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WOVEN FABRIC DEFECTS

Presented by:
T. Srivani,
Assistant Professor, DFT.
NATURE & CAUSES OF DEFECTS
1. YARN DEFECTS
1) Broken Filaments
2) Coloured Flecks
3) Knots
4) Slub
5) Slubby Weft


NATURE & CAUSES OF DEFECTS
2. WEAVING DEFECTS
1) Broken Ends Woven in a Bunch
2) Broken Pattern
3) Double End
4) Float
5) Gout
6) Hole, Cut or Tear
7) Lashing-in
8) Local Distortion
9) Missing Ends
10) Oil or other Stain
NATURE & CAUSES OF DEFECTS
2. WEAVING DEFECTS
11) Oily or Soiled Ends
12) Oily Weft
13) Reed Marks
14) Selvedge Defect
15) Slough Off
16) Smash
17) Snarls
18) Stitches
19) Untrimmed Loose Threads
20) Weft Bar
21) Weft Crack
NATURE & CAUSES OF DEFECTS
3. PILING & RAISING DEFECTS
1) Broken Pattern due to Defective Piles
2) Pile less Spot
3) Uneven or Loose Piles
NATURE & CAUSES OF DEFECTS
4. PROCESSING DEFECTS
1) Bleaching spot
2) Blurred or Dark Patch
3) Bowing
4) Defects caused by Hanging Thread
5) Dye Bar
6) Dyestuff Stain Misprint/ Absence of Print
NATURE & CAUSES OF DEFECTS
4. PROCESSING DEFECTS
7) Patchy or Streaky or Uneven Dyeing
8) Pilling
9) Shading or Listing
10)Uneven Printing or Tinting
11)Water Mark White spot
NATURE & CAUSES OF DEFECTS
5. MILLING DEFECTS
1) Mill Rigs
2) Uneven Milling
NATURE & CAUSES OF DEFECTS
6. EMBROIDERY DEFECTS
1) Embroidery Defects

The defects originating from the
spinning stage or winding stage.


1. YARN DEFECTS
BROKEN FILAMENTS
Occurs when the individual
filaments constituting the
main yarn are broken.


MAIN CAUSES:
- During the process of winding etc.
the yarn guide having sharp edges
may cut individual filaments or
abrasion caused at the time of
weaving while passing through
heald eye and reed dent
MENDING:
- Non mendable
COLOURED FLECKS
Presence of coloured foreign matter in
the yarn.


MAIN CAUSES:
- The cotton fibre gets contaminated
during the ginning stage due to leaves,
immature fibre, yellow fibre, tie yarn
etc., which gets embedded into the yarn
at the time of the spinning.
MENDING:
- The coloured portion should be
carefully removed from the yarn with a
plucker. If that is not possible, then it
should be cut with a thread clipper
from both the sides carefully and the
cut portion should be removed with a
plucker. The resultant bare patch can
be corrected by combing with a
metallic comb.
KNOTS
Occur when broken threads are
pieced together by improper knotting.


MAIN CAUSES:
- When the thread breaks during the
process of winding, warping, sizing or
weaving, if the knotting machine is not
used, it results in thick knots.
MENDING:
- Non - mendable.


SLUB
A slub is a bunch of fibres having less twist
or no twist and has a wider diameter
compared to normal spun yarn.


MAIN CAUSES:
- Improper Carding/Combing.
- Improper cleaning of the cans, top rollers,
clearers in drafting, roving and ring frame.
- Broken tooth in the chain of the gear system.
- Failure of the pneumatic suction system.
- Careless piecing of the ends in the drawing,
roving and ring frame.
MENDING:
- The slub should be cut with thread clipper
from both the ends carefully and the cut portion
should be removed with a plucker. The resultant
bare patch can be corrected either by combing
with a metallic comb or by the insertion of a
separate thread with the help of a fine needle.
SLUBBY WEFT
A slubby weft is the occurrence of slubs at
frequent intervals in the weft yarn.


MAIN CAUSES:
- Improper Carding/Combing.
- Improper cleaning of the cans, top rollers,
clearers in drafting, roving and ring frame.
- Broken tooth in the chain of the gear system.
- Failure of the pneumatic suction system.
- Careless piecing of the ends in the drawing,
roving and ring frame.
MENDING:
Non mendable.
2. WEAVING DEFECTS
- The defects which originate during the process
of weaving.......
BROKEN ENDS WOVEN
IN A BUNCH
This defect is caused by a bunch of
broken ends woven in the fabric.


MAIN CAUSES:
- Failure of the weaver in attending to the
warp breaks properly.
MENDING:
- The broken ends woven in a bunch can
be removed by using a plucker and the
resulting loose threads should be cut
with a trimmer. As a result, a bare
patch occurs and combing in both
directions with a metallic comb can fill
this up.
BROKEN PATTERN
A broken pattern is the non-continuity
of a weave/design/pattern.


