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Admission date:

Admitting diagnosis:
Cholesistitis
Surgical procedure: N/A
Pertinent PMH/PSH:
Obesity, HTN, Asthma, CKD, Sepsis,
Drug rash, A-fib
Last V/S, including O2 sat and pain
scale
BP-141/76, HR-74, RR-12,
SpO2-97%, Temp 36.7C
Current treatments (IV, medications,
catheters, tubes, drains. O2,
ostomies)
O2- NC- 2L
Biliary drain- Right outer quadrant
Foley Catheter-
PICC-single lumen-left upper bacillic
IV- left forearm, NS locked
Recommended consults: N/A
Nutrition Regular diet
PT/OT/Speech: PT, OT
Mental Health
History of depression
Other: Allergies

Risk factors
A family history of gallstones on
the mother's side of the
family.
Crohn's disease.
Diabetes.
Hyperlipidemia.
Losing weight rapidly.
Obesity.
Older age.

Pathophysiology
Cholecystitis, an acute complication of cholelithiasis, is an acute infection of the gallbladder. Most patients
with cholecystitis have gallstones (calculous cholecystitis). A gallstone obstructs bile outflow and bile in
the gallbladder initiates a chemical reaction, resulting in edema, compromise of the vascular supply, and
gangrene. In the absence of gallstones, cholecystitis (acalculous) may occur after surgery, severe trauma,
or burns, or with torsion, cystic duct obstruction, multiple blood transfusions, and primary bacterial
infections of the gallbladder. Infection causes pain, tenderness, and rigidity of the upper right abdomen and
is associated with nausea and vomiting and the usual signs of inflammation. Purulent fluid inside the gall-
bladder indicates an empyema of the gallbladder.
Patient S/S
Dark urine, distended
gallbladder; fever and palpable
abdominal mass; biliary colic
with excruciating upper right
abdominal pain, radiating to
back or right shoulder
restlessness and colicky pain

Lab values with discussion of
expected/unexpected findings
Na- 134, K-3.7 , Cr- 1.29, BUN- 21,
Hgb- 11.0 , Hct- 33.5, Albumin- 2.7,
RBC- 3.54, WBC- 6.0


Diagnostic tests with discussion of
expected/unexpected findings
CT scan Abd-pelvic with contrast
CT scan of abdomen with contrast

Priority Nursing Diagnoses
1. Anxiety related to present medical condition as evidenced by being
less cooperative with the staff members and refusing to participate
in activities

2. Disturbed body image related to being overweight and having not
intact skin as a result of hypersensitivity reaction as evidenced by
low self esteem and anger.

3. Imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements related to having
decreased appetite as evidenced by low albumin levels.

4. Risk for impaired skin integrity related to altered nutritional state

Priority Assessments
Assess health history: Note history of smoking or prior
respiratory problems. Assess respiratory status: Note
shallow respirations, persistent cough, or ineffective or
adventitious breath sounds. Evaluate nutritional status
(dietary history, general examination, and laboratory
study results). Connect tubes to drainage receptacle and
secure tubing to avoid kinking (elevate above abdomen).
Place drainage bag in patients pocket when ambulating.
Observe for indications of infection, leakage of bile, and
obstruction of bile drainage. Observe for jaundice
(check the sclera). Note and report right upper quadrant
abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, bile drainage
around any drainage tube, clay-colored stools, and a
change in vital signs. Change dressing frequently, using
ointment to protect skin from irritation.


















Nursing Process Concept Map

Goal partially met:
Patient demonstrated some
control of anxiety by using
recommended techniques by 8
hours.


Evaluation
1. Patient will discuss realistic
goals related to medical
condition within 24 hours
2. Patient will seek help in
dealing with feelings by
verbalizing his need in
support within 24 hours

1. Anxiety related to present medical condition as evidenced by being less cooperative with the staff members and
refusing to participate in activities

1. Assess the clients level of anxiety and physical reactions to anxiety. Symptoms evaluated are mood, tension,
fear, insomnia, concentration, worry, depressed mood, somatic complaints, and cardiovascular, respiratory,
gastrointestinal, genitourinary, autonomic, and behavioral symptoms. Anxiety is the risk factor for major
adverse cardiac risk events in persons with stable coronary artery disease. (Akley, 2013, p.138
2. Use empathy to encourage the client to interpret the anxiety symptoms as normal. The way a nurse
interacts with a client influences his/her quality of life. Providing psychological and social support can reduce
the symptoms and problems associated with anxiety. (Akley, 2013, p.138)
3. If irrational thoughts or fears are present, offer the client accurate information and encourage him or her to
talk about the meaning of the events contributing to the anxiety. Avoid and suppress painful emotions,
thoughts and sensations, and limit their involvement in meaningful activities. (Akley, 2013, p.138)
4. Encourage the client to use meaningful self-talk. Reducing negative self-talk and increasing positive self-talk
can be beneficial for all types of anxiety. (Akley, 2013, p.138)
5. Intervene when possible to remove sources of anxiety. Removing or reducing sources of stress and anxiety
among patients has been shown to decrease hypertension and comorbid conditions. (Akley, 2013, p.138)
6. Explain all activities, procedures and issues that involve the client; use nonmedical terms and calm, slow
speech Do this in advance of procedures when possible and validate the clients understanding. Effective
nurse-client communication is critical to efficient care provision. (Akley, 2013, p.138)
7. Provide backrubs/massage for the client to decrease anxiety. Massage was shown to be an excellent method
for reducing anxiety. (Akley, 2013, p.138)
8. Use therapeutic touch and healing touch techniques. Healing touch may be one of the most useful nursing
interventions available to reduce anxiety. (Akley, 2013, p.138)
9. Guided imagery can be used to decrease anxiety. Anxiety was decreased with the use of guided imagery
during an intervention for post-operative pain. (Akley, 2013, p.141)
10. Assess client for pain and provide pain relief measures. (Akley, 2013, p.141)
11. Assist clients with life review and reminiscence. When challenges emerged, the participants implemented
the search to find an acceptable and satisfying completion to this life, engaging family members, friends
and hospice team in an effort to relieve discomfort and regain a degree of control. (Akley, 2013, p.142)
12. Encourage clients to pray. Prayer, scripture reading and clergy visits were found to comfort some clients, but
sometimes-specific religious tenets may be troubling and need to be resolved before the client can find
peace. (Akley, 2013, p.142)


