .. " "he "nth 1. about 11:. ori&'in (_'dit>
,
liDoe U. 4e.or1pt10n oamaot 'to u. 1401 (nthu). .
"-,
, . .
. Ut el', IIUIIID1ng IIp the polAt, of 1nquirl, .A.lftl al-'Ab1>&s tells
hia _,inqu1rer tbat h. will aD8Wer hill 1l.1ng ('ulm) th.
pursuers ot wh10h ire .er1 taw, mel advi hia not t9 be mi.-
led 01' 4eoei ve4 by :tho.. who 4'1"e not. 'vell ver sect. in them (line 6).
,."
'.
'l'h e lOienoel have laadark. or .ipl (ahaw8hid .1I1g. ah8hid)
. .. '\
, tbat are not oODcealed trOll on. *0 il head1ng 'tor ,th. Truth
(al-Haqqj' ar. &lI tactso (haqa'iq hac{rq';') ,
., \. .
-'
et IUld brauch (lin. 7). Th.y Ar. acience. that cazm'ot be rached
/01' comprehended by the poWer. or comprehension cr
- -
(lille 8), _t 01117 b,. that al1 IDco.pu.ing divine light before

which all mtelleot. beoOM lItill (khaucl) md all people becoae
. .
'cirOW1l,. (tr waun) 9). Ab al-'.lb soe. on to say. 'tih.t-' he
, will
l'
althoush t!lere 1. a lilIIit .et to whit h. lIU8t diVlge.(line 10).
t ,
Ue &elvi . the iJlquirer tf kIlo"l" ot th< abj.ct &a
j , J < '\ ' ,
it reall.,. ia ad. not .. :the iuge (Srah) in thi. worlel veil
"
.. <II
"
bill 1:.1) ' 0
l'l
'!'he .oul (Dat.), to Abii al-'lbbi., ia a
'" - ,
or that no intellet. ted b7 (awha. .ing.
waha) tilth '(daran) , .(lin. 12). it ,
-'
, '.. 0
c .... , into, in' the, o.rd.a4.Ded. to i t, and p.ople lOt
J tJ f ,
<;.., 1 .. \...
'&OqUainted vitb it aa 1t re.id.cl in the. (line 13), '0 that
,,,
, "
,
c
,
" , .
,
, .
"
"
o
o
"
.. '
1
, '1
;li,
1
< 1
- -}
,1 h
&2&Z as

-88-
j - \
_. . \....... J
mighi be .&id ihat the, alavea ( 'abrd sing, 'abd.; i. e. beli,ver)
", . " , \'
are itl the ftate for .the . before creation (khalq) and
1..
tribulations (mihan singe mihnah)'(line 14). The Boul (naf.) ia
.. "
1l\ll&1s on the deeoent in ita wor1d. l1lte &III who h&4. aD Eve At,.
. ,
the baclt of' hi. head (ri' i.e. to tenlpt 15).
.t \., , ,
As tor the .pirit il ihe ucent --' , .)
dirrerent s:topa (lI'ar1j ring. mi 'raj) vpe.re 1t receive. ,
. .
ledge dd graoe (line l6),"Its equivalent in the
, ,
(al-'ula) is the t;)t u., and Us. Tine
naiurVd attributea {al'tif' aing. latff) are lite' a aeeret
. .
in what ilS revell.d ('alan, i.e. the vi.ibl :eai1on) (line 17)!
It is a olive (zaytnah) whoae oil' is light (nv) tOl"" <
, - .
'" '
drinks it. Md 1ta guidance enends 1nto both the one (al:-kawn)
. ,
. ,and the (al-kn) o.,1ne r18)"'-
.
Ab 1l--tAbb&. t1:ln 010 poe. aaY:i:ng hia inquirer
,
thai he in.pneral) 1a actUally
'iD a .. cl.ar ... uing (A'Da), hOll.ver, lighi (al-nir) hides this
, -'
as
meaning ... nier, 1. !liMen in llilk. w1th the r,,,sult :tb"at (line 19)
" -
. .
. ihe blliever' become. veiled in the ('izz) of Own.r
"
(i.e, Ood) )lbo.e ton. of mowledp (lIIa'ant .ing.
(
have 'beco,me dittiduU io coaprehad tllrough the passage',o!
ii.e ,( lin.- 20 h
__ 'h .. , ' \ ..
''1!1e point. that .lb al-,!Abbis reter. to in this poem, to-'
, --
.-ther vith the uplaDaiioD he of ter"., give ,ri.e to a fat( CODcrete 0
.... 1 .... '0... 4 g,..
iele .. weIl .... to IllUch Aocording to hill,
and the be"oompreheDded the
'-. . , . - . ...""..
,t.llect ('aql) .nth the help 0t. a ID&1.
1 - - l '. <. " .'.. \.
. '.
J
o '
,
,

