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San J ose State University

Department of Electrical Engineering



Exam III


EE 210 Spring 2008

Closed Book, Closed Notes,

Instructions: There are 5 problems. Interpretation of questions will not be
given during the exam. If you are unsure about the meaning of a question,
make an assumption, state what it is and continue.

Problem Score Possible
1 20
2 25
3 15
4 15
5 25
Total 100

Problems are weighted as shown. Please write your name and Student ID at
the bottom of this page and work all 5 problems. Show all your work. No
credit will be given for work not shown. Use back of page if necessary but
label clearly.




Last Name: First Name: ID: .

2

PROBLEM 1: (20 points)
Consider the discrete-time LTI system shown below

2
1
z

+
+
+

1
z

( )
1
q t
[ ]
1
q n
[ ]
2
q n

+
[ ]
y n [ ]
x n
1
3
1
2
+

a) Find the state and output equations of the system. Find A, B, C, and D matrices. (10 points)
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
1 1 2
1
1
2
q n x n q n q n + = + +

[ ] [ ]
2 1
1 q n q n + =

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
1 1 1 2 1
1 1 1 1 1
1
3 2 3 2 2
y n x n q n q n x n x n q n q n q n

= + + + = + + + +



[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
1 2
1 1 1
2 4 6
y n q n q n x n = +

[ ] [ ] [ ]
1
1 1
1
2
0
1 0
q n q n x n



+ = +





[ ] [ ] [ ]
1 1 1
2 4 6
y n q n x n

=



3
1
1 1 1 1 1
2
0 2 4 6
1 0
A B C D




= = = =







b) Find the system function ( ) H z (5points)

( ) ( )
1
H z C I z A B D

= +

( )
1
1 1
1
1
1 1 1 1 1
2
0 2 4 6
1
z z
H z
z





= +






( )
2
2
1 4 1
1
6
2
z z
H z
z z

=
+












c) Find difference equation relating
[ ]
x n and
[ ]
y n (5points)



[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
1 1 2 1
1 2 1 2
2 6 3 6
y n y n y n x n x n x n + = + +












4
PROBLEM 2: (25 points)
Consider the system below

+
+
+
+
+

( )
1
q t ( )
1
q t &
3
( )
2
q t
( )
2
q t &

+
( ) y t
( ) x t


a) Find the State and output equations. Find A, B, C, and D matrices. (10 points)

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2
2 q t q t q t x t = + + &

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
3 q t q t x t = + &

( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
y t q t q t =

( ) ( ) ( ) q t Aq t Bx t = + &

( ) ( ) ( ) y t Cq t Dx t = +

1 2
0 3
A

=



1
1
B

=



[ ]
1 1 C =

0 D =

5
b) Is the system controllable? (5points)

The controllability matrix is:
[ ]
s
P B AB =

1 2 1 3
0 3 1 3
AB

= =



[ ]
1 3
1 3
s
P B AB

= =



0
s
P =

Thus its rank is less than 2 and hence the system is not controllable.










c) Is the system Observable? (5points)























6
d) Find the system function ( ) H s .(5points)


7
PROBLEM 3: (15 points):
Consider a sequence

[ ] [ ] 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 x n =

Determine the DFT ( ) X k , using the decimation-in-time FFT algorithm or decimation-in-frequency
technique.

[ ] { } 1,1, 1, 1, 1,1,1, 1 x n =

0
4
1 W =

1
4
W j =

2
4
1 W =

3
4
W j =


0
8
1 W =

1
8
1 1
2 2
W j =
2
8
W j =

3
8
1 1
2 2
W j =

4
8
1 W =

5
8
1 1
2 2
W j = +
6
8
W j =

7
8
1 1
2 2
W j = +

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] { } { } 2 0 , 2 , 4 , 6 1, 1, 1,1 f n x n x x x x = = =

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] { } { } 2 1 1 , 3 , 5 , 7 1, 1,1, 1 g n x n x x x x = + = =


[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
0 1 1 1 1 1 0
1 1 1 1 2 2
2 1 1 1 1 1 0
3 1 1 1 2 2
F
F j j j
F
F j j j




+


= =









[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
0 1 1 1 1 1 0
1 1 1 1 0
2 1 1 1 1 1 4
3 1 1 1 0
G
G j j
G
G j j







= =










8
3,7 n =
0,4 n =
1,5 n =
2,6 n =
1 z =
2
4
4
j n
n
W e

=
6,14 n =
0,8 n =
2,10 n =
4,12 n =
7,15 n =
1,9 n =
5,13 n =
3,11 n =
2
8
8
j n
n
W e

=
( ) Im z
( ) Im z
( ) Re z ( ) Re z
( ) a
( ) b


[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
0
8
1
8
2
8
3
8
0 0 0 0
1 1 1 2 2
2 2 2 4
3 3 3 2 2
X F W G
X F j W G
X F j W G
X F j W G
= + =
= + = +
= + =
= +

[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
0
8
1
8
2
8
3
8
4 0 0 0
5 1 1 2 2
6 2 2 4
7 3 3 2 2
X F W G
X F W G j
X F W G j
X F W G j
= + =
= + = +
= + =
= +


9
PROBLEM 4: (15 points):
Find
n
A for

0 1
1 3
8 4
A


=




( )
2
1
3 1 1 1
1 3
4 8 2 4
8 4
c I A


= = = + =




0 1
0 1
1 0 1
1 3
8 4
n
b b
A b I b A
b b b


= + =

+



0 1
1 1
2 2
n
b b

+ =




0 1
1 1
4 4
n
b b

+ =




0
1 1
2
2 4
n n
b

= +



1
1 1
4 4
2 4
n n
b

=




1 1 1 1
2 4 4
1 4 2 4
2 4 2 4 1 1
1 1
2 4 2 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2
2
2 2 2 4 2 4
n n n n
n n
n
n n n n
A


+




= = +







+






10
PROBLEM 5: (25 points)
Consider the ideal low-pass filter with frequency response
( )
1
0
c
c
H


<

=

>


The input to this filter is

( ) ( )
2t
x t e u t

=

Find the value of
c
such that this filter passes exactly one-half of the normalized energy of the
input signal ( ) x t .
Hint: use Parseval's identity:
( ) ( )
2 2
1
2
x t dt X d



=


( )
1
2
X
j

=
+

( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
0
c
c
j Y X H


<

+ = =

<


( )
4
4
0
1
0 4 4
t
t
x
e
E x t dt e dt

= = = =



( ) ( )
2 2
1
2 2
0
1 1 1 1 1 1
tan
2 2 4 4 2 2 2 8
c c
c
c
y X
d d
E y t dt Y d E







= = = = = = =
+ +


1
tan 1 2
2 4 2
c c
c
and rad s

= = =