MAIN CAUSES:
- Wrong drawing of threads in the colour
pattern.
- Inserting a pick in a wrong shed.
- Incorrect shedding.
MENDING:
- Non - mendable
DOUBLE END
When two or more ends unintentionally
get woven as one. This defect is
characterized by a thick bar running
parallel to the warp.


MAIN CAUSES:
- Mixing up of threads during the process
of spinning/ winding/warping/sizing.
- Wrong drawing, taking more ends in
heald eye.
MENDING:
- This fault can be corrected by pulling
out one extra end with the help of a
needle. The resultant loose end can be
clipped with the help of clipper. A bare
patch if formed can also be filled, by
combing in both the directions with the
help of a metallic comb.
FLOAT


MAIN CAUSES:
- Healds touching each other, causing some
ends to remain on top.
- Shed not divided so that the shuttle has the
chance to leave some ends up or down.
- Broken heald/heald eye.
- Tight ends in the weavers beam cause a
few
ends to remain up rather than in the normal
warp
- Heald strap slack.
- Heald hanging.
- Cotton fluff between warp layers.
- Broken end entangled with other ends.
- Improper sizing: the ends sticking.
- Crossed-ends from sizing or in loom shed.
A float is the improper interlacement of warp
and weft threads in the fabric over a certain area.
FLOAT
Continued....


Mending:
Minor floats can only be
rectified. The floating threads may be cut
with a clipper from both the ends.
Combing in both the direction with the
help of a metallic comb may rectify the
resultant bare patch formed.
GOUT
Gout is a foreign matter usually lint or
waste accidentally woven into the fabric.


MAIN CAUSES:
- Improper loom cleaning.
- Unclean environment in the weaving
department.
MENDING:
- The extra foreign matter can be
pulled out with a needle and trimmed
with the help of a trimmer. Combing in
both directions with the help of
metallic comb can fill up the resultant
bare patch.
HOLE, CUT OR TEAR
This is self-explanatory.


MAIN CAUSES:
- Sharp edges on the cloth roll or front
rest.
- Hard substance between layers of
fabric in the loom cloth roll.
- During removal of hard particles like,
leather parts
or iron particles woven in the cloth.
- The cloth roll striking against a sharp
pointed edge
during transport or when it is being
doffed.
- Coarse temples used for fine fabric.
- Temple rolls not properly set, i.e., very
high or low.
HOLE, CUT OR TEAR
This is self-explanatory.


MAIN CAUSES:
- Right hand temple used in place of left
hand and vice versa.
- Very coarse hooks at grey folding.
- Wrong weft fork timing in case of centre
weft fork, which causes small holes at the
centre of the fabric.
- Carelessly placing the shuttle on the cloth
while changing the pirn.
- Faulty emery roll.
- Cloth not gaited up on the cloth roll
properly.
MENDING:
Non - Mendable
LASHING-IN
An extra piece of yarn woven into the
fabric in the vicinity of the selvedge.


MAIN CAUSES:
- Defective setting of the shuttle box, rough edges
in the front plate of the shuttle box.
- Harsh picking.
- Extra weft yarn left hanging at the change of
weft pirn.
- Warp too tight or too slack.
- Picking early or late.
- Weft fork going too far through the grid.
- In case of auto loom, weft cutters worn out or
not properly set.
- Worn out pickers.
LASHING-IN
Continued.......


MENDING:
- This defect can be corrected by
pulling out the extra pick from the
selvedge end, which can be clipped
with the help of a clipper. Combing in
both the directions with the help of
metallic comb can fill up the resultant
bare patch.
LOCAL DISTORTION


MENDING:
- This defect can be corrected by
pulling out the extra pick from the
selvedge end, which can be clipped
with the help of a clipper. Combing in
both the directions with the help of
metallic comb can fill up the resultant
bare patch.
Distortion occurs when there is displacement
of warp and/or weft threads from their normal
position
MAIN CAUSES:
- The emery roll in weaving is worn out.
- In filament fabrics having low reed picks.
Streaks across the width of the fabric may occur.

Reed marks or spaces between groups of warps at intervals or
continuously
due to crowding or improper spacing of warp yarns as they pass through
the reed

A tight selvedge, indicated by a puckered or wavy edge, may be caused by
Excessive tension in the warp yarns

Bow: The weft not perpendicular to the warp and taking a direction of bow
in the Center, wherein the weft lies adjacent to the previous pick at the
selvedges

Skew ness: a diagonal pick, touching the previous pick at one side of the
fabric selvedge and staying distant at the other end, which disturbs the
grain in the fabric.