" f
" i
. '
...
1
& t
. \
1.

" ,
,
-89-
one be able to understand. He who get B that light, as Abii a1-
\ '
'Abbas d1d, 1s not free to reveal tne 1
he gets, for there 1s a limit,set upon him him reveal .
...,
only part of that knowledge. It is dU'fieult for 'the ordil1a.ry
. ,
man to oomprehend what ia revealed to him by one who mowa, for
there ls alJays the visible image that
l
as a veil!
and he penetrates through the veil or reeeives that lcnow-
ledge as 1 t trul1 is, he will neyer be able to underBtand.
An,ordinary man that the sul ha\ BUch a
Ual as lust (shahwah) and that it always'leans towards what is
"
bad although it has.the lcnowledge to diBtinguish. between good
and bad. Ab al-'Abbis offers a very interesting parallel 1n
", ..-J
Adam as the soul, and IEve as representing lust
_ (shahwah). '1'0 underBtand h:\.s point we have to reter to that
lesson, about the dellcent of Adam to this world, wh1ch he got
"-/ ,
trOll his ahayth Ab al-HasAn al-Bh8dhnr. (5) According to the
1
latter, Adam, who W&8 created by Gad 's h8Dd, batore whom the angels
proatrated themselves, and who inhabited paradise for five
hundred years, 11&8 brought down to earth not to be degraded in
, '
any fiy but to be oompleted, tor he had been worshipping God in
,
paradise by'identitication (ta'rit) then 'was made to go down
to earth to worahip Hill by illp08ition (takllt). Thus when Adam
,<;.
praotised the two forma ot slavery and worahip '( 'ubdiyyah) he
bloame worthy of' being Gad 's viceroy (khallfah). The OMOUS
1
oonclusion that one may draw from the parallelism between the
sou: and Adam, ie that the was brought down tOI earth, which
in the soul's case would be man 's phy!,ica..l body (badan), not as
l'

,
t
,i,
!

,
"'
,'1
\
, .
a punishment but for tbe purpoBe aohieving complet ion by-
worahipping Gad thl-ougb imposition (talcl1f). Lilce Adam, the
Boul haB itB !Ne in the fOrnl ot luat (ahahwah) t and alaa bas
ff""
lhe lcnowledge ta distinguish between good and bad. However, there
1 \
ia alway-B present an "important inferred promiBe that aoul
may- become the of a vioeroy- (khal1tah) ot God, which
in a s,nie places it, if on the right path, on a higber level
1
than the spirit. The re&80n why bne may come o the last con-
clusion is that the spirit, acoording to Ab\i al-'Abb&e, ls noj;
exposed to the ,est as the loul (but t on the' oontrary t ls
Bet on a continually uoending path on whioh i t i the
/ .
ot revelation 01'1 identitioation (ta 'rif) and gracas (mina singe .
minnah), To' go baok to the paralle1iam between the sQUl and
Adam, '!8 find tbat Adam bad alraady reoei ved God' s" graoe an4
identifioation in paradise betra his deBcent to earth for oom-
pletian through iposition (taJtl1t). Likewise, the soul muai
bave recetred the same bafora itB deBcent into man's physical
, 1
body (badan) and ther. remainl tor it to worehip Ood by imposio:-
(taklrt) i:n-order to ahiave what migbt be oOllaidered a
level to a (khal1fah) that was meut for Adam.
1 , _
Thu., in a aenae, it ia higber than the, spirit, wbioh is still on
- . '\
the road. to identitication (ta 'l'if) vith no Eve to telDpt ii md
t -
nothing t9 divert it trom it. set route.
One laBt point that ahould be mentioned about Al
1 .
befora ibis conclusi()n is brougbt ta an end, iB that about exis-
tence (wujd) ud non;,xistence or' The impor-
of this point a.rises !rom the implication of what the shaykh,
his pr,edecessor al-shidhr, and his disoiple Ibn 'Ata' All&h