Interventions with rationale and citation
Expected Outcomes (2)


















Goal was not met:
Patient didnt demonstrate
adjustment to the changes in physical
appearance by verbalizing he didnt
feel comfortable in his skin.
Evaluation

1. Client will demonstrate
adaptation to changes in
physical appearance or body
function as evidenced by
adjustment to lifestyle change
by 24 hours
2. The client will Identify and
change irrational beliefs and
expectations regarding his
medical condition by 24 hours
Expected Outcomes (2)

1. Incorporate psychological questions related to body image as part of nursing assessment to identify clients at risk
for body image disturbance (those with stomas/ostomies/colostomies or other disfiguring conditions). Assessment
of psychological issues can help to identify clients at risk for body image concerns as a result of a disfiguring
condition. (Akley, 2013, p.162)
2. Assess for history of childhood maltreatment in clients suffering from body dissatisfaction, anorexia, or other eating
disorders and make appropriate psychosocial referrals if indicated. The result from this study indicates specific forms
of childhood maltreatment (emotional or sexual abuse) are significantly associated with body dissatisfaction,
depressive symptoms, and eating disorders. (Akley, 2013, p.162)
3. Assess for the influence of cultural beliefs, regional norms, and values on the clients body image. Each client
should be assessed for body image based on the phenomenon of communication, time space, social organization,
environmental control, and biological variations. (Akley, 2013, p.164)
4. Acknowledge that body image disturbances can affect all individuals regardless of culture, race, or ethnicity. (Akley,
2013, p.164)
5. Assess clients level of social support, as it is one of the determinants of clients recovery and emotional
health.Males who perceived they have good social support were found to adapt better to changes in body image.
(Akley, 2013, p.164)
6. Encourage client to discuss concerns related to sexuality and provide support or information as indicated. Many
conditions that affect body image also affect sexuality. Brown and Randle found that clients (particularly females)
with stomas often believe they are less sexually attractive after surgery, though their sexual partner may not share
that view. (Akley, 2013, p.164)
7. Use cognitive-behavioral to assist the client to express his emotions and feelings. This study of clients with bulimia
used CBT and helped the clients to disentangle themselves regarding body image and weight. (Akley, 2013, p.162)
8. Help client describe ideal self, identity self-criticisms, and give suggestions to support acceptance of self. Job
rehabilitation and body image should be incorporated into daily care of head and neck cancer clients. For example,
participants could learn how to use cosmetic strategies to improve their facial appearance during OPD syndrome
follow up. Thus, the negative impact might be reduced. (Akley, 2013, p.162)
9. Discuss spirituality as an adjunct to improving bod y satisfaction. (Akley, 2013, p.163)
10. Provide client with list of appropriate community support groups. This study of three different cancer groups
showed their perceived benefits were similar; the groups provided information, acceptance, and understanding.
(Akley, 2013, p.163)
11. Focus on remaining abilities. Have client make a list of strengths Results from unstructured interviews with women
aged 61 to 92 years regarding their perceptions and feelings about their aging bodies suggest that women exhibit the
internalization of ageist beauty norms, even as they assert that health is more important to them than physical
attractiveness and comment on the naturalness of the aging process. (Akley, 2013, p.163)
12. Refer clients who are having difficulty with personal acceptance, personal and social body image disruption, sexual
concerns, reduced self-care skills, and the management of surgical complications to an interdisciplinary team or
specialist (eg. ostomy nurse) if available. There is sufficient research-based evidence to conclude that intestinal
ostomy surgery exerts a clinically relevant impact on health-related quality of life, and that nursing interventions
can ameliorate this effect. (Akley, 2013, p.164)

Interventions with rationale and citation

1. Disturbed body image related to being overweight and having not intact skin as a result of hypersensitivity reaction
as evidenced by low self esteem and anger.
Nursing Process Concept Map

















References:
1. Ackley, B. J., & Ladwig, G. B. (2010). Nursing diagnosis handbook: an evidence-based guide to planning care (9th ed.). Maryland Heights, Mo.:
Mosby.
2. Johnson, J. Y. (2010). Handbook for Brunner & Suddarth's textbook of medical-surgical nursing (12th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters
Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.