, 1
-91-
say about 1t in an attempt ta explain a controveraial
,
However, what oonoerna ua 111' thia 1s la point out how
Ab al-'Abb&a &tayed' oleverly out "of a problem that might have
" '1
,} u led him avay from the line ot adherenoe 1A the 'an and
the tradition&! Islamio ways (al-Jeitib wa al-llUDDaIi) wh10h he
kept fast ta all hia life.
Ab al-'Abb&s saya man came 1nto existenoe after being
non-ex1atent," and will \ become non-existent\ aftef existent,
meana that man ia a nonent1ty ('adaIa) ainoe non-
existenoe lies at bath hil extrelli ties. Ibn. 'Ata' AllAh e%plains

thl. concept and amplifies i t by aaying that true enStenoe (al-
wujd al-haqq) belonp only to Ood. As for all elae, they
. .
the existenoe ordained for them,by Gad, and aince they
-
get their exiatence from Bomeone alae, the,. hav the attribute.
\
of nonentit1 in them. (7) Ai-sh&dhilI speales allia of the
... e thing aaying tl1at the uist.noft of man, and of all ell1e Qther
1 \ \
thm God, ia lilte duat (hab&') or shadow (zUl) , wlch has no
real existenoe of its own.(8)

, .. ... --
When we oombine the atatements of the three Shdhili aufis
"
va oome up vi th th. de fini t. ednoept that God ia the only One vi th
reb exiatenoe", while &li else have only an illusory one. In other
" 't
wards, nothing really exiat. but Ocd. As tor the
'between God on the one h8lld aIld the created relit on the other
!
1 ' "
hand, it oould be visualized aa that the caster of the
1
shadow !pld the shadow itselfr in a senae they are the same, while
- in another sense they are, note This ambiguity seema to have had
a speoil meaning ta Ab al-',Abb&. who referred ta it aa a seoret
or myatery that he could never explain" 'When the following t'Wo
....
\ -
','

';
;

!
f,
1
r
,
r
f

,
/
-92-
lines of poetry vre recited to him:
"And if He (Ood) a p p e ~ :to yeu, ,then know that )"Ou are
not He, no, and neither are you aDyon8.e18e.
, ,1
Il
"'No th1nga (i.e. Ood and man) are they. and they do not
unite, but haroe there 1' a aecret t ~ a t our sc ope oam-
r
not tathom. ft ( 9 )
(
..
. ,
, \ '.\
. \
. '
/
"
1

t
'.


\-

'r
,

../
i\
\
f"

,
:'
",
Il

t
,

\
. !'
,
!tLilE aa
-93-
Q
P'OO'l!lOTES
1- Se. here p.
79
2- Se. here pp.
29. 72-73
3- Lata'if: pp. 161-168

'\
4- Al-Adab: pp.
234, 236, 284. 421-423
\ ' 5"" he:e pp. 28-29
4: Lata 'ifs p. 62

,
6- Lata'iff p. 143

7- tata'if': pp. 143-144

8- Lata 'if: p.
9- La;a'itt
. ,
,
'rf: part 2 p. 16
, Sh.'ranrs part 2 p. 16
...
1
,
. ,
\
1
f
6

,- \
'. '
... 1'\ ..
-94-
l ,
, BIBLIOGRAPHY
1 1)
, '
\' -
... r - - - ..
Lata' if' al-llinan t M8I'1aql. b al-sbaykh Abu. al-' Abbas al-KurBl
1
va Shaythih1 al-Bh&dhUr Ab al-Hasan - Taj al-Dfn i bD

'Ata' Allih. - AI-M&ktabah al-5a'rcnah
"
Darb , al-Jamimiz - JumhUr1yyat Mier al-' Arabiyyah

1392 A.H. - 1912,A.D.
(Ref'erred to as tata'if')
1
. "
2) Ki,ib Dlirrat al-AerAI- va I,al-Abz:ir f'r Manqib S1d' .&br a1-
_\- - - - -
Hasan al-8haclhil1 wa Tilm1dhih1 Abi al-' Abbas al-Mur.i -
, Abr 'al-Qi1l al-Bwaa;yrl - Matba'at al-'adl

'bi-al-IakUld&r1nah - 1353 A.H. - 1935 A.D.
(Ref'erred to .. Durrat)
3) Kitab al-Maf'&khir al-'AliyYah f'I al-Ma'athir -
Ahmad ibn Muhammad. ibn 'Ayy8d - Al-Tab'ah al-Thaniyah -

.ll-Matba'8h al-'ia1r8h al-8haraf'iyyah - lier - 1323 A.H. -
. . ,
1905 A.D.
4) Ab A.bbis al-Mursr va al-Jami' bi-al-I skand.ariyyah -
Hasan al-5aDdbr - Matba. 'at Dir al-ICutub a1-Misriyyah -
. . ' . .
al-Q&hirah - 1944 A..D.
(Ref'erred to as Sandb1)
\[' ,
5) Al-'Arit bi-Aliih .lb a1-'.lbb al-liursI
- Dr.
, Abd-al-Hal11l
, .
- Dir al-Bha'b - Al-Q8hirah - 1392 A.H. - 1912 A.D.
'
l,
6) Al-I'" Ab al-'AbbA. al-Mvs1 ... Ahmad Husayn -
r
D&r al"'a 'arif' - 111er - 1965 A.D. . '

.
1) a1-BalaD al-Sh&dhi11 - Dr. 'Abd-al-Ba111l Mahmd - D&r
\ 1
al-Islam al-Qihirah 1381 A.H. - 1961 A.D.
.'
/
..
, ,
\.
J .'
-95-
il
8) Nath a1-T1b min GhUIm al-Anda1u8 a1-Ratib' - Part 2
... ...
al-shaykh Ahmad i'bn Muhammad al-Maqqul a1-Tilmisanr

A1-Tab'ah al-iha - Matba'at a1-Ba'&dah 1949 :A.D. -

lier

(Retenad. to" &8 tfath)
1
9) Rawd al-Ray8hln fi Hik&y&t al-B&1ihln - 'Atit-al-Din Ab
_ ... _ -.. '_ t)
al-Ba'adat 'Abd-Allah ibn As'ad al-Yati 'i al-tamani Thumma
\ >
al-Makki - A1-'l'ab'ah al-Thamy8b - Matba'-at Mua10ata
. ' ...
al-Babi - Mier 1374 A.H. - 1955 A.D.
1
(Reterred to ail Rari}

10) Nuhr
l
al .... aha.1n al-Gh&l118h fi Padl &l.-Muhayi1ch al-sti1)'ah
. ' . .
.Aehab al .... aq.it al-'I1i;yah al-Mulaqqab nfayat' al-Mu 'taqid

va likiyat al-Muntaqid - Ab Xuhammad 'bd-AIIBh ibn .b'ad

al-Yati -i - Matba'at Mustata al-Halabt - lier - al-
..' 1
Tab'ah - 1381 A.H. - *961 A.D.
. '
(Reterred to as
.... . ,
il) .Al-Irlhid wa al-TatrIz ti ,&dl 1Il1kr lll&h Ta 'ili wa 'l'al&v&t
.
ICit.bibi al-'ur. - .A JluhAlllUd. 'Atrt-al-DIn 'Abd-AlI8h

ibn. As 'ad' al-Titi 'r - l&ktabat al-Q8h1rah - Kier -
\ /". .
1378 A.H. - 1958 '1.D. \
"(Reterred to as al-Irllh&d)
">
12) A1-R..a
t
il al-Sugbl"a - ibn 'Abb&d. al-Bund! -
Nuharaha' al-Abb al-Tawr B108 lluwizya al-Y";'!' -
Katba'ah al-htholrlci)'1ah .. Bayrt - 1957 A.D.
. '
'.J
13) al-Uf. min 'Abd ""

i'bD JUi - H&abir: lCitabturahr..:. Sa'di - 1337 A.B . -
1918 A.D.
_ (Reterred' to &8 Hatahat)



<
<
,
;i'


,\
t;
n:;',




'-
,
"
e
( .
, .
\
\

\

-----
"
-96- 1
....
14) lCitab Ihatm al-1wl1ya' - Al-8hayich 'Abd-All&h MUhammad.
, .
ilh 'llI ibn a1-Ha.an a1-Haldm a1-Tirmidhr - Tahqrq 'Uthman

lama'11 - l1-atba 'ah a1-Katholrkiyyah - Bayrt .:

1965
. (Referred to .. Kh&tia)
15) ti Mu'&lat al-Mahbb - lb Ta11b Muhammad

ibn 'AIr ibn al-Kalc1l' - Matb.'at Mustata

al-Ha1ab - lier - 1381 1.H. - 1961 A.D. "
. , .
(Referred to' a8 Qt) ''il ;
! "
.
16) The MawaqU' and Mukhatab&t of Muh8llUDad bD 'Abdi 'l-JabbV
. \ . .
Vith other fragmenta - Edited tor the tirst time,
vith translations, oOlDllentary, 'and 'indices by Arthur Jolu
Arber.ry - Printed br the Cambridge Uni ver ai ty Preaa -
Pub1iahed by Xeaerl Luzac & Co. - London - 1935 A.D.
(Referred to aa Mawav.f)
17) Al-'l'a'a.rrut li-Madhhab .\hl al-'l'uawwuf - .&b Bakr Muhammad
1 _
- Tahqrq Mahmd
'
Amm al-Nanwi - A1-'l'ab
t
ah
-- .... ..../
al-u1&,"; al-Qib1rah - .&ktaha" al-1Colliyya;t; al-1zhariyyah -
\ '
1389 A.H. - 1969 A.D.
(Reterred ta altKalibidhr)
, 1
. 18) Al-A&b al-Stf, rf Mier tr al-Qa.rn al-Sibi' al-Hijrr - Dr.'
, ... , -
\. '.ur Huaain D&r al .... a'irk - lier - - 1964 A.D.

(Reterr.l. to al al-Adab) "
, .. ,
1- ') '-
19) Al-'l'al&wwt &l":laliml' fr "ai-Adab va al-J.kh1iq -. Dr. zatr ,
, a
Mp..bV,&k - Al-'l'ab 'ah a1-Tham.yah ... Dir al-Ki tib al-' Arabr -
- ,;o.
" ' , 1
'" al-Stiy,yah fi al-Islam - Dr,. 'lbd.-al-QacUr
..... , " n _..... _ ,c:" _:::::::::- <) _ _ _ _
Xahmud - A1-Tab 'ah, al-Ula - Dar' al-Piler al,,' Ara.bi -
c, = /
l-Q8hirah 1966-1967 A.D.
.,J.
..
1
1
t
..
; .
c ,
,
-97-
- - -- .. -
at al-Kubra 1i-a1-5ha'ran1 al-Musammah

a1- war ri Tabaqat al-Akhym. - 'Abd-al-Wahhab al-Sha 'rini -
\ . ,
M&1ct bat uhammad 'Ali Suba\Jh - al-Q&h1rah - ?? A.D.
. ..
rred 0 '-as Sha'rani) ,
22) AI-Ri &loh fi 'il. al-'r ......... r - l-
. \'
.. - - .,.
QaIl:1D 'Abd.-al arilD al-Qullhayrl - Xaletabat
'A:li ubayh - Al-Qahirah - 1392 A.H. - 1972 A.D. \
(R8reled to as al-Qulllhayr1), 1 \
, , \ \
23,) !abaqi \ Ab al-5ulamt
Matba'at D&r al.J1' Mi81" - A1-Tab'ah -

1389 A.H. - 1969 \ 1
Al-lCawikib a1-Durri
1
fi Taraj1m al-88dah al-8fiy;yah -
- __ < __ 1
tuf al-Manaw1 - Al-Tab 'ah al-Ula -
- .
Mier - 1357 A.H. 1938 A.D.

Matba' at -ADwar

(Referred ta a. al- wikib)
, ,
Ysuf' ibll Iami'fl al-HabahinI -
Malctabat Mustati al-BibI al-Halabr -
\ .. .
- 1962 A.D. \
it)
,. bi-Bada'i' al-Zuhr fi Waqa'i'
al-Duhr - l - Xuhaaaad ibn .Ahmad ibn .1 y&. -
_ Al-Tab'ah al Al-Ma;ba"ah al-Xubra al-AIDIriY7ah
'fJ.
lier - 1311 A.H. - 1893 A.D.

27) Xitab Ighatbat al-U1IIID8h bi-Xallht "al-<JhIIIIDah - Taq1-al-llLl
.
Ahmad. ibn. ,'IA11 a1",,*aqr1z1 -: A1-Ta'b'ah a1-Thaniyah - Ia.tba'at
... ' . .
Lajnat al-'l'a 'lrf' va al-Tar jamab wa' al-Nashr - AI-Q8hirah -
1
. \
A.D.
..
,-
1
,
,
"


"
\
/
1
p
-98-
1
28) ri tab al-5ulk li-Ma 'ri fat al-Mulk
'llI' al-MaqrI'zI' - Al..J1'ab 'ah al-Thaniyah

e.l-Ta'lif va va al-Naahr
Af-Juz' al-lwal al-QiBlll al-Awwal 1956 A.D.
a1-Q1sm al-ThiDr 1957 A.D.
(Jieterred to "II al-SulkY
,
Ahmad ibn

- Matba'at

- A1-Q&hirah-
- Al-Juz' al-
29) Itti'azh al-Bunata. bi-Akhbir a1-A'immah al-Fatimiyy{n a1-
- ..,. - .. e_ _ ..
Khulata - Taqi-l.-Din ibn 'Ali - Dar
.1-Tahrlr - Al-Q8hirah - 1387 A.H. - A.D.

, '
30) al-Khutat al-lluaamOh
1
'ti b&r bi_tiaikr wa al-Athar -
DI'n Ahmad ibn ibn 'Abd-a1-Qidir ibn Muhammad al-Maqr.rzr -
- 1325 A.H. - '1907 A.D. ,
(Raterred to ail 1-Khutat)

1
31) ICitab Huan al-M 8darah rl' Alchbir MiBr lia al-Qibirah . -

, .
/
,(
Al-8haykh Jalil -DIA al-SU1tf .atba'at Idarat a1-Watan -

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(Reterred to &II al-5uyti)

,
1
1
32) -Taqwia - AIaI'n S&mr B&sba - Al-Ma:ba'ah -
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33) 'l'irIkh a1-IlIkaDdariyyah wa Had&ratuha fI al-'Asr a1 .... IB1ai -

Dr. Al-Sanid ' Abd .... l-' urz Salim - Al-Tab' ah ,al-Thamyah -
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(Reterred to aa
34) Al-A 'l&m - lChayr-al-DIn al-ZiriklI
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Al-Tab 'ah a1-Thaniyah -

1373 A.H. - 1954 A.D

to a8 AI-A'lam)
1 _ ,.
/
/
/
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1
1
l
'1. ; ..
1
1
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-99-
-
1
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Rout1edge an Xegan Paul Ltd. - 1970 A.D.
(Ref'erred t al Nich. MyBtioa)
-==
36) The Idea of' Personality in Su!illlD - Three Leotures deli-
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hbliahed by Sh. MuhBlllld Joahrat - Xashmiri Bazar -
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(Reterred ta a8 Nicb.
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German "JIuhammedanische Studien" by C.R. Barber and S.M.
'.
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(Reterred ta as Goldziher)
38) The Suri Orders in Islam - J. Spencet- Trimingham -
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1973 A.D.
(.eterred,to as Trimingham)
39).J.1ftlah al-'l'atiarr - Ibn &l...JChatfb - .ll-'rab'ah al-Sibi'ah ..:
. . '.-
n .... atbaah al-Misriyyah - Egypt -'? A_D.

.
40) The Koran Interpreted - A.J. Arberr,. The Macmillan
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41) li-Ku' j.a li-Alf'azh al-Badith al-Habaw1 (Coneor-

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(aeterrdd to &8 Tradition)
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42) The New Eneyclopaedia Britannioa - 15th Edition - 1973 A.D.
(Retened to ... Ene,.. Brit.)
...
'.
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